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PHILOSOPHY 1 REVIEWER

2nd Long Exam

I. The Mind – see other reviewer
II. 3 Senses of the Term Philosophy (By Dr. Armando F. Bonifacio)
 Reflective Method
1. Reasoning happens at the speed of light  example is the
husband and wife and cheating
2. After a while, people reflect
 There are many ways of reflecting
 Detective, priest, etc.
3. Different reflective methods = different philosophies
 Intellectual Presupposition
1. Intellectual = mind, presupposition = presupposes other beliefs
2. In physics
 Isaac Newton – parallel lines don’t intersect vs Albert
Einstein – parallel lines intersect
 What if parallel lines did intersect?
 Big Bang  all lines will inevitably bend  drawing a line
will take time  bend
 When can we say Euclidian is right/wrong? All we can do
is presuppose
 Belief System
1. When you have a belief system, everything in your mind is
connected
2. Observation: Philosophy and Logic  Arts and Poetry
 Supposed to be related to one another
3. All philosophies are belief systems, not all belief systems are
philosophies
 Philosophies do not have contradictions
 Some belief systems do not give value to abhorrence of
contradictions
4. Why we call things Philosophy
 Philosophy of Sports  contradiction with men and women
inequality so philosophize
 Philosophy of Science  theories not truths so
philosophize
 Arts and music “not related” to mathematics and logic 
contradiction (supposed to be related) so philosophize
5. Connection of philosophy of art with environment, birds of UP,
Krus na Ligas lives

Argumentum ad  Appeal to emotion  Something singing at the miserecordiam  Feel good about something. 30 11. not argument Mocha Uson 2. so smoke hominem  Even if everyone says it. Circular  Petitio principii meaning “Assuming  “The Bible is true because . not steps  if you feel moved necessarily correct 6. Wag the dog /  Modern kind of fallacy “Red herring”  Talk about something else to avoid 4. Argumentum ad  Appeal to popularity  Everyone smokes. Argumentum ad  Appeal to ignorance  Since nobody could prove ignorantiam  Lacking evidence  conclude ghosts do not exist. something has not yet been  No one has provided proof proven that it is not the case that God exists. etc. get authority. Argumentum ad  Baculum = club baculum  Appeal to coercion 7. Straw Man  Attacking a different argument  Politician answers a question Fallacy from what the other presents and “did you engage in corrupt saying it disproves the argument in actions” by saying “my question favorite campaign donation”  Oversimplification. cundiam =  Priests = morality verecundiam carrier  Physics = Newton and  Appeal to authority Einstein  What if authorities don’t agree. ads for beer should be banned from TV 8. 5. smoking  poisoning the well fallacy  Arguments of Duterte and  Focus on person. ghosts  (1) Claiming that simply because do exist. III. get authority. Argumentum ad  Appeal to the person or  “Don’t smoke” but person is hominem personality.  Ads for beer encourage changing underage drinking   When original question is too hard underage drinking often has negative consequences  therefore. False Dilemma/  Limiting options to 2 when there  There are only 2 kinds of False Dichotomy/ are more options to choose from people: those who love Led Black-and-white Zeppelin or those who hate fallacy music 10. Argumentum ad  Vere = veritas = truth. doesn’t mean it’s good 3. Slippery Slope  Moving from a seemingly benign  Advertisements premise or starting point and  Going to party or else no working through a number of small friends  alone and jobless steps to an improbable extreme and living in a basement until (unlikely). so God does  (2) Claiming that simply because not exist // Not one has something has not yet been provided proof that God does disproven that it is the case not exist. Fallacies Fallacy Definition Example 1. so God exists 9. exaggeration.

" property also IV. phrase. or mislead by sounding 17. Formal Fallacies  Affirming the Consequent Fallacy 1. Gambler’s  Thinking that because X derives  "His father is a criminal. stay 16. p therefore q  Denying the Antecedent Fallacy 1. Fallacy: p  q. And I because it came first forgot to knock on wood with my lucky dice. Causal Fallacy (1) False Cause  “Since your parents named  "not the-cause for a cause" you ‘Harvest.” evidence to do so (2) Post Hoc Fallacy  “Yesterday. therefore because of ladder with an open umbrella this" indoors while spilling salt in  Mistake something as a cause front of a black cat. Fallacy: p  q. ask yourself into it. It’s bad luck. without considering the what’s the best for your future costs future? So as not to not waste the 10 years (the sunk cost). Similar to Modus Ponens: p  q. q therefore p 2.’ they must be  Conclude about a cause without farmers. deceive. ~p therefore ~q . Hasty  General claims too hastily made  You could never trust a Generalization (without sufficient evidence) woman 13. Something about this" wearing that Speedo must  mistakenly interpret two things make him want to go found together as being causally swimming.” looks like an argument 12.Argument (petition the initial [thing]“ the Bible says it’s true" principii)  Begging the Question  "According to my brain. That must be why I’m having such a bad day today. my  Restating one’s argument so it brain is reliable. X must have the same good. or sentence (ambiguity) to confuse. Equivocation  Using a word. and Y has a certain he must also be up to no property. I walked under a  "after this.” related 15.” (3) Correlational fallacy aka cum hoc  “Every time Joe goes ergo propter hoc swimming he is wearing his  “with this therefore because of Speedos. so fallacy from Y. Fallacy of Sunk  Thinking we should continue a  In a career for 10 years but Costs task because of all that we’ve put not happy. Tu Quoque  “You too”  “Maybe I committed a little Fallacy  Appeal to hypocrisy adultery. but so did you Jason!” 14.

