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How to read P&IDs

P&ID is an acronym for Piping and Instrumentation Diagram.

Since it is a diagram, as a graduate chemical engineer (provided you are working or wish to work
in the same field) you must know how to read, draw and review P&ID.

To make, read, interpret and review P&ID is one of the quintessential skills that you can learn.

In fact, most of the time companies may hand over some P&ID’s of past projects to you at the
beginning of your professional career. In the hope that you can be in a position to handle and
take charge of numerous diagrams and documents.

Graduate chemical engineer students are not well versed with understanding and working with

As a part of the graduate course material, the only thing you come across is the primary
difference between PFD and P&ID. You may learn more things about P&ID depending on the
course module of your university.

Piping and Instrumentation Diagram (P&ID) is one of the key documents that will be reviewed
during the course of project execution. It will be the basis of piping and instrumentation design,
as the name implies. Once P&ID is firmed up, secondary drawings such as electrical and control
schematics, bill of material and detailed arrangement can be generated by the engineers. Other
than that, P&ID needs to be read in conjunction with the control philosophy to have the
operational overview of the system.

Checklist for P&ID review:

1. Tagging – this to be referred against the project tagging philosophy

2. Symbology – this to be referred against the project symbols. Otherwise, vendor standard
symbol to be listed for referencing.
3. Inlet and outlet design parameters – design pressure/ temperature; operating pressure/
4. Key equipment design parameters – design/ operating pressure; design/ operating
temperature; material of construction, corrosion allowance; dimensions
5. Material selection of key components - this to be referred against the project material
selection report
6. Line sizing – this to be referred against the piping class for material and ratings
7. Valve sizes
8. Valves position during operation or failure
9. Instrumentation– suitability for the selected parameters; ranges; alarm set points, trip set
10. Control panel interfaces – signals to/ from main control room and field instruments;
hardwired signals; serial linked signals
11. Pressure relief valves sizes
12. Control loops between the instruments and equipment
13. Termination points
14. Notes describing project requirements, exceptions or operational points.
15. Consistency between documents such as instrument index, control philosophy, line list
sizing calculations to be reviewed as well.

P&ID Checklist:

Does this drawing include, where appropriate:

 My company’s document/drawing #
 Client document #
 Licensor/Vendor document #
 Title block: including the By/Approved/Checked blocks filled and signed, Date, Rev. all
company logos, client signoff block?
 All equipment tagged, title above equip, spelling of names correct?
 Not crowded: Normally have about 4 pieces of equipment per drawing
 Where feasible, streams flags follow the plant conventions. Normally this is coming in
from the left side and leaving out the right side of the drawing.
 Stream flags include the fluid, drawing #, note the equipment name and tag the stream is
from/going to
 Battery limits are marked.
 Line arrows are on each turn of a line, in the correct direction?
 Vessels – Size, design temperature/design pressure, full vacuum, internals/levels, skirt
height to grade
 Heat exchangers – Area, design temp/pressure, duty, motor horsepower (air coolers),
conderser/reboilers have elevation, motors have controls
 Heater – size, duty, design T/P, coil arrangement, utilities on a separate page
 Boiler – size, design T/P, superheater outlet T, utilities own page
 Tank – size, capacity, type, heaters/agitators shown
 Pump rated flow, horsepower, differential head. Showing temporary strainers, drains,
motor w/ controls
 Turbines – in/out temp/pressure, horsepower, strainers
 Compressor – Actual Cubic Feet per Minute inlet, discharge pressure, driver type,
horsepower, strainer, lube/seal oil
 Instruments are right type, local/transmitted, control type, block/bypass valves shown
 Instrumentation signal lines are correct line type, local/DCS code correct
 Control valve type, failure mode shown, block/bypass valves, reducers, the sizes used are
the latest from controls department
 Pressure Relief Valves: set pressure, PSV size is latest, inlet/discharge size and pipespec
match latest calculations, outlet lines are Car Sealed Open or have no valves (if to
atmosphere), the relief outlet goes to drain/flare/atmosphere
 Lines connecting to a main flare line connect to that line from above, even making a
detour if necessary. (This is an old drafter’s trick to remind pipers that flare lines need to
slope downward to drain properly)
 Block valves: show if they are normally open or closed, car sealed open or closed?
 Drain valves present, use smaller gate valve symbol, they are between checks/gates/etc
 Minor valves are placed logically (check valve near pump discharge, swing blind near a
gate valve)
 Spectacle blinds are correctly shown normally open/closed and they are on the side of the
valve facing the “danger” (i.e. pressure source, contamination source)
 Steamouts/steam connections where required? Full vacuum rating on equipment when
 Pipe specs are all shown and correct, spec breaks over valves/PSVs, steam and electrical
tracing is shown
 Double-block valves (with 3/4″ drain between) where procedures say there are needed
(normally 600 psig+ or dangerous fluids like acid)
 Insulation is shown on equipment and pipes?
 Tie Points are provided at all old/new line interfaces
 Lines connect to each other according to project’s branch table (e.g. do I need to show an
expander before tee?)
 Show slopes, elevations,
 Note whenever any items must be within sight of each other (e.g. ensure level gauge can
be seen by someone operating this manual globe valve)
 Utility P&IDs tie in correctly to main drawings, and show connect to utility stations &
 Header line numbers include all header block valves (so that when the header is built the
block valves are installed with the header, not any branch lines)
 Any items rotated for easy access, such as handwheels on valves, are rotated to an angle
that is possible considering the number of bolt holes on the lines. (Ex: per ASME B16.5 I
see that for 150# carbon steel, 0.5″ to 3″ lines can rotated 90 degrees , 4″ to 8″ lines can
rotate 45 degrees , 10″ to 14″ can rotate 30 degrees)
 Neat DWG, no dog-legs/bad-connections
 When lines cross, vertical lines break for horizontal lines except that instrumentation
lines break for process lines. (This rule varies by company)
 Matches Process Flow Diagram (PFD) connectivity,
 Equipment names match other documents like the PFD, equipment list, datasheet, etc.
 All Notes/Holds are ok? Is it clear what they refer to? Spelling? Are the general project
notes and holds, that must be added to each drawing, in place?
 All the mark-ups were applied by the drafters correctly, spelling is correct
 Check the drafting process did not introduce any random new errors or mistakes.
(Sometimes during a revision, a drafter’s template will be set wrong, or a line type will
change for no apparent reason, causing a little mistake. And no one will be looking for it,
because everyone just focuses on the areas that were marked up!)
 Are revision triangles, clouds, and other markings in the revision process added or
deleted as required?
 Do your own mini-HAZOP of the process: can any deviation in normal temperature,
pressure, flowrare, operator mistakes, utility failures, etc. cause a safety problem? Are
any remaining safety issues going to be properly documented for the operators
 Similarly, can you think of any operability problems? Any common maintenance tasks
that cannot be done here? Or any practical problems building or installing what you’ve
 Taking a look at the set of P&IDs as a whole, the stream connections between the
drawings are correct (all inlet streams match to outlet streams somewhere, or at least has
an adequate explanation)
 I cannot get rid of any HOLD notes on these drawings
 I feel satisfied that I’ve done enough work to sign this document. I have no ethical
qualms or bad gut feelings

