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- Vedic Maths Tutorial
- INTERMEDIATE ALGEBRA, Third Edition
- Unit 2 Revision Guide
- FOIL Worksheet 3
- NCERT Mathematic Class XII Book - Part II
- Mathematics Class VIII
- Book Mathematics Class VII
- FOIL for Beginners
- NCERT Book Mathematics Class XI
- NCERT Book -Mathematics - Class IX
- Vedic Mathematics(ORIGNAL BOOK)
- 10th Ncert Exempler Full
- Addition and Subtraction
- Algebra worksheet 1
- Algebra Worksheet 2
- Algebra Worksheet 3
- Algebra Worksheet 4
- Algebra
- Division
- Exponents

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Function can be easily defined with the help of the concept of mapping. Let X and Y

be any two non-empty sets. "A function from X to Y is a rule or correspondence that

assigns to each element of set X, one and only one element of set Y". Let the

correspondence be 'f' then mathematically we write f:X → Y

where

y = f(x), x ε X and y ε Y. We say that 'y' is the image of 'x' under 'f' (or x is the pre

image of y).

(i) A mapping f: X → Y is said to be a function if each element in the set X has its

image in set Y. It is possible that a few elements in the set Y are present which are

not the images of any element in set X.

(ii) Every element in set X should have one and only one image. That means it is

impossible to have more than one image for a specific element in set X. Functions

can't be multi-valued (A mapping that is multi-valued is called a relation from X to Y)

• Set 'Y' is called the co-domain of the function 'f'.

• Set of images of different elements of set X is called the range of the

function 'f'. It is obvious that range could be a subset of co-domain as we may have

few elements in co-domain which are not the images of any element of the set X (of

course these elements of co-domain will not be included in the range). Range is also

called domain of variation.

The set of values for which a function is defined is called the domain of the function.

The range of the function is the set of all images of domain of f. In above example,

the set A is the domain of the function f. B is not range but the co-domain of the

function. The range is the subset of the co-domain. The domain and the range of

a function may be an interval, open, closed, semi-closed or semi-open i.e. the

domain may be an interval of any of the following types.

If x ε (p, ∞], then {x : x > p}

Range (f). Note that sometimes domain of the function is not explicitly defined. In

these cases domain would mean the set of values of 'x' for which f(x) assumes real

values. e.g. if y = f(x) then Domain (f) = {x : f(x) is a real number}.

e.g. Let X = {a, b, c}, Y = {x, y, z}. Suppose f(a) = y, f(a) = x, f(b) = y, f(c) = z.

Then f is not a function of X into Y since a ε X has more than one f-images in Y.

On the other hand, if we set f(a) = x, f(b) = x and f(c) = x, then f:X → is a function

since each element in X has exactly one f-image in Y.

The range of f = {f(x) : x ε X} = {x2 : x ε R} = [0, ∞).

R+

(iii) Let X = R, Y = R and y2 = x. Her f(x) = +√x i.e. f is not a function of X into Y

since each x > 0 has two f-images in Y, and further, each x < 0 has no f-image in Y.

We are primarily interested in functions whose domain and ranges are subsets of real

numbers. Such functions are often called Real Valued functions.

In this formula we must have 2x + 6 > 0 and therefore x > -3. Therefore, the

domain of f is (-3, ∞), the range of f = (0, ∞). Thus we have the function f : (-3, ∞)

→ (0, ∞) defined by f(x) = 1/√(2x+6).

Let the function f be defined by f(x) = x/((x-1)(x-2)). The formula makes sense for

all values of x except x = 1 and x = 2. Therefore, the domain of f is R - {1, 2}

Functions: one-one/many-one/into/onto

Consider the function x → f(x) = y with the domain A and co-domain B.

If for each x ε A there exist only one image y ε B and each y ε B has a unique

pre-image x ε A (i.e. no two elements of A have the same image in B), then f is said

to be one-one function. Otherwise f is many-to-one function.

e.g. x = + 2, y = x2 = 4

Graphically, if a line parallel to x axis cuts the graph of f(x) at more than one point

then f(x) is many-to-one function and if a line parallel to y-axis cuts the graph at

more than one place, then it is not a function.

mapping), defined between sets X and Y such that Y has at least one element 'y'

which is not the f-image of X are called into mappings.

f[X} Y and f[X] ≠ Y. => f [X] Y that is range is not a proper subset of co-

domain.

least one element of X. Onto mapping are also called surjection.

