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\begin{document}

\title {\textbf{Linear Quadratic Optimal Control based Missile Guidance Law with Obstacle Avoidance}}
\author{\newline JESNA SHA \newline Roll No:05 \newline M3 GNC }

\date{\today}

\begin{frame}

\titlepage

\end{frame}

\begin{frame}{Contents}

\tableofcontents

\end{frame}

\section{Introduction}

\begin{frame}

\frametitle{INTRODUCTION}

\begin{itemize}

\item Optimal guidance law is Important for missile Guidance

\vspace*{.5\baselineskip}

\item Missile guiudance refers to a variety of methods of guiding a missile to intercept.

\vspace*{.5\baselineskip}

\item The main objective of guidance is to direct one object to move in such a way as to enable it
come as close as possible to another object

\vspace*{.5\baselineskip}

\item Interception takesplace if the positions of two objects coincide

\vspace*{.5\baselineskip}
\item Primary objective of guidance is to enable an object to move in such a way that enable it to
avoid another object.

\end{itemize}

\end{frame}

\begin{frame}

\frametitle{Introduction Contd..}

\begin{itemize}

\item To Understand how a guidance law affects the trajectory of an object we must first look at
kinematics of the interception problem

\vspace*{.5\baselineskip}

\item Relative velocities between objects play very important role in deciding whether an
interception has occured or not.

\vspace*{.5\baselineskip}

\end{itemize}

\end{frame}

\section{Existing systems}

\begin{frame}

\frametitle{Existing systems }

\begin{itemize}

\item Three large class of methods for collision avoidance

\vspace*{.5\baselineskip}

\item Local or Global motion planning method

\vspace*{.5\baselineskip}

\item Geometric guidance Approach

\vspace*{.5\baselineskip}
\item Artificial Potential field Approach

\vspace*{.5\baselineskip}

\end{itemize}

\end{frame}

\section{Steps}

\begin{frame}

\frametitle{Steps}

\begin{itemize}

\item Derive the linearized model of engagement.

\vspace*{.5\baselineskip}

\item Formulate guidance problems of intercept and rendezvous as optimal control problem.

\vspace*{.5\baselineskip}

\item Derive guidance laws.

\vspace*{.5\baselineskip}

\item Illustrate the performance of proposed guidance law using Matlab Simulation

\vspace*{.5\baselineskip}

\end{itemize}

\end{frame}

\section{Planar Engagement Geometry}

\begin{frame}

\frametitle{Planar Engagement Geometry}

\begin{figure}[htbp]
\centering

\includegraphics[scale=1]{P1}

\caption{Planar Engagement Geometry}

\end{figure}

\end{frame}

\begin{frame}

\frametitle{Planar Engagement Contd..}

\begin{itemize}

\item The missile and target

are denoted by the subscripts M and T

\vspace*{.5\baselineskip}

\item The

speed, normal acceleration, and flight path angles are denoted

by V , a, and

$\gamma$.

\vspace*{.5\baselineskip}

\item the relative range between the

two vehicles is r, and $\theta$ is the angle between the line-ofsight

direction and the X axis

\item the relative

displacement between the target and the missile normal to

the X axis

\begin{equation}

y=y_T -y_M
\end{equation}

\end{itemize}

\end{frame}

\begin{frame}

\frametitle{Planar Engagement Contd..}

\begin{itemize}

\item The target and missile lateral accelerations are

denoted by a

$a _ { T } ^ { \prime }and a _ { M } ^ { \prime }$

\item The projections of the

lateral accelerations normal to the X axis, that will be the

input variables for the linearized model, are denoted by aT

and aM

\vspace*{.5\baselineskip}

\begin{equation}

\ a_T =a _ { T } ^ { \prime }cos(\gamma_T_0+\theta_0)

\ a_M =a _ { M } ^ { \prime }cos(\gamma_M_0-\theta_0)

\end{equation}

\end{itemize}

\end{frame}
\begin{frame}

\frametitle{Planar Engagement Geometry (contd)}

\begin{figure}[htbp]