others noise iii. Gestalt Psychology ii. Sensing 2. Not called truth i. VI. What were the similarities and differences of the 2 flashcards? 2. Context and background of prior experiences affect it = observation is never neutral b. etc. Genera  Genus (a number of things) b. Not all guesses are scientific 2. Some require testing. Observation a. Formulation of the Problem  Intersubjective  Had a specific problem in mind  Sets apart scientists from others  Gives direction 3. Formulation of the hypothesis 4. Similar to Modus Tollens: p  q. Ex. Discussion: i. Testing of the Hypothesis – generation of data 5. ~q  ~p 3. Ernest Mach and flashcards: 1. Observation . texture) 3. Athens. Sentence  called a generalization i. Perceiving (Interpret) – what for some would be music. Rome. 2. Rabbit and duck . Which came first? Observation or problem c.induction 2. Limitations o Based on steps: 1. some cannot be tested C. Theories can be proven wrong  All generalizations are commonsensical  Only a subset of commonsensical can be called scientific B. Scientific Method  Method Itself 1. Problem: Guesses 1. Formulation of the theory  Goal in UP is to harvest as many theories as we can: predict the future with accuracy  Why is it called a theory? a. Observation comes in 2 steps: 1. No pattern in similarities but in differences: always the form first  capital and lowercase (not color. History: Macedonia. size. Example / story  Papa Isio and the farmers  Hacienderos  Earning haciendas  Not hacienderos therefore not earning haciendas V.

Formed by convention ii. Because of the context  burned alive and spear VS now: not the same D. Formulation will be delimited by your language iii. > Sample  theory  generalization – b. 1500s – 2100s  Experience of mankind with science  Revised or rejected for better theories  Theories have different values a. Bruno: Copernicus is right: The Earth is not the center of the universe b. Need a measure or norm to decide sample iii. Norm = theory iv. Cyclical Nature  Investigating theories  repeat cycle  Discover something wrong  light travels through a vacuum + electricity  How can something travel through nothing . Formulation of Theory a. etc. Why do some things float and some sink? o Law of Buoyancy  also through accident 4. Discussion: Examples of accidents i. use language i. Different values for what is considered a problem b. Not truth  expect to be revised or rejected b. Don’t see entire universe of discourse* 5. Formulation of the Hypothesis a. Testing of Hypothesis a. theory. Deciding proper sample reflects cyclical nature i. How can light travel through a vacuum o Michael Faraday and Dynamo  found out electricity can travel through a vacuum o Roentgen and his trash / messy lab  saw items glow iii. BUT we believe them  to predict better and to be in control of your destinies c. Benzene Ring o How did it take so much energy or be so explosive? o Kekulé  dreamt of snake eating its tail  RING ii. Problem a. hypothesis. 2. Contaminate formulation with bias = no objectivity! 3. When formulating a problem. Mostly accidents  irrational b. Sample: discard some sample (representative) = concept of right sample ii.

aim. Deciding on the better reasoning A. truth is conventional  Anybody can have their own concept of truth  What if someone says “truth is not conventional”  Truth is Trivial  Can invent language without it  Example: o “S” is true if and only if S. capital punishment (with CP  less crimes  better economy) II. results  Choices: Save the mother. Truth is Problematic  Truth is Conventional  If all sentences are conventional. no capital punishment o Save the baby – letting die vs save the mother – killing o “Thou shalt not kill” B. Types of Reasoning – nature vs results A. Teleological Reasoning  Focus: purpose. o “S” ^ S. o “S” ^ ~S MORAL PHILOSOPHY I.VII. o S iff S. goal. Deontological Reasoning  Focus: nature  Choices: Save the baby. Problems  Can’t use deontological to say you choose teleological reasoning  Ciodel’s Incompleteness Theorem . Generalizations require:  Enough quantity (large sample) to say generalization is reliable  Quality: representative sample  To be scientific: No counter instance  Free falling bodies – have you observed one year’s worth?  Never observed event 1% of them  No counter instance  why we say f = ma VIII.

