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# Introduction to Functions

## Definition of Function: Domain, Co-domain and Range

Function can be easily defined with the help of the concept of mapping. Let X and Y
be any two non-empty sets. "A function from X to Y is a rule or correspondence that
assigns to each element of set X, one and only one element of set Y". Let the
correspondence be 'f' then mathematically we write f:X → Y

where

y = f(x), x ε X and y ε Y. We say that 'y' is the image of 'x' under 'f' (or x is the pre
image of y).

## Two things should always be kept in mind:

(i) A mapping f: X → Y is said to be a function if each element in the set X has its
image in set Y. It is possible that a few elements in the set Y are present which are
not the images of any element in set X.

(ii) Every element in set X should have one and only one image. That means it is
impossible to have more than one image for a specific element in set X. Functions
can't be multi-valued (A mapping that is multi-valued is called a relation from X to Y)

## • Set 'X' is called the domain of the function 'f'.

• Set 'Y' is called the co-domain of the function 'f'.
• Set of images of different elements of set X is called the range of the
function 'f'. It is obvious that range could be a subset of co-domain as we may have
few elements in co-domain which are not the images of any element of the set X (of
course these elements of co-domain will not be included in the range). Range is also
called domain of variation.

The set of values for which a function is defined is called the domain of the function.
The range of the function is the set of all images of domain of f. In above example,
the set A is the domain of the function f. B is not range but the co-domain of the
function. The range is the subset of the co-domain. The domain and the range of
a function may be an interval, open, closed, semi-closed or semi-open i.e. the
domain may be an interval of any of the following types.

## If x ε ]-∞, p[, then {x : x < p}

If x ε (p, ∞], then {x : x > p}

## Domain of function 'f' is normally represented as Domain (f). Range is represented as

Range (f). Note that sometimes domain of the function is not explicitly defined. In
these cases domain would mean the set of values of 'x' for which f(x) assumes real
values. e.g. if y = f(x) then Domain (f) = {x : f(x) is a real number}.

e.g. Let X = {a, b, c}, Y = {x, y, z}. Suppose f(a) = y, f(a) = x, f(b) = y, f(c) = z.
Then f is not a function of X into Y since a ε X has more than one f-images in Y.

On the other hand, if we set f(a) = x, f(b) = x and f(c) = x, then f:X → is a function
since each element in X has exactly one f-image in Y.

## Then f : X → Y is a function since each element in X has exactly one f-image in Y.

The range of f = {f(x) : x ε X} = {x2 : x ε R} = [0, ∞).

## (ii) Let X = R+, Y = R+ and y = √x. Then f : X → Y is a function. The range of f is

R+

(iii) Let X = R, Y = R and y2 = x. Her f(x) = +√x i.e. f is not a function of X into Y
since each x > 0 has two f-images in Y, and further, each x < 0 has no f-image in Y.

We are primarily interested in functions whose domain and ranges are subsets of real
numbers. Such functions are often called Real Valued functions.

## e.g. Let the function f be defined by f(x) = 1/√(2x+6).

In this formula we must have 2x + 6 > 0 and therefore x > -3. Therefore, the
domain of f is (-3, ∞), the range of f = (0, ∞). Thus we have the function f : (-3, ∞)
→ (0, ∞) defined by f(x) = 1/√(2x+6).

Let the function f be defined by f(x) = x/((x-1)(x-2)). The formula makes sense for
all values of x except x = 1 and x = 2. Therefore, the domain of f is R - {1, 2}
Functions: one-one/many-one/into/onto

## Functions can be classified according to their images and pre-images relationships.

Consider the function x → f(x) = y with the domain A and co-domain B.

If for each x ε A there exist only one image y ε B and each y ε B has a unique
pre-image x ε A (i.e. no two elements of A have the same image in B), then f is said
to be one-one function. Otherwise f is many-to-one function.

## while x → x2, x ε R is many-to-one function. (see figure above)

e.g. x = + 2, y = x2 = 4

Graphically, if a line parallel to x axis cuts the graph of f(x) at more than one point
then f(x) is many-to-one function and if a line parallel to y-axis cuts the graph at
more than one place, then it is not a function.

## Mapping (when a function is represented using Venn-diagrams then it is called

mapping), defined between sets X and Y such that Y has at least one element 'y'
which is not the f-image of X are called into mappings.

## Hence for into mappings:

f[X} Y and f[X] ≠ Y. => f [X] Y that is range is not a proper subset of co-
domain.