\centering

\includegraphics[scale=1]{P1}

\caption{Planar Engagement Geometry}

\end{figure}

\end{frame}

\begin{frame}

\frametitle{CRTBP Contd..}

\begin{itemize}

\item Consider the two primaries are in fixed rotating frame with normalized coordinates

\begin{eqnarray}

\dot{x}&=& u \\

\dot{y}&=&v\\

\dot{z}&=&w\\

\dot{u}&=&x+2v-(1-\mu)\frac{x+\mu}{r_{1}^{3}}-\mu\frac{(x-1+\mu)}{r_{2}^{3}}\\

\dot{v}&=&y-2u-y\frac{(1-\mu)}{r_{1}^{3}}-y\frac{\mu}{r_{2}^{3}}\\ \dot{w}&=&-z\frac{(1-
\mu)}{r_{1}^{3}}-z\frac{\mu}{r_{2}^{3}}\\ \nonumber

\end{eqnarray}
\end{itemize}

\end{frame}

\begin{frame}

\frametitle{CRTBP Contd..}

\begin{itemize}

where, \begin{eqnarray}

r_{1}&=&\sqrt{(x+\mu)^{2}+y^{2}+z^{2}}\\

r_{2}&=&\sqrt{(x+\mu-1)^{2}+y^{2}+z^{2}}\\\nonumber

\end{eqnarray}

\item $\mu$ is the mass parameter; where

\begin{equation}

\mu=\frac{m_{2}}{m_{1}+m_{2}}

\end{equation}

\item The state vector is denoted by $F_{0}$

\end{itemize}

\end{frame}

\begin{frame}

\frametitle{CRTBP Contd..}

\begin{itemize}

\item The potential is defined by

\begin{equation}

U(x,y,z)=-\frac{1}{2}(x^{2}+y^{2})-\frac{1-\mu}{r_{1}}-\frac{\mu}{r^{2}}-\frac{1}{2}(1-\mu)

\end{equation}
\item The energy of state point is defined as

\begin{equation}

E(\xi)=\frac{1}{2}(u^{2}+v^{2}+w^{2})+U(x,y,z)

\end{equation}

\end{itemize}

\end{frame}

\begin{frame}

\frametitle{Lagrange Points}

\begin{itemize}

\item The equlibrium points, where third body would appear permenantly at rest relative to
primaries.

\begin{figure}[htbp]

\centering

\includegraphics[scale=0.25]{Lagrange.jpg}

\caption{Lagrange points}

\end{figure}

\end{itemize}

\end{frame}

\begin{frame}

\frametitle{Libration Point orbits}

\begin{itemize}

\item The collinear points are shown to be unstable.

\vspace*{.5\baselineskip}
\item The equilateral points are proved to be stable under certain conditions.

\vspace*{.5\baselineskip}

\item There exist periodic orbits around different equilibrium points.

\vspace*{.5\baselineskip}

\item Periodic orbits can be used for the generation of manifolds.

\end{itemize}

\end{frame}

\begin{frame}

\frametitle{Libration Point orbits Cntd..}

\begin{itemize}

\begin{figure}[htbp]

\centering

\includegraphics[scale=0.3]{LyapOF.PNG}

\caption{Family of periodic planar orbits}

\end{figure}

\end{itemize}

\end{frame}

\begin{frame}

\frametitle{Invariant Manifolds}

\begin{itemize}

\item Manifolds are the solution surface formed by low energy trajectories.

\begin{itemize}
\item either converging or diverging

\end{itemize}

\vspace*{.5\baselineskip}

\item Set of equidistant points along periodic orbits are considerd.

\vspace*{.5\baselineskip}

\item Each such point serves as initial point for

\begin{itemize}

\item forward integration to obtain unstable manifold.

\item backward integration to obtain stable manifold.

\end{itemize}

\end{itemize}

\end{frame}

\begin{frame}

\frametitle{Invariant Manifolds Cntd..}

\begin{itemize}

\item Depending upon initial conditions and the perturbations

\newline the solution space consists 4 types of trajectories

\begin{itemize}

\vspace*{.25\baselineskip}

\item Right Unstable Manifold

\vspace*{.25\baselineskip}

\item Left Unstable Manifold

\vspace*{.25\baselineskip}

\item Right stable Manifold


\vspace*{.25\baselineskip}

\item Left stable Manifold

\end{itemize}

\vspace*{.5\baselineskip}

\item All branches of the manifolds intersect at periodic orbit.

\vspace*{.5\baselineskip}

\item Manifold to manifold transfer is possible at intersecting orbit.

\vspace*{.5\baselineskip}

\item Velocities must be equal.

