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UNIT 3 SELECTION AND

ORGANIZATION OF
- -
LEARNING EXPERIENCE
Structure
3.0 Objectives
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Concept and Definition
3.2.1 Experience
3.2.2 Leaming Experience

3.3 Selection of Learning Experiences


3.3.1 The Concept and Selection of Learning Experience
3.3.2 Basis for Leaming Experiences
3.3.3 Principles of Selection of Learning Experience
3.3.4 Criteria for Selection of Leaming Experience

3.4 Organization of Learning Experiences


* 3.4.1 Grouping of Leat&ngExperiences
3.4.2 Placement of Learning Experiences
3.4.3 General Plan for Curriculum
3.4.4 Teaching System
3.5 Staff Involvement in Curriculum Planning
3.6 LetUsSumUp
3.7 Key Words
3.8 Answers to Check Your Progress

3.0 OBJECTIVES
1
After going through this unit, you should be able to:
define learning experiences;
I
list the criteria for selection of leaping experiences;
I
explain the principles of organization of learning experiences;
describe and list the advantages of a teaching block;
define partial block system; and
explain the role of faculty members in curriculum planning.

3.1 INTRODUCTION - - -

In the Unit 1 and 2 you have learnt in general about curriculum concepts and
developmznt of nursing curriculum. You have learnt about factors to be
considered, principles and steps to be followed'in developing the curriculum. In
Unit 2 yolr have read about development of instructional objective.
In this unit, you are going to learn about selection and organization of learning
experiences for the students, and principles involved. Let us first understand the
concept and definition of a learning experience.
Curriculum Development
and Implementation 3.2 CONCEPT AND DEFINITION
Learning experiences selected appropriately and carefully helps the student
to develop the required clinical competencies. In this section in you will
learn about the concept and definition of learning experience.
3.2.1 Experience
In order to understand the definition of learning experiences, you have to
grasp the meaning of experience. How will you define experience? Let us
try to understand by the following illustration.
Miss A, a staff nurse (S/N) in the operation theatre was explaining in depth
the significance and special need for family support during the post
'
operative period together with the essentials of the operation to the elder
brother of an adolescent patient who was to have a craniotomy for removal
of a posterior fosse tumour. The elder brother was so grateful for the
explanation that he insisted, Miss A should remain with his brother all
through the period of his operation and keep him informing about his
brother's condition from time to time.
What does the story tells you? Because of S i N A's appropriate explanation,
the brother was reassured and developed a confidence in S/N A. and what
does S/N A learn? She learnt that appropriate explanation with empathy at
the appropriate place and time can make a world of difference in reducing
the anxiety level of patient's close relatives, thereby helping them to adjust
to the changed situation, can instill in them a feeling of assurance. Which
in turn helps them to repose confidence in the attending nurses? Besides,
this also gives a sense of satisfaction to the concerned nurseaoesn't it?
What do you think about the above illustration? Is it an experience? Yes or
No? Well, it is yes-this is an experience between S/N A and patient's elder
brother. This is an educative experience which helps in relieving anxiety and
developing productive relationship.
So what is an experience?
An experience is making personal observations of a situation andlor
interacting with people in varied situations/environments resulting in gain in
knowledge, skills and attitude. In other words, learning are the out come of
experience.

3.2.2 Learning Experience


When an experience is deliberately planned for students in selected situations
to achieve certain defined learning objectives it is said to be learning
experience.
"Thus, learning experiences may be defined as deliberately planned
experiences in selected situations where students actively participate,
interact and which result in desirable changes of behaviour in the students".
For learning experience to take place we require three components. These
three components are: selected learning situations, learning activities
undertaken by concerned students and their interactions. All the'se together
will comprise the learning experi'ence. These learning experiences can be in
theory, i.e., theoretical learning experiences, can be in practical, i.e., skill
learning in the laboratory and live setting, i.e., in hospitals, clinics and various
community settings. Many experiences will also comprise combination of both
theory and practical simultaneously.
Q
Selection and
Organization of Learning
SURROUNDING Experience

Fig. 3.1: Components of Learning Experience

3.3 SELECTION OF LEARNING EXPERIENCES


Selection of learning experiences is concerned with making decisions about the
experiences in theory and practical which need to be given to the students
undergoing any educational programme. This section will help you understand the
concept, basis, principles and criteria of selection of learning experience.

