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Rankine Cycle (ORC) with a thermal storage

DOI: 10.2316/P.2012.785-048

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Proceedings of the IASTED International Conference

Engineering and Applied Science (EAS 2012)

December 27 - 29 , 2012 Colombo , Sri Lanka

SOLAR THERMAL ORGANIC RANKINE CYCLE WITH A THERMAL

STORAGE

Sasiri V.R. Gamage *, Hanthanan A.K. Madhushan, Amarasinghage T.D. Perera, Pubudu Kumarage

University of Moratuwa, Sri Lanka

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Moratuwa

Moratuwa, 10400, Sri Lanka

*sasirigamage@gmail.com

ABSTRACT

Mathematical modeling followed by a dynamic water in RCs in order to harness thermal energy [5].

simulation of an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) assisted

Mathematical modeling and experimental validation,

by solar thermal energy and thermal energy storage is

simulation and optimization of solar thermal ORC has

taken into consideration in this study for a standalone

become a rich area of study [6-10]. Design of solar

application. N-Pentane was taken as the working fluid of

collector is important when considering the overall

the cycle and three different Phase Change Materials

efficiency of the ORC since it becomes the thermal

(PCM) were taken as the thermal storage. Dynamic

source. Flat plate, evacuated type and compound

simulation is carried out taking hourly solar insolation at

parabolic collectors are taken into consideration in most

Hambanthota, a southeast location of Sri Lanka (06°07′ N

of the instances when it comes to low temperature ORC

81°07′ E). Results from the analysis depicts that seasonal

[11]. Use of low temperature non concentric solar

variation of solar energy potential is having strong impact

collectors may extract both diffuse and beam radiation

when coming up with the optimum collector area and

and reduce the cost of the system [5]. Heat losses of the

capacity of thermal storage.

solar collector field can be significantly reduced by

subdividing solar field into different temperature stages

KEY WORDS that consists of both concentric and non concentric

Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC), Solar Thermal Energy, collectors [12]. Optimum balance between concentric and

Thermal Energy Storage, Standalone Energy systems non concentric collectors has been taken into

consideration in Ref [5,13]. Therefore, design of collector

array and collector temperature need to be optimized

1. Introduction when developing Solar assisted ORC. However, flat plate

collectors are more suitable when considering Sri Lankan

Rural electrification and development in energy context compared to concentrated collectors due to low

infrastructure support economic growth. However, it is a clearness index.

challenging endeavour to extend the existing main grid When it comes to stand alone applications, seasonal

into certain areas in order to meet the electricity demand variation of solar irradiation plays a major role. Thermal

when considering present Sri Lankan context. Off-grid storage plays a major role in such instances especially for

energy systems become an attractive solution is such standalone applications. Simulation of the ORC with a

instances. Therefore several research groups have thermal storage by using a time series of solar irradiation

focussed on developing stand alone energy systems in data and Electricity Load Demand (ELD) becomes

order to meet-up this challenge considering the present Sri essential in order to assure higher power supply reliability

Lankan context [1–3]. This work evaluates the capability which is not taken into consideration in recent literature

of using solar thermal Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) with which is taken into discussion in this work.

a thermal storage for such standalone applications.

2. Mathematical Model for the Solar Assisted

Rankine cycle (RC) can be taken as the ORC with a Thermal Storage

thermodynamic cycle used to generate majority of the

present electricity demand. In most of the instances, This section illustrates the mathematical model developed

water is used as the working fluid of RC with high steam to simulate the system considering hourly varying solar

temperatures. However, thermal efficiency of RCs drops irradiation and Electricity Load Demand (ELD) which is

significantly when the temperature of steam drops below later used to derive the area for solar collector and

370oC [4]. Therefore, RC need higher initial capital capacity of thermal storage. The system consists of

investment with number of techno economical challenges evacuated type solar collectors, two thermal storage tanks

when generating electricity by using steam. In such and an ORC. The schematic diagram of the system is

given in Fig. 1.

DOI: 10.2316/P.2012.785-048 14

2.1 Mathematical Model for Solar Thermal Collector Gb,β and reflected solar radiation Gr,β were calculated using

(STC) Eq. (2) and (3). These values were used to find total solar

radiation on tilted surface Gβ using Eq. (4).

