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Document Splitting in New General Ledger

Background –
In SAP ERP the document splitting is the most powerful tool is widely and most commonly used.
With this function the document splits the line items based on the “Characteristics” we define
in system. Often this function is used to get the financial statements correctly for segment
reporting.
Back to the Basics –
Concept can be explained of document splitting with the help of one of the most basic business
transaction as “Vendor Invoice”. Suppose we have vendor invoice as below which consists of two
expense line items say 10,000 in total with 1,000 of tax component which sums to 11,000.

1. Expense Item 1 for 8,000 where it is assigned to PC – X


2. Expense Item 2 for 2,000 where it is assigned to PC – Y

Account Amount Profit Centre


Vendor A/C -11,000

Expenses 1 8,000 PC – X
Expenses 2 2,000 PC – Y
Input Tax 1,000

If any person is responsible for PC – X wish to analyze the transactions performed for PC – X,
but unfortunately the user can’t – because of, if you look at the transaction the “Vendor Balance”
and “Input Tax” is cumulative and hence is not assigned to any of the profit center either X or
Y.
Now if you look at the transaction above it represents that the total expense is distributed in
the ratio of 80% and 20% and same of Profit Centre of X and Y. So base to this the Vendor
Balance and Input Tax should also have split according to 80%-20% rule.
As per the above image the system should have posted the document as per below financial
transaction entry in system –

Okay so the conclusion for whole exercise is, if the user can post the document as above, the
reporting will be pretty particuar and balanced and there won’t be a problem – issue is re-solved.
Its easily said that issue will be solved but why any user will separate the line item as per
calculations and split its bases always on its ratio, especially when there are 100’s of line items
sometimes in any document ! And what if system takes care of this?
Well the answer is Yes, and that’s what the document splitting is all about!
Now we will understand the Document Splitting elements and key
concepts –
 Passive Splitting – This type of splitting is mostly occurs when the payment transaction
is posted for a vendor invoice. Now system splits the payment document bases on how
the vendor invoice was split in place already.

 Active Splitting – In Active Splitting the document is split according to mySAP ERP
predefined rules. SAP almost supports all the business process transactions but if it
doesn’t suit to any requirement the own splitting rules can be created.

 Zero Balancing Splitting – When the amounts within financial documents are not able
to balance out to Debit of Profit Centre and Credit of Profit Centre which does not Net
Off as its own, SAP then automatically generates new line item to balance the
document. We will see the example in following section of this scenario.

 Item Category – Item category categorizes the general ledger accounts for document
splitting. In the configuration each GL account is assigned to item category. Just to
name a few like 01000 – Balance Sheet Account, 02000 – Customer, 03000 – Vendor and
so on.

 Business Transaction – Business transaction is real scenario of business processes


happens in organization such as vendor invoice, customer invoice etc.

 Business Transaction Variant – In the SAP, financial postings are derives the item
category for individual line item. Business transaction variant always works in
conjunction with business transaction where business transaction restricts the business
processes to be posted to. System validates a check all postings against the item
category to validate if these postings are allowed by splitting rule if not then
understand this failed.

 Document Splitting Method – Document splitting method works in combination with


business transaction and business transaction variant it determines the document
splitting rule.

 Document Splitting Rule: Document splitting rule determines which item categories will
be split and from which item categories it will derive the account assignment.

Let us see the actual example from system of Document Splitting for vendor
invoice –

If we are posting an invoice from FB60 with two different expenses line item as below with two
different cost centers assigned now system has derived the profit center from its cost centers
mentioned in line item.
Simulate this document to see pre-posting view with line item and associated assignments.
Now press F3 or Back button and come to main screen. Now go to Menu Bar Document –>
Simulate with General Ledger to see the ledger view of this document.

Once clicked on simulate with general ledger, document can be seen as below as “Document Split”
functionality.