3.3.1 The Concept of Selection of Learning Experience


The learning experience in nursing are planned and provided for both in theory and
practical in the class' room, laboratory and in live settings i.e. in the community
and hospital.
When we talk of planning or selection of learning experiences for nursing
curriculum e.g. B.Sc. Nursing curriculum, we mean selection of the content of the
curriculum i.e. the various courses of study in theory and practice. These courses
will be further planned by the teachers who teach. In this process, each teacher
would plan and select learning experience both in theory and practice specific to
the course, to the unit and to each lesson and practical experience. In this way it
would be possible not only to plan and select desirable learning experiences to
attain set objectives at each level but also it would help to maintain continuity and
relation of learning experiences from curricula on words to the lesson plan.
3.3.2 Basis for Learning Experience
The learning experience at each level of curriculum planning would depend upon
the objectives at a particular level. Let us understand with the help of examples:
Example 1: One of the curricular objectives is "Enabling the students to develop
skill in assessment of physical health of adults". To achieve this objective students
would require opportunities to make observation of health assessment procedure
on adults, give return demonstration of the same and practice under supervision
and guidance, record the findings.
The student would also require the subject matter which would support this
learning experience e.g. information about physical health, methods of
assessment, equipments required, principles underlying the skills etc.
When selecting learning experience which should constitute the total curriculum, it
is necessary that curriculum objeccives stated should be studied and analyzed so
that learning experience (subject content) i.e. various coiuses of study in theory
and practice can be identified and selected which can be then systematically
organized into a curriculum.
Curriculum Development Example 2: One of the course objectives is "enabling students to develop an
and Implementation ability to communicate effectively with others". To achieve this objective
students require experience in skillful listening, accurate recording, written and
oral reporting, organizing and writing effectively, taking part in formal and
informal discussion etc.

The theoretical learning which would be required to support skill learning


experiences include process and methods of communication, principles of
reporting and recording, group discussion methods etc.

This implies that while selecting learning experienced for a particular course
say, e.g., basic nursing, hygiene and environmental health, communication
methods and Media etc. It is necessary that the objectives stated should be
studied and analyzed carefully so that learning experiences (i.e., the course
content) both in theory and practical can be identified, selected and organized
into units of a course systematically.

Similarly, the identified unit objectives will then help in developing specific
learning experience both in theory and practical, i.e., content areas; for that
unit which will further help in developing each lesson objectives and related
learning experiences in theory and practice (lesson content) which are
organized and implemented according to the unit plan.
Selection and
Organlzatlon of Learning
Experlence

3.3.3 Principles of Selection of Learning Experience


In selecting learning experiences, i.e., deciding on learning situations and activities
the principles required to be kept in mind are:

i) Selection of learning experiences should be made considering the philosophy, .


purposes and objectives of the programme.

ii) Learning activities should be in relation to those real life situations where the
students are expected to practice afier being quafified.
iii) Selection should be in a manner that there is an effective integration betwgzn
theory and practice, i.e., between What is Taught in the Class Room and
What is Practised in Learning Situations?

iv) Selection should be made for such experiences which will assist the students
in effective learning and which would provide opportunities for performing
identified tasks of their expected jobs.

v) The focus while selecting learning experiences, i.e., learning situations and
activities should be to help students learn to:
give need based individualized care.
provide community oriented services.
meet the national health needldemand.
emphasise on primary preventions.
give nursing care at all the three levels of health care, i.e., primary,
secondary and tertiary levels.

