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Strategic Management & Business Policy, 13e (Wheelen/Hunger)

Chapter 5 Internal Scanning and Organizational Analysis

1) Resources are the organization's assets and are the basic building blocks of the organization.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 138
Topic: A Resource-Based Approach to Organizational Analysis

2) The resources of an organization include tangible assets, human assets, and intangible assets.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 138
Topic: A Resource-Based Approach to Organizational Analysis

3) Capabilities refer to a corporation's ability to exploit its resources.


Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 138
Topic: A Resource-Based Approach to Organizational Analysis

4) New product development would be a core competency if it goes beyond one division.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 138
Topic: A Resource-Based Approach to Organizational Analysis
AACSB: Analytic Skills

5) General Electric is well known for its distinctive competency in management development.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 138
Topic: A Resource-Based Approach to Organizational Analysis

6) Core competencies may mature and become core deficiencies.


Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 138
Topic: A Resource-Based Approach to Organizational Analysis

7) An example of a cluster in the US is found in the Silicon Valley.


Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 140
Topic: A Resource-Based Approach to Organizational Analysis
AACSB: Analytic Skills

8) Two characteristics that determine the sustainability of a firm's distinctive competency are
durability and transparency.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 140
Topic: A Resource-Based Approach to Organizational Analysis

1
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9) Durability is the rate at which a firm's underlying resources and capabilities (core
competencies) can be duplicated by others.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 140
Topic: A Resource-Based Approach to Organizational Analysis

10) A core competency can be easily imitated to the extent that it is transparent, transferable, and
replicable.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 140
Topic: A Resource-Based Approach to Organizational Analysis

11) Since competitors were not able to understand how Gillette's Mach 3 razor was produced, it
was considered transparent.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 140
Topic: A Resource-Based Approach to Organizational Analysis
AACSB: Analytic Skills

12) Transferability is the ability of competitors to use duplicated resources and capabilities to
imitate the other firm's success.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 140
Topic: A Resource-Based Approach to Organizational Analysis

13) Tacit knowledge is knowledge that can be easily communicated or articulated and as result
can be easily imitated.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 141
Topic: A Resource-Based Approach to Organizational Analysis

14) eBay and Amazon.com have successfully used the efficiency model by acting as an
intermediary to connect multiple sellers to multiple buyers.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 143
Topic: Business Models
AACSB: Reflective Thinking

15) A value chain is a linked set of value-creating activities.


Answer: TRUE
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 143
Topic: Value-Chain Analysis

16) A company's center of gravity is the part of the value chain that is most important to the
company and the point where its greatest expertise and core competencies lie.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 145
Topic: Value-Chain Analysis
2
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17) A company's center of gravity is usually the point at which the company started.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 145
Topic: Value-Chain Analysis

18) According to Porter, a manufacturing firm's support activities usually begin with inbound
logistics, go through an operations process in which a product is manufactured, and continue on
to outbound logistics and finally to service.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 146
Topic: Value-Chain Analysis

19) When a company uses the same marketing channel for two separate products, this is an
example of an economy of scope.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 147
Topic: Value-Chain Analysis
AACSB: Analytic Skills

20) A functional structure is appropriate for a medium sized firm with several product lines in
one industry.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 147
Topic: Scanning Functional Resources and Capabilities

21) A divisional structure has no functional or product categories and is appropriate for a small,
entrepreneur-dominated company with one or two product lines that operates in a reasonably
small, easily identifiable market niche.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 147
Topic: Scanning Functional Resources and Capabilities

22) Cultural integration is the degree to which members of a unit accept the norms, values, or
other culture content associated with the unit.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 149
Topic: Scanning Functional Resources and Capabilities

23) When employees across the organization hold the same cultural values and norms, this
demonstrates a high level of cultural integration.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 149
Topic: Scanning Functional Resources and Capabilities
AACSB: Analytic Skills

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24) The corporate culture generally reflects the values of the founder(s) and the mission of the
firm.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 149
Topic: Scanning Functional Resources and Capabilities