As you work more with P&IDs, you will naturally begin to pick up on mistakes as your instincts
build up their own checklist.

Why P&ID is important?

That’s a real question. You must know as a graduate chemical engineer why it is so important.
And with that, you will see why it is called as Piping and Instrumentation Diagram.

The fundamental objective of this diagram is as follows:

 This diagram is in a way a replica of the plant that is either to be erected, commissioned
and run for a lifetime or it already exists. This diagram represents number of things about
the plant facility but nothing as per scale:

1. Equipment
2. Utilities
3. Piping and fitting details
4. Instrumentation details
5. Control Loops
6. Offsite facilities

 This document is the primary document for detail engineering and number of other
drawings and diagrams are made based on P&ID along with other documents:

1. To develop equipment list, line list, battery limits, etc.

2. To make hookup diagrams.
3. To make single line diagram for a power supply
4. Commissioning and Troubleshooting
5. Plant operation and maintenance
6. Risk Analysis
7. Operation and safety training

No matter what cap you wear under the roof of Chemical Engineer or any other branch engineer,
you will come across P&ID one or the other day.
Whether you work as a production engineer, safety engineer, process engineer, piping engineer,
detail engineer, commissioning engineer, application engineer, or a third party consulting
engineer, you must know – How to read, make, and review P&ID.

How to read P&ID?

As a graduate chemical engineer, you are expected to know how to read a P&ID. Learn to read
before you can make one.

The intent of P&IDs is that it should reflect design, operation, maintenance and safety of the

Knowing how to read P&IDs, allows you to understand better the design intent.

Understanding of process and interacting parameters helps to know about the process, and vice-
versa, you can make better P&ID provided you understand the process and interaction

When you first see P&ID, you will come across a number of symbols representing pieces of
equipment, valves, instruments, pipelines, etc.

Those symbols vary from company to company and client to client but only to an extent and for
that, you must always ask or refer legends, for better understanding.

You can refer to Instrument Society of America (ISA) symbols for basic knowledge and usage.

You will see Tag numbers for various types of equipment and instruments. Line numbers for
pipelines. Each line is with Type of Fluid, Size, M.O.C, whether or not insulated, control loops
with the bypass line, etc.

Whenever you read try to interpret the associated meaning with it:

o How and where safety relief valves are used.

o Standby Pumps and power supply.

o Drain and Vent lines.

o What symbols are used for different valves and instruments?

 Whether the instrument is field mounted, primary or auxiliary.

How to develop P&ID?

It’s easier said than done but to develop a P&ID is the most important task you can learn as a
graduate chemical engineer. Learn to read before you make one.
Now that you have read some P&ID’s, you would have understood the basic philosophy of
making one behind it.

Most of the time symbols vary because it depends on the client since each company has their

P&ID originator needs to confirm and decide the symbol with the client at first.

Make a LEGEND of all the symbols used, so it is easy for a reader to understand.

The underline principle is simple and straightforward:

1. The plant must run smoothly and safely.

2. The plant must be safe enough for startups and shut down.
3. The plant must be safe to carry out maintenance. And that means each equipment,
instrument, valve, etc. can be safely taken under maintenance or replacement if

It should follow:

IMSO: Installation, Maintenance, Safety, Operation.

One should keep all these points in mind before you make P&ID.

How to review P&ID?

It isn’t sufficient just to know how to read and develop P&ID. You will play an important role as
a graduate chemical engineer by reviewing P&ID.

 All lines are sized, classified, and numbered

 All instruments tagged
 All set values of safety valves shown
 Standby pumps in place.
 Control valves and safety valves in place
 You should ask “What if.”
 You should verify whether P&ID is made keeping IMSO
(Installation, Maintenance, Safety, and Operation) conditions in mind.