## The mapping of 'f' is said to be onto if every element of Y is the f-image of at

least one element of X. Onto mapping are also called surjection.

## One-one and onto mapping are called bijection.

Illustration
Check whether y = f(x) = x3; f : R → R is one-one/many-one/into/onto
function.

=>X13 =X23

=> x1 = x2

For onto-into:

## Therefore y = x3 is bijective function.

Illustration:

What kind of function does the Venn diagram in figure given below represent?

## Solution: This many-one into function

Domain = Df = {a, b, c}

Co-domain = {1, 2, 3}

Range = Rf = {1, 2}

Examples

Ans.

Examples

## (ii) many-one onto function

2. Given the sets c = {1, 2, 3} and D = {a, b, c}

Ans.1

f:A→B f:A→B

2. (i) 6

(ii) 33 - 6 = 21

Illustration:

## (a) y = 3x + 5 (b) y = (x2 +x)/(x2 - x)

Domain of y = f(x) is the set of values of x for which y is real and finite.

## Range is the set of values of y for which x is real and finite.

Solution:

(a) For all real and finite x, y is also real and finite

## when x = 0, y is 0/0 from (i.e. indetermined form)

when x = 1, y = ∞ (infinite)

Therefore Df = R -{0, 1}

also xy - y = x + 1

=> x (y - 1) = y + 1
x = (y+1)/(y-1)

## also, for ≠ 0 => y ≠ -1

Therefore Rf = R - {-1, 1}

Illustration:

Solution:

## (a) y is real and finite if (x - 1)(3 - x) > 0

or (x - 1)(x - 3) < 0

=> Df = [1, 3]

## (-∞, 1), (1, 3), (3, 5), (5, ∞)

Therefore Df = [1, 3) υ [5, ∞); at x = 3, we here open interval,

Because at x = 3, y is infinite.

(c) y = √sin x

Examples

## (a) (b) y =|x

Ans.

1. (a) Df = [1, 3)

(c) Df = {-1, 1}

## Rf = {1, 2, 6, 24, ......}

Increasing or decreasing function

However if

However if

## Then it said to be strictly decreasing.

Strictly increasing and decreasing functions are also called Monotonic Function.

Illustration:

Is y = 2x + 3 increasing/decreasing function.

Solution:

Since, ∀ x ε R, y ε R

Therefore Df = R

## => f(x2) > f(x1)

=> y = f(x) = 2x + 3 is strictly increasing function.

Examples

## (b) Strictly decreasing

Let f : X → Y be a function defined by y = f(x) such that f is both one - one and
onto. Then there exists a unique function g : Y → X such that for each y ε Y,

## g(y) = x <=> y = f(x). The function g so defined is called the inverse of f.

Further, if g is the inverse of f, then f is the inverse of g and the two functions f and
g are said to be the inverses of each other. For the inverse of a function to exists,
the function must be on-one and onto.

## fof-1 = I => (fof-1(x)) = I (x) = x.

Apply the formula of f on f-1 (x), we will get an equation in f-1 (x) and x.

## Solve it to get f-1 (x).

Note : A function and its inverse are always symmetric with respect to the line y
= x.
Illustration: Let f : R → R defined by f(x) = (ex-e-x)/2 . Find f-1 (x).

## Thus ef-1(x) = x + √(x2 +1) . Hence, f-1(x) = log(x + √(x2 +1)) .

We give below some standard functions along with their inverse functions:

## FUNCTIONS INVERSE FUNCTION

2
1. f:[0,∞)→[0,∞) defined by f(x)=x f :[0,∞)→[0,∞) defined by f-1(x) = √x
-1

## 2. f:[-∏/2,∏/2] →[-1,1] defined by f1 [-1,1]→[-(∏/2),∏/2] defined by f-

1
f(x)=sin x (x)=sin-1x

## 3. f:[0,∏]→[-1,1] defined by f(x)=sinx f1:[-1,1]→[0,∏] defined by f1(x)=cos-1x

4. f:[-∏/2,∏/2] →(-∞,∞) defined by f1:(-∞,∞)→[-(∏/2),∏/2] defined by
f(x)=tan x f1(x)=tan-1 x

1
x x

## 6. f:[0,∏/2)U(n/2,n]→(-∞, -1]U[1,∞) f-1:(-∞,-1]U[1,∞) →[0,∏/2)U(∏/2,∏]

defined by f(x) = sec x defined by f-1 (x) = sec-1 x

## 7. f:[-(∏/2),0)(0,n/2]→(-∞,-1]U[1,∞) f-1:(-∞,-1]U[1,∞) →[0,-(∏/2))U(0,∏/2]

defined by f(x) = cosec x defined by f-1 (x) = cosec-1 x

## 8. f:R → R+ defined by f(x) = ex f-1(x):R+ → R defined by f-1 (x) = In x.

Invertible function
Let us define a function y = f(x): X → Y. If we define a function g(y) such that x =
g(y) then g is said to be the inverse function of 'f'.

