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University of New Haven

Tagliatela College of Engineering


Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science

Digital Signal Processing


Project #2
Dr. Said Mikki

Group Members:
Kiyan Khaloozadeh
King Adebo
Nsikak Obong
Jayaraj Prabakaran
I. Introduction
For 4.31., one-sided spectra and time domain plots of the given signals
(speech.dat, ecg.dat, seismic1.dat, and vbrdata.dat) are analyzed using the
MATLAB Software. For 4.32., the spectrum of each measurement regarding the
functionality of a Gear is examined for identifying the sidebands, ratio of the
sideband frequency over the meshing frequency and the damage severity.

II. Analysis

4.31.

a. Speech signal ("speech.dat"), sampling rate = 8,000 Hz. From the spectral plot, identify the
first 5 formants.

4
10
2

1
speech.dat

-1

-2
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2
Time index n 4
10

200

First five formants


150
One-sided spectrum

100

50

0
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000

Frequency (Hz)
b. ECG signal ("ecg.dat"), sampling rate = 500 Hz. From the spectral plot, identify the 60 Hz-
interference component.

10000

5000
ecg.dat

-5000
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000
Time index n

600

400
One-sided spectrum

60 Hz-interference
200

0
0 50 100 150 200 250

Frequency (Hz)

c. Seismic data ("seismic1.dat"), sampling rate =15 Hz. From the spectral plot, determine the
dominant frequency component.
5
10
5
seismic1.dat

-5
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000
Time index n

8000

Dominant frequency
6000
One-sided spectrum

4000

2000

0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Frequency (Hz)
d. Vibration signal of the acceleration response from a simple supported beam ("vbrdata.dat"),
sampling rate = 1,000 Hz. From the spectral plot, determine four dominant frequencies.

0.5
vbrdata.dat

-0.5

-1

0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000
Time index n

0.04

0.03
Dominant frequencies
One-sided spectrum

0.02

0.01

0
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500

Frequency (Hz)

4.32.
0.012

0.01

0.008
Amplitude spectrum v0.dat

0.006

0.004

0.002

0
0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000

Frequency (Hz)

Sideband amplitude=0.007797 Mesh amplitude=0.000587 Ratio=13.28


0.014

0.012

Amplitude spectrum v1.dat 0.01

0.008

0.006

0.004

0.002

0
0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000

Frequency (Hz)

Sideband amplitude=0.003251 Mesh amplitude=0.000287 Ratio=11.32

0.015
Amplitude spectrum v2.dat

0.01

0.005

0
0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000

Frequency (Hz)

Sideband amplitude=0.003764 Mesh amplitude=0.000398 Ratio=9.45


0.01

0.008
Amplitude spectrum v3.dat

0.006

0.004

0.002

0
0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000

Frequency (Hz)

Sideband amplitude=0.004195 Mesh amplitude=0.000557 Ratio=7.53


-3
10
8

Amplitude spectrum v4.dat

0
0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000

Frequency (Hz)

Sideband amplitude=0.002296 Mesh amplitude=0.000358 Ratio=6.41


0.025

0.02
Amplitude spectrum v5.dat

0.015

0.01

0.005

0
0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000

Frequency (Hz)

Sideband amplitude=0.00308 Mesh amplitude=0.001912 Ratio=3.75

It is clear from the figures above, that the faultier the gear becomes, the more ratio
of the largest sideband amplitude over the meshing frequency amplitude decreases
(the ratio in v0 is 13.28, while the ratio in v5 is 3.75).
III. Appendix

The MATLAB codes used for this project are as follows:

4.31.
load speech.dat
load ecg.dat
load seismic1.dat
load vbrdata.dat
x=speech; %changes for each signal
fs=1000; %sampling rate
% apply the FFT algorithm
N=length(x); % number of samples
index_t=[0:1:N-1]; % time index
f=[0:1:N-1]*fs/N; % map frequency index to frequency in Hz
xf=abs(fft(x))/N; % compute amplitude spectrum
xf(2:N)=2*xf(2:N);
figure(1)
subplot(2,1,1);plot(index_t,x);grid
ylabel('speech.dat'); %changes for each signal
xlabel('Time index n');
subplot(2,1,2);plot(f(1:N/2),xf(1:N/2));grid;
xlabel('Frequency (Hz)');
ylabel('One-sided spectrum');
sound(x/max(abs(x)))

4.32.

load v0.dat
load v1.dat
load v2.dat
load v3.dat
load v4.dat
load v5.dat
x=v0; %changes for v1, v2, …
fs=12800; %sampling rate
% apply the FFT algorithm
N=length(x); % number of samples
index_t=[0:1:N-1]; % time index
f=[0:1:N-1]*fs/N; % map frequency index to frequency in Hz
xf=abs(fft(x))/N; % compute amplitude spectrum
figure(1)
plot(f,xf);grid;
xlabel('Frequency (Hz)');
ylabel('Amplitude spectrum v5.dat'); %changes for each signal