25) The marketing mix refers to the particular combination of key variables under the
corporation's control that can be used to affect demand and to gain competitive advantage.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 151
Topic: Scanning Functional Resources and Capabilities

26) The product life cycle enables a marketing manager to examine the marketing mix of a
particular product or group of products in terms of its position in its life cycle.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 152
Topic: Scanning Functional Resources and Capabilities

27) Research reveals a positive relationship between corporate reputation and financial
performance.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 153
Topic: Scanning Functional Resources and Capabilities
AACSB: Reflective Thinking

28) Research indicates that greater financial leverage has a positive impact on performance for
firms in dynamic environments.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 153
Topic: Scanning Functional Resources and Capabilities
AACSB: Reflective Thinking

29) A good rule of thumb for R & D spending is that a corporation should spend at a "normal"
rate for that particular industry unless its strategic plan calls for unusual expenditures.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 154
Topic: Scanning Functional Resources and Capabilities

30) A company's capability in product R & D can be measured by consistent reductions in unit
manufacturing costs and by the number of product defects.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 154
Topic: Scanning Functional Resources and Capabilities

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Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
31) It is generally accepted that product R & D normally dominates the early stages of a
product's life cycle, whereas process R & D becomes especially important in the later stages.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 154
Topic: Scanning Functional Resources and Capabilities

32) Historically, competitive leadership in a market changes hands as one technology nears the
end of its S-curve.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 155
Topic: Scanning Functional Resources and Capabilities

33) An example of an intermittent manufacturing system is an auto body repair shop.


Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 156-157
Topic: Scanning Functional Resources and Capabilities
AACSB: Analytic Skills

34) Intermittent manufacturing systems reap benefits from economies of scale.


Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 157
Topic: Scanning Functional Resources and Capabilities
AACSB: Reflective Thinking

35) Flexible manufacturing permits the low-volume output of custom-tailored products at


relatively low unit costs through economies of scope.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 158
Topic: Scanning Functional Resources and Capabilities

36) Using concurrent engineering, Chrysler Corporation was able to reduce its product
development cycle from 60 to 36 months.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 159
Topic: Scanning Functional Resources and Capabilities

37) To increase flexibility, avoid layoffs, and reduce labor costs, corporations are using more
contingent workers.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 160
Topic: Scanning Functional Resources and Capabilities
AACSB: Reflective Thinking

38) A current trend in corporate information systems is the increasing use of the Internet for
marketing, intranets for internal communication, and extranets for logistics and distribution.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 162
Topic: Scanning Functional Resources and Capabilities
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39) The EFAS Table is one way to organize the internal factors into generally accepted categories
of strengths and weaknesses as well as to analyze how well a particular company's management
is responding to these specific factors in light of the perceived importance of these factors to the
company.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 129
Topic: Synthesis of Internal Factors

40) Those critical strengths and weaknesses that are likely to determine if a firm will be able to
take advantage of opportunities while avoiding threats are called
A) SWOT.
B) competitive forces.
C) internal strategic factors.
D) quality accounting.
E) factor analysis.
Answer: C
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 138
Topic: A Resource-Based Approach to Organizational Analysis

41) Which of the following is NOT one of the four question areas Barney proposes in his VRIO
framework used to evaluate a firm's key resources?
A) durability
B) organization
C) rareness
D) value
E) imitability
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 138
Topic: A Resource-Based Approach to Organizational Analysis

42) When a company determines a competency's competitive advantage, Barney refers to this
issue as
A) value.
B) rareness.
C) imitability.
D) organization.
E) durability.
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 138
Topic: A Resource-Based Approach to Organizational Analysis
AACSB: Analytic Skills

6
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
43) According to Barney's VRIO framework, the exploitation of a resource pertains to the
________ of the resource.
A) value
B) rareness
C) imitability
D) organization
E) durability
Answer: D
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 138
Topic: A Resource-Based Approach to Organizational Analysis