Document Splitting – Zero Balancing

As discussed above when system is not able to balance out the transaction entry based on its
own it balances out by “zero balancing” account. System adds the zero balance account at its
own to make balance zero for transaction. We will see the example for this now –
We will post the transaction via FB50.
Now simulate this with General Ledger View as below

If you look at above and notice simulated “General Ledger View” system has automatically
generated the “Zero Balance Clearing A/C.”
Now let us look at the configuration of document splitting –
1. Classify GL Accounts for Document Splitting –
SPRO –> SAP Reference IMG –> Financial Accounting (New) –> General Ledger Accounting (New) –> Business
Transaction –> Document Splitting –> Classify G/L Accounts for Document Splitting

Here in this step GL’s are classified according to item categories according to business
transaction nature. It is recommended that instead of assigned item category to each individual
general ledger account try maintaining the item categories for “Range of General Ledger
Accounts”.

2. Classify Document Types for Document Splitting –


SPRO –> SAP Reference IMG –> Financial Accounting (New) –> General Ledger Accounting (New) –
> Business Transaction –> Document Splitting –> Classify Document Type for Document Splitting

In this step the “Business Transaction” and “Business Transaction Variant” is assigned to
document types. Now almost every financial transaction in considered for document splitting.
3. Define Zero Balance Clearing Account –
SPRO –> SAP Reference IMG –> Financial Accounting (New) –> General Ledger Accounting (New) –
> Business Transaction –> Document Splitting –> Define Zero Balance Clearing Account

In this step we have to define the zero balance clearing account which will be used to generate
and balance out financial entry when it is not possible to balance out at its own, as we have seen
this example earlier.
4. Define Document Splitting Characteristics for General Ledger Accounting –
SPRO –> SAP Reference IMG –> Financial Accounting (New) –> General Ledger Accounting (New) –
> Business Transaction –> Document Splitting –>Define Document Splitting Characteristics for
General Ledger Accounting

This is one of the most important configurations step in document splitting. In this step we have
to define the splitting characteristics. Additionally you can define whether this should be Zero
Balance and
Mandatory.
5. Edit Constants for Non Assigned Processes –
SPRO –> SAP Reference IMG –> Financial Accounting (New) –> General Ledger Accounting (New) –
> Business Transaction –> Document Splitting –>Edit Constants for Non Assigned Processes
In this step the constants are defined which helps to assigned the default account assignment
when is not able to derive from any of the sources.

6. Activate Document Splitting


SPRO –> SAP Reference IMG –> Financial Accounting (New) –> General Ledger Accounting (New) –
> Business Transaction –> Document Splitting –>Activate Document Splitting
Finally the step to activate document splitting with additional settings like “Inheritance” and
Activation of Document Splitting.
Select check box “Document Splitting” and apply appropriate method. SAP Standard pre-
delivered method is “0000000012”.
Selecting the Inheritance signifies the line items which do not have account assignment will
derive the account assignment from other line item.
Selecting Standard A/C Assgnmnt means system will set the standard account assignment for
non-assigned line items. When this indicator is selected “Constant” needs to be maintained.

Activate of Document Splitting happens at client level but it is always possible to control of
activation and deactivation at company code level.
SAP ECC 6.0: New GL Configuration Steps

1. Define Field Status Variants

Use
In this activity you create a field status variant with the corresponding field status groups

IMG Menu Financial Accounting (NEW) > Financial Accounting Global Settings
(New) > Ledgers > Fields > Define Field Status Variants
2. Assign Company Code to Field Status Variants

Use

In this activity you assign the company code to the field status variant.

IMG Menu Financial Accounting (NEW) > Financial Accounting Global Settings
(New) > Ledgers > Fields > Assign Company Code to Field Status Variants

3. Define Currencies of Leading Ledger

Use
In this IMG activity, you specify the currencies to be applied in the leading ledger. You can make the
following settings for each company code:

 The local currency (as company code currency) is specified in the company code settings.
 You can define one or two additional local currencies that you store per company code parallel
to the first local currency.

IMG Menu Financial Accounting (NEW) > Financial Accounting Global Settings
(New) > Ledgers > Ledger > Define Currencies of Leading Ledger

4. Assign scenarios and customer fields to ledgers

Use
In this activity, you assign the following to your ledgers:

 Scenarios: determines what fields in a ledger are updated when it receives posting from other
application components.
 Custom Fields: you can add custom fields (that you have already defined) to the ledger.
 Versions: this enables you to make general version settings for the ledger that depend on the
fiscal year. In the versions, you specify whether actual data is recorded, whether
manual planning is allowed, and whether planning integration with Controlling is
activated.
IMG Menu Financial Accounting (NEW) > Financial Accounting Global Settings
(New) > Ledgers > Ledger > Assign scenarios and customer fields to
ledgers
Scenario for General Long Text
Ledger Accounting

FIN_PCA Profit Centre Update

FIN_SEGM Segmentation

5. Assign Posting PeriodsVariants to Company Code

Use
In this activity, you make the specification that is necessary to be able to work in several company
codes

with the same variant for open posting periods.