If you are involved in a third party consulting or if you are working in an EPC company you may
receive Vendor P&ID.
Vendor P&ID is by manufacturer vendor of the system or a package system (like a compressor,
boiler system, etc.). There you have to review P&ID given by the vendor and may have to talk
with clients to justify each thing mentioned or not mentioned in P&ID.
Wrap up – Understanding and handling of P&ID’s is a crucial part of any plant. Care must be
taken at every step of it, right from the start of the project to the end of it, i.e. as long as the plant
is in running condition.

How to Review P&ID

3 Golden Rules for P&ID

1. Review P&ID before finalizing.

2. Review P&ID before finalizing.
3. Review P&ID before finalizing.

I hope you are getting it.

One must abide by these three golden rules of P&ID under every circumstance.

This article has two sections: 3 Golden Rules for P&ID

First – Review P&ID with a binocular view.

Second – Review P&ID with a microscopic view.

You don’t know from where to start to review P&ID

Start with the binocular view, and then later with a microscopic view.

Review P&ID with a Binocular view:

Refer the legend sheet. It’s always better to refer it instead of assuming.

Review P&ID #1:

Scope of the project – Battery Limit

 What is the scope of the project? Verify the extent of the project and that of a particular
P&ID. Check whether the battery limit is mentioned appropriately or not.

 If there are many P&IDs (that is the case most of the time), kindly check, “From which
P&ID” and “To which P&ID.” Are they in-line with the PFD? Make sure the connection
of each equipment is as per the PFD.

 Are stream flags in-line with the PFD?

 The scope of the utility supply: Is it clearly indicating the Battery Limit for the Utility
supply? Is the Utility P&ID tie in with the main document?
 Check client’s documents. Check vendor documents. Is there a vendor P&ID? Make sure
you check and review that too.

 Is there any particular “Note” that needs your attention or any clarification?

 A single P&ID covers not more than 4 equipment so that it is easy to read, understand
and review that is what is generally followed unless stated otherwise.

Review P&ID #2:

Tag number

This one calls for your strict attention – “Eye of the Eagle.”

 Is tagging as per the company’s tagging philosophy?

 Are all the pieces of equipment tagged? Do they reflect company tagging system?

 Each valve and instrument tagged and of course – Lines (but more on that in the later part
of this post).

 Make sure there is no repetitions of tag number – This is quite critical, and sometimes
you will find the repeats are frequent. There’s a good reason behind it. Most of the time
the draughtsman tends to pick up the symbol or the tagging that is previously made in the
same or different P&ID and thus end up repeating the tag number or with a mismatch,
kindly check those tags carefully. Nowadays, many companies opt for Smart Plant P&ID,
a software by Intergraph or COMOS by Siemens and thus helps to minimize such errors.

(Not an endorsement nor any affiliation, just for the awareness to those who are not aware of it.)

Review P&ID #3:

Line specification

Pipelines and any other such lines are the major part of any process. For a simple and logical
reason, that fluid is transported through pipes. Whether it be a feed of raw material, utility supply
or a nitrogen purging line, you talk about it, and there you got a pipeline. Then power supply
line, piping, pneumatic lines and so forth.

 Check all the lines are matching with their respective symbols. As different line viz
process connection, piping, pneumatic, electrical and so forth are symbolized differently.
Additionally, do check it’s symbolized to what it is supposed to indicate.

 Tagging as per the philosophy. Some company prefers to show thickness, check if it’s
 Is the line fully specified? Can it be identified with its identification and tagging details?

 The line entering or leaving a P&ID shall indicate the continuation number of the P&ID.

 Check “slope” or “no pockets” are indicated wherever necessary.

 Tracing or jackets for pipes are indicated wherever necessary.

 Pipe number changes after a branch, change in material, and make sure number changes
under such cases.

Review P&ID #4:


 Verify if there’s a change in a piping material or piping class, give a different number.

 When lines cross, vertical lines break for horizontal lines, generally followed, unless
stated otherwise.

 Whether a two different material welded or joined should be indicated by a double or a

single perpendicular line, respectively.

 Safety valves – PSV is in place wherever necessary.

 Reducers are in place, wherever necessary. For instance, at the nozzle of suction and
discharge of a pumps.

 Verify steam traps are provided wherever required.

 Drain and Vent lines are indicated.

 Sample valve provided if necessary.

 All “Holds” are specified or deleted.

 Are there any other error or mistakes? Rectify it.

 The most difficult task is to interpret instrumentation, it’s location and controls. Are
instruments in place? Those should be marked appropriately with their specific notations
and symbols.

Review P&ID with a microscopic view:

To review P&ID with a microscopic view involves a thought process that calls to review P&ID
with your eyes, ears, and brain open.
(My suggestion to drink a cup of coffee before going for an in-depth analysis of your P&ID
that’s in your hand, and to keep your phone aside for a while. Didn’t like my suggestion you are

free to opt-out )


1. Start with one piece of equipment at a time.

2. Justify P&ID in all sense with – IMSO

Installation, Maintenance, Safety, Operation.

Let’s take an example: Review a part of a P&ID:

A Vessel.

Here’s how you can start:

 Installation:

1. All hardware in place?

2. All connections appropriate? Verify with PFD, for major equipment connection.
3. Appropriate nozzle allocated for inlet and outlet?
4. Are spectacle blinds in place?

 Maintenance:

1. Vent and Drain line in place?

2. Isolation Valves in place?
3. Bypass line wherever necessary?
4. Does it require Manhole or a Handhole for cleaning and maintenance, if yes, then is it

 Safety:

1. Does this vessel need a PSV? If yes, is it shown and indicated as per the terminology?
2. Verify control loops are in a place where necessary.
3. Does it require Overflow line or Blanketing line?
4. If there’s a minimum recirculation line from discharge pump, does it show appropriately?