44) A corporation's ability to exploit its resources is referred to as its


A) resources.
B) capabilities.
C) core competencies.
D) critical success factors.
E) key performance factors.
Answer: B
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 138
Topic: A Resource-Based Approach to Organizational Analysis

45) Things that a corporation can do exceedingly well across the corporation are called
A) resources.
B) distinctive competencies.
C) core competencies.
D) critical success factors.
E) key performance factors.
Answer: C
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 138
Topic: A Resource-Based Approach to Organizational Analysis

46) When a company's core competencies are superior to those of competitors, these are known
as
A) resources.
B) distinctive competencies.
C) core competencies.
D) critical success factors.
E) key performance factors.
Answer: B
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 138
Topic: A Resource-Based Approach to Organizational Analysis

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47) Which of the following statements is true concerning clusters?
A) The desire to build or upgrade a core competency is one reason why entrepreneurial and other
fast-growing firms often tend to locate close to their competitors.
B) Clusters are geographic concentrations of interconnected companies and industries.
C) An example of a cluster in the U.S. is California's Silicon Valley.
D) According to Porter, clusters provide access to employees, suppliers, specialized information,
and complementary products.
E) all of the above
Answer: E
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 140
Topic: A Resource-Based Approach to Organizational Analysis

48) The rate at which a firm's underlying resources and capabilities depreciate or become
obsolete is called
A) replicability.
B) transparency.
C) imitability.
D) durability.
E) transferability.
Answer: D
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 140
Topic: A Resource-Based Approach to Organizational Analysis

49) The rate at which a firm's underlying resources, capabilities, or core competencies can be
duplicated by others is called
A) replicability.
B) transparency.
C) imitability.
D) durability.
E) transferability.
Answer: C
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 140
Topic: A Resource-Based Approach to Organizational Analysis

50) When a company takes apart a competitor's product in order to find out how it works, this
process is known as
A) durability.
B) replicability.
C) reverse engineering.
D) transparency.
E) transferability.
Answer: C
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 140
Topic: A Resource-Based Approach to Organizational Analysis

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Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
51) The speed with which other firms can understand the relationship of resources and
capabilities supporting a successful firm's strategy is called
A) imitability.
B) reverse engineering.
C) transferability.
D) transparency.
E) durability.
Answer: D
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 140
Topic: A Resource-Based Approach to Organizational Analysis

52) The ability of competitors to use duplicated resources and capabilities to imitate the other
firm's success is called
A) imitability.
B) durability.
C) transferability.
D) transparency.
E) replicability.
Answer: E
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 141
Topic: A Resource-Based Approach to Organizational Analysis

53) Knowledge that can be easily articulated and communicated is known as


A) tacit knowledge.
B) explicit knowledge.
C) imitable knowledge.
D) transferable knowledge.
E) durable knowledge.
Answer: B
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 141
Topic: A Resource-Based Approach to Organizational Analysis

54) ________ is more valuable because it can provide companies with a sustainable competitive
advantage that is harder for competitors to imitate.
A) Tacit knowledge
B) Explicit knowledge
C) Imitable knowledge
D) Transferable knowledge
E) Durable knowledge
Answer: A
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 141
Topic: A Resource-Based Approach to Organizational Analysis
AACSB: Reflective Thinking

9
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
55) Knowledge that is not easily communicated because it is deeply rooted in employee
experience or in a corporation's culture is called
A) tacit knowledge.
B) explicit knowledge.
C) imitable knowledge.
D) transferable knowledge.
E) durable knowledge.
Answer: A
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 141
Topic: A Resource-Based Approach to Organizational Analysis

56) On the continuum of resource sustainability, where would Sony's Walkman be placed?
A) slow-cycle resources
B) sustainable resources
C) standard-cycle resources
D) fast-cycle resources
E) down-cycle resources
Answer: D
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 141-142
Topic: A Resource-Based Approach to Organizational Analysis
AACSB: Analytic Skills