Values in nursing; art of nursing; and science of nursing.


vi) Selected learning activities should be such as to develop the student's logical
and analytical thinking.
3.3.4 Criteria for Selection of Learning Experiences
i) Learning experiences selected should be consistent with the philosophy of the
school and lead to the achievements of the terminal goals of the programme.

ii) Learning experience should be varied and flexible enough keeping in mind
the learners' abilities to undergo the desired change of behaviour and not
going beyond their particular stages of developments.
Curriculum Development Example: For development of skills in conducting a normal delivery the
and Implementation students can be posted in the labour room, maternity clinics, and homes -
urban and rural for domiciliary care. This will provide a variety of experience
at the same time and it is feasible also. But this posting should be made only
when the students have learnt about the essentials of ante-natal, intra-natal and
post-natal care.

A first year student who has no knowledge of growth and development of the
child should not be posted in a well baby clinic to monitor growth and
development. This will be beyond her stage of development.

iii) Learning experience should be so selected that it will give the student an
opportunity to practice the kind of behaviour implied in the objective. It
should provide sufficient opportunity for self activity so that the transfer of
knowledge gained, skill acquired and desirable attitudes become habitual.

Example: For the objective of development of skills in application of nursing


process in caring for patients, the students should be assigned patientdclientsl
family and should always be encouraged to apply this process for each type of
patienuclient she looks after in hospital, homes, or clinics. This will develop
the skill, knowledge and right attitudes towards 'nursing process' as a method.

iv) Learning experiences should provide opportunity for the development of


independent thinking and decision making, sound judgement, intellectual
resourcefulness, self discipline and sound integrity of purpose.

Example: When nursing a patient with malignant hypertension, the student is


allowed to take decision (under guidance) when to record the patient's blood
pressure half hourly, hourly, two hourly and four hourly.

v) Learping experiences should be adapted to the needs of the student so that she
cadwill obtain satisfaction from behaving in the manner implied in the
objective.

vi) Learqing experiences are arranged in a manner that provides continuity,


correlation and integration of theory and practice and clinical learning
experience.

Example: "For development of knowledge about maintenance of the body


temperature" the student will learn the mechanism of maintenance of the body
temperature, the physiological process. In the clinical field should be given
experience in taking oral temperature, charting of temperature, giving bed
baths, cold sponges, etc. This will provide for continuity correlation and
integration of theory and practice.

vii) Learning experiences are planned and evaluated cooperatively by the teacher
and the student. The various experiences provided will be effective,
interesting and useful if the evaluation can be cooperatively planned by the
teacher and the student.

viii) Learning experiences are selected and arranged to give the appropriate
emphasis and weightage according to the relative importance of the various
learning experiences and contents.

Example: During the second year of the educational programme the student
may visit as under-five clinic to see the types of services being provided
whereas she may be posted in the *l?der-five clinic during her third year when
she will gain more knowledge, skill, and attitude while working in these
clinics.
Selection and
Organlzatlon of Learning
Experience

Once you have selected the learning experiences, you have to organize them. You
have already studied in BNS-110 (Nursing Administration) where we have
discussed about organization? You must be remembering that as a management
function, organization involves identification and grouping of activities to be
performed along with establishing of authority, responsibility and relationships. In
organizing learning experiences too, we are concerned with:
' Grouping and
Placement
Of the selected learning experiences considering sequencing, integration etc.
Let us move further to understand organizing of learning experiences.

3.4.1 Grouping of Learning Experiences


Once the learning experiences are carefully selected on the basis of desired
objectives and guiding principles, these must be organized in the curriculum in a
way to serve maximum benefit to the learners. There are many theories and
approaches regarding the most effective method of organizing curriculum, The
individual institute of nursing education can make its own choice.
The method of grouping learning experiences (contents and activities) under
subject headings is a traditional method, which is still very extensively used. The
syllabi prescribed by Indian Nursing Council (INC) consist of a list of subjects
which are distributed in three and a half years of General Nursing and Midwifery
programme and four years of B.Sc Nursing degree programme. These subjects are
broadly categorized as foundation courses in nursing and nursing related courses.
The foundation courses include physical sciences, biological sciences, and social
science. These may also be categorized as basic sciences. These courses provide
the scientific principles upon which the nursing courses and the practices of
nursing are built. Behavioural sciences courses provide for the personal
development and effective interactions of the learners with their clients and others.
The principles and values derived from these courses must be carried out through
out the nursing courses and clinical experiences and not set aside.
The nursing and related courses include fundamental of nursing, introduction to
communication, education and Administration, medical nursing, surgical nursing,
paediatric nursing, psychiatric nursing, community health nursing, midwifery
nursing, gynaecology nursing, history of nursing, professional trends and issues.
Cunieulam Development These subjects may be grouped as follows (Ref. Fig. 3.2)
aod Implementation
I I
I- Physical Sciences I