 Operation:

1. All set? Can you take water trial without any problem?
2. Can you take a chemical trial or process run, will it be safe and smooth run?
3. Valves are tagged with appropriate “NO” or “NC” (Normally Open/Closed).
4. Instruments in place? Are they indicating location, whether or not accessible to the
operator and so forth?

Any ambiguity must be clarified instead of assuming something. This guide post is just a tip of
the iceberg. A lot goes beyond saying and writing when one review P&ID.

Want to add something? Share in the comment section.

As you can see, there are a number of suggestions on how to review a P&ID. Most of them
coming from people experienced in a particular area/specialty. Reviewing a P&ID is quite
difficult if you don't understand the main object of the process/unit operation described into the
diagram, and what engineering level it belongs (basic or detailed engineering). For instance, if
you review a Basic Engineering P&ID and you don't know that, maybe it seems you like a poor
diagram because you won't find some obvious ancillary equipment, drains, etc. that must be
included. It could be a waste of time for you making suggestions/comments on details when the
aim of the review was the function of the entire process.

For me, a P&ID is or should be the most important reference for all engineering areas (talking
abt project in the CPI). In order to make a good reading of a diagram you need some additional
information coming from previous engineering level, eg:

a) Design basis (Including a brief description of the process)

b) Material and energy balances.
c) Project Piping classes.
d) Plot Plan (in some cases).
e) Level of redundancy assumed for instrument systems.

May be it could seems like a lot of previous information, but you don't need to review all the
documents, those only are useful as references.

In general, one must 'ask' the P&ID (and a good P&ID should answer) for the next items:

a) What the process or unit operation is made for?

b) Are the Equipments selected capable to perform that function in the process conditions?
c) Are the lines capable to handle the fluids at the design flowrate, pressure, temperature and
chemical behavior (corrosion)?
d) Are there enough instruments in order to control the process conditions as those were
e) Operator/control system can "see" what is happen in the process units (more instruments)?
f) 'What if' (here is when a Hazop is convenient) process conditions change, for instance, in a
process excursion?
g) What happen after months of operation? There are dirty fluids in the process?
In addition to the P&ID's look at the corresponding piping spec issues. Do you want weld end
valves in acid gas? Assure that the elastomers are compatible with amine. Does the chiller have
a way to vent inerts without losing the refrigerant?

Are there seperate control systems, i.e. a basic process control system or DCS; and a safety
instrumented system or shutdown system? Do shutdown valves reflect position indication? Do
they use transmitters for shutdown signals instead of switches such as pressure switches or
temperature switches? Do they use newer measurement technologies or older technologies? For
examples consider radar / guided wave radar / magnetic level gauges; other than orifice & dp for
flow, ...
Make a simple start-up, Shut-down and emergency procedure write-up for the system and check
if all the piping, valving and instrumentation is there in the PID to effect these abnormal
operations starting from a clean plant to running plant to clean plant again. Include eqpt
maintenance requirements like sparing, draining to closed and open drain systems. Instruments
and exchangers may require flushing. BigInch has hit the nail on the head - look for what is not
provided but for that you have to prepare a list of what is required at different stages of operation
in the field as well as control room apart from Emergency shutdown systems.
A few suggestions from the power industry:

Look for the contingency conditions: what happens if instrument air fails, electrical power fails,
over-pressure occurs, etc. This would normally fall into a HazOp but often there are some easy
things to pick eg an OAF valve where it should be CAF, missing PRV's, hydraulic actuators
which either lock up or go soft in a power outage and so on.

What do you need for your PTW / safe system of work? DB&B, single isolation?

Look for fallbacks when the isolation you want doesn't hold: what are your options - is there
another valve further back or are you looking at a plant outage?
The following points need to check while reviewing any P&IDs
Line Specs
Process Control Schemes
Line Overpressure Situations
Proper Line Ratings and Spec Breaks
Potential Pocketed Lines
Incorrect connections between units (pumps, towers, vessels, etc.)
Needed isolation valves
Unneeded isolation valves
Equipment w essential info Equip#, temp, press, flows, power rating
heat exchangers
valves major block check valves, control, safety relief
valve actuator type
pipe w/ sizes, line no &/o line spec
vents, drains, purges
all safety features
ESD switches and station locations
flow directions
control set points pressures, flow, temperatures, etc.
signal type, electrical, pneumatic, etc. and routing
interconnects & process permissions & interlocks
level glasses, switches
temperature sensors and transmitters
pressure sensors and transmitters
flow meters and transmitters
Tanks: Connections Id (vg. letters to designate each), dimensions height/length and diameter,
material of construction, supplier (advanced P+ID stages).

HE, pumps, compressors, etc.: type, supplier, model, materials.

Filters: Mesh or other characteristic.

Lines: Slope, insulation, heat tracing, reducers (eccentric, concentric), some distances vg.
Diameters before and after flowmeters, orifice restrictions w/diameter. Material and series

General: limit of supply by provider, indication of skid-mounted equipment, and indication of

flow direction (really important).
Tagging of Equipments
Specification Changes in:
Pressure rating
Codes used
Third party connections (ownership)

Other items:
Maximum levels in storage vessels
Car Seals or Locks
Normally Open or Closed valves
On a P&ID, I check for, amongst many:

Valves: Fail Open or Fail Close? Limit switches included? How many? Open Switch and/or
Close Switch. What kind of actuator? Does actuator agree with fail position. Instrument air or
instrument gas? If you are in cold climate, you either need to heat trace the valve, or the valve
needs to be rated for cold (eg. LCC, stainless). Also, if you have a 300# ANSI stainless steel in a
300# ANSI service, check the MOP/MAWP as stainless has a lower pressure at the same
temperature as compared to carbon steel.