57) The business model used by IBM to make money not selling IBM products, but by selling its
expertise to improve their customers operations is the
A) profit pyramid model.
B) advertising model.
C) customer solutions model.
D) efficiency model.
E) entrepreneurial model.
Answer: C
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 142
Topic: Business Models
AACSB: Analytic Skills

58) The business model used by HP in selling printers and printer cartridges is the
A) profit pyramid model.
B) advertising model.
C) customer solutions model.
D) efficiency model.
E) multi-component system/installed base model.
Answer: E
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 142
Topic: Business Models
AACSB: Analytic Skills

10
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
59) A linked set of value-creating activities beginning with basic materials provided by suppliers
and ending with distributors getting the final product into the hands of the ultimate consumer is
called a(n)
A) value chain.
B) continuum of sustainability.
C) strategic capability.
D) fully integrated activity set.
E) a strategic group.
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 143
Topic: Value-Chain Analysis

60) The part of an industry's value chain that is most important to a company and the point where
its greatest expertise and capabilities lie is called the company's
A) functional crossroads.
B) center of gravity.
C) dynamic equilibrium.
D) R&D intensity.
E) economy of scope.
Answer: B
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 145
Topic: Value-Chain Analysis

61) Which of the following is NOT a primary activity of the value chain?
A) raw materials handling
B) installation
C) repair
D) purchasing
E) warehousing
Answer: D
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 146
Topic: Value-Chain Analysis

62) Which of the following is NOT a support activity of the value chain?
A) procurement
B) technology development
C) human resource management
D) marketing and sales
E) strategic planning
Answer: D
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 146
Topic: Value-Chain Analysis

11
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63) When examining the corporate value chain of a particular product or service, which one of
the following is NOT one of the PRIMARY activities that usually occur?
A) operations
B) inbound and outbound logistics
C) auditing and accounting
D) marketing and sales
E) customer service
Answer: C
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 146
Topic: Value-Chain Analysis

64) The second step when analyzing the value-added chain is to


A) identify the legal ramifications and responsibilities of their product or service.
B) examine the linkages among the product's or service's value activities.
C) confirm that all variables have been included and taken into consideration.
D) ensure that quality management is adequately addressed.
E) examine the potential synergies among the corporation's product or business units.
Answer: B
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 146
Topic: Value-Chain Analysis

65) When the value chains of two separate products or services share activities, such as the same
marketing channels, in order to reduce costs, this is an example of
A) economies of scope.
B) economies of scale.
C) economies of integration.
D) economies of learning.
E) outsourcing.
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 147
Topic: Value-Chain Analysis

66) Which of the following describes a typical functional structure?


A) Employees tend to be specialists in the business functions important to that industry such as
manufacturing, marketing, finance, and human resources.
B) This is most appropriate for large corporations with many product lines in several related
industries, with employees acting as specialists attempting to gain synergy among divisional
activities.
C) This is most appropriate for small, entrepreneur-dominated companies with one or two
product lines that operate in a small niche market, with employees acting as jack-of-all trades.
D) Employees have two or more superiors, a project manager and a functional manager.
E) This is most appropriate for large corporations with many product lines in several unrelated
industries, with employees acting as specialists but with no attempt at gaining synergy among the
divisions.
Answer: A
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 147
Topic: Scanning Functional Resources and Capabilities

12
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67) Which of the following best describes a simple structure?
A) Work is divided into subunits on the basis of such functions as manufacturing, marketing,
finance, and human resources.
B) This is most appropriate for large corporations with many product lines in several related
industries, with employees acting as functional specialists attempting to gain synergy among
divisional activities.
C) This is most appropriate for small, entrepreneur-dominated companies with one or two
product lines that operate in a small niche market, with employees acting as jack-of-all trades.
D) Employees have two or more superiors, a project manager and a functional manager.
E) This is most appropriate for large corporations with many product lines in several unrelated
industries, with employees acting as functional specialists but with no attempt at gaining synergy
among the divisions.
Answer: C
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 147
Topic: Scanning Functional Resources and Capabilities

68) Which one of the following best describes a divisional structure?