IMG Menu Financial Accounting (NEW) > Financial Accounting Global Settings
(New) > Ledgers > Fiscal Year and Posting Periods > Posting Periods >
Assign Variants to Company Code

6. Define Accounting Principles

Use
In this activity, you define your accounting principles.

Then you can assign the desired ledger group to the accounting principles.

For performance reasons, you can combine several different accounting principles in one entry;

for example, you create one accounting principle for IAS/US-GAAP.

IMG Menu Financial Accounting (New) > Financial Accounting Global Settings
(New) > Ledgers > Parallel Accounting > Define Accounting Principles

Accounting Principles Name

HGB Local GAAP Germany

7. Assign Accounting Principle to Ledger Groups

Use
In this IMG activity, you assign the desired ledger group to your accounting principles.
IMG Menu Financial Accounting(New) > Financial Accounting Global Settings (New)
> Ledgers > Parallel Accounting > Assign Accounting Principle to Ledger
Groups

Accounting Principles Target Ledger Group

HGB 0L

8. Assign Variants for Real-Time Integration to Company Codes

Use
In this IMG activity, you assign the variants to one or more company codes in which you have
combined customizing settings for the real-time integration of Controlling with
Financial Accounting.

If you assign no variant to a company code, no real-time integration is activated for that company
code.

IMG Menu Financial Accounting(New) > Financial Accounting Global Settings (New)
> Ledgers > Real-Time Integration of Controlling with Financial
Accounting > Assign Variants for Real-Time Integration to Company
Codes

9. Define Foreign VAT Registration Numbers

Use
In this activity, you define the VAT registration number which you received in another EC member
state for every company code which has its headquarter in an EC country
and maintains business transactions with other EC member states.
IMG Menu Financial Accounting (NEW) > Financial Accounting Global Settings
(New) > Global Parameters for Company Code > Tax > VAT Registration
Numbers (VAT Reg. No.) > Define Foreign VAT Registration Numbers

10. Define Document Number Ranges for Entry View

Use

Only one document number interval can be defined for each document type in a company code.

The document number intervals in a company code must not overlap.

In this activity you define the number ranges which are to be used for the document types.

IMG Menu Financial Accounting (NEW) > Financial Accounting Global Settings
(New) > Document > Document Number Ranges > Documents in Entry
View > Define Document Number Ranges for Entry View

11. Define Document Number Ranges for General Ledger View

Use

Only one document number interval can be defined for each document type in a company code.

The document number intervals in a company code must not overlap.

In this activity you define the number ranges which are to be used for the document types.

IMG Menu Financial Accounting (NEW) > Financial Accounting Global Settings
(New) > Document > Document Number Ranges > Documents in General
Ledger View > Define Document Number Ranges for General Ledger
View

12. Define Document Types for Entry View


Use

In this IMG activity, you have to define for your leading ledger the document types for the documents.
You do this in the entry view and assign at the same time a number range interval to the document
types.

IMG Menu Financial Accounting (NEW) > Financial Accounting Global Settings
(New) > Document > Document Types > Define Document Types for
Entry View

13. Change Message Control for Document Processing

Use
In this activity, you can configure the appearance of system messages according to requirements.

IMG Menu Financial Accounting (NEW) > Financial Accounting Global Settings
(New) > Document > Default Values > Change Message Control for
Document Processing

Work Area Message Online Batch Input

F5 671 W W

F2 145 I I

F2 144 I I

14. Classify Document Types for Document Splitting

Use
Every business transaction that is entered is analyzed during the document splitting process. In this
process, the system determines which splitting rule is applied to the document. In order that the
system can determine the splitting rule, you have to assign a business transaction variant to each
document type.