Illustration

Check whether y = f(x) = x3; f : R → R is one-one/many-one/into/onto

function.

=>X13 =X23

=> x1 = x2

For onto-into:

Illustration:

What kind of function does the Venn diagram in figure given below represent?

Domain = Df = {a, b, c}

Co-domain = {1, 2, 3}

Range = Rf = {1, 2}

Examples

Ans.

Examples

2. Given the sets c = {1, 2, 3} and D = {a, b, c}

Ans.1

f:A→B f:A→B

2. (i) 6

(ii) 33 - 6 = 21

Illustration:

Domain of y = f(x) is the set of values of x for which y is real and finite.

Solution:

(a) For all real and finite x, y is also real and finite

when x = 1, y = ∞ (infinite)

Therefore Df = R -{0, 1}

also xy - y = x + 1

=> x (y - 1) = y + 1

x = (y+1)/(y-1)

Therefore Rf = R - {-1, 1}

Illustration:

Solution:

or (x - 1)(x - 3) < 0

=> Df = [1, 3]

Therefore Df = [1, 3) υ [5, ∞); at x = 3, we here open interval,

Because at x = 3, y is infinite.

(c) y = √sin x

Examples

Ans.

1. (a) Df = [1, 3)

(c) Df = {-1, 1}

Increasing or decreasing function

However if

However if

Strictly increasing and decreasing functions are also called Monotonic Function.

Illustration:

Is y = 2x + 3 increasing/decreasing function.

Solution:

Since, ∀ x ε R, y ε R

Therefore Df = R

=> y = f(x) = 2x + 3 is strictly increasing function.

Examples

Let f : X → Y be a function defined by y = f(x) such that f is both one - one and

onto. Then there exists a unique function g : Y → X such that for each y ε Y,

Further, if g is the inverse of f, then f is the inverse of g and the two functions f and

g are said to be the inverses of each other. For the inverse of a function to exists,

the function must be on-one and onto.

Apply the formula of f on f-1 (x), we will get an equation in f-1 (x) and x.

Note : A function and its inverse are always symmetric with respect to the line y

= x.

Illustration: Let f : R → R defined by f(x) = (ex-e-x)/2 . Find f-1 (x).

We give below some standard functions along with their inverse functions:

2

1. f:[0,∞)→[0,∞) defined by f(x)=x f :[0,∞)→[0,∞) defined by f-1(x) = √x

-1

1

f(x)=sin x (x)=sin-1x

4. f:[-∏/2,∏/2] →(-∞,∞) defined by f1:(-∞,∞)→[-(∏/2),∏/2] defined by

f(x)=tan x f1(x)=tan-1 x

1

x x

defined by f(x) = sec x defined by f-1 (x) = sec-1 x

defined by f(x) = cosec x defined by f-1 (x) = cosec-1 x

Invertible function

Let us define a function y = f(x): X → Y. If we define a function g(y) such that x =

g(y) then g is said to be the inverse function of 'f'.

This again violates the definition of function for 'g' (In fact when f is one tone and

onto then 'g' can be defined from range of f to domain of i.e. g : f(X) → X.

Hence, the inverse of a function can be defined within the same sets for x and Y

only when it is one-one and onto or Bijective.

Solution:

This is many-one because for x = + a, y = a2, this is into because y does not take

the negative real values.

(see figure below)

Solution:

Illustration: Let f : [0, α) → [0, α) be defined as y = f(x) = x2. Is it invertible? If so

find its inverse.

Solution:

Yes, it is invertible because this is bijection function. Its graph is shown in figure

given below.

=> x = +√y

=> x = + √y

Figure (A)

Illustration: How are the graphs of function and the inverse function related? These

graphs are mirror images of each other about the line y = x.

Solution:

Also, if the graph of y = f(x) and y = f-1 (x), they intersect at the point where y meet

the line y = x.

Figure (B)

Graphs of the function and its inverse are shown in figures given above as Figure (A)

and (B)

Examples

y = -√x (Figure B)

Even And Odd Function

f(-x) = f(x) ∀ x ε X

symmetrical w.r.t. origin.

and an odd function.

y = F1(x) + F2(x)

Whereas,

= -((f(x) - f(x))/2)

= -F2(x).