Area of the STC is selected in order to provide the ELD

throughout the year considering seasonal variation of cos θ

Gb,β = G − Gd ∙ cos (2)

solar irradiation and ELD since solar thermal energy θZ

becomes the energy source in this model. Both hourly

1

solar irradiation on the tilted STC and its performance Gr,β = 2

ρ ∙ G ∙ 1 − cos β (3)

should have to be modeled in order to find the energy

output from STCs. In order to achieve this, hourly global

Gβ = Gd,β + Gb,β + Gr,β (4)

irradiation on a horizontal plane G is taken (Fig. 2) and it

is used to calculate hourly diffuse fraction f using Climed-

2 model [14], which was later used to calculate diffuse where θ, θz and β denote angle of incidence for an

solar radiation Gd on horizontal plane according to Eq (1). arbitrarily inclined surface oriented toward the equator,

zenith angle and tilt angle of STC.

Gd = f ∙ G (1) Evacuated type STC is taken into consideration in

this work. The thermal efficiency of an evacuated type

Klucher model [15] was used to calculate diffuse solar STC (𝜂𝑐 ) can be modeled as a function of medium

radiation on tilted surface Gdβ. Finally, beam radiation operating temperature of the STC (Tm ), of the STC (𝑇𝑚 ),

mcol V2

m1

V1 V3

m2

m3 Turbine

mcycle

Condensor

Latent

Solar heat

collector thermal Evaporator PC ,TC

area storage

PE ,TE

TH

TPCM

V6

V4 Pump

TL1

TL2 V5

Fig.1: Schematic diagram of the system

15

ambient temperature (𝑇𝑎 ) and solar irradiation on tilted 2.2.1 State 1 (Charging Cycle)

STC (Gβ) according to Eq. 5 [16 ].

When thermal energy production is in higher than the

2.02 (T m – T a ) (T m – T a )

2 requirement of ELD, the system starts following Charging

ηc (t) = 0.84 – G β (t)

– 0.0046 . I(t). G β (t) Cycle. In this mode valves 1, 2, 4 and 5 are kept open in

(5) order to store excess thermal energy. Hourly mass flow of

conduction oil through the evaporator in order to supply

the ELD is calculated using Eq. (8).

Q E (t)

m1 (t) = C (8)

s ∙ ( T H −T L 1 )

(discussed in detail in Section 2.3), and TL1 denotes the

conduction oil temperature at evaporator outlet. Excess

mass from the solar collectors (m2 (t) ) is evaluated using

Eq. (9).

thermal storage can be determined using Eq. (9) and Eq.

(10).

Fig. 2: Hourly variation of solar insolation

Qsupply (t) = m2 (t) ∙ Cs ∙ ( TH − TL2 ) (10)

Finally, hourly net thermal energy output from STCs

is calculated using Eq. (6) where 𝐴𝐶 denotes collector In this equation TL2 denotes the conduction oil

area of the STC. temperature at thermal storage outlet.

Qcol (t) = 3600 ∙ AC . I(t) . ηc (t) (6) Subsequently, available thermal energy capacity in

the thermal storage available is calculated using Eq. (11)

The extracted thermal energy from the solar where QLosses (t) denotes thermal losses.

collectors is continuously supplied to evaporator and

excess energy stored in a latent heat thermal storage tank Qs (t) = Qs (t − 1) + Qsupply (t) - QLosses (t) (11)

by passing conduction oil through the solar collectors.

Hourly mass flow of conduction oil through the solar Finally, melted PCM percentage of the thermal

collectors is calculated using Eq. (7). storage (Mp) is computed using Eq. (12) where CLS

denotes latent heat of fusion of PCM and MPCM denotes

mcol (t) = C

Q col (t)

(7) total mass of PCM.

s ∙ ( T H −T L )

Q s t ∙100

Mp = (12)

where Cs denotes specific heat capacity the of C LS ∙ M PCM

conduction oil and TH denotes the temperature at the solar

collector outlet. 2.2.2 State 2 (Combined Discharge Cycle)