To ensure that a splitting rule is used appropriately, the relevant documents have to meet certain
requirements. These requirements relate in particular to certain item categories that either must or
must not be available. This information is specified for each business transaction variant and is
checked against the current document during posting. If the document does not meet these
requirements, the system rejects the posting.
IMG Menu Financial Accounting (NEW) > General Ledger Accounting (New) >
Business Transactions > Document Splitting > Classify Document Types
for Document Splitting

Document Type Transaction Type Variant

DV 0200 0001

KZ 0000 0001

15. Define Document Splitting Characteristics for General Ledger Accounting

Use
In this step, you specify an input tax indicator per company code.

Then the system uses this indicator when you post acquisitions that are not subject to tax.

IMG Menu Financial Accounting (NEW) > General ledger accounting (NEW) >
Business transactions > Document splitting > Define Document Splitting
Characteristics for General Ledger Accounting

Field Zero Balance Partner Field Mandatory

SEGMENT Segment √ PSEGMENT Partner √


Segment

16. Define Document Splitting Characteristics for Controlling

Use
In this IMG activity, you specify which additional characteristics you intend to apply for document
splitting.

The additional characteristics are not relevant for General Ledger Accounting.

Instead, they are relevant for other application components (such as subcomponents in CO) that use
documents transferred from General Ledger Accounting.

IMG Menu Financial Accounting (NEW) > General ledger accounting (NEW) >
Business transactions > Document splitting > Define Document Splitting
Characteristics for Controlling
Field

AUFNR Order

KOSTL Cost Center

17. Activate Document Splitting

Use
In this IMG activity, you have to activate document splitting. The splitting method used is the SAP
standard one, which contains the splitting rules for the different business transactions. If this splitting
method does not meet your requirements, you can first define and then select your own method in
Customizing for document splitting. You can do this choosing Extended Document Splitting > Assign
Splitting Method.

The activation then applies for the entire client. You can explicitly exclude individual company codes
from document splitting. This means, however, that you are then no longer able to create any cross-
company-code transactions containing company codes that have divergent settings for document
splitting.

IMG Menu Financial Accounting (NEW) > General ledger accounting (NEW) >
Business transactions > Document splitting > Activate Document
Splitting

Field name User action and values

Document Splitting √

Inheritance √

Standard A/CAssgnmnt √

Constant ZBP01

18. Define Tolerance Groups for G/L Accounting

Use
When G/L accounts are cleared, tolerance groups are used to define limits which differences are
accepted and posted automatically to predefined accounts. The groups which are defined here are
assigned in the G/L account master record.
IMG Menu Financial Accounting(NEW) > General Ledger Accounting (NEW) >
Business Transactions > Open Item Clearing > Clearing Differences >
Define Tolerance Groups for G/L Accounting

19. Define Posting Key for Incoming Invoices/Credit Memos

Use
When you enter incoming invoices and credit memos, the posting keys for the open items and G/L
account items are generated automatically by the system. You can not change these keys when
entering invoices and credit memos.

IMG Menu Financial Accounting (NEW) > Accounts Receivable/Accounts Payable


> Business Transactions > Incoming Invoices/Credit Memos > Incoming
Invoices/Credit Memo – Enjoy > Define Posting Key for Incoming
Invoices/Credit Memos

Make the following entries for transaction EGX (Vendor item with special G/L indicator):

Post. Key Debit Posting Key Credit

29 39

20. Set country-specific check

Use
For all countries, which maintain business relationships with your company, you have to include rules
for checking the following data.

IMG Menu SAP Net Weaver > General Settings > Set Countries > Set country-
specific check

Country Bank Key Length of Bank Checking rule Other Data


Key (VAT
registration
no.)

FR 4 11 3 X

US 4 11 3 X
21. Create Dummy Profit Center

Use
The dummy profit center receives postings concerning objects for which no profit center assignment
exists. This ensures that your data will be complete in Profit Center Accounting.

To create the master record for the dummy profit center use this special transaction. To change or
display it, use the normal profit center maintenance functions.

The name of the dummy profit center is displayed in the controlling area settings for Profit Center
Accounting.

Choose the function Extras > Set controlling area first to make sure that the correct controlling area is
set.

Transaction KE59
Code

IMG Menu Financial Accounting (NEW) > General Ledger Accounting (NEW) >
Master Data > Profit Center > Create Dummy Profit Center