Exercise

(1) y = x3

(2) y = x4

(3) y + x + cos x

Explicit and implicit functions

independent variable x i.e. terms of 'x' must not involve y in any manner then the

function is called an explicit function e.g.

y = x2 + 1

y = sin x + cos x

equation that y cannot be written explicitly as function of x then f(x) is said to be an

implicit function.

Periodic function

These are the function, whose value repeats after a fixed constant interval called

period, and which makes a class of a widely used function.

The least positive real value of T for, which above relation is true, is called the

fundamental period or just the period of the function.

(i) If f(x) is periodic with period p, then a f(x) + b, where a, b ε R (a≠0) is also a

periodic function with period p.

(ii) If f(x) is periodic with period, then f(ax + b), where a ε R -{0} and b ε R, is also

periodic with period p/|a|.

(iii) let us suppose that f(x) is periodic with period p and g(x) is periodic with period

q. Let r be the L.C.M. of p and q, if it exists.

(a) If f(x) and g(x) cannot be interchanged by adding a least positive number k,

then r is the period of f(x) + g(x).

(b) If f(x) and g(x) can be interchanged by adding a least positive number k and if

k < r, then k is the period of f(x) + g(x). Otherwise r is the period.

Solution:

Period of sinx is 2p and that of {x} is 1. But the L.C.M. of 2p and 1 does not exist.

Hence sinx + {x} is not periodic.

(ii) Here f(x) = tanx/3 + sin2x. Here tan(x/3). Here tan(x/3) is periodic with period

3p and sin2x is periodic with period p.

|cos x| = |sin (x + ∏/2)|

Solution:

Let n=0

T+x=x

=> T = 0

Let n = 1,

T+x=∏-x

T + x = 2∏ + x

=> T = 2∏

Example

Find the period of y = cos √x and y = x sin x if possible

Bounded and unbounded function

Let a function be defined as f(x): A → B and we can find two real numbers m and

M such that m < f(x) < M ∀ x ε A then f(x) is called the bounded function. m and M

are called the lower-bound and the upper-bound of f(x) respectively. The range of

f(x) is [m, M] (see figure given below), If however, m and M or either of them is not

defined (i.e. infinite) then f(x) is said to be unbounded function.

The function f: R → a where 'a' is a constant, is called a constant function. It is

denoted by f(x) = a. The graph of a constant function is as shown in the figure given

below; clearly a constant function is all-to-one.

function. The graph of an identity function is shown in the figure given below.

Examples

Check whether the following functions are identical with their inverse.

(a) xy = 1

(b) x2 + y2 = 1

(b) only for 0 < x < 1, 0 < y < 1

Absolute Value Function

The graph of an absolute value function is shown in the figure given above. Its

properties are:

(a) y = |x - 1| + |x - 4|

(b) y = |sin x|

at x =1 and x = 4.

y = |x - 1| + |x - 4|

y = -(x - 1) - (x - 4) = -2x + 5

Now, let 1 < x < 4

y = (x - 1) - (x - 4) = 3

y = (x - 1) + (x - 4) = 2x - 5

(b) y = |sin x|

y>0∀xεR

∀ x > 0, y = sin x

Signum Function

= 0; x=0

Polynomial And Rational Function

x → P(x)/Q(x) , Q(x) ≠ 0.

Linear Function

When the degree of P(x) and Q(x) in a rational function, are one then it is called a

linear function.

f(x) = (ax+b)/(cx+d)

Exponential Function

Exponential and Logarithmic Functions:

The function f(x) = ax, a > 0 where the base 'a' is constant and index x is a

variable, is called an exponential function.

'f' is R - (-∞, 0] or (0, ∞)

The graph is different for 0 < a < 1 and a > 1, so we will discuss these cases

separately.

Case I. a>1

f(x) ... 1/8 ¼ ½ 1 2 4 8 16 32 64 ... ...

Note:

So, it is a strictly increasing function, hence invertible.

X -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3

f(x) 8 4 2 1 ½ ¼ 1/8

We observe that

≠ 1.

For a < 0 the exponential function in not defined precisely and for a = 1 it turns out

to be constant function.

We have observed that y = ax is a monotonic function (either strictly) decreasing or

strictly increasing). Hence it is invertible,

So y = ax <=> x = loga y

Writing it in conventional form it becomes

Writing it in conventional form it becomes

(iii) logb 1 = 0

(iv) logb b = 1

(x) logb bx = x

(xi) (b)logbx = x

Illustration: Prove logb a = 1/loga b

Solution:

=> a = bc and b = ad

=> c = 1/d

Solution:

=> ((b)d)m = bc

=> md = c

Greatest Integer Function

f(x) = [x] = greatest integer less than or equal to x is called the greatest

integer function. The graph of a greatest integer function is shown in figure given

below. The graph shows that it is increasing (not strictly) many-to-one function.

