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1. Consider two functions f (x) = 9x + 2 and g (x) = x9 2

9: Show that they

are inverse functions of one another.

This simply requires showing f (g (x)) = g (f (x)) = x

x 2

f (g (x)) = 9 +2=x 2+2=x

9 9

9x + 2 2 2 2

g (f (x)) = =x+ =x

9 9 9 9

y = x1=3 + 2 ! x1=3 = y 2

3

x = (y 2) = g (y)

) 1 3

f (x) = g (x) = (x 2)

x2 4 (x + 2) (x 2)

lim = lim = lim (x + 2) ! 4

x!2 x 2 x!2 x 2 x!2

x2 x x (x 1) x 1

lim = lim = lim !

x!1 2x2 + 5x 7 x!1 (2x + 7) (x 1) x!1 (2x + 7) 9

p p p

x+5 x+5 x+5

lim = lim p p = lim p p !1

x! 25 x 25 x! 25 ( x 5) ( x + 5) x! 25 ( x 5) ( x + 5)

3

(x + h) x3

lim : see primer lecture notes

h!0 h

3

h3 + 8 (h + 2) 6h (h + 2) 2

lim = lim = lim (h + 2) 6h ! 12

h! 2 h+2 h! 2 h+2 h! 2

(1=t) 1 (1 t) =t (t 1) =t 1

lim = lim = lim lim ! 1

t!1 t 1 t!1 t 1 t!1 t 1 t!1 t

p

lim

p x2 + 3 (x 4) = lim

p x2 + 3 lim

p (x 4) ! 5 2 4

x! 2 x! 2 x! 2

1

4. Using the de…nition of the derivative, show that for

y 2x + 1; y 0 = 2

=

[2 (x + h) + 1] (2x + 1) 2x + 2h + 1 2x 1 2h

y 0 = lim = lim = lim = lim 2 = 2

h!0 h h!0 h h!0 h h!0

1 0 1

f (x) = ; f (x) = 2

x 2 (x 2)

1 1

x 2+h x 2 1 (x 2) (x 2 + h) 1 h

f 0 (x) = lim = lim = lim

h!0 h h!0 h (x 2 + h) (x 2) h!0 h (x 2 + h) (x 2)

1 1

= lim = 2

h!0 (x 2 + h) (x 2) (x 2)

0 g (x + h) g (x) 0 g (5 + h) g (5) j5 + h 5j j0j

g+ (x) = lim ! g+ (5) = lim = lim

h!0+ h h!0+ h h!0+ h

jhj h

= lim = lim =1

h!0+ h h!0+ h

g (x + h) g (x) g (5 + h) g (5) j5 + h 5j j0j

g 0 (x) = lim ! g 0 (5) = lim = lim

h!0 h h!0 h h!0 h

jhj h

= lim = lim = 1

h!0 h h!0+ h

0

g+ (x) = g 0 (x) ) the derivative does not exist at x = 5:

dy

5. Di¤erentiate the following functions y; to obtain :

dx

We know the Chain Rule:

dy df du

y = f (u) where u = F (x) then =

dx du dx

5

y = x2 4x + 2

dy 4

= 5u4 : (2x 4) = 5 x2 4x + 2 (2x 4)

dx

1 3

y = 3 = 4x2 + 6x 7

(4x2 + 6x 7)

dy 4

= 6 4x2 + 6x 7 (4x + 3)

dx

y 4 + 3y 4x3 = 5x + 1

implicit di¤erentiation:

dy 5 + 12x2

=

dx 4y 3 + 3

2

q

3 2 2=3 2

y = ln (2x + 5) = ln (2x + 5) = ln (2x + 5))

3

dy 4

=

dx 3 (2x + 5)

dy

y = cos (4 3x) : = 3 sin (4 3x)

dx

Now use the product rule:

dy

y = x2 exp(x) : = xex (2 + x)

dx

Next problem requires the quotient role

3x2 x + 2

y =

4x2 + 5

4x2 + 5 (6x 1) 8x 3x2 x+2

y0 = 2

(4x2 + 5)

6. Calculate the following

Z Z

p

x x2 4x + 2 dx = x5=2 4x3=2 + 2x1=2 dx

2 7=2 8 5=2 4 3=2

= x x + x +C

7 5 3

Z 1 p p

3 x+1 x 2 dx =

4

Z 1 1

3 2 10 3=2 41

3x 5x1=2 2 dx = x x 2x =

4 2 3 4 6

Z 2

(2s 7)

ds

1 s3

Z 2 2 2

2 7 2 7 29

= + 3 ds = + =

1 s2 2s s 1 2s2 1 8

Z 2

x2 1

dx =

3 (x 1)