2.2 Mathematical Model for Thermal Energy Storage When solar thermal energy collected from the collector is

not enough to drive the cycle to provide the ELD alone,

Main purpose of the thermal storage is to store excess system moves to Combined Discharge Cycle (State 2). In

thermal energy from STC in order to support continuous this mode, valves 2, 3, 5 and 6 are kept open and energy

power generation under timely varying ELD and solar from both STC and thermal energy storage are used to

irradiation. Phase Change Material (PCM) is used as the supply the ELD. Thermal energy required from the

thermal storage medium and energy is stored by melting thermal storage (Qrequire (t)) in this state is calculated

the PCM and releases by solidifying. It is essential to using Eq. (13).

come up with a dispatch strategy for both store and

release of energy. Dispatch strategy is based on the Qrequire (t) = QE t − Qcol (t) (13)

difference between solar energy potential and ELD which

consists of three different states i.e Charging Cycle, Finally available thermal energy capacity is

Combined Discharge Cycle and Discharge Cycle. calculated using Eq. (14).

16

2.2.3 State 3 (Discharge Cycle) denotes the density of working fluid and ηp (t) denotes

the working efficiency of pump

Discharge cycle is used when solar irradiation is not

available. Stored thermal energy in PCM is used in this ṁcycle t ∙(p E − P C )

state to provide the ELD. Valve 3 and valve 6 are kept ẇP (t) = ρ wF ∙ η p (t)

(16)

open in this mode allowing conduction oil to flow through

the thermal storage and evaporator. Thermal energy The efficiency of pump is a function of the mass

required from the thermal storage is calculated using Eq. flow rate through the pump and calculated by using Eq.

15 and available thermal energy capacity in thermal 17 [17]. In Eq. 17, ṁcycle ,ref denotes the reference mass

storage is calculated using Eq. 14. flow rate at peak demand and ηp,ref denotes the reference

efficiency of the pump at peak demand.

Qrequire (t) = QE t (15)

2

ṁcycle ṁcycle

2.3 Mathematical Model for Organic Rankine Cycle ηp (t) = 2 ∙ ηp,ref ∙ − ηp,ref ∙ (17)

ṁcycle ,ref ṁcycle ,ref

(ORC)

Required turbine work is the addition of mechanical

This section provides a detailed explanation about the work required for electricity generation and pump work.

dynamic mathematical model formulated in order to This is calculated according to Eq. 18 assuming constant

simulate the ORC. Four basic components of the cycle i.e. generator efficiency (ηgen ).

pump, condenser, turbine and evaporator is modeled in

order to come up with work and heat transfer from these ẇload (t)

ẇT (t) = + ẇP (t) (18)

devices. Fig. 3 provides the T/ S diagram of the state η gen

points of ORC.

The isentropic efficiency of the turbine is a function

When considering the work transfer of the cycle, of turbine mass flow rate and ṁcycle ,ref determined using

work input at pump and work output from the turbine has Eq. 19 [17].

being coupled together. Therefore, work input at the

2

pump is initially calculated using Eq. 16. In this equation, ṁcycle ṁcycle

ηt (ṁcycle ) = -0.1423∙ + 0.2981∙ + 0.6127

ṁcycle t denotes the mass flow rate of working fluid, PE ṁcycle ,ref ṁcycle ,ref

Process 1-2s: Isentropic expansion

Process 2-3: Isobaric heat rejection in condenser

Process 3-4: Compression process in pump

Process 4-1: Isobaric heat addition in evaporator

Q E

PE

1

WT? T

2

2

4 2s

? PC

WP P

3 QC

SS

Fig. 3: T/S diagram of the ORC

17

Enthalpy of the working fluid at the turbine outlet procedure the collector areas are calculated for different

(h2) is calculated using Eq. 20 where h1 denotes enthalpy thermal storage capacities. Finally, sensitivity of collector

of working fluid at the turbine inlet and h2S denotes temperature and PCM are evaluated by varying the

enthalpy under iso-entropic working conditions collector temperature and PCM. Selected thermodynamic

properties of used PCM are given in Table 1[16].

h2 = h1 − ηt (ṁcycle ) ∙ h1 − h2s (20)

Table 1

Finally, hourly energy requirement from the Thermodynamic Properties of PCMs used as the thermal

evaporator (QE (t)) is calculated by using Eq. 21 where h4 storage

denotes the enthalpy of the working fluid at pump outlet Melting

Latent heat of Density

PCM temperature

fusion (kJ/kg) (kg/m3)

QE (t) = ṁcycle (t) ∙ (h1 − h4 ) (21) (oC)