Solution:

3<x+1<4

x = [x] + (x)

i.e.

[3.7] = 3

(3,7) = 0.7

[-3,7] = -4

(-3.7) = 0.3.

Note : 0 < (x) < 1

Examples

1. [x + 1] = [x] + 1 ∀ x ε R True/False

( ) represents integer greater than or equal to x.

Ans.1 True

Ans.2 True

Ans.3 1<x<2

Graphical representation of a Function

The function f : R - {0} → R is represented in the graph such that the x co-ordinate

represents the independent variable and the y co-ordinate represents the dependent

variable. The graph of the function shows various properties of the function directly

and more clearly. The limiting case of the graph of the function is represented by an

asymptote:

Asymptote is a straight line to which graph of the function approaches at infinity but

does not exactly touch it as shown in figure shown above.

AND DEFINITION

1. A Constant Function f : R → {c}

defined by f{x} = c

defined by f(x) = x

Function

defined by f(x) = |x|

4. The Exponential f : R → (0, ∞)

Function

defined by f(x) = ex

Logarithmic

defined by f(x) = In x

Function

defined by f(x) = [x]

the greatest

integer< x

x

defined by f(x) = {x}

9. Rational Functions f(x) = p(x)/q(x), where p(x) and q(x) are polynomials

in x. Domain is R - {x : q(x) = 0}

11. Inverse circular Functions

Composite Functions

Another useful combination of two functions f and g is the composition of these two

functions. Let f : X → Y and g : Y → Z be two functions.

the f-image f(x), of an element x in X so that f(x) ε Y, which is the domain of g(x)

and then take the g-image of f(x), that is, g(f(x)), which is an element of Z. The

scheme is shown in the figure.

The function h, defined above, is called the composition of f and g and is written gof.

Thus (gof)(x) = g(f(x)). Domain of gof = {x : x in domain f, f(x) in domain g}.

function defined by g(x) = √x. Then gof(x) = g(f(x)) = √(x2 + 4). Domain of gof = R.

Thus we have gof : R → R defined by (gof)(x) = √(x2 + 4). Similarly, we shall have

fog : [0, ∞) → R defined by (fog)(x) = x + 4. Note that (gof)(x) ≠ (fog)(x).

(i) x2 < 1, -1 < x < 2 => -1 < x < 1, -1 < x < 2 => -1 < x < 1

(ii) x2 + 2 < 1, 2 < x < 3 => x < -1, 2 < x < 3 => x = φ

=> x ε [-√2, -1) υ (1,√2] , -1 < x < 2 => 1 < x < √2

(iv) 1 < x+2 < 2, 2 < x < 3 => -1 < x < 0, 2 < x < 3, x = φ

(i) -1 < x+1 < 2, x < 1 => -2 < x < 1, x < 1 => -2 < x < 1

(ii) -1 < 2x+1 < 2, 1 < x < 2 => -1 , x < ½, 1 < x < 2 => x= φ

(iv) 2 < 2x+1 < 3, 1 < x < 2 => 1 < 2x < 2, 1 < x < 2

Problem of finding out fog and gof can also be handled using graphical

methods

f(g(x))

Here g(x) becomes the variable that means we would draw the graph of g(x). It is

clear that g(x) < 1 ∀ x ε [-1, 1] and 1 < g(x) < 2 ∀ x ε (1, √2]

In this case f(x) becomes the variable and we will draw the graph of f(x). From the

graph we observe that -1 < f(x) < 2 ∀ x ε [-2, 1) and f(x) = x + 1.

Basic Transformations on Graphs

It is obvious that domain of f(x) and f(x) + b are the same. Let us take any point x0in

the domain of f(x). y|x=x0 = f(x0).

For b > 0 => f(x0) + b > f(x0) it means that the corresponding point on

f(x) + b would be lying at a distance 'b' units above point on f(x).

For b > 0 => f(x0) + b < f(x0) it means that the corresponding point on

f(x) + b would be lying at a distance 'b' units below point on f(x).