## Further if f : X → Y is into then there must be a point in Y for which there is no x.

This again violates the definition of function for 'g' (In fact when f is one tone and
onto then 'g' can be defined from range of f to domain of i.e. g : f(X) → X.

Hence, the inverse of a function can be defined within the same sets for x and Y
only when it is one-one and onto or Bijective.

Solution:

## No it is not invertible because this is a many one into function

This is many-one because for x = + a, y = a2, this is into because y does not take
the negative real values.

## Illustration: Let f : R → [0, α) be defined as y = f(x) = x2. Is it invertible?

(see figure below)

Solution:

## No it is not invertible, it because it is many one onto function.

Illustration: Let f : [0, α) → [0, α) be defined as y = f(x) = x2. Is it invertible? If so
find its inverse.

Solution:

Yes, it is invertible because this is bijection function. Its graph is shown in figure
given below.

=> x = +√y

=> x = + √y

Figure (A)

## i.e. if f and g are inverse of each other then f(g(x)) = g(f(x)) = x

Illustration: How are the graphs of function and the inverse function related? These
graphs are mirror images of each other about the line y = x.
Solution:

Also, if the graph of y = f(x) and y = f-1 (x), they intersect at the point where y meet
the line y = x.

Figure (B)

Graphs of the function and its inverse are shown in figures given above as Figure (A)
and (B)

Examples

## y = f(x) = x2 and its inverse is

y = -√x (Figure B)

## Ans.2 y = (ex - ex)/2

Even And Odd Function

## A function f(x) : X → Y defined such that

f(-x) = f(x) ∀ x ε X

## Graphically, an even function is symmetrical w.r.t. y-axis and odd function is

symmetrical w.r.t. origin.

## Note : In general all functions can be represented as sum of an even function

and an odd function.

## => y = (f(x) + f(-x))/2 + (f(x) - f(-x))/2

y = F1(x) + F2(x)

Whereas,

## And F2(-x) = (f(-x) - f(x))/2

= -((f(x) - f(x))/2)

= -F2(x).

Exercise

## State whether the following functions are odd or even or neither.

(1) y = x3
(2) y = x4

(3) y + x + cos x

## (4) y = loge(x + √(x2 + 1))

Explicit and implicit functions

## If, in a function the dependent variable y can be explicitly written in terms of

independent variable x i.e. terms of 'x' must not involve y in any manner then the
function is called an explicit function e.g.

y = x2 + 1

y = sin x + cos x

## If the dependent variable y and independent variable x are so convoluted in an

equation that y cannot be written explicitly as function of x then f(x) is said to be an
implicit function.

## e.g. x2 + y2 = tan-1 xy.

Periodic function
These are the function, whose value repeats after a fixed constant interval called
period, and which makes a class of a widely used function.

## f(T + x) = f(x) ∀ x ε domain of f.

The least positive real value of T for, which above relation is true, is called the
fundamental period or just the period of the function.

## Rules for finding the period of the periodic functions

(i) If f(x) is periodic with period p, then a f(x) + b, where a, b ε R (a≠0) is also a
periodic function with period p.

(ii) If f(x) is periodic with period, then f(ax + b), where a ε R -{0} and b ε R, is also
periodic with period p/|a|.

(iii) let us suppose that f(x) is periodic with period p and g(x) is periodic with period
q. Let r be the L.C.M. of p and q, if it exists.

(a) If f(x) and g(x) cannot be interchanged by adding a least positive number k,
then r is the period of f(x) + g(x).

(b) If f(x) and g(x) can be interchanged by adding a least positive number k and if
k < r, then k is the period of f(x) + g(x). Otherwise r is the period.

Solution:

## (i) Here f(x) = sinx + {x}

Period of sinx is 2p and that of {x} is 1. But the L.C.M. of 2p and 1 does not exist.
Hence sinx + {x} is not periodic.