I -- Maternal nursing
Gynaamlogy nursing

3.2: Eumpk of Grouping d Nuniag rubJecQ


All the nursing w m of the curriculum have clinical learning aspects which are
prescribed by INC. Curriculum organization is done in such a way which facilitates .
correlation of theory in clinical practice and vice-versa. Learning experiences in
clinical areas are selected and organized to integrate wncepts and principles from
related courses, e.g., medical-surgical nursing, pharmacology, dietetic. This will
promote integrated learning. For example when students are learning to give care
to a patient suffering fiom peptic ulcer. The clinical instructor needs to review
patho-physiology and signs and symptoms learnt in medical nursing, medical
treatment and surgical treatment, pharmacology of drugs used, diet therapy learnt in
dietetic etc. She can involve students, physician, pharmacist, dietician etc.
The curriculum content (both in theory and practice) of Post Basic B.Sc. Nursing
programme which you all are taking f!rom IGNOU, School of Health Sciences, is
also organized and grouped under subject headings that can be categorized as
under:
Foundation Course
a) Applied Sciences
b) Humanities
c) Behavioural Sciences
d) Computer in Nursing
Nursing and Nursing Related Courses
i) Community Health Nursing
ii) Clinical Nursing Specialities
- Nwiing Foundation
- Mental Health Nursing
- Paediatric Nursing
- Medical Surgical Nursing
iii) Nming Administration
iv) Nwsing Education and Rewnrc'll
3.4.2 Placement of Learning Experiences Selection and
Organization of Learning
After we have decided on the broad plan of grouping of learning experiences Experience
(content and learning experiences), we then need to look into the placement of these
experiences into total curriculum. It implies careful distribution of these
experiences through out the curriculum span. The learning experiences thus
distributed should be related to one another vertically and horizontally so that there
is meaningful continuous expansion of curriculum. In simple words it implies that
every successive learning experience reinforces the previous experience, the
learning experiences planned for 2nd year should build upon those of I st year and
so on. The learning experience in one area which should be related to and
interdependent on the other areas of learning in the same.
The following are the criteria which can serve as guide for effective organization of
the subject matter and the learning experience in the curriculum:
a) Sequence entails the placement of learning experience content in order that
there is a gradual progress form simple to complex, concrete to abstract, and
from -3rmal to al~nortnal.
Example: Teaching the basic principles of normal nutrition early in thc
curriculum will help the student in the first year to understand the importance
of a balanced diet and the teaching of more complex subject matters in
relation to nutrition and dietetics later will be based on her previous learning
on normal nutrition. This in turn will prepare her to plan therapentic dicts for
patients suffering from various illnesses needing a special diet.
In the same way, the development of the ability to shoulder accountability can -
be started early with the student's accountability for looking afkr I-?
I r own