PSV: Inlet/Outlet size included? Orifice designation included? Sizing case indicated? Set/Relief
point indicated? Usually, I like something along the lines of:
100 psi

Tagging: Is it consistent with the leader sheets/legends?

Symbology: Is it consistent with the leader sheets/legends? This includes line types.

Line thickness: If your compnay uses line thickness, then I would check also.

Anyhoot, like others have said, there are lots to check, and many ways.


1. This is a generic checklist for Typical offshore platform with all facilities. For projects
containing only typical Wellhead facilities Platforms / Riser Platforms / Electrical facilities
platforms etc.., this check list can be filtered out for relevant items or topics not required
can be stroked-off.
2. The Checker shall complete and maintain this Check list for first and IFC issues. For
intermediate issues, Revision Checklist shall be used unless there are major scope change.

3. The originator of the Drawing can use this checklist for self-checking, but need not fill it.

1 All P&IDs are available with index and document numbers as per index sheet
Legend P&ID cover information about all the line services, abbreviations, symbols,
2 Piping/Instrumentation/Equipment (like sample stations, level instruments) which are
used in P&ID are matching.
Missing / Incomplete information like Line numbers, Tag numbers, Flow directions,
Instrument details, Equipment details, Trim details, Continuation P&ID etc.
Whenever the pipe class (spec) changes, the line shall be allotted a different unique line
5 All line numbers mentioned with spec, rating, and insulation requirement.
Notes are complete, clear. Impact on piping/ layouts reviewed and commented if
7 Highlight any tag numbers, line numbers are repeating.
8 P&ID holds are reviewed for impact in Piping/ Layout
9 New line number provided whenever there is spec change, branches
10 Check Spec Breaks, Pressure ratings, Insulating Gasket requirement.
Check number of equipment, type of equipment, design conditions of equipment,
equipment sizes are matching with mechanical/process data sheets
12 Compare with Process flow diagram(PFD)

13 Piping Specialties are identified and numbered

Check instrumentation requirements impacting Piping/Layout (Upstream -Downstream
straight run requirements, Level requirements)

15 Tracing / Heating requirements for Pipes and Equipment

16 P&ID are reviewed with Piping Material Specifications (PMS) requirements.
17 Check all instruments with tags and tag numbering are as per legend
18 Check the type of instrument used is matching with instrumentation hook up
Scope breaks identified (like Company/Vendor/Instrumentation/ existing /new project
scope/ by others)
20 Scope breaks and Spec breaks between piping and pipeline
Check all equipment numbers, names, sequence, type of equipment and any
maintenance requirement specific to process is mentioned in P&ID
22 Check all instruments are placed on equipment as per vendor requisition
Check Separate Line numbers should be given not only wherever there is a change of
pipe class but also where the design conditions of the line change.
Check center line elevation is given for horizontal vessels, pump nozzles, Manways,
instrument nozzle heights etc.
25 Check revisions are cleared marked and consistent
26 Check Gravity flow, Slope, Free draining/ No Pockets requirements
27 Check Drain funnel requirement (Number of open drain funnels)
28 Check Removable break-up spool requirement
Check the insulation type and insulation thickness requirement for Pipes and
30 Review process vent and drain requirement
Check valve types used (special attention for requirement of Full bore Ball Valves,
Wafer/Lug/Lug/Swing Check valve)
32 Check type of valve required in line and valve position and condition etc.
33 Check the line size and rating where temperature gauges located
34 Check Reducer provision for control valves, PSVs, Equipment Nozzles
35 Review Branch locations, Sequences, Line connections based on layouts
36 check PSV size, line rating, stand by provision and any bypass requirement is provided
37 Check Strainers details(type, orientation)
Check possibility of Tie ins at suggested locations based on existing material, pipe
thickness, flange rating, site conditions.
39 Check manual valves with mechanical interlock & specified
40 check provisions and locations for chemical injection(CI, Wax, PPD, Biocide)
41 Check tundish requirement (with SP numbers) near Process vessels
Check for bunding requirement for Process vessels (when process vessels is not
mounted on skid) & utility tanks
43 Check sampling station details at legend sheet
Check straight run requirement for example pumps, flow elements, vessel, compressors
45 Check diaphragm type instruments are used in dirty services
Check the requirement of metal seated Ball valves, Target tees and sand probes in well
fluid services containing sand.
47 Check notes, details for purging, flushing, rodding, cleaning requirements.
48 Preferred Slope of the Main Rack headers could be 1:300 or 1:500.
49 Preferred slope values on branch lines could be around 1:200 or 1:333.
Line slope values mentioned on P&ID for long headers should be verified (by studying
structural arrangement) before implementation.
51 Process to show all pump vents & drains on the P&IDs as per Pump vendor drawings.
Spec break shall be only at the flange joints even if it is indicated otherwise in the
P&IDs & there are no dissimilar metal welded at spec breaks
53 Drip pans requirement pig traps & SP number allocation of them
If dissimilar materials cannot be avoided then use a design that will prevent galvanic
corrosion, that is could be insulation assembly (inert Ring Joints and bolts).
55 all Instrument /Piping- CS/SS scope breaks shall be provided with insulating kit
56 Check Strainer requirement downstream of Rupture Disc (Fragment type)
Upstream & Downstream straight length requirement for special fluid measurement
57 devices. Such as Venturi Tubes, Flow Nozzles, Electro Magnetic Flow meters,
Ultrasonic Doppler flow meter, Mass flow meter etc.
58 Slopes for launchers/ receivers Identified correctly
59 See feasibility to convert welded tie-ins to flanged as per Site conditions
60 Compare Tie-in numbers and locations in construction and demolition P&ID
61 Review demolition scope in Demolition P&IDS (in project scope or by others)