(ii) Here f(x) = tanx/3 + sin2x. Here tan(x/3). Here tan(x/3) is periodic with period
3p and sin2x is periodic with period p.

## |sin x| = |cos (x + ∏/2)|

|cos x| = |sin (x + ∏/2)|

Solution:

Let n=0

T+x=x

=> T = 0

Let n = 1,

T+x=∏-x

T + x = 2∏ + x

=> T = 2∏

## Note: If we cannot find T independent of x, then y = f(x) is not periodic.

Example
Find the period of y = cos √x and y = x sin x if possible

## Ans. These are non-periodic function

Bounded and unbounded function

Let a function be defined as f(x): A → B and we can find two real numbers m and
M such that m < f(x) < M ∀ x ε A then f(x) is called the bounded function. m and M
are called the lower-bound and the upper-bound of f(x) respectively. The range of
f(x) is [m, M] (see figure given below), If however, m and M or either of them is not
defined (i.e. infinite) then f(x) is said to be unbounded function.

## Constant function and the Identity function

The function f: R → a where 'a' is a constant, is called a constant function. It is
denoted by f(x) = a. The graph of a constant function is as shown in the figure given
below; clearly a constant function is all-to-one.

## The function f(x): R → R defined such that f(x) = x ∀ x ε R is an Identify

function. The graph of an identity function is shown in the figure given below.

## Note: The inverse of an identity function is the identity function itself.

Examples

Check whether the following functions are identical with their inverse.

(a) xy = 1

(b) x2 + y2 = 1

## Ans. (a) Yes

(b) only for 0 < x < 1, 0 < y < 1
Absolute Value Function

## Note : √x2 = |x| ∀ x ε R

The graph of an absolute value function is shown in the figure given above. Its
properties are:

## Illustration 12: Draw the graph of the following functions.

(a) y = |x - 1| + |x - 4|

(b) y = |sin x|

## (a) Note: x - 1 = 0 => x = 1 and x - 4 = 0 => x = 4 i.e. y changes its definition

at x =1 and x = 4.

y = |x - 1| + |x - 4|

## let - ∞ < x < 1

y = -(x - 1) - (x - 4) = -2x + 5
Now, let 1 < x < 4

y = (x - 1) - (x - 4) = 3

## Again, Let 4 < x

y = (x - 1) + (x - 4) = 2x - 5

(b) y = |sin x|

y>0∀xεR

## (c) y = sin |x|

∀ x > 0, y = sin x

Signum Function

= 0; x=0

## The graph of a signum function is as shown in the figure given above.

Polynomial And Rational Function

## degree n. The domain of every polynomial function is R.

x → P(x)/Q(x) , Q(x) ≠ 0.

Linear Function

When the degree of P(x) and Q(x) in a rational function, are one then it is called a
linear function.

## So, the linear fraction is defined as

f(x) = (ax+b)/(cx+d)

## And its range is R - {a/c} (Therefore x = (b-dy)/(cy-a)).

Exponential Function
Exponential and Logarithmic Functions:

The function f(x) = ax, a > 0 where the base 'a' is constant and index x is a
variable, is called an exponential function.

## Clearly, x ε R so domain of f(x) is R and for no value of x, f(x) < 0 so range of

'f' is R - (-∞, 0] or (0, ∞)

## Graph of an exponential function: y = ax:

The graph is different for 0 < a < 1 and a > 1, so we will discuss these cases
separately.

Case I. a>1

## X ... -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 ... ...

f(x) ... 1/8 ¼ ½ 1 2 4 8 16 32 64 ... ...

Note:

## (ii) This function is increasing strictly as x increases.

So, it is a strictly increasing function, hence invertible.

## Let a = 1/2 Domain of f is (-∞, ∞) The value table is as under

X -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3
f(x) 8 4 2 1 ½ ¼ 1/8

We observe that

## So it is a strictly decreasing function. Hence, y = ax is a monotonic function for any a

≠ 1.