Adipic

151-155 260 1360

acid

3. Simulation of the System Suberic

141-144 245 1020

acid

Simulation Program is developed using C++ language in Sebacic

130-134 228 1270

Visual Studio® 2008 in Microsoft Windows® 07 acid

environment. In this investigation, the system conditions

are evaluated on hourly basis considering timely varying System conditions and size of

solar irradiation and required ELD. ELD is highly components

sensitive to the application. In this work, it was assumed

that the ELD varies throughout the year according to

summer - weekly load IEEE reliability test system [18], Assume AC , MPCM , TC , TE , PC ,PE , TH ,Ta , I ,Wload

which is scaled to 7.5 kW (Fig. 4). Steady state conditions

of system are assumed during each hour.

ORC state points

1,2,3,4 Increase

ηC(t) MPCM

Increase AC

AC is not

QCol(t) QE(t) converging

AC , MPCM AC is

converging

Fig. 4: Hourly ELD variation throughout a week

The simulation is conducted by evaluating thermal Fig. 5 : Flow chart of the algorithm

energy supply from solar collectors and thermal energy

required for evaporator hourly. Subsequently, heat

capacity of latent heat storage is calculated according to 4. Results and Discussion

working mode of system as discussed in Section 2.2. The

latent heat storage capacity is considered as the key It is essential to determine the optimum storage capacity,

condition for continuous operation of the system. The temperature and area of the solar collector, evaporator

condition of the latent heat thermal storage depends on pressure and temperature, and PCM in the final design. In

availability of the usable thermal energy inside the storage order to analyze the relationship between solar collector

(availability of the molten PCM material). According to area and thermal storage capacity, minimum collector

the availability of stored thermal storage energy, the area required to supply the ELD throughout the year for

collector area is increased until continuous power different solar collector temperatures are computed while

generation is feasible throughout the year. Using this varying the thermal storage capacity with Adipic acid

18

(Fig. 6). Gradual reduction of STC area is expected with

the increase of thermal storage capacity. However,

complex variation takes place due to seasonal variation of

solar irradiation. Variation of STC area with thermal

storage is plotted for Suberic acid and Sebacic acid

similar to Adipic acid (Fig. 7 and Fig. 8).

required solar collector area reduces with the increase of

thermal storage capacity as expected. Further, it is

observed that the system is getting optimized for the worst

case operation where solar irradiation is at its minimum.

Therefore, the system is over capacity for the rest of the

period with a poor plant factor. However, it is impossible

to find the optimum system design by only considering

the thermal behaviour through a parameter such as area of

STC which continuously decreases with the increase of

thermal storage capacity. Fig. 7 Variation of STC area with capacity of Thermal storage

for Suberic acid

5. Conclusion

As mentioned above, it can be seen that the proposed

system runs below the designed capacity for most of the

time. Therefore, the capital cost for the solar collectors

and thermal storage increases unnecessarily. In order to

utilize the excess energy while increasing power supply

reliability and energy conversion efficiency addition other

energy source such as biomass and wind energy is

proposed in this work.

on obtained results. Therefore, it is essential to combine a

lifecycle cost model along with the dynamic simulation.

In addition to that, multi objective optimization can be

can be carried out considering both life cycle cost and

exergy efficiency in order to come up with optimum

organic fluids, solar collector types and thermal storage Fig. 8 Variation of STC area with capacity of Thermal storage

types with an additional energy source to fulfil the energy for Sebacic acid

demand which will be taken into consideration in future

publications.

collector temperature of 160 0C

Fig.6 Variation of STC area with capacity of Thermal storage

for Adipic acid

19

References [16] Klucher TM, Evaluation of models to predict insolation on

tilted surfaces, solar energy, 33(2) 1976, 111-114.

[17] A.C.McMahan, MSc Thesis, Design and optimization of

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Mahindarathna, R. A. Attalage, K. K. C. K. Perera, and E. M.

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Bartholameuz, “Sensitivity of internal combustion generator

[18] IEEE reliability test system: A report prepared by the

capacity in standalone hybrid energy systems,” Energy, vol. 39,

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[3] A. T. D. Perera, R. A. Attalage, and K. K. C. K. Perera,

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[4] T.C. Hung, T.Y. Shai, & S.K. Wang, A review of Organic

Rankine Cycles (ORCs) for the recovery of low grade waste

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