Checklist for Piping Isometrics: P&ID, Layout, Drafting Related

1 Following items are checked with the P&ID (IFD or later issue):

a) Line number and pipe class.

b) Tag nos. of equipment, instruments, special items, actuated and manual valves
(if applicable).

c) Flow direction (including flow direction of check valve)

d) Slope/no pocket/free draining requirement, if any.

e) Min/max distances, straight lengths, etc. as specified in P&ID.

f) Close/open position for spectacle blind or spacer & blind.

g) Removable spool requirement, if any.

h) Sequence of branch connections (as agreed with Process in case of any


i) Piping spec break, if any (preferably be at flange joints/valves, each iso to

contain only one spec).

j) Special feature of valves (e.g. LO, LC, etc.)

k) Insulation symbol for insulated lines.

l) Equipment nozzle/TP numbers and tie-in numbers.

m) Insulating gaskets are selected as shown in P&IDs

n) Specific requirements mentioned in applicable P&ID notes (if any) are


High point vents and low point drains are provided, as per project requirements, for
lines that will be hydro-tested.

Drains are provided wherever liquid stagnation can occur in the lines e.g.
downstream of a check valve.

Adequate pipe spool lengths are provided for wafer type butterfly and check valves
to prevent the interference of the valve disc with adjacent piping items.

The platform/grade/building wall/dyke or bund wall/floor penetrations and limits of

road crossings are properly shown wherever applicable.

6 The insulation limits are specified appropriately (esp. for personal protection)

7 The electrical tracing requirement and its limits are specified appropriately.

The wrapping and coating requirement and its limits are specified appropriately for
u/g lines.

Minimum distance between welds is 50mm or five times the wall thickness
whichever is greater, unless otherwise indicated in Project specifications.

Unions are provided in galvanized piping where threaded in-line items need to be
10 removed for maintenance. Also, unions are provided at regular intervals (e.g. 24m)
in straight pipe runs.

11 Full couplings are provided where applicable for small bore piping.

For piping below 2”, WN flanges are not directly welded to SW fittings. Also, PE
pipes are not directly welded with swaged reducers (couplings are used in between).

Appropriate break-up flanges are provided in piping with internal lining and hot-dip
13 galvanized piping (based on tub size). Spool configuration is made with one elbow
or one tee only to ensure proper galvanizing.
Lifting lugs are provided for removable spools wherever required as per project

There is adequate clearance between pipe support and the adjacent piping
15 component (e.g. flange, drain valve) to allow for flange bolt removal, valve
operation, etc.

The valve stem orientation angle is indicated wherever the stem is not in the vertical
and horizontal planes.

The piping interfaces with equipment/package nozzles/terminal points are checked

(w.r.t. size, rating, flange face type and nozzle/TP nos.).

The straight length requirement for suction & discharge piping for compressors and
certain pumps is as required by Vendor/project specs.

Straight lengths and branch configuration of upstream/downstream lines for anti-

surge valves is as per Compressor Vendor’s recommendation.

The F/F dimensions of all valves, special items and in-line instrument items are as
per approved vendor drawings.

The instrument connections are checked with Piping-Instrument interface

drawings/Instrument hook-up drawings.

22 The rotameters are installed in vertical run with flow in upward direction.

The orifice tapping orientation is done considering liquid or gas flow as applicable
and the BOM is as per the piping-instrument interface diagram.

The straight length requirement (u/s & d/s) has been provided for flow meters (e.g.
24 flow orifices, flow nozzles, venture meters) and is as per Project standards/Vendor

The line configuration for lines containing magnetic flowmeters or vortex type
flowmeters is such that they are always flooded.

Line configuration allows easy removal of spectacle blinds/spacers & blinds and
valves in case of RTJ flange joints.

27 Flanged spools are provided in the case of conical strainers to enable removal.

Orientation of valve handwheel / lever is checked in model for proper access and
commented accordingly
Line routing is visually checked in model for general requirement like access to in
29 line items, supporting, clearances, obstructions, consistency and aesthetic
requirement, etc.

Branches like drains, drip legs, etc. are located with sufficient clearance from the
30 supports, steel or other obstructions so that they do not clash during

31 Drip leg size and dimension is checked with Standard drawing for steam lines.

32 Requirement of Weep holes for atm vent lines is indicated.

The drawing border conforms to the Project specifications or Company standards,
as applicable.

The isometric numbering is as per the approved project format and the line number
matches with isometric number.

35 The correct isometric revision number is mentioned in the title block.

Pipe class printed at the bottom of the drawing matches with that in the line

Line data (e.g. process parameters, P&ID no., PWHT & testing requirements,
insulation & painting specs, etc.) match with the Line List, if given in the isometric

Applicable reference documents (e.g. Line List, Isometric Index, Pipe Supports
Spec, etc.) are mentioned.

39 Data such as inch-dia, etc. appear at the bottom of the isometric.

The “Cont. on …” description correctly appears at each end of the line isometric
which is continued in another sheet.