For a < 0 the exponential function in not defined precisely and for a = 1 it turns out
to be constant function.
We have observed that y = ax is a monotonic function (either strictly) decreasing or
strictly increasing). Hence it is invertible,

So y = ax <=> x = loga y

## The inverse exponential function x = loga y is known as logarithmic function.

Writing it in conventional form it becomes

## The inverse exponential function x = loga y is known as logarithmic function.

Writing it in conventional form it becomes

(iii) logb 1 = 0

(iv) logb b = 1

## (ix) logbn x = 1/n logb x

(x) logb bx = x

(xi) (b)logbx = x
Illustration: Prove logb a = 1/loga b

Solution:

## Let c = logb a and d = loga b

=> a = bc and b = ad

=> c = 1/d

Solution:

=> ((b)d)m = bc

=> md = c

## => logb xm = m logb x.

Greatest Integer Function

## The function f(x) : R → Z defined as:

f(x) = [x] = greatest integer less than or equal to x is called the greatest
integer function. The graph of a greatest integer function is shown in figure given
below. The graph shows that it is increasing (not strictly) many-to-one function.

Solution:

3<x+1<4

x = [x] + (x)

## and ( ) denotes the fractional part

i.e.

[3.7] = 3

(3,7) = 0.7

[-3,7] = -4

(-3.7) = 0.3.
Note : 0 < (x) < 1

## ∀ n < x < n + 1 => [x] = n, n ε I

Examples

1. [x + 1] = [x] + 1 ∀ x ε R True/False

## 3. If [(x) + x] = 3 then x =? where [ ] represents greatest integer function and

( ) represents integer greater than or equal to x.

Ans.1 True

Ans.2 True

Ans.3 1<x<2
Graphical representation of a Function

The function f : R - {0} → R is represented in the graph such that the x co-ordinate
represents the independent variable and the y co-ordinate represents the dependent
variable. The graph of the function shows various properties of the function directly
and more clearly. The limiting case of the graph of the function is represented by an
asymptote:

Asymptote is a straight line to which graph of the function approaches at infinity but
does not exactly touch it as shown in figure shown above.

## S.No. FUNCTION DOMAN, RANGE GRAPH

AND DEFINITION
1. A Constant Function f : R → {c}

defined by f{x} = c

## 2. The Identity Function f:R→R

defined by f(x) = x

## 3. The Absolute Value f : R → [0, ∞)

Function
defined by f(x) = |x|
4. The Exponential f : R → (0, ∞)
Function
defined by f(x) = ex

## 5. The Natural f: (0, ∞) → R

Logarithmic
defined by f(x) = In x

## 6. The Greatest Integer f:R→Z

Function
defined by f(x) = [x]

the greatest
integer< x

## 7. The Fractional part of f:R→R

x
defined by f(x) = {x}

## where a0, a1, ......, an are real numbers, a0 ≠ 0.

9. Rational Functions f(x) = p(x)/q(x), where p(x) and q(x) are polynomials
in x. Domain is R - {x : q(x) = 0}

## 10. Trigonometric or Circular Functions:

11. Inverse circular Functions
Composite Functions

Another useful combination of two functions f and g is the composition of these two
functions. Let f : X → Y and g : Y → Z be two functions.

## We define a function h : X → Z by setting h(x) = g(f(x). To obtain h(x), we first take

the f-image f(x), of an element x in X so that f(x) ε Y, which is the domain of g(x)
and then take the g-image of f(x), that is, g(f(x)), which is an element of Z. The
scheme is shown in the figure.

The function h, defined above, is called the composition of f and g and is written gof.
Thus (gof)(x) = g(f(x)). Domain of gof = {x : x in domain f, f(x) in domain g}.

## e.g. Let f : R → R be a function defined by f(x) = x2 + 4 and g[0, ∞) → R be a

function defined by g(x) = √x. Then gof(x) = g(f(x)) = √(x2 + 4). Domain of gof = R.
Thus we have gof : R → R defined by (gof)(x) = √(x2 + 4). Similarly, we shall have
fog : [0, ∞) → R defined by (fog)(x) = x + 4. Note that (gof)(x) ≠ (fog)(x).