taught philosophy o Philosophers in Persian coastal cities  Went back to Athens: needed money  Made schools  Earned money o Problem of Sophists:  Political scenario and economic scenario kept changing  So decided that: man should be the focus of attention. Many with upper respiratory tract infection (but many trees) . 1980’s. Became a doctor when women weren’t known ii. Go Harlem Brundtland i. Introduction a. Metaethics  “Beyond”  Will your moral reasoning or principle lead to coherence or contradictions?  Coherence of norm and other thoughts in mind  Result of your creativity  Source of abhorrence of bigotry  source of creativity  want to be coherent  Importance of choosing between teleological and deontological o Slippery Slope Fallacy – ambiguity o Give up one in favor of another  but why give up one? o By training of being in scientific era  teleological (results) ---.stories of Socrates ---- ENVIRONMENTAL PHILOSOPHY I. Normative Ethics  By which norm is good/evil  Different for Muslims and Christians 2. Norway iii. nobody wanted to be called a “philosopher”  scandalous o Socrates wanted to be a philosopher. B. one decides upon principles o Socrates:  Sophists are right: Focus should be man and how he reasons  Man  his actions  what action is good/evil  Invented ethics  Normative Ethics  by which norm is good/evil o Different for Muslims and Christians  2 Kinds of Ethics 1. With what norm can you compare the 2 beyond what is advantageous for you?  Athens and Socrates: o In Athens.

climate change will be so devastating we won’t be able to do anything  Currently o Philippines: already 2 deserts . Called attention to European Union  United Nations b. Reasons for Environmental Decay 1.5 degrees Celsius increase  10. Kids to give candy b.000 km2/yr (original forests) o 7% of the whole worlds  50% of all life reside here  Why Inbreeding isn’t good o No diversity of species o Need gene pool from wild (coming from 50% plants and animals from 7%)  World was gas  cooled  crust w/ minerals o Plantlife absorbed minerals  dried and produced layer 1000 years to produce 1 inch of topsoil o No trees – siltation  trees absorb water with unproductive material  water is not pure  The Chain Effects o X primary forests  X water  X oxygen  X drugs and medicines  Mankind studied the poison arrow frog  used in medicine to cure tuberculosis going around Europe (whole mankind might die) o siltation  no sunlight  X coral polyps  X coral reefs  X fish  smaller brains / malnourished  More coral reefs destroyed by deforestation than dynamite fishing  PH has 8% forest cover left (supposed to be 53% forest cover) 2. There should be equal distribution instead of differential distribution because everyone should be saved III. 1982-1985  studied state of the Earth iii. Baseline data iv. UNEP: United Nations Environmental Program i.000 years ago to before 18th century = 18th century = next 100 years o Stephen Hawking: estimated that by 2055. To know the state of the Earth ii. iv. Noticed reason why: Norway was affected by the industrialized countries (when the Earth was rotating) v. Climate Change  Over time o More super typhoons (used to be 1 every 10 years  1-2 super typhoons every year) o In last 200 years. Brundtland data: state of the Earth report as of 1987 v. Became Minister of Earth vi. 1. Deforestation  Statistics o Primary forests are lost 80. Report was published in book: Our Common Future II. Situation a.5-4.

World Wars 1. more trash (plastic) > fish iii. Japan – 40 nuclear power plants 2. Brought to special facility in Pangasinan (nuclear sickness) iii. In Europe. Subic and Clark – most leukemia in PH d.6 billion  go around world 6 times) 2. Disposable Diaper – 16 billion in US x 1 foot = go around world 122 times 3. UN: can’t put nuclear stockpile in volcanic area and earthquake and super typhoon prone areas 1. need 2 hectares per person . 1/3 example uses – 1 billion women  every month x 5 = 5 billion x 10 months = 50 billion ii. Napkins – non-biodegradable – 3 billion women in the world.000 tons of Nergas Bombs. 1 meter rise (sea)  15 million in Bangladesh will be refugees (no homes) d. Nuclear Bomb – World War II c. microplastics in sea. U. Pangasinan will feel desertification 3. Left Nergas bombs in PH c. there are plastic islands bigger than countries b. Pen – 1. NOAA (National Oceanographic Atmosphere Administration) – Predicting that end of century. Radioactivity i. West PH sea – nuclear waste – China. UN Development Program: 2 hectares per person c. Household i. Nergas Bomb – World War I a.: 500.6 billion in 1987 US (6 inches x 1. Problem: less than 11% of the Earth is agriculturally productive b. can’t dispose  to decommission. Industrial i. Population Growth a. UP Clark – with cement – might be bombs 2. o One of these days. Pollution  Three Kinds of Pollution a. 11 people – sharing 1 productive hectare.S. complex chemistry  500 years to decommission all b. Examples 1. Taiwan ** 4. Ilocos Norte and ______ and La Union may become deserts o By 2030. Taiwan – 6 nuclear power plants ii.