Accordingly the graph of f(x) + b can be obtained by translating the graph of f(x)

either in the positive y-axis direction (if b > 0) or in the negative y-axis direction (if b

< 0), through a distance |b| units.

|f(x)| = f(x) if f(x) > 0 and |f(x)| = -f(x) if f(x) < 0. It means that the graph of f(x)

and |f(x)| would coincide if f(x) > 0 and the portions where f(x) < 0 would get

inverted in the upwards direction.

The above figure would make the procedure clear.

Thus f(|x|) would be a even function. Graphs of f(|x|) and f(x) would be identical in

the first and the fourth quadrants (as x > 0) and as such the graph of f(|x|) would be

symmetrical about the y-axis (as (|x|) is even).

Drawing the graph of |y| = f(x) from the known graph of y = f(x)

Clearly |y| > 0. If f(x) < 0, graph of |y| = f(x) would not exist. And if

f(x) > 0, |y| = f(x) would give y = + f(x). Hence graph of |y| = f(x) would exist only

in the regions where f(x) is non-negative and will be reflected about the x-axis only in

those regions.

Drawing the graph of y = f(x + a), a ε R from the known graph of y = f(x)

a > 0 => x < x0, and a < 0 => x > x0. That mean x0 and x0 - a would given us

same abscissa for f(x) and f(x + a) respectively.

As such, for a > 0, graph of f(x + a) can be obtained simply by translating the graph

of f(x) in the negative x-direction through a distance 'a' units. If a < 0, graph of f(x

+ a) can be obtained by translating the graph of f(x) in the positive x-direction

through a distance a units.

It is clear that the corresponding points (points with same x co-ordinates) would

have their ordinates in the ratio of 1 : a.

Clearly if 0 < a < 1 then x > x0 and f(x) will stretch by 1/a units against the y-axis,

and if a > 1, x < x0, then f(x) will compress by a units against the y-axis.

For drawing the graph of y = f-1(x) we have to first of all find the interval in which

the function is bijective (invertible). Then take the reflection of y = f(x) (within the

invertible region) about the line y = x. The reflected part would give us the graph of

y = f-1(x).

e.g. let us draw the graph of y = sin-1 x. We know that y = f(x) = sin x is invertible if

f : [-∏/2, ∏/2] → [-1, 1], => the inverse mapping would be f-1 : [-1, 1]→[-∏/2,

∏/2].

Illustration: Draw the graph of f(x) = cosx cos(x + 2) - cos2(x + 1).

-(1/2)[cos(2x + 2) + 1]

Solved Examples

Example 1:

Given are two sets A {1, 2, -2, 3} and B = {1, 2, 3, 5}. Is the function f(x) = 2x - 1

defined from A to B?

Solution :

Out of all the ordered pairs, the ordered pairs which are related by the function f(x) =

2x - 1 are {(1, 1), (2, 3), (3, 5) But for (-2) in A, we do not have any value in B. So,

this function does not exist from

A->B.

Example 2:

A function f is defined as f: N -> N (where N is natural number set) and f(x) = x+2.

Is this function ONTO?

Solution :

For : A->B

When x = 1 f(x) = 3

When x = 2 f(x) = 4

So f(x) never assume values 1 and 2. So, B have two elements which do not have

any pre-image in A. So, it is not an ONTO function.

Example 3 :

Find the range and domain of the function f(x) = (2x+1)/(x-1) and also find its

inverse.

Solution :

R -{1}.

Let,(2x+3)/(x-1) = y

=> 2x + 3 = yx - y

=> yx - 2x = y + 3

=> (y - 2)x = y + 3

=> x =(y+3)/(t-2)

Inverse is y =(x+3/x-2) .

Example 4:

Solution :

D>0

Example 5 :

(c) x - |x|.

Solution :

Note: Let g(x) = cos 3x

= cos 3x

= g(x)

Period of |cos x| = ∏

=> T + x - [T + x] = x - [x]

= integer

1 = [1 + x] - [x]

Period of f(x) is 1.

Example 6:

Show that the inverse of a linear fraction function is always a linear fraction function

(except where it is not defined).

Solution:

Let, f(x) = (a+bx)/(c+dx) be the said linear fraction function.

(a+bx)/(c+dx) = y

=> a + bx - cy - dxy = 0

=> a - cy + x (b - dy) = 0

=> x = (cy-a)/(b-dy).

Example 7:

If graph of function f(x) is as shown in the figure given below, then plot the graph of

|f(x)|.