## Let us consider, g(x) < 1 :

(i) x2 < 1, -1 < x < 2 => -1 < x < 1, -1 < x < 2 => -1 < x < 1

(ii) x2 + 2 < 1, 2 < x < 3 => x < -1, 2 < x < 3 => x = φ

## (iii) 1 < x2 < 2, -1 < x < 2

=> x ε [-√2, -1) υ (1,√2] , -1 < x < 2 => 1 < x < √2

(iv) 1 < x+2 < 2, 2 < x < 3 => -1 < x < 0, 2 < x < 3, x = φ

## Let us consider -1 < f(x) < 2 :

(i) -1 < x+1 < 2, x < 1 => -2 < x < 1, x < 1 => -2 < x < 1

(ii) -1 < 2x+1 < 2, 1 < x < 2 => -1 , x < ½, 1 < x < 2 => x= φ

## (iii) 2 < x+1 < 3 , x < 1 => x < 2 , x < 1 => x = 1

(iv) 2 < 2x+1 < 3, 1 < x < 2 => 1 < 2x < 2, 1 < x < 2

## If we like we can also write g(f(x)) = (x+1)2, -2 < x < 1.

Problem of finding out fog and gof can also be handled using graphical
methods

f(g(x))
Here g(x) becomes the variable that means we would draw the graph of g(x). It is
clear that g(x) < 1 ∀ x ε [-1, 1] and 1 < g(x) < 2 ∀ x ε (1, √2]

In this case f(x) becomes the variable and we will draw the graph of f(x). From the
graph we observe that -1 < f(x) < 2 ∀ x ε [-2, 1) and f(x) = x + 1.

## i.e. g(f(x)) = (x + 1)2, -2 < x < 1

Basic Transformations on Graphs

## Drawing the graph of y = f(x) + b, b ε R, from the known graph of y = f(x)

It is obvious that domain of f(x) and f(x) + b are the same. Let us take any point x0in
the domain of f(x). y|x=x0 = f(x0).

## The corresponding point on f(x) + b would be f(x0) + b.

For b > 0 => f(x0) + b > f(x0) it means that the corresponding point on
f(x) + b would be lying at a distance 'b' units above point on f(x).

For b > 0 => f(x0) + b < f(x0) it means that the corresponding point on
f(x) + b would be lying at a distance 'b' units below point on f(x).

Accordingly the graph of f(x) + b can be obtained by translating the graph of f(x)
either in the positive y-axis direction (if b > 0) or in the negative y-axis direction (if b
< 0), through a distance |b| units.

## Drawing the graph of y = |f(x)| from the known graph of y = f(x)

|f(x)| = f(x) if f(x) > 0 and |f(x)| = -f(x) if f(x) < 0. It means that the graph of f(x)
and |f(x)| would coincide if f(x) > 0 and the portions where f(x) < 0 would get
inverted in the upwards direction.
The above figure would make the procedure clear.

## It is clear that, f(|x|) =

Thus f(|x|) would be a even function. Graphs of f(|x|) and f(x) would be identical in
the first and the fourth quadrants (as x > 0) and as such the graph of f(|x|) would be
symmetrical about the y-axis (as (|x|) is even).

## The figure would make the procedure clear.

Drawing the graph of |y| = f(x) from the known graph of y = f(x)

Clearly |y| > 0. If f(x) < 0, graph of |y| = f(x) would not exist. And if
f(x) > 0, |y| = f(x) would give y = + f(x). Hence graph of |y| = f(x) would exist only
in the regions where f(x) is non-negative and will be reflected about the x-axis only in
those regions.
Drawing the graph of y = f(x + a), a ε R from the known graph of y = f(x)

## Let us take any point x0 ε domain of f(x), and set x + a = x0 or x = x0 - a.

a > 0 => x < x0, and a < 0 => x > x0. That mean x0 and x0 - a would given us
same abscissa for f(x) and f(x + a) respectively.

As such, for a > 0, graph of f(x + a) can be obtained simply by translating the graph
of f(x) in the negative x-direction through a distance 'a' units. If a < 0, graph of f(x
+ a) can be obtained by translating the graph of f(x) in the positive x-direction
through a distance a units.

## Drawing the graph of y = a f(x) from the known graph of y = f(x)

It is clear that the corresponding points (points with same x co-ordinates) would
have their ordinates in the ratio of 1 : a.

## Let us take any point x0 ε domain of f(x). Let ax = x0 or x = x0/a.

Clearly if 0 < a < 1 then x > x0 and f(x) will stretch by 1/a units against the y-axis,
and if a > 1, x < x0, then f(x) will compress by a units against the y-axis.

## Drawing the graph of y = f-1(x) from the known graph of y = f(x)

For drawing the graph of y = f-1(x) we have to first of all find the interval in which
the function is bijective (invertible). Then take the reflection of y = f(x) (within the
invertible region) about the line y = x. The reflected part would give us the graph of
y = f-1(x).

e.g. let us draw the graph of y = sin-1 x. We know that y = f(x) = sin x is invertible if
f : [-∏/2, ∏/2] → [-1, 1], => the inverse mapping would be f-1 : [-1, 1]→[-∏/2,
∏/2].
Illustration: Draw the graph of f(x) = cosx cos(x + 2) - cos2(x + 1).