A) Work is divided into subunits on the basis of such functions as manufacturing, marketing,
finance, and human resources.
B) This is most appropriate for large corporations with many product lines in several related
industries, with employees acting as functional specialists attempting to gain synergy among
divisional activities.
C) This is most appropriate for small, entrepreneur-dominated companies with one or two
product lines that operate in a small niche market, with employees acting as jack-of-all trades.
D) Employees have two or more superiors, a project manager and a functional manager.
E) This is most appropriate for large corporations with many product lines in several unrelated
industries, with employees acting as functional specialists but with no attempt at gaining synergy
among the divisions.
Answer: B
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 147
Topic: Scanning Functional Resources and Capabilities

69) Which one of the following best describes a conglomerate structure?


A) Work is divided into subunits on the basis of such functions as manufacturing, marketing,
finance, and human resources.
B) This is most appropriate for large corporations with many product lines in several related
industries, with employees acting as functional specialists attempting to gain synergy among
divisional activities.
C) This is most appropriate for small, entrepreneur-dominated companies with one or two
product lines that operate in a small niche market, with employees acting as jack-of-all trades.
D) Employees have two or more superiors, a project manager and a functional manager.
E) This is most appropriate for large corporations with many product lines in several unrelated
industries; unrelatedness prevents any attempt at gaining synergy among the divisions.
Answer: E
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 148
Topic: Scanning Functional Resources and Capabilities

13
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
70) According to the text, which one of the following is NOT descriptive of a corporation's
culture?
A) A corporation's culture is a collection of beliefs, expectations, and values learned and shared
by corporation's members and transmitted from one generation of employees to another.
B) Corporate cultures are only temporary and can be easily changed.
C) Corporate culture norms are created which define acceptable behavior from top management
to operative employee.
D) Myths and rituals often emerge over time to explain why a certain aspect of the culture is
important.
E) Cultures have a powerful influence on the behavior of managers and can strongly affect a
corporation's ability to shift its strategic direction.
Answer: B
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 149
Topic: Scanning Functional Resources and Capabilities

71) What are the two distinct attributes of corporate culture?


A) differentiation and integration
B) durability and imitability
C) concern for people and concern for task
D) intensity and integration
E) amount of complexity and tolerance of change
Answer: D
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 149
Topic: Scanning Functional Resources and Capabilities

72) What is the attribute of corporate culture that is the degree to which members of a unit accept
the norms, values, or other culture content associated with the unit?
A) integration
B) strength
C) intensity
D) coordination
E) unity
Answer: C
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 149
Topic: Scanning Functional Resources and Capabilities

73) Which of the following is a function of corporate culture?


A) It encourages a laissez faire set of attitudes.
B) It encourages flexibility and thus constant change.
C) It conveys a sense of identity for employees.
D) It generates creative approaches to new situations.
E) It focuses employee commitment on their own careers.
Answer: C
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 149
Topic: Scanning Functional Resources and Capabilities

14
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74) Which of the following is NOT a function of corporate culture?
A) conveys a sense of identity for employees
B) adds to the stability of the organization as a social system
C) helps generate employee commitment to something greater than themselves
D) keeps people guessing about what to do next
E) serves as a frame of reference for employees to use as a guide for appropriate behavior
Answer: D
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 149
Topic: Scanning Functional Resources and Capabilities

75) The breadth of an organization's culture is also known as


A) cultural integration.
B) cultural diversification.
C) cultural intensity.
D) cultural strategy.
E) cultural prerogative.
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 149
Topic: Scanning Functional Resources and Capabilities

76) Through market research, corporations can target their various products or services so that
management can discover what niches to seek or develop, and how to minimize competitive
pressure. This is descriptive of
A) marketing position.
B) product life cycle.
C) market segmentation.
D) marketing mix.
E) marketing leverage.
Answer: C
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 151
Topic: Scanning Functional Resources and Capabilities
AACSB: Analytic Skills