Solution:

(a) |f(x)| will reflect the graph of f(x) below x axis to the (-) ve y axis side. So the

graph will be as shown in the figure given below.

(b) f(x) + 1 will just shift the graph by one unit position up. So the required graph

is as shown in the figure given below.

(c) f(x + 2) will shift the graph of f(x) by two units to left, the graph will be as

shown in the figure given below.

(d) f-1(x) is obtained by reflection of graph f(x) on the line y = x as shown in the

figure given below.

Example 8:

Solution:

Example 9:

Solution:

=> f(x) = (e-x-1)/(e-x+1) = (1-ex)/(1+ex)

= -((ex-1)/(ex+1)) = -f(x)

=> -log((1-x)/(1+x))

= -[√(1+x+x2) - √(1-x+x2)]

f(-x) = -f(x)

Example 10:

= 3 - x; 2 < x < 3

Determine

(b) f(f(f(x)))

(c) f([x])

(d) [f(x)]

Solution:

(b) Let 0 < x < 1

f(f(f(x)))

But we observe that there is no single definition f(f(x)) for this interval.

f(f(f(x)))

= 3 - (2 + x)

=1-x

=1+2-x

=3-x

= f(f(f(x)))

= 1 + (4 - x)

=5-x

Let x = 0

(c) f([x])

f[x] = f(0) = 1

f[x] = f(1) = 2

f[x] = f(2) = 3

Let x = 3

f([x]) = f(3) = 0

(d) [f(x)]

Let 0<x<1

Let 1<x<2

Let x=2

f(x) = 3

[f(x)] = 3

Let 2<x<3

Example 11:

If x2 + y2 = 1

Solution:

Consider,

x + y = cos θ + sin θ

= √2((1/√2)sinθ + (1/√2)cosθ )

= √2sin((∏/4) + θ)

Recall : sin((∏/4)+θ) can take maximum value 1 and minimum value -1.

=>|√2 sin((∏/4)+θ)| ≤ √2

Example 12:

Check the invertibility of the function f(x) = (ex - e-x); and then find its inverse.

Solution:

We have

f(x) = ex - e-x; x ε R

limx->α f(x) = α

limx->-α f(x) = -α

Therefore f : R -> R

=> t2 - 1 = ty

=> t2 - ty - 1 = 0

=> t = (y+√(y2+4))/2 [t cannot be negative]

Now

t = ex

=> ex = (y+√(y2+4))/2

Example 13:

Solution:

=> - f(x)

= (√x-(1/√x))2 + 2

Example 14:

Let A = R - {3},

B = R - {1}, let f: A -> B be defined by f(x) = (x-2)/(x-3). Is f bijective? Give

reasons.

Solution:

=> x1 = x2

Let y be any arbitrary element of B and suppose there exists an x such that f(x) = y

since y ≠ 1, x is real

and so f is surjective

Tricky Examples

Example 15:

Show that if an odd function is invertible, then its inverse is also an odd

function.

Solution:

Let y = f(x) be an odd function

Then

f(-x) = -f(x) = -y

x = g(y)

Consider,

g(-y) = g(-f(x))

= g(f(-x)) = -x = -g(y)

Example 16:

Solution:

(iv) When x = 0 the value of y = 3

(i) Domain = R

(ii) f(x) = -f(x), so function is odd the graph is not symmetric about any axis

but symmetric about origin.

ordinate axes.

=> x2 + 1 > 2x

increases and from 1 to a it decreases. So the graph is as shown in fig.

(i) Domain of y is R

=> 0 < sin2 x - 2sinx + 1 < 4

(iv) y = 0 for x = 0, n∏

Example 17:

Solution:

Method 1:

Case I :

Let x = n ε I

n2 = n2 + 2n

=> n = 0

Case II:

Let x ε I

(n - 1)2 = n2 + 2x

=> x = n + 1/2, n ε I

Therefore x = 0 or x = n + 1/2; n ε I

Method 2:

Case I :

x I

x = (x) - (1 - {x})

=> 1 - 2 {x} = 0

x = n + 1/2, n ε I

Also, x = 0, by observation.

Example 18:

Find the set x if the function f:[2, α] -> x where f(x) = 5 - 4x + x2 is bijective.

Solution:

y = x2 - 4x + 5

= (x - 2)2 + 1

When x = 2, y = 1

Therefore Set X ≡ [1, α)

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