## 1/2 [cos(2x + 2) + cos 2]

-(1/2)[cos(2x + 2) + 1]

## = (1/2) cos 2 -(1/2) < 0.

Solved Examples

Example 1:

Given are two sets A {1, 2, -2, 3} and B = {1, 2, 3, 5}. Is the function f(x) = 2x - 1
defined from A to B?

Solution :

Out of all the ordered pairs, the ordered pairs which are related by the function f(x) =
2x - 1 are {(1, 1), (2, 3), (3, 5) But for (-2) in A, we do not have any value in B. So,
this function does not exist from
A->B.

Example 2:

A function f is defined as f: N -> N (where N is natural number set) and f(x) = x+2.
Is this function ONTO?

Solution :

## Since, N = {1, 2, 3, 4, .........} and A = B = N

For : A->B

When x = 1 f(x) = 3

When x = 2 f(x) = 4

So f(x) never assume values 1 and 2. So, B have two elements which do not have
any pre-image in A. So, it is not an ONTO function.

Example 3 :

Find the range and domain of the function f(x) = (2x+1)/(x-1) and also find its
inverse.

Solution :

R -{1}.

## Now, for finding the range

Let,(2x+3)/(x-1) = y

=> 2x + 3 = yx - y

=> yx - 2x = y + 3

=> (y - 2)x = y + 3

=> x =(y+3)/(t-2)

## Range of f(x) is R - {2}.

Inverse is y =(x+3/x-2) .
Example 4:

Solution :

D>0

Example 5 :

(c) x - |x|.

Solution :

## So period of f(x) is 2p.

Note: Let g(x) = cos 3x

= cos 3x

= g(x)

## (b) f(x) = |cos x| + |sin2 x|

Period of |cos x| = ∏

## => f(T + x) = f(x)

=> T + x - [T + x] = x - [x]

= integer

## Equation (1) becomes

1 = [1 + x] - [x]

## which is true for all x ε R

Period of f(x) is 1.

Example 6:

Show that the inverse of a linear fraction function is always a linear fraction function
(except where it is not defined).

Solution:
Let, f(x) = (a+bx)/(c+dx) be the said linear fraction function.

## Let at some x it attains value y, so,

(a+bx)/(c+dx) = y

=> a + bx - cy - dxy = 0

=> a - cy + x (b - dy) = 0

=> x = (cy-a)/(b-dy).

## and inverse of the given function is, y = (cx-a)/(b-dx).

Example 7:

If graph of function f(x) is as shown in the figure given below, then plot the graph of
|f(x)|.

## f(x) + 1, f(x + 2) and f-1 (x)

Solution:

(a) |f(x)| will reflect the graph of f(x) below x axis to the (-) ve y axis side. So the
graph will be as shown in the figure given below.
(b) f(x) + 1 will just shift the graph by one unit position up. So the required graph
is as shown in the figure given below.

(c) f(x + 2) will shift the graph of f(x) by two units to left, the graph will be as
shown in the figure given below.

(d) f-1(x) is obtained by reflection of graph f(x) on the line y = x as shown in the
figure given below.
Example 8:

Solution:

Example 9:

Solution:

## (a) f(x) = (ex-1)/(ex+1)

=> f(x) = (e-x-1)/(e-x+1) = (1-ex)/(1+ex)

= -((ex-1)/(ex+1)) = -f(x)

## => f(-x) = log((1+x)/(1-x)) log((1-x)/(1+x))-1

=> -log((1-x)/(1+x))

## f(-x) = √(x2-x+1) - √(1+x+x2)

= -[√(1+x+x2) - √(1-x+x2)]

f(-x) = -f(x)

Example 10:

## If f(x) = 1 + x; 0 < x < 2

= 3 - x; 2 < x < 3

Determine

(b) f(f(f(x)))

(c) f([x])

(d) [f(x)]

## Where [ ] represents the greatest integer function.

Solution:
(b) Let 0 < x < 1

f(f(f(x)))

## = f(2 + x) 2 < 2 + x < 3

But we observe that there is no single definition f(f(x)) for this interval.

f(f(f(x)))

= 3 - (2 + x)
=1-x

=1+2-x

=3-x

= f(f(f(x)))

