2 views

Uploaded by srammohan

A Paper on Black-Hole.

- General Relativity
- Physics & Astrophysics Catalog 2013
- Larry Niven - All the Bridges Rusting v1.0 Italics
- String Theory, Black Holes and Klein’s Lemma
- (Ebook Nonfiction - Txt) Time Traveler John Titor - Or Not.doc
- Lista Ingles Text Comprehension Dificil
- HAWKING.pdf
- 16059 Black Holes
- Killing Vector.docx
- Online_Trident_Scholar_Program.pdf
- Black-Holes-Algorithm-With-Fuzzy-Hawking-Radiation.pdf
- Advan
- The Special and General Theory of Relativity - A. Einstein
- Notes Lecture 1
- The Black Hole That Birthed the Big Bang
- Modelling hard and soft state of Cygnus X-1 with propagating mass accretion rate fluctuations
- 0407049
- E01
- winner list
- Albert Einstein

You are on page 1of 63

William Koch

JCCC Astronomy Professor

MEETING ON BLACK HOLES KITP AUG 2013

seemed confused. — John Preskill

SPIRITED DISAGREEMENTS

o l e
e

k H S i d

l a c r i t y

B n t a

l i m e

om p

C

o l e

c k H e

B l a S i d

al l s

i r ew

F

MOTIVATION

➡ real

➡ extreme testing ground for ideas.

➡ forcing deep re-thinking about well-

established principles of physics.

➡ giving clues how physics of particles

and physics of gravity are connected.

➡ COOL!

PILLARS OF MODERN PHYSICS

➡ Quantum Mechanics: microscopic

Quantum Mechanics

General Relativity

world of atoms.

➡ General Relativity: spacetime, gravity

SPECIAL AND GENERAL RELATIVITY

THEORIES OF RELATIVITY

• Special Relativity: (1905)

➡ E = mc2

➡ Speed limit is c

• General Relativity (1915):

➡ Gravity is curvature of spacetime

EQUIVALENCE PRINCIPLE OF

GENERAL RELATIVITY

acceleration in empty space

2. free-fall = floating in empty

space

CLASSICAL BLACK HOLES

(THE KIND YOUR GRANDMOTHER TOLD YOU

ABOUT)

BLACK HOLES

• Created by complete gravitational collapse of object.

ANATOMY OF A NON-ROTATING BLACK HOLE

Stuff in here is

trapped and will

Event Horizon is

be destroyed at

a one-way door!

singularity.

vesc = c

rS

Singularity is a point

of infinitely curved

spacetime

INFORMATION

"Regard the physical world as made of information,

with energy and matter as incidentals.”

— John Archibald Wheeler

INFORMATION

• Particle properties (position, speed,

spin, etc) are information.

• information is encoded in bits (like

computers)

• Information has physical reality and is

associated with energy.

• Physical laws describe information

change over time.

John Wheeler

INFORMATION

• Objects are huge globs of bits of information.

➡ generally hidden due to huge number and tiny size of

particles.

CONSERVATION OF INFORMATION

• Required by quantum

mechanics.

Info

r

can matio

dest not be n

roy

ed.

Stephen Hawking

STEPHEN HAWKING’S BIG QUESTION

black hole?

• According to GR, information is lost forever behind

event horizon.

Event Horizon

INFORMATION PARADOX

• Laws require that information be conserved.

• Laws seem to conspire to prevent information from being

conserved.

• Hence, the “information paradox”…and triple facepalm!

BLACK HOLE THERMODYNAMICS

Holes and Entropy

Jacob Bekenstein

ENTROPY EXAMPLE

• Clean room (low entropy)

• Messy room (high entropy)

ENTROPY

• Swimming Pool

➡ Interesting in temperature and volume.

➡ No knowledge of position & speed of each atom-lots of

hidden information.

ENTROPY

• Entropy (S) is a measure of how may ways the positions and

speeds of atoms could be arranged to yield same temperature

and volume.

➡ A measure of the amount of hidden information.

FIRST LAW THERMODYNAMICS

dE = TdS − W

BLACK HOLE THERMODYNAMICS

κ

dM = dA − W

8π M

• Bekenstein imagined building black hole piece at a time

dA dM

M

BLACK HOLE ENTROPY

κ

dE = TdS − W dM = dA − W

M

• Mass & Energy are equivalent (E = mc2).

• Black hole temperature: T 1

∼

M

• Black hole entropy: dS ∼ dA

proportional to its surface area (in Plank-areas)!

HAWKING RADIATION

Holes

HAWKING RADIATION

• Black holes must radiate.

• Quantum fluctuations spontaneously create particles and

radiation outside event horizon that radiate out into

space.