77) The particular combination of product, place, promotion, and price is called
A) marketing position.
B) product life cycle.
C) market segmentation.
D) marketing mix.
E) marketing leverage.
Answer: D
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 151
Topic: Scanning Functional Resources and Capabilities

15
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
78) An example of the promotion variable of the marketing mix is
A) advertising.
B) discounts
C) location.
D) services.
E) quality.
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 151
Topic: Scanning Functional Resources and Capabilities
AACSB: Analytic Skills

79) A graph showing time plotted against the dollar sales of a product as it moves from
introduction through growth and maturity to decline is called the
A) marketing position.
B) product life cycle.
C) market segmentation.
D) marketing mix.
E) marketing leverage.
Answer: B
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 152
Topic: Scanning Functional Resources and Capabilities

80) Which of the following statements is true concerning a corporate reputation?


A) It is a widely held perception of a company by the general public.
B) A good corporate reputation can be a strategic resource.
C) There is a positive relationship between corporate reputation and financial performance.
D) Reputation tends to be long-lasting and hard for others to duplicate.
E) all of the above
Answer: E
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 152-153
Topic: Scanning Functional Resources and Capabilities

81) As compared to a firm with low financial leverage, a firm with a high amount of financial
leverage in an expanding market should have
A) lower profits.
B) higher profits
C) higher earnings per share.
D) lower earnings per share.
E) higher sales revenue.
Answer: C
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 153
Topic: Scanning Functional Resources and Capabilities
AACSB: Reflective Thinking

16
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
82) The ratio of total debt to total assets is known as
A) budgeting leverage.
B) capital finance.
C) capital budgeting.
D) financial leverage.
E) financial budgeting.
Answer: D
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 153
Topic: Scanning Functional Resources and Capabilities

83) Which of the following is NOT a responsibility of a research and development manager?
A) Choosing among alternative new technologies to use within the corporation.
B) Developing methods of embodying the new technology in new products and processes.
C) Deploying resources so that the new technology can be successfully implemented.
D) Taking the design and operationalizing the plan into mass production.
E) Suggesting and implementing a corporation's technological strategy in light of its corporate
objectives and policies.
Answer: D
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 154
Topic: Scanning Functional Resources and Capabilities
AACSB: Reflective Thinking

84) The process of taking a new technology from the laboratory to the marketplace is called
A) economies of scope versus operating leverage.
B) the R&D mix.
C) technological competence.
D) technological discontinuity.
E) technology transfer.
Answer: E
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 154
Topic: Scanning Functional Resources and Capabilities

85) When scientists concentrate on quality control and the development of design specifications,
this is referred to as
A) basic R&D.
B) product R&D.
C) engineering R&D.
D) life cycle R&D.
E) R&D mix.
Answer: C
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 154
Topic: Scanning Functional Resources and Capabilities
AACSB: Analytic Skills

17
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
86) The displacement of one technology by another, as shown by two S-shaped curves on a
graph, is referred to as
A) economies of scope versus operating leverage.
B) technology transfer.
C) the R&D mix.
D) technological discontinuity.
E) a disjunctive learning or experience curve.
Answer: D
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 155
Topic: Scanning Functional Resources and Capabilities

87) The proposition that silicon chips double in complexity every 18 months is referred to as
A) Ohm's Law.
B) Porter's Five Forces Model.
C) Moore's Law.
D) Mintzberg's Rule.
E) Keynesian's Theory.
Answer: C
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 155
Topic: Scanning Functional Resources and Capabilities

88) In Christensen's book, The Innovator's Dilemma, he explains that managers remain with
certain technologies based on
A) return of investment.
B) net present value.
C) cost reduction.
D) total operating expenses.
E) time spent during technology implementation.
Answer: A
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 156
Topic: Scanning Functional Resources and Capabilities

89) According to the text, the primary task of the operations manager is to
A) make sure all the products or services are producing maximum revenue.
B) develop and operate a system that will produce the required number of products or services
with a certain quality, at a given cost, within an allotted time.
C) make sure the process has a high quality control.
D) ensure that the process is manufactured or delivered as efficiently as possible.
E) interface with the other functional departments to coordinate their operations in avoiding
duplication of effort.
Answer: B
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 156
Topic: Scanning Functional Resources and Capabilities