The isometric print is readable (if required, the isometric should be split into more

Isometric number change is made preferably at a flange joint/valve (not at a weld


Dimensions and elevations are adequately given. At least one elevation is

mentioned and WP elevations for sloped lines are marked.
There are no HOLDs in the isometric (issue of any isometrics with HOLD requires
approval by HOD/PEM).


The following documents are to be used for checking isometrics:

1. Issued For Design (or later issue) P&IDs and Line Lists (and any Process DCNs
issued thereafter)
2. Approved Vendor drawings review of equipment & package mechanical drawings
3. Issued For Design Instrument-Piping Interface drawings
4. Approved vendor drawings of in-line instrument items including control valves,
Pressure safety relief valve, motor operated valves and emergency shutdown
5. Approved vendor drawings for manual valves and SP items.
6. Approved Pipe Support specification and Piping Material specification
7. Issued For Construction Civil and Structural drawings wherever applicable

In case approved drawings are not available at the time of isometrics issue, it should be brought
to the notice of the Lead engineer and the isometrics shall not be issued.

Vendor Drawing Review (VDR): Valve Specific Requirements

Specific Requirements :
In the previous post we had discussed about the general requirements relating to the vendor
drawing review (VDR) for the manual valves. But there are few requirements which are specific
depending upon the type of the valves.

These requirements are specified below based on valve type-

Gate, Globe & Check Valves

Ball Valves
Butterfly Valves
Double Block & Bleed Valves / SBB Valves
Plug Valves
Diaphragm Valves
Piston Valves
Bellow Sealed Valves
Gate, Globe & Check Valves

1. Check type of Wedge (solid, flexible) or disc specified (tapered plug/flat/guided plug
type/needle type etc.)
2. Check for stelliting / hard facing requirements as specified.
3. Check for requirements of integral by-pass valves and pipe, for gate valves for larger
sizes (>= 350 mm) and for high pressure valves.
4. Check for back-seating requirement for gate, globe and piston valves.
5. Check for physical interference for large gear operated valves. (It is possible to rearrange
the orientation of gear box).
6. Check for construction of Rising Hand wheel or Non rising Hand wheel requirements.
7. Check if spring is provided for spring-loaded check valves.
8. Check for “gas column” (extended stem or bonnet) for valves in low temperature service.
9. Check for spindle support details for extended spindle valves.
10. Check for retainer less design in case dual plate check valves.
11. Check for disc opening not fouling with the adjacent flange ID in case of dual plate check
12. Check disc inclination of swing check valves; it shall be minimum 5°.
13. Check for renewable seat rings wherever it is specified in the specification.
14. Check for vent/drain requirements if any.
15. Check for requirement of pressure seal bonnet.
16. Specify marking of open/close direction on hand wheel.
17. Check for stem retention design, number of packing rings for gate, globe and piston
18. Check for number of turns of hand wheel requirement to be specified in the drawing.
19. Check for Cv value of globe valves requirement as per process if any.
20. Check for pressure drop compliance and maximum flow rate as per process in case of
non-slam check valves.
21. Read more about – Gate valve, Globe valve , Check Valves

Ball Valves

1. Check Body construction – whether Single (Top entry) /2 or 3 piece (Side entry) /
fully welded type.
2. Check floating type or trunnion type as per project specification.
3. For floating ball valves pressure balancing hole in ball valves should not be there
unless specifically agreed during ordering.
4. In case of valves with 2 or 3 piece design construction check for space availability
between end flange and body flange for proper bolting of line flanges.
5. Check provision of features such as seal/seat ring arrangement, soft / metal seated,
primary soft and secondary metal to metal seat, and primary metal to metal and
secondary soft seat design requirements as specified.
6. Check provision for fire-safe design, anti-static device, blow-out proof stem,
regular/reduced (reduction to one size only in general and in higher sizes can be
two size also to be verified with process case by case or according to project
requirements) or full bore etc.
7. Check the minimum bore diameter according to design standard.
8. Check for weld overlay requirements of CRA materials in seat pocket, stem seal
areas/tungsten hard facing requirements / ENP coating thickness requirements.
9. Check for vent /drain arrangements (flanged, threaded, etc.) and sizes as required.
10. Check for Double O-ring protection requirements as specified.
11. Check for emergency stem / seat sealant injection fitting arrangements as
specified. (In case of PTFE+Elgiloy seat seals provided, seat sealant fittings are
not recommended based on orientation of seals).
12. Check if stem-extension is provided as called for to accommodate thermal
insulation/ operability from further point. The extended stem shall be positively
secured with main stem so that it shall not be lifted from its position.
13. Check the details and suitability of seat and seal material with respect to
temperature, fluid service compatibility (H2S, CO2, etc.,), and resistance to
explosive de compression for gas service. VITON shall not be used for Amine
service and for sour service with above 0.2% of H2S.
14. HNBR seals may be used up to 5% H2S in case of sour service. (It is necessary to
furnish fluid information to the manufacturer for his best recommendation of seat
and seal materials).
15. In case of soft seated valves welded end connections, pup piece length shall be
sufficiently long so that soft material is not damaged during welding at site
especially where the welds need to be PWHT at site. Check the requirement of
PWHT for pup pieces.
16. If the valve pressure temperature rating is different from the standard (ASME)
check, whether this is acceptable or not.
17. Check PT curve for offered soft seat material.
18. In case of cladded valves ensure that LTCS/CS portion is not exposed to process
fluid. Inconel 625/825 sleeve design shall be with TEE type arrangement.
19. Space for nut installation on flange face (line bolting) shall be verified for small
bore valves especially valves with 2 piece design.
20. Check the liner thickness of the fully lined valves.
21. Check for the provision of cavity relief hole on the upstream side of ball, if called
for. Consequently valve turns out to be unidirectional; check whether flow
direction is indicated for such cases.
22. Read more about – Ball Valve , Ball valve design based on body contruction
Butterfly Valves