• Comes at cost of gravitation energy of black hole.

• Black hole slowly evaporates away!

Event Horizon

A PROBLEM

INFORMATION LOSS IN HAWKING RADIATION

• Hawking argues that the radiation contains NO

information of anything that is tossed in.

• Black hole evaporates with that information trapped

inside.

➡ Information is irretrievably destroyed!

PILLARS OF MODERN PHYSICS

t obeyed:

• Principles that should alwayssbe

o

n L

io

➡ Quantum Mechanics: microscopic

t

Quantum Mechanics

a

General Relativity

r m

world of atoms.

o

f

In Relativity: spacetime, gravity

➡ General

BLACK HOLE COMPLIMENTARITY

Leonard Susskind, Lárus Thorlacius, and John Uglum, 1993 -

The stretched horizon and black hole complementarity

Juan Maldacena, 1997 - AdS/CFT Correspondance

Leonard
Juan

Susskind Maldacena

UNRUH EFFECT

thermal radiation even when a non-accelerating observer

would observe none.

William Unruh

HOT “STRETCHED HORIZON”

• Hovering = Acceleration

Event Horizon

NO HOT “STRETCHED HORIZON”

Event Horizon

WHAT OBSERVER SEES

• Hot stretched horizon 1 Plank-length above event horizon.

• Information (astronaut) gets thermalized and scrambled,

but not destroyed!

➡ Never sees information cross horizon!

• Bits of information come out later as Hawking radiation.

➡ NO INFORMATION LOSS! Ah

Whoa!

Ha!

Hawking Radiation

Stretched Horizon

Event Horizon

WHAT IN-FALLING ASTRONAUT SEES

event horizon

Zzzzzz…

Event Horizon

WHAT IN-FALLING ASTRONAUT SEES

event horizon

• Information goes in with him.

• Cannot communicate his arrival inside to outside horizon.

Event Horizon

Hello?…

HELLO?!!

COMPLIMENTARITY

• Stories seem contradictory, but are consistent in

observation.

• Neither sees information both places.

• Neither sees information destroyed!

acts like particle here

HOLOGRAPHIC PRINCIPLE

HOLOGRAMS

• 3-d volume of information can be entirely encoded on 2-

d surface.

➡ 2-d encoding scrambles 3-d information

➡ Need to know rule to descramble it and create image.

HOLOGRAPHIC EVENT HORIZON

• Observer sees in-falling information scrambled &

stored on “stretched horizon”

• Like a 2-d hologram of everything that has fallen

in (later emitted as Hawking radiation)

astronaut inside

horizon

scrambled equivalent particles

(bits of information)

above horizon

ACCELERATING UNIVERSE

• Expansion of universe is accelerating!

• Creates point of no return around us (46.6 Bly).

➡ Like event horizon of black hole inside-out.

• Is information about rest of 3-d universe somehow

encoded on this 2-d cosmic horizon?

? ?

cosmic horizon

? ?

?

HOLOGRAPHIC UNIVERSE

• We are outside cosmological horizon of other regions of

the universe.

➡ Are we also encoded on a 2-d surface?

• Are we and the the whole universe a projection of a 2-d

surface?

cosmic horizon

A PROBLEM

Letters,1993

• Complementarity or Firewalls?, A. Almheiri, D. Marolf, J.

Polchinski and J. Sully, (AMPS) 2012

QUANTUM WAVE FUNCTIONS

wave function 𝜓 for

∂

particle X

ih ψ = Ĥψ

X ∂t

particles.

wave function for particle X & Y

X Y

function-each particle carries information about the

other.

ENTANGLEMENT MONOGAMY

entangled particles X & Y

X Y

Allowed

ENTANGLEMENT MONOGAMY

y

Z

all

im Z

ax &

rm X

fo les

n ti c

tio ar

nc p

fu d

e gle

Allowed

av n

X

w enta

ENTANGLEMENT MONOGAMY

entangled particles X & Y

X Y

w enta

av n

e gle

fu d

nc p

tio ar

n ti c

fo les

rm X

Z

ax &

im Z

all

y

Not Allowed

• Cannot have X maximally entangled with both Y and Z!

PROBLEM WITH COMPLEMENTARITY

Hawking radiation has to be multiply entangled!

entangled

entangled

Event Horizon

PILLARS OF MODERN PHYSICS

y

g am

o n o

• Principles that should always be obeyed:

t M

e n

➡ Quantum Mechanics: microscopic

Quantum Mechanics

m !

General Relativity

le

world of

g

atoms.

ke n

➡ta n B ro

E n General Relativity: spacetime, gravity

A NEW PICTURE - FIREWALLS

2012 (same paper)

FIREWALLS

• To preserve information, entanglement broken at event

horizon.

