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In selecting a timing relay for a specific appli-
5 6 cation, the following factors should be carefully
2 TR 10 considered:
■ Length of time delay required
3 4 ■ Timing range required
■ Allowable error
■ Cycle of operation and reset time
(Source: Delmar/Cengage Learning)
■ Cost
■ Additional requirements
Fig. 9–14 The action of the timer starts when pins
5 and 6 are shorted by the initiating switch. Solid-state timers, like relays, are very reli-
able provided their cycle of operation is not
exceeded. Overworking is harmful in that it
creates internal heat, destroying the unit.
5 7
Length of Time Delay Required
4 8 The length of time delay required is deter-
mined by the type of machine or process that the
timer will control. This time delay will range
3 9 from a fraction of a second to as long as several
START 2 10
Timing Range Required
1 11
The phrase “timing range” means the various
time intervals over which the timer can be
(Source: Delmar/Cengage Learning)
adjusted. Timers are available that can be set
Fig. 9–15 Connection diagram for an Allen Bradley for a time delay of 1 second, 100 seconds, or any
eleven-pin timer. value of delay between 1 and 100 seconds.
When selecting a timer for use with a machine
or process, the range should be wide enough to
handle the various time-delay periods that may
6 be required by the machine or process.
The exact timing value for any position
2 TR 10 within the timing range must be found by trial
and error. A scale provided with a timer is
intended primarily to permit a quick reset of
3 TR 4
the timer to the timing position previously
determined to be correct for a given operation.
(Source: Delmar/Cengage Learning)

Fig. 9–16 The action of the timer starts when the initi- Allowable Error
ating switch connects pins 2 and 6. All timers are subject to some error; that is,
there may be a plus or minus time variation
the initiating switch opens, the timer starts between successive timing operations for the
counting. At the end of the time delay, contact same setting. The amount of error varies with
TR reopens and turns off the lamp. the type of timer and the operating conditions.
The connection diagram for an Allen Bradley The error is usually stated as some percentage
eleven-pin timer is shown in Figure 9–15. of the time setting.
Although this timer is similar to the Dayton The percentage of error for any timer
timer, the action of the timer is started by con- depends on the type of timer, the ambient tem-
necting pins 2 and 6 together. A schematic perature (especially low temperatures), coil
diagram for connecting this timer is shown in temperature, line voltage, and the length of
Figure 9–16. time between operations.