\end{itemize}

\end{frame}

\begin{frame}

\frametitle{Invariant Manifolds Cntd..}

\begin{itemize}

\begin{figure}[htbp]

\centering

\includegraphics[scale=0.35]{hills.PNG}

\caption{Invariant manifolds associated with periodic orbits of points L1 and L2}

\end{figure}

\end{itemize}

\end{frame}

\begin{frame}
\frametitle{Trajectories with prescribed paths}

\begin{itemize}

\item Can be find out using invariant manifolds.

\begin{enumerate}

\vspace*{.25\baselineskip}

\item Appropriate energy is choosen.

\vspace*{.25\baselineskip}

\item Two periodic orbits around L1 and L2 with energy $\varepsilon$ are computed.

\vspace*{.25\baselineskip}

\item The four poincare surfaces of sections are defined

\begin{eqnarray}

U_{1}&=&{(x,y,z);x<0,y=0}\\

U_{2}&=&{(x,y,z);x=1-\mu,y<0}\\

U_{3}&=&{(x,y,z);x=1-\mu,y>0}\\

U_{4}&=&{(x,y,z);x<-1,y=0}\\\nonumber

\end{eqnarray}

\item Manifolds associated with the two periodic orbits are computed.

\end{enumerate}

\end{itemize}

\end{frame}

\section{Modeling}

\begin{frame}

\frametitle{Modeling}

\begin{itemize}
\item Model of spacecraft in CRTBP.

\begin{equation}

m(t)\frac{d\textbf{R}(t)}{dt}=-GM_{1}m(t)\frac{\textbf{R}_{13}(t)}{R_{13}^{3}(t)}-
GM_{2}m(t)\frac{\textbf{R}_{23}(t)}{R_{23}^{3}(t)}+T(t)

\end{equation}

\item Evolution of mass is given by

\begin{equation}

\dot{m}(t)=-\beta \|T(t)\|

\end{equation}

under constraints $\|T(t)\|\leq T_{max} $ :for all t\\

where $\beta=\frac{1}{I_{sp} g_{0}}$

\end{itemize}

\end{frame}

\begin{frame}

\frametitle{Modeling cntd..}

\begin{itemize}

\item Dynamics in normalized coordinates:

\begin{equation}

\begin{cases}

\dot{x}=F_{0}(x)+\frac{\epsilon}{m}\sum_{i=1}^{3}u_{i}F{i}(x) \\

\dot{m}=-\beta_{*}\epsilon\|u\|

\end{cases}

\end{equation}

where,$F_{1}(x)=\left[ {\begin{array}{c}

0\\0\\0\\1\\0\\0
\end{array} } \right]$,

$F_{2}(x)=\left[ {\begin{array}{c}

0\\0\\0\\0\\1\\0

\end{array} } \right]$

$F_{3}(x)=\left[ {\begin{array}{c}

0\\0\\0\\0\\0\\1

\end{array} } \right]$

\end{itemize}

\end{frame}

\section{Problem Formulation}

\begin{frame}

\frametitle{Impulse transfer}

\begin{itemize}

\item Impulse transfer between manifold $M_{0}$ to $M_{1}$

\vspace*{.5\baselineskip}

\item Let the intersection points in the poincare section be $\xi_{0}^{U}=(x_{0}^{U},v_{0}^{U})$ and
$\xi_{1}^{U}=(x_{1}^{U},v_{1}^{U})$; where

\begin{eqnarray}

x_{i}^{U}&=&(x_{i},y_{i},z_{i}), i\in [0,1]\\

v_{i}^{U}&=&(u_{i},v_{i},w_{i}), i\in [0,1]\\\nonumber

\end{eqnarray}

\item the orbit $A_{0}$ and $A_{1}$

\vspace*{.5\baselineskip}
\item the impulse $\Delta V =v_{1}^{U}-v_{0}^{U}$ has to be performed.

\end{itemize}

\end{frame}

\begin{frame}

\frametitle{Impulse transfer cntd..}

\begin{figure}[htbp]

\centering

\includegraphics[scale=0.4]{manifold.PNG}

\caption{Illustration of impulse transfer between two invariant manifolds.}

\end{figure}

\end{frame}

\begin{frame}

\frametitle{Optimal Control Problem}

\begin{itemize}

\item Problem: maximize the final mass

\vspace*{.5\baselineskip}

\item Two terminal points defined by; $\xi_{0}^{*}=\phi^{nat}(-t_{A_{0}},\xi_{0}^{U})$ and


$\xi_{1}^{*}=\phi^{nat}(t_{A_{1}},\xi_{1}^{U})$

\vspace*{.5\baselineskip}

\item Transfer time is chosen as $t_{f}=t_{A_{0}}+t_{A_{1}}$

\vspace*{.5\baselineskip}

\item Larger the transfer time, higher the final mass.