➡ violently increases vacuum energy near event horizon!

➡ creates hot soup of particles and radiation just above

event horizon - Firewalls!

entangled

entangled

entangled

broken entanglement

Firewall

Event Horizon

THE CATCH

• Both observer AND in-falling astronaut observe firewall.

• Astronaut thermalized just above event horizon.

• Hawking radiation carries away astronaut’s bits of

information

$#@&!

Hawking

HELP! Radiation

Event Horizon

A PROBLEM

PROBLEM WITH FIREWALLS

• According to Equivalence Principle, astronaut should see

“no drama” (i.e. no fire)!

• Astronaut sees no cause for firewall any more than he

would in empty space!

Zzzzzz…

Event Horizon

PILLARS OF MODERN PHYSICS

le !

➡ Quantum Mechanics: microscopic

n cip

i

Quantum Mechanics

r

General Relativity

world of atoms.

e P

en c

i val

➡ General Relativity: spacetime, gravity

E q u

o f

Lo ss

WORMHOLES

for entangled black holes

MICROSCOPIC WORMHOLES

• Mathematics of wormholes seem to be mathematically

similar to quantum entanglement!

• In-falling particles and Hawking radiation are connected

by wormholes through additional dimension of space.

➡ Side-steps entanglement monogamy problem.

➡ Preserves information and equivalence principle.

NO BLACK HOLE INTERIORS?

Weather Forecasting for Black Holes (non-technical)

EVENT HORIZONS AS END OF

SPACETIME

➡ Emergent property of quantum entanglement.

• Entanglement mechanism, and thus spacetime, may stop

before event horizon.

➡ no “inside” of the event horizon

➡ no Firewall!

➡ no information loss ?

THE UPSHOT

WHAT THIS RESEARCH TELLS US

• Finding apparent inconsistencies with existing laws.

➡ Is information NOT conserved?

➡ Does quantum mechanics work differently than we

thought?

➡ Is the Equivalence Principle of General Relativity wrong?

➡ Is faster-than-light information transfer possible?

• Confusion can be GOOD!

➡ Generally believed that resolution likely to profoundly

affect our understanding of fundamental physics.

➡ Presents opportunity for fresh sharp minds to make

major contributions.

SUGGESTED SOURCES

• Black Hole Wars by Leonard Susskind

• Entanglement by Amir D. Aczel

• Black holes, quantum information, and the foundations of

physics, Steven B. Giddings, Physics Today, 2013

• iTunes/Youtube interviews and talks

➡ Falling into a Black Hole (Google hangout discussion

with Maldacena, Susskind, Bousso, Polchinski)

➡ Susskind popular talk on Holographic Principle.

➡ Fuzz or Fire Conference at KITP 8/13

• Papers at arxiv.org

- General RelativityUploaded bybayman
- Physics & Astrophysics Catalog 2013Uploaded byPrinceton University Press
- Larry Niven - All the Bridges Rusting v1.0 ItalicsUploaded bylordportico
- String Theory, Black Holes and Klein’s LemmaUploaded byYash Nora
- (Ebook Nonfiction - Txt) Time Traveler John Titor - Or Not.docUploaded byXimadio Ximadios
- Lista Ingles Text Comprehension DificilUploaded byEmilia Rodrigues
- HAWKING.pdfUploaded byAngielyn Delos Santos
- 16059 Black HolesUploaded bysteliand
- Killing Vector.docxUploaded byCalvin Chen
- Online_Trident_Scholar_Program.pdfUploaded byAndre Boyd
- Black-Holes-Algorithm-With-Fuzzy-Hawking-Radiation.pdfUploaded byIJSTR Research Publication
- AdvanUploaded byCharles Mason
- The Special and General Theory of Relativity - A. EinsteinUploaded byMar Gilardi
- Notes Lecture 1Uploaded byrrbler
- The Black Hole That Birthed the Big BangUploaded bylcfiner10
- Modelling hard and soft state of Cygnus X-1 with propagating mass accretion rate fluctuationsUploaded byFábio Duarte
- 0407049Uploaded byVishal Narnaulia
- E01Uploaded byKarn Kumar
- winner listUploaded bymd kaif
- Albert EinsteinUploaded byPreetha Lal
- Part 1 - Mass and GravityUploaded byjmertes
- JPA 2007Uploaded byGabriel Menezes
- The Concepts of Beginning and Creation in CosmologyUploaded byFran Fernandez Ruiz
- 200010028028Uploaded byDavor Bates
- Cosmo Physics DoneUploaded byPHILOWALLACE55
- Lee SmolimUploaded byYubert Chambi
- Causality and Chance in Relativistic Quantum Field TheoriesUploaded byfisfil4681
- A Brief Presentation on Negative Energy Wormholes and Warp DriveUploaded byLaura Ramirez
- Ruban’s Cosmological Modelwith Bulk Stress In General Theory of RelativityUploaded byIOSRjournal