health by following sound health habits and hygiene and maintnihing s


personal health record. Thereafter, being accountable for health maintenance
and providing basic nursing care to two or three patients during the first year
of the progranime being accountable to render comprehensive nurslilg care for
several patients in subsequent years of her educational programme until in her
final year of the programme when she is made accountable for the programme
of an entire nursing unit.
b) Integration: This means a state of wholeness, harmony and relatedness.
Integration also means to blend things together into a harmonious whole. A
very simple way of understanding integration when you add milk to a cup of
tea liquor - what do you get? Tea with milk where both are no lon_eer
separable. This is integration. The integration process takes place onl:- ir !hc
student, hence, opportunity must be provided for her to integrate her vxirx-r
learning experiences with new ones. S/he must be given opportunib to
analyze nursing care situations and problems, apply the principles f r r w ~
physiology, sociology, sciences, preventive medicine, m i c r o b i o ; ~ ~2nd
. r"1-r
subjects learned in theory courses to her nursing care problems in tkr: cli~i:al
situations both in hospitals and in the conmunity.
c) Continuity: It is very important to maintain the continuity of les,r3iit;
experience. This will help the students t~ relatc the contc~icificiwcy.
Example: Learning about 'Blood Chemistry' involves learnin2 - x r F:~c:ir?~nf
blood, the cardiovascular system, principles of planning diet fox p~ilentsbrth
cardiac conditions, pharmacology related to cardiovascular system etc-., eab.x
of these complements one another and should be taught at the same tirnz
demonstrating the relatedness of the contents.
Considering these principles we have to make decision regarding various courses
and.the clinical experiences which need to be included in lst, 2nd, 3rd and 4th year
of B.Sc Nursing Curriculum. For example 1st year of B.Sc. Nursing includes the
f n l l n l x r i n n nniirono,
Curriculum Development 1) Basic Sciences Applied to Nursing
and Implementation
Anatomy and Physiology
Biophysics and Biochemistry
Microbiology

2) Behavioural Sciences Applied to Nursing


Psychology
Sociology
3) Health Subjects
Nutrition
Hygiene
Health Education and Communication skills
Community Health
4) Fundamentals of Nursing
These subjects lay down the foundation for nursing course in the succeeding
years. These will help in understanding of the scientific principles applied to
nursing. Students are helped to integrate knowledge gained in these subjects to
nursing subjects which they would'leam in 2nd and 3rd year, e.g., while learning
about medical conditions and nursing care of such patients as part of medical
nursing course in 2nd year they will integrate knowledge ofi anatomy and
physiology in understanding of patho-physiology, nutrition in understanding diet
therapy, principles of psychology in understanding of patient's behavior during
sickness etc,
Similarly, the courses for 2nd year, 3rd year and 4th year need to be identified on
the basis of said principles and should be placed in the successive year for the
curriculum to be effective.
3.4.3 General Plan for Curriculum
General plan for cumculurn is graphical presentation of the organized curriculum
to show at a glance the placement of subjects, and clinical experience, distribution
of hours to theory and clinical experience, distribution of hours per week both to
theory and clinical experience. A sample of the structure of a general plan of GNM
programme is shown in Fig. 3.2. It gives information about:
The subjects which are to be givenlcovered in each year.
Minimum instruction hours and clinical hours (as prescribed by TNC) which
would be given in each subject during each year to achieve the objectives
outlined in the curriculum.
Total curriculum hours both in theory and clinical experience in each year.
Duration of PTS during 1st preparatory leave, final examination and
vacation during each year.
The clinical experience given in different clinical areas in each year. Each area
of clinical experience is indicated by its abbreviation. The key for the same is
also given. Students of one class are dividkd into groups and rotated through
the same clinical areas.
The hours of experience which is six or eight hours a day for six days a week,
i.e., 36 or 48 Hours per week depending upon the training system which is
organized in the school/college which is discussed in the next section.
Curriculum Development 3.4.4 Teaching System
and lmpbmentatlon
Once the curriculum is organized by the nursing schoollcollege faculty, it has to
be scheduled and implemented, i.e., a proper teaching system has to be developed
to execute the curriculum. In this section you would learn about the teaching
system which needs to be adopted by nursing school/college for effective
execution of a cumculum which is planned and organized.
The teaching system refers to the system of scheduling of instructions in theory
and clinical experiences which are planned and organized from first year to final
year for GNM and B.Sc nursing students.
There are different methods of training systems which are in practice. These are:
i) The Block System: In this system the instructions in theory, i.e., class room
teaching and the clinical experiences are scheduled in blocks known as
studylteaching blocks and clinical blocks respectively. In studylteaching
blocks only theory instructions, i e . , class room teaching is given where as in
clinical blocks only relevant clinical experiences in various areas are given.
These blocks are planned and strategically placed one after another through
out the curriculum so that theory instructions relates to clinical experiences
for which students are due to be posted. The timing of teaching blocks and
clinical blocks for different years of students can be different so that all the
students are not withdrawn fiom clinical areas.
The duration of the teaching blocks and clinical blocks varies. It depends
upon the available academic weeks and hours through out the year, the
various courses and the prescribed hours which are required to be given and
the duration of clinical experiences in various areas which need to be given
according to Indian Nursing Council (INC) requirements. Refer Fig. 3.3 of
this block.
The distribution of class hours to various subjects in a block is done on the
basis of prescribed hours to these subjects. The subjects which have more
prescribed hours would be given proportionately more hours in the block and
those subjects whose clinical experience will follow would also be given
more hours, so that students get prepared for that clinical experience.
The clinical experience block is planned to give one or more than one type of
clinical experience. The experience is given in small size of groups (not
more than 7 to 10 students).
The students need to rotate though all the experiences which are given in the
block.
The system has its own advantages, especially when schooUcollege is part of
the hospital.
The advantages are as under:
' Students are free of clinical responsibilities and can have concentrated
theory instructions.
Classes are given to the whole group together.
Students do not miss the classes because of clinical work.
hi dents do not have to leave the wards daily because of daily classes,
thus it does not create any problem for ward sister.
It facilitates correlated teaching.
It gives attentions to educational status of students.
ii) Partial Block System: The studylteaching block can be partial teaching Selection and
block. In partial teaching block the students have theory instructions in the Organization of Learning
Experience
morning and clinical experiences in the afternoon or vice-versa. In this system
daily classes will be required for longer durations to finish the courses.
iii) Study Day System': In this system as it indicates, one day in a week is
completely planned for holding classes in the schools. A different day of the
week is assigned to each group of students. This system also has similar
advantages as mentioned for Block System. The students are free from ward
responsibilities, planning of ward work is simplified and correlated teaching
can be organized more easily. But one has to see to the completion of
prescribed cumculurn hours.
iv) Daily Classes: In this system one or two classes are held daily or several
times per week. During the first and second year, classes need to be scheduled
more to cover the curriculum. Problems sometime may arise when students
are contributing in meeting the service needs and they are to be relieved fiom
wards on time. This problem can be solved by planning a schedule which is
reasonably convenient to the ward, the school and students.
In schools and colleges where service needs are not met by the students and which
are not attached to the hospital, the classes are usually held daily. All the students
particularly second, third and fourth year are in the clinical areas in the morning
and have classes in the afternoon or vice-versa.