18
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
90) Which of the following terms best describes a system in which items are normally processed
sequentially, but the work and sequence of the process vary?
A) continuous system
B) debt capacity
C) chronological processing
D) operating leverage
E) intermittent system
Answer: E
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 156-157
Topic: Scanning Functional Resources and Capabilities
AACSB: Analytic Skills

91) An automobile assembly line is an example of which approach to manufacturing?


A) continuous system
B) debt capacity
C) sequential processing
D) job shop
E) intermittent system
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 157
Topic: Scanning Functional Resources and Capabilities
AACSB: Analytic Skills

92) The impact of a specific change in sales volume on net operating income is referred to as the
A) continuous system.
B) chronological processing.
C) operating leverage.
D) debt capacity.
E) intermittent system.
Answer: C
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 157
Topic: Scanning Functional Resources and Capabilities

93) The concept that suggests that unit production costs decline by some fixed percent each time
the total accumulated volume of production in units doubles is referred to as
A) the R & D mix.
B) the experience curve.
C) technological competence.
D) break-even analysis.
E) technology transfer.
Answer: B
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 157
Topic: Scanning Functional Resources and Capabilities

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94) Which one of the following is NOT descriptive of the experience curve?
A) It is very useful because it is consistent within the industry for all involved organizations over
time.
B) It is used to estimate the production cost of a product produced by newly introduced
techniques or processes.
C) It is used to estimate the production costs of a product never before made with the present
techniques and process.
D) The concept was first applied in the airframe industry.
E) It shows that production costs decline by some fixed percentage as production in units
doubles.
Answer: A
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 157-158
Topic: Scanning Functional Resources and Capabilities
AACSB: Reflective Thinking

95) Flexible manufacturing emphasizes


A) high-volume output of mass produced products.
B) the cost advantages of an intermittent system with the customer-oriented advantages of a
continuous system.
C) the learning curve is longer since technology is automated.
D) economies of scope over economies of scale.
E) economies of scale over economies of scope.
Answer: D
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 158
Topic: Scanning Functional Resources and Capabilities
AACSB: Reflective Thinking

96) Strategic managers must be concerned with human resource management because
A) dealing with people is their primary job.
B) quality of work life is more important than strategic management.
C) they must be aware of the ability and willingness of the workforce to implement new
strategies.
D) workers are more likely to go on strike if management attempts to cross them.
E) they must be aware of the possibility and potential of unionism.
Answer: C
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 158
Topic: Scanning Functional Resources and Capabilities

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97) In order to move more quickly through a product's development stage, companies like
Motorola and Chrysler are using
A) concurrent engineering.
B) cross-functional work teams.
C) advisory committees.
D) task forces.
E) continuous engineering.
Answer: B
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 159
Topic: Scanning Functional Resources and Capabilities
AACSB: Reflective Thinking

98) The term that describes putting once isolated specialists together to work and compare notes
in a collective product design effort is called
A) simultaneous strategy.
B) participatory planning.
C) jointly-designed objectives.
D) concurrent engineering.
E) cooperative design.
Answer: D
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 159
Topic: Scanning Functional Resources and Capabilities

99) Human resource departments have found that to reduce employee dissatisfaction and
unionization efforts, they must
A) significantly increase their wage rates.
B) shorten the work week to allow for more leisure time.
C) offer a wider variety of benefits and attractive enticements.
D) guarantee their workers life time jobs.
E) consider the quality of work life in the design of jobs.
Answer: E
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 160
Topic: Scanning Functional Resources and Capabilities

100) Which one of the following is NOT one of the four methods to improve the corporation's
quality of work life?
A) Improve the work environment
B) Introduce participative problem-solving
C) More responsive management
D) Introduce innovative reward systems
E) Restructuring work
Answer: C
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 160
Topic: Scanning Functional Resources and Capabilities