- CALLIGRAPHYUploaded byMatei Adrian
- 962 Calligraphy Template 1.PDFUploaded bysrammohan
- Top 10 Mutual Funds IndiaUploaded bysrammohan
- Various Types of PolygansUploaded bysrammohan
- Kannada Verb FormsUploaded bysrammohan
- 275710-Science Advice Book TaggedUploaded bysrammohan
- DinaMalar Dewali Malar 2015 [www.TheMagnat.com].pdfUploaded bysrammohan
- PROFESSIONALISM.pptUploaded bysrammohan
- PROFESSIONALISM.pptUploaded bysrammohan
- PROFESSIONALISM.pptUploaded bysrammohan
- PROFESSIONALISM.pptUploaded bysrammohan
- PROFESSIONALISM.pptUploaded bysrammohan
- LADIES SPECIAL Dewali Malar 2015Uploaded bysrammohan
- English ExerciseUploaded bysrammohan
- Difficulties of English ArticlesUploaded bysrammohan
- ulaganathar-ulaga needhiUploaded byDinesh Vel
- Thirukural(TamilEnglish)Uploaded byarunprasad.vit
- AathichudiUploaded byமுரளி கிருஷ்ணன் alias முகி
- ATHICHUDI BY AUVAYAARUploaded bysrammohan
- Why Invest in Mutual Fund AMFIUploaded bysrammohan
- Barathiyar-PanchaliSabathamUploaded bykarthik
- Balance Sheet FormUploaded bygallalay
- ல,ள,ழ,ற,ர வேறுபாடுகள் அறியUploaded bysmartboyem
- 3_sbi ffr i & ii formatUploaded byCA Shailendra Singh
- Books by Ramakrishna ParamhansUploaded bysrammohan
- Aditya HridayamUploaded byganesh59
- Paradise RegainedUploaded bysrammohan
- Aug_AllUploaded bySaumya Sinha
- Kurinji_MalarUploaded bynilaalzagi

- Black Holes explained, by Dr. O' Shamzy James.docxUploaded byJavaughn Lovelace
- Toefl ReadingUploaded byfarnaz8
- Alternative Views of ConsciousnessUploaded bySylvia Cheung
- Principles of Tachyonic PhysicsUploaded byD. DuBois
- StarchildUploaded bytree sky
- Physcial Laws ListUploaded byJorge Tenorio
- Charles H. Lineweaver- Inflation and the Cosmic Microwave BackgroundUploaded byNestorr50
- Science and U.G.: An Exposition of the Scientific Basis for U.G.'s PhilosophyUploaded byPast Human
- [DownSub.com] Black Holes Explained – From Birth to DeathUploaded bySagar
- theory about black hole.pdfUploaded byVisya
- J. Richard Gott, III- Boltzmann Brains: I' d Rather See Than Be OneUploaded byPollmqc
- Astronomy - Chapter 14 TestUploaded byJ. R. Silvey
- David a. Lowe, Joseph Polchinski, Leonard Susskind, Larus Thorlacius, John Uglum - Black Hole Complementarity vs. LocalityUploaded bypapus_adju
- Science in Islam - Black Hole SingularityUploaded byNael
- PMc[1]Uploaded byDrDAW
- 67151981 Penrose DiagramsUploaded bybastian_wolf
- Why There Are No True Black HolesUploaded byJohn Winders
- siop lesson plan template2Uploaded byapi-264590597
- Dark Matter Might Not ExistUploaded byCoraKiri
- Alice and Bob Meet the Wall of FireUploaded bySnooker King
- General Relativity - Benjamin CrowellUploaded bypanteraindaco
- Davis Line Weaver 04Uploaded byKaRaKteR2010
- 100 Mysteries of Science Explained Gnv64Uploaded byBalanuța Iana
- Reginald T. Cahill- Black Holes and Quantum Theory: The Fine Structure Constant ConnectionUploaded byPortsnuyh
- Black Holes.pdfUploaded byAnonymous 3RtRJ1OY
- Is Space-Time Actually a Super-FluidUploaded byLaron Clark
- General relativity.Uploaded byRishab Sharma
- A Giant Black Hole is Thought to Lurk at the Center of the Milky WayUploaded byliewananda
- English Test 2Uploaded bymbababa
- Relativity QsUploaded byJessica Martin