= 1 + (4 - x)

=5-x

Let x = 0

(c) f([x])

f[x] = f(0) = 1

f[x] = f(1) = 2

## Let 2 < x < 3

f[x] = f(2) = 3

Let x = 3

f([x]) = f(3) = 0
(d) [f(x)]

Let 0<x<1

Let 1<x<2

Let x=2

f(x) = 3

[f(x)] = 3

Let 2<x<3

Example 11:

If x2 + y2 = 1

Solution:

## Since, x2 + y2 = 1 => x = cos θ, y = sin θ

Consider,

x + y = cos θ + sin θ

= √2((1/√2)sinθ + (1/√2)cosθ )

= √2sin((∏/4) + θ)

Recall : sin((∏/4)+θ) can take maximum value 1 and minimum value -1.

=>|√2 sin((∏/4)+θ)| ≤ √2

## => - √2 < x + y < √2. Hence proved.

Example 12:

Check the invertibility of the function f(x) = (ex - e-x); and then find its inverse.

Solution:

We have

f(x) = ex - e-x; x ε R

limx->α f(x) = α

limx->-α f(x) = -α

## f'(x) = ex + e-x > 0 ∀ ∑ R

Therefore f : R -> R

## Now, f(x) = y = t - 1/t [where t = ex]

=> t2 - 1 = ty

=> t2 - ty - 1 = 0
=> t = (y+√(y2+4))/2 [t cannot be negative]

Now

t = ex

=> ex = (y+√(y2+4))/2

Example 13:

Solution:

=> - f(x)

## => f(f(x)) + f(f(1/x)) = x + 1/x

= (√x-(1/√x))2 + 2

## so f(f(x)) + f(f(1/x)) > 2

Example 14:

Let A = R - {3},
B = R - {1}, let f: A -> B be defined by f(x) = (x-2)/(x-3). Is f bijective? Give
reasons.

Solution:

=> x1 = x2

## (b) Let us test the function for surjectivity

Let y be any arbitrary element of B and suppose there exists an x such that f(x) = y

## (x-2)/(x-3) = y => x = (3y-2)/(y-1)

since y ≠ 1, x is real

## Thus x = (3y-2)/(y-1) ε A such that f(x) = y i.e. ∀ y ε B, we have x ε A.

and so f is surjective

## This proves that f is bijective.

Tricky Examples

Example 15:

Show that if an odd function is invertible, then its inverse is also an odd
function.

Solution:
Let y = f(x) be an odd function

Then

f(-x) = -f(x) = -y

x = g(y)

## Where g(x) = f-1 (x)

Consider,

g(-y) = g(-f(x))

= g(f(-x)) = -x = -g(y)

Example 16:

Solution:

## So minimum value of y is at x2 = 1(x = + 1).

(iv) When x = 0 the value of y = 3

## (b) y = f(x) = 2x/(1+x2).

(i) Domain = R

(ii) f(x) = -f(x), so function is odd the graph is not symmetric about any axis

ordinate axes.

=> x2 + 1 > 2x

## So 2x/(x2+1) < 1 and equality holds at x = 1. Also from 0 to 1 the function

increases and from 1 to a it decreases. So the graph is as shown in fig.

## (c) y = f(x) = sin2 x - 2sinx

(i) Domain of y is R

## (ii) 0 < (sin x - 1)2 < 4

=> 0 < sin2 x - 2sinx + 1 < 4

## Sufficient to draw the graph for domain [0, 2∏]

(iv) y = 0 for x = 0, n∏

Example 17:

Solution:

Method 1:

Case I :

Let x = n ε I

n2 = n2 + 2n

=> n = 0

Case II:
Let x ε I

## Given equation becomes:

(n - 1)2 = n2 + 2x

=> x = n + 1/2, n ε I

Therefore x = 0 or x = n + 1/2; n ε I

Method 2:

Case I :

x I

## x = [x] + {x}; where {x} represent fraction part of x.

x = (x) - (1 - {x})

=> 1 - 2 {x} = 0

## => {x} = 1/2

x = n + 1/2, n ε I

Also, x = 0, by observation.

Example 18:

Find the set x if the function f:[2, α] -> x where f(x) = 5 - 4x + x2 is bijective.

Solution:

y = x2 - 4x + 5

= (x - 2)2 + 1

When x = 2, y = 1

## As x ε [2, α) then y ε [1, α]

Therefore Set X ≡ [1, α)