1. Check for body construction i.e., wafers type, lugged wafer type etc., as specified.
2. Check for disc design requirements i.e., concentric, double off-set or triple offset.
3. Check if wafer ends are suitable for mounting between flanges specified. (Some wafer
designs have two or more bolt holes either drilled or drilled and tapped. The later may
require cap screws for mounting the valve).It is preferable to include bolts in the scope of
supply of valve manufacturer with required spares.
4. In case of bolts included in the valve supplier’s scope, ensure that any additional bolt
length requirement for mounting of insulating gaskets or spectacle blind/ spacer & blinds
are taken care as per requirements of P&ID / Isometrics.
5. Check for bolt threading details like standard and length of threaded portion.
6. Check if manufacturer’s pressure class is equal or more than what is specified.
7. Check for provision of throttling lever as specified for lever operated valves and enclosed
gear operator for gear operated valves.
8. Check if valve is provided with body sleeve as called for. (Some manufacturers provide
body sleeves which are not replaceable. This is acceptable based on experience of such a
design. For process application, check the lining and encapsulation of disc as specified).
9. Check for disc coating (may be EPDM or Epoxy or Chromium plating on the disc edge),
hardness of lining requirements.
10. Check for disc opening not fouling with the adjacent flange ID in case of butterfly valves.
11. Check whether torque calculation has been provided, if called for.
12. Check for provision of integral supports, if called for.
13. Check UL/FM certification requirement for fire water service.
14. Read more about – Butterfly Valve

Double Block & Bleed Valves / SBB Valves

1. Check for valve type based on the data sheet whether block valves are of ball type or gate
type or globe type.
2. Check for construction whether it is slim line mono flange, end entry either one piece or
split (integral or flanged type), end connections are of flanged/threaded ends or flanged/
flanged ends.
3. Check for face to face dimensions as per manufacturers standard shall be as short as
4. Check for minimum bore requirements for block valves as specified normally it is 10 mm
for ½” NB or as indicated in the datasheet, for bleed valves which are of needle/globe
type shall be 5 mm or as indicated in datasheet.
5. Check for sealing arrangements in case of threaded end connections/adapters.
6. Check for hand wheel/lever operatability and diameter.
7. Check for fire safe design/ fire tested design in case of soft seated valves as per
8. Check for full bore requirement if any.
9. Check for any specific requirements on the gap between handles if oriented in the same
10. Read more about – Double Block & Bleed Valves / SBB Valves
Plug Valves

1. For jacketed plug valves, bolt clearance dimensions shall be verified so that line bolts can
be installed.

A) Lubricated plug valves:

1. Check for provision of lubricated passage to the sealing surfaces.

2. Check for provision of pressurized lubricant.
3. Check for provision of integral ball type check valve to prevent back flow of lubricant
from the seats.
4. Check for the compatibility of the lubricant with the fluid handled.
5. Check if each valve of each size is to be provided with a lever or a common lever
acceptable for a group of valves.

B) Sleeved plug valves:

1. Check the material for the sleeve.

2. In case of lined plug valves, check the material for the body lining as well as the lining
for the plug. These may be different (PTFE, FEP for example) as per manufacturer’s
3. Check for fire-safe design, if specified.
4. Check for stem extension for insulated valves, if required.
5. For multi-port valves, check the arrangement of ports as per the flow requirements.
6. Check for antistatic device.
7. Read more about – Plug Valves

Diaphragm Valves

1. Check body type – weir or full port. In case of valves with PTFE diaphragms, normally
weir type construction is possible.
2. Check the material of diaphragm, body lining (in the case of lined valves).
3. Check the provision of sealed bonnet and V-notch vent plug to check the integrity of
4. Valves shall be provided with “Travel Stop”.

Piston Valves

1. Check the type of piston – throttling or non-throttling.

2. Check the materials for upper and lower sealing and their suitability for the process fluid,
pressure and temperature (it is necessary to furnish fluid information to the manufacturer
for his best recommendation of sealing ring materials).
3. Check the valve body rating. These could be different from ASME standards by some
4. Check the provision of back-up gland packing.
5. Read more about- Piston Valve
Bellow Sealed Valves

1. Check the provision of bellow and its material of construction.

2. Check if back-up gland packing is provided.
3. Check for bellow cycle life mentioned. This shall be a minimum of 5000, if not specified
in project documents.

How to identify top, side and plan view?

Various symbols used while reading drawing
B.O.B.P: bottom of base plate
B.O.F: bottom of floor
B.O.M: bill of materials
B.O.W: bottom of wall
C.C: center to center
F.F.L: finished floor level
N.TS. not to scale
T.O.: top of
T.O.B: top of beam
T.O.F: top of floor
B.O.P: bottom of pipe
B/L: battery limit
BE: bevel end
BBE: bevel both end
BOE: bevel one end
BLE: bevel long end
BSE: bevel short end
BF: blind flange
BOT: bottom
BW: butt weld
FF: flat face
EL: elevation
B/S: both side
B.O.B.P: bottom of base plate
F/S: far side
N/S: near side
T.O.S: top of steel