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Republic of the Philippines


College of Education
Main Campus, Roxas City


“A thousand teachers, a thousand methods.”

-Chinese Proverb

TEACHING APPROACH - It is a set of principles, beliefs, or ideas about the nature of learning which is
translated into the classroom.

TEACHING STRATEGY - It is a long-term plan of action designed to achieve a particular goal.

TEACHING METHOD - It is a systematic way of doing something. It implies an orderly logical arrangement
of steps. It is more procedural.

TEACHING TECHNIQUE - It is a well-defined procedure used to accomplish a specific activity or task. .

Different Approaches and Methods Direct/ Expositive Instruction


Direct Instruction- is a way of teaching which is aimed at helping students acquire some basic
skills and “procedural knowledge”

Instructional Characteristics

1. The strategy is teacher- directed.

2. The emphasis is on the teaching of skill.

3. Taught in a step-by-step fashion, it ensures the learning of the entire

procedure with no step missed.

4. Lesson objectives include easily observed behaviors that can be measured


.5. This is a form of learning through imitation, sometimes termed “behavioral

Indirect instruction - In contrast to the direct instruction strategy, indirect instruction is mainly
student-centered, although the two strategies can complement each other.

Instructional Characteristics

Indirect instruction seeks a high level of student involvement in observing, investigating, drawing
inferences from data, or forming hypotheses.

Deductive Method- starts from the general to specific

Advantages of the Deductive Method

1. Coverage of a wider scope of subject matter.

2. No bother on the part of the teacher to lead learners to the formulation of the
generalization or rule.

Disadvantages of the Deductive Method

1. It is not supportive of the principle that learning is an active process

.2. Lesson appears uninteresting at first.

Inductive Method -starts from the specific to general

Advantages of the Inductive Method

1. The learners are more engaged in the teaching- learning process.

2. Learning becomes more interesting at the outset because we begin with the
experiences of our students.

3. It helps the development of our learner’s higher-order-thinking skills.

Disadvantages of the Inductive Method

1. It requires more time and so less subject matter will be covered

.2. It demands expert facilitating skills on the part of the teacher.

Demonstration Method - is a learning activity which is performed by a student, a

group of 3 to 4 members or a teacher while the rest become observers

Advantages of Demonstration Method

1. It follows a systematic procedure; hence students will be able to learn from a

well-tried procedure since the demonstrators are selected and adjudged to be

2. The use of expensive equipment and machines will be maximized.

3. Possible wastage of time, effort and resources will be avoided since the
demonstration is supposed to be well- planned in advance.
4. It will not result to trial-and-error learning as what happens with unplanned
learning activities.

5. The findings are reliable and accurate since the procedure has been tried

Guided/ Expository Approach Inquiry Approach -sometimes termed “discovery”,

“heuristic” and “problem solving” is simply a teaching method which is “modeled
after the investigative processes of scientists.

Instructional Characteristics

1. Investigative processes such as inferring, measuring, predicting, classifying,

analyzing and experimenting, formulating conclusions and generalizations are

2. The procedure in gathering information is not prescribed by the teachers.

3. The children are highly motivated to search; hence active participation is the
best indicator or inquisitiveness.

4. The answers arrived at are genuine products of their own efforts.

5. Focused questions before, during and after are critical ingredients that provide
direction and sustain action

Problem Solving Method

Problem Solving is a teaching strategy that employs thee scientific method in

searching for information.

5 Basic Steps of the Scientific Method

1. Sensing and defining the problem

2. Formulating hypothesis

3. Testing the likely hypothesis

4. Analysis, interpretation and evaluation of evidence

5. Formulating conclusion

Advantages of Problem Solving Method

1. This approach is most effective in developing skill in employing the science


2. The scientific method can likewise be used effectively in other non-science

3. The student’s active involvement resulting in meaningful experiences serves
as a strong motivation to follow the scientific procedure in future undertaking.

4. Problem solving develops higher level thinking skills.

5. A keen sense of responsibility, originality and resource fulness are developed,

which are much-needed ingredients for independent study.

6. The students become appreciative and grateful for the achievement of


7. Critical thinking, open-mindedness and wise judgment are among scientific

attitudes and values inculcated through competence in the scientific method.

8. The students learn to accept the opinions and evidence shared by others.

Project Method-is a teaching method that requires the students to presenting

concrete form the results of information gathered about a concept, principle or


1. It is a teaching strategy that emphasizes “learning by doing”

2. Constructing projects develops the students’ manipulative skills.

3. The planned design of the project tests the students’ originality in choosing
the materials to be used. They become resourceful and innovative.

4. It can be employed among students who are weak in oral communication

5. The completed project adds to one’s feeling of accomplishment and

satisfaction, thus motivating students to continue constructing new projects in
school and at home.

6. It instills the values of initiative, industry and creativity.

7. Working on a project in groups develops the spirit of cooperation and sharing

of ideas.

8. In addition to learning a concept, students become productive and


Metacognitive Approach -“meta” means beyond• An approach that goes beyond

cognition that makes students think about their thinking and think it aloud.

The Constructivist Approach - Is anchored on the belief that every individual

constructs and reconstruct meanings depending on past experiences and
continue reflecting and evaluating accumulated knowledge with an end in view
of constructing new meaning.
Reflective Teaching •Is anchored on the ability of the teacher to guide students
to reflect on their own experiences in order to arrive at new understanding and

Characteristics • Cooperative process

1. Ethic of caring 2. Constructivist approach

• Confirmation 3. Tactful problem solving

• Dialogue


1. Self – analysis

2. Writing journals

3. Keeping a portfolio

4. Observation of students’ responses

5. Questions at the end of every lesson

COOPERATIVE LEARNING APPROACH - An approach makes use of classroom

organization where students work in groups or teams to help each other learn.

PEER TUTORING -Is commonly employed when the teacher requests the older,
brighter and more cooperative member of the class to tutor other classmates.


a. Instructional

b. Same age

c. Monitorial

d. Structural

e. Semi – structured

-method implies, this learning with a partner. A student chooses partner from
among his/her classmates. This may also means assigning “study habit”