3.5 STAFF INVOLVEMENT IN CURRICULUM


PLANNING
It is important to form a curriculum committee whose main responsibility is to
organize all learning experiences planned by individual tutors into an integrated
whole. The individual teachers analyze their own subjects in order to help and
contribute to the correlation of teaching with other subjects.

When there is an appreciation and common understanding among the staff


members of the school about the philosophy of the school, there is bound to be a
greater appreciation by the service staff for the need for a planned scheduling of the
classes and field work clinical experience of the students.
Curriculum Development The school should also keep a close connection with the hospital and community
and Inlplementation fields where students are posted for their experience. Wherever possible continuity
of service should be maintained by the school in these fields. This will bring in
cooperation, understanding and a sense of appreciation of the programme offered.
A better organization and planning of learning experiences will be the resultant
effect.

3.6 LET US SUM UP


One of the most important aspects of curriculum planning is the selection and
organization of learning experiences of the students who are undergoing a
programme. The careful selection of the experiences and their organization is built
on the student's past knowledge and previous experience and according to the
levels of the students. Progress in complexity to higher levels of learning and
comprehension in the practice of nursing is the aim. It should exhibit an inter
relatedness among the various subjects and also their relationship to the clinical
instruction and practice of nursing.
Finally, the onus lies on the members of the faculty who are accountable for
implementing the programme that enables the students to learn. The goal is always
concerned with fostering of ability of their students in the canying out of the necessary
service to and for the society in the future. In this case, the service is nursing.