\vspace*{.5\baselineskip}

\item Max of final mass is equivalent to Mini of $L_{1}$ norm of control u.


\end{itemize}

\end{frame}

\begin{frame}

\frametitle{Opimal Control Problem Cntd..}

\begin{itemize}

\item The problem,

\begin{equation}

\begin{cases}

\textrm{Maximize} \quad C_{L{1}}=\int{0}{t_{f}}\|u\| dt\\

\dot{x}=F_{0}(x)+\frac{\epsilon}{m}\sum_{i=1}^{3}u_{i}F{i}(x) \\

\dot{m}=-\beta_{*}\epsilon\|u\|\\

\|u\|\leq1\\

x(0)=\xi_{0}^{*}, m(0)=m_{0}^{*}\quad \textrm{and} \quad x(t_{f})=\xi_{1}^{*}

\end{cases}

\end{equation}

\end{itemize}

\end{frame}

\section{Continuations}

\begin{frame}

\frametitle{Additional Continuations}

\begin{itemize}

\item Difficult to initialize the transfer.

\vspace*{.5\baselineskip}
\item Two additional continuations are introduced

\begin{enumerate}

\vspace*{.25\baselineskip}

\item Final state continuation

\vspace*{.25\baselineskip}

\item Thrust continuation

\end{enumerate}

\end{itemize}

\end{frame}

\begin{frame}

\frametitle{Final state continuation}

\begin{itemize}

\item A new point is defined $\xi_{1}^{nat}=\phi^{nat}(t_{f},\xi_{1}^{*})$

\vspace*{.5\baselineskip}

\item Problem is given by

\begin{equation}

\begin{cases}

\textrm{Maximize} \quad C_{L{1}}=\int{0}{t_{f}}\|u\| dt\\

\dot{x}=F_{0}(x)+\frac{\epsilon}{m}\sum_{i=1}^{3}u_{i}F{i}(x) \\

\dot{m}=-\beta_{*}\epsilon\|u\|\\

\|u\|\leq1\\

x(0)=\xi_{0}^{*}, m(0)=m_{0}^{*}\quad \textrm{and} \quad x(t_{f})=(1-


\lambda)\xi_{1}^{nat}+\lambda\xi_{1}^{*}

\end{cases}

\end{equation}
\end{itemize}

\end{frame}

\begin{frame}

\frametitle{Thrust continuation}

\begin{itemize}

\item An itermediate thrust is defined $\epsilon_{\lambda}=(1-


\lambda)\epsilon_{init}+\lambda\epsilon_{obj}$\\

where $\epsilon_{obj}$ is max thrust of engine and a greater thrust $\epsilon_{init}$

\vspace*{.5\baselineskip}

\item Problem is given by

\begin{equation}

\begin{cases}

\textrm{Maximize} \quad C_{L{1}}=\int{0}{t_{f}}\|u\| dt\\

\dot{x}=F_{0}(x)+\frac{\epsilon_{\lambda}}{m}\sum_{i=1}^{3}u_{i}F{i}(x) \\

\dot{m}=-\beta_{*}\epsilon_{\lambda}\|u\|\\

\|u\|\leq1\\

x(0)=\xi_{0}^{*}, m(0)=m_{0}^{*}\quad \textrm{and} \quad x(t_{f})=(1-


\lambda)\xi_{1}^{nat}+\lambda\xi_{1}^{*}

\end{cases}

\end{equation}

\end{itemize}

\end{frame}

\section{Algorithm}

\begin{frame}
\frametitle{Algorithm}

\begin{enumerate}

\item Compute Libration points for the considered system.

\vspace*{.5\baselineskip}

\item Generate periodic orbits around $L_{1}$ and $L_{2}$.

\vspace*{.5\baselineskip}

\item Compute intersection with pointcare cut U.

\vspace*{.5\baselineskip}

\item Compute the two points $\xi_{0}^{U}$ and $\xi_{1}^{U}$ that miniize
$\Delta\xi=\|\xi_{0}^{U}-\xi_{1}^{U}\|$.

\vspace*{.5\baselineskip}

\item Choose two times $t_{A_{0}}$ and $t_{A_{1}}$ and compute $t_{f}$, $\xi_{0}^{*}$ and
$\xi_{1}^{*}$.