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101) The mix in the workplace of people from different races, cultures, and backgrounds is
referred to as
A) demographics.
B) human diversity.
C) quality of work life.
D) globalization.
E) internationalization.
Answer: B
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 161
Topic: Scanning Functional Resources and Capabilities

102) The PRIMARY task of the manager of information systems is to


A) prevent unlawful usage of the information from the system.
B) make sure the information contained in the system is up-to-date and accurate.
C) monitor the input of information into the information system.
D) design and manage the flow of information in a corporation to improve productivity and
decision making.
E) ensure that only those who have authorized permission have access to the information system.
Answer: D
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 162
Topic: Scanning Functional Resources and Capabilities

103) Describe Barney's VRIO framework.


Answer: Barney, in his VRIO framework of analysis, proposes four questions to evaluate a
firm's competencies:
Value: Does it provide competitive advantage?
Rareness: Do other competitors possess it?
Imitability: Is it costly for others to imitate?
Organization: Is the firm organized to exploit the resource?
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 138
Topic: A Resource-Based Approach to Organizational Analysis

104) Discuss the two characteristics that determine the sustainability of a firm's distinctive
competency.
Answer: Two characteristics determine the sustainability of a firm's distinctive competency:
durability and imitability. Durability is the rate at which a firm's underlying resources,
capabilities, or core competencies depreciate or become obsolete. Imitability is the rate at which
a firm's underlying resources, capabilities, or core competencies can be duplicated by others.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 140
Topic: A Resource-Based Approach to Organizational Analysis

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105) Define a value chain and the significance of the center of gravity.
Answer: A value chain is a linked set of value-creating activities beginning with basic raw
materials coming from suppliers, moving on to a series of value-added activities involved in
producing and marketing a product or service, and ending with distributors getting the final
goods into the hands of the ultimate consumer. A company's center of gravity is the part of the
chain that is most important to the company and the point where its greatest expertise and
capabilities lie - its core competencies. This is usually the point at which the company started
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 143-145
Topic: Value-Chain Analysis

106) Discuss the three basic organizational structures.


Answer: The three basic organizational structures are the simple, functional, and divisional. The
simple structure has no functional or product categories and is appropriate for a small,
entrepreneur-dominated company with one or two product lines that operates in a reasonably
small, easily identifiable market niche. Employees tend to be generalists and jacks-of-all-trades.
The functional structure is appropriate for a medium-sized firm with several product lines in one
industry. Employees tend to be specialists in the business functions important to that industry.
The divisional structure is appropriate for a large corporation with many product lines in several
related industries. Employees tend to be functional specialists organized according to product-
market distinctions.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 147
Topic: Scanning Functional Resources and Capabilities

107) What are the two distinct attributes of culture?


Answer: Corporate culture has two distinct attributes - intensity and integration. Cultural
intensity is the degree to which members of a unit accept the norms, values, or other culture
content associated with the unit. This shows the culture's depth. Cultural integration is the
extent to which units throughout an organization share a common culture. This is the culture's
breadth.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 149
Topic: Scanning Functional Resources and Capabilities

108) What is R & D intensity?


Answer: A company's R & D intensity is the firm's spending on R & D as a percentage of sales
revenue. This is a principal means of gaining market share in global competition. This amount
often varies by industry.
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 154
Topic: Scanning Functional Resources and Capabilities

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109) Distinguish between continuous and intermittent systems providing examples of each.
Answer: Manufacturing can be intermittent or continuous. In intermittent systems (job shops),
the item is normally processed sequentially, but the work and sequence of the process vary. An
example is an auto body repair shop. Continuous systems are those laid out as lines on which
products can be continuously assembled or processed. A firm using continuous systems invests
heavily in fixed investments such as automated processes and highly sophisticated machinery.
Continuous systems reap benefits from economies of scale. An example is an automobile
assembly line.
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 156-157
Topic: Scanning Functional Resources and Capabilities

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