3.7 KEY WORDS


Curriculum : It is a committee consisting of members who actively participate
Committee in the development or construction of a curriculum for their
school. The members may be drawn from various disciplines,
i.e., nursing sciences, medical personnel, etc. They include fiom
within the faculty/college and from outside college. Students are
also represented on the committee.
Experience : An experience is making personal observations of a situation and
or interacting with people in varied situations/environment
resulting in gain in knowledge, skills and attitude.
Integration : This means a state of wholeness, harmony and relatedness. It
also means to put something into, or to include something in
something else. For example; While giving a mouthwash to an
unconscious patient the student should integrate a knowledge of
microbiology, physiology etc.
Learning : Learning takes place when there is a change in the behaviour of
the learner. This may mean that the learner is able to answer
questions which he/she was unable to answer before, or helshe is
able to do things such as taking temperature, pulse and
respiration, or to prepare a post-operative bed.
Learning : A learning experience is something in which the student actively
experience participates and which results in a change of behaviour.
Sequence : This goes beyond continuity, and refers to the placement of the
content in crrA-- :&-.: mere is gradual progress from simple to
complex, fiom concrete tn ahattact.
Selection and
3.8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Organization of Learning
Experience
Check Your Progress 1

1) Learning experience is the various experience that learner undergoes during a


course and this results in the change of behaviour. The experience consists of
both the learning of the subject matter and the practical work experience. The
objectives laid down in the curriculum decides the type of learning
experience the student should have. The teacher should always attempt to
provide desirable learning experiences to the student so that there is a useful
change in the behaviour of the learner.

2) a) Skill in bed making: This objective can be achieved through the


experience of making varieties of beds to suit the different needs of
the patient, i.e., a cardiac bed, a renal bed, a post-operative bed, an
amputation bed etc.

b) When a stude~tis giving a tube feeding (learning experience) she is


also acquiring knowledge and understanding of the need for a
balanced diet, therapeutic diet, anatomy of upper gatro-tract etc.
Check Your Progress 2

1) a) Learning experience should be consistent with the philosophy of the


school and lead to the terminal goal bf the programme. For example, if
the programme is offering a concise course for health workers at the
village level then the various experiences provided should be relevant
and for the level of the student. They should be trained in Rural Health
System.

b) Learning experience should be so selected that it will provide an


opportunity to the learner to practice the kind of behaviour implied in
the objective, and helps in the development of desirable knowledge,
skill and attitudes.

c) Leaming experiences should provide opportunity for the development


of independent thinking, good judgement, self discipline and integrity
of purpose, i.e., the development of the individual as a whole.

d) Learning experience should be such to develop student's logical and


analytical thinking.

e) Leaming experience should be adapted to the need of the student so


that she will obtain satisfaction for behaving in the manner implied in
the objective.

2) a) Tf the health worker is expected to teach about preparation of low cost


nutritious diet, then the experience provided should give the opportunity
to the student to prepare these low-cost nutrition diets herself.
The principles of effective organization of the subject matter and the
learning experiences of continuity, sequence and integration.

b) Continuity refers to the relationship existing between the different


levels of the same subject matter and skill.
For example: A student is taught medical nursing in the first year but
the same subject is continued in the second year and third year in
greater depth. Sequence means the placement of the content in a
manner that there is gradual progress from simple to complex, from
simple to more comprehensive. Sequence goes beyond continuity.
Curriculum Development c) The principle of integration is an important point to be considered while
and Implementation selecting learning experiences. Integration deals with the state of
harmony, wholeness and relatedness. The student is able to comprehend
as a whole. When she is looking after a child with pneumonia, she is
able to relate her knowledge of anatomy, physiology, nutrition,
microbiology, sociology etc., to the care of the child, so that the care is
comprehensive.
Check Your Progress 3

1) i) Principle of sequence, i.e., place of learning experience, content in order


that there is gradual progress from
Simple to complex
.e Concrete to abstract
Normal to abnormal
ii) Principle of integration.
2) i) The block system
ii) Partial block system
iii) The study day system
iv) Daily classes