\vspace*{.5\baselineskip}

\item Continuation in final state.

\vspace*{.5\baselineskip}

\item Continuation in thrust.

\end{enumerate}

\end{frame}

\section{Results}

\begin{frame}

\frametitle{Simulation Results}

\begin{itemize}

\item Parameters taken for simulation :

\begin{itemize}
\vspace*{.5\baselineskip}

\item Sun-Earth system is considered

\vspace*{.5\baselineskip}

\item Two energy levels at halo orbits around $L_{1}$ and $L_{2}$ : $\xi_{L_{1}}=-1.500444$ and
$\xi_{L_{2}}=-1.500443$.

\vspace*{.5\baselineskip}

\item Transfer time $t_{A_{0}}=t_{A_{1}}=0.5$

\vspace*{.5\baselineskip}

\item Starting thrust= 60N and targeted thrust of 0.3N

\vspace*{.5\baselineskip}

\item initial mass= 1500kg to a final mass 1490.1144kg.

\end{itemize}

\end{itemize}

\end{frame}

\begin{frame}

\frametitle{Simulation Results Cntd..}

\begin{itemize}

\begin{figure}[htbp]

\centering

\includegraphics[scale=0.4]{figa.PNG}

\caption{Intersection of two invariant manifolds}

\end{figure}

\end{itemize}

\end{frame}
\begin{frame}

\frametitle{Simulation Results Cntd..}

\begin{itemize}

\begin{figure}[htbp]

\centering

\includegraphics[scale=0.4]{figb.PNG}

\caption{Optimal solution of transfer after iterative continuations}

\end{figure}

\end{itemize}

\end{frame}

\begin{frame}

\frametitle{Simulation Results Cntd..}

\begin{itemize}

\begin{figure}[htbp]

\centering

\includegraphics[scale=0.5]{control.PNG}

\caption{Norm of control during final state continuation. (19 iterations)}

\end{figure}

\end{itemize}

\end{frame}

\section{Conclusion}

\begin{frame}
\frametitle{Conclusion}

\begin{itemize}

\item A new general algorithm is designed that performs transfer between two invariant manifolds.

\vspace*{.5\baselineskip}

\item Algorithm relies on few user defined parameters.

\vspace*{.5\baselineskip}

\item Since we performed min. of $L_{1}$ norm of control, transfer time should be fixed.

\vspace*{.5\baselineskip}

\item Study of influence of $t_{f}$ is done.

\vspace*{.5\baselineskip}

\item For some values of $t_{f}$ this method fails

\end{itemize}

\end{frame}

\begin{frame}

\frametitle{Conclusion Cntd..}

\begin{itemize}

\item This method allows low-thrust transfer between invariant manifolds.

\vspace*{.5\baselineskip}

\item The algorithm constitute a brick for designing interplanetary missions.

\vspace*{.5\baselineskip}

\item This could be a good first step to initialize missions patching three body problems with some
uncontrolled parts and some controlled parts.

\end{itemize}

\end{frame}
\section{References}

\begin{frame}{References}

\fontsize{8pt}{10}\selectfont

\bibliographystyle{unsrt}

\begin{thebibliography}{9}

\bibitem{1} Chupin, M., Haberkorn, T., and Trelat, E., "Transfer between invariant Manifolds: From
Impulse to Low-Thrust Transfer" {\it AIAA Journal of Guidance, Navigation and Control}, Jan 2018.

\bibitem{2} Koon, W. S., Lo, M. W., Marsden, J. E., and Ross, J. E.,{\it "Dynamical

Systems, the Three-Body Problem, and Space Mission Design"} Springer–Verlag, New York, 2006,
Chapter. 4.

\bibitem{3} H.D. Curtis, {\it "Orbital Mechanics for Engineering Students"},Elsevier Butterworth-
Heinemann Linacre House, Jordan Hill, Oxford, 2005, Chapter 2.

\bibitem{4} J.D. Mireles James {\it "Celestial Mechanics Notes Set 4: The Circular Restricted Three
Body Problem" };December 19, 2006

\bibitem{5} Chupin, M., Haberkorn, T., and Trelat, E., "Low-Thrust Lyapunov

to Lyapunov and Halo to Halo Missions with $L^{2}$-Minimization," {\it ESAIM: Mathematical Modelling
and Numerical Analysis}; ESAIM:

M2AN 51, 2017.

\end{thebibliography}

\end{frame}

\end{document}