Z 2 2

x2 7

(x + 1) dx = +x =

3 2 3 2

Z 5 Z 3=2 Z 5

j2x 3j dx = (3 2x) dx + (2x 3) dx

1 1 3=2

3

5 37

= 3x x2 2

1

+ x2 3x 3 =

2 2

3

Z

5x 12 5x 12 3 2

dx : +

x (x 4) x (x 4) x (x 4)

Z Z

3 2

= + = 3 ln x + 2 ln (x 4) + C

x (x 4)

2

= ln x3 (x 4) + C

Z

3

3 x4 x3 dx

Z

1 1 4

z 3 dz = 3 x4 + c

4 16

Z

x2 + x

4 dx

(4 3x2 2x3 )

put z = 4 3x2 2x3 so that dz = 6 x2 + x dx to give

Z

1 1 1

4

dz = 3 +c

6 z 18 (4 3x2 2x3 )

Z p 4

( u + 3)

p du

u

p 1

let z = u+3= so that dz = p

2 u

du and we have

Z p 5

z5 2 ( u + 3)

2 z 4 dz = 2 +c= +c

5 5

Z 3

1 1

1+ du

u u2

1 1

let z = 1 + u so that dz = u2 du and

Z 2

3 1 1

z dz = 1+

2 u

Z

2

xex dx

Z

1 1 1 2

ez dz = ez + c = ex + c

2 2 2

4

Z

(sin x) ecos x dx

Z

ez dz = ez + c = ecos x + c

Now evaluate these expressions at (0; =3) :

fy = 2 (x y) cos (3x + 2y) sin (3x + 2y)

fxx = 6 cos (3x + 2y) 9 (x y) sin (3x + 2y)

fxy = fyx = cos (3x + 2y) 6 (x y) sin (3x + 2y)

Now evaluate these expressions

p at x = 0; y = =3.

We use sin (2 =3) = 3=2; cos (2 =3) = 1=2

p p

3 3

fx 0; = + ; fy 0; =

3 2 2p 3 3 2

3 2

fxx 0; = 3+3 ; fyy 0; =2+ p

3 2 3 3

1 p

fxy 0; = + 3

3 2

2 2

9. Show that z = ln z = ln (x a) + (y b) satis…es

@2z @2z

+ =0

@x2 @y 2

2 2

except at (a; b) : Write z = ln u; u = (x a) + (y b)

@z 2 (x a) @z 2 (y a)

= ; =

@x u @y u

2 2

@2z 2u 4 (x a) @2z 2u 4 (y b)

= ; =

@x2 u2 @y 2 u2

2 2

@2z @2z 2u 4 (x a) + 2u 4 (y b)

2

+ 2 =

@x @y u2

2 2 2 2

4 (x a) + (y b) 4 (x a) 4 (y b)

= =0

u2

5

10. Obtain Taylor series expansions for the following functions about the given

point x0 : If no point is given, then expand about the point 0 (in which

case you can use standard Taylor series expansions)

x3 x5 n x2n+1

f (x) = x2 sin x = x2 x + ::::::::::::: + ( 1)

3! 5! (2n + 1)!

1

X n x2n+3

= ( 1)

n=0

(2n + 1)!

f (x)

cos x; x0 = =3 =

X1

f (n) (x0 ) n

f (x) = (x x0 )

n=0

n!

p p

f ( =3) = 1=2; f 0 ( =3) = 3=2; f 00 ( =3) = 1=2; f 000 ( =3) = 3=2; f (4) ( =3) = 1=2

The Taylor series expansion about x = =3 is thus f (x) = cos x =

p p (n)

2 3 4 n

1

2 2

3

x 3

1

4 x 3 + 123 x 3

1

+ 48 x 3 +:::::+ f ( =3)

n! x 3 +::

X1 n X1 n

u (x + 3)

eu = ! ex+3 =

n=0

n! n=0

n!

1

X n

(x + 3) 2 3

ex = e 3

=e 3

1 + (x + 3) + 1

2! (x + 3) + 1

3! (x + 3) + ::::::::

n=0

n!

1 1

f (x) = = (1 4x)

1 4x

1

X

= 1 + 4x + 16x2 + 64x2 + :::::: + 4n xn = 4n xn

n=0

3 1 1 2

f (x) = = 3 (2x + 5) =3 5 1+ x

2x + 5 5

2 4 2 3 n 2 n

1+ x = 1 2

5x + 25 x

8

125 x + ::: + ( 1) 5 xn

5

1

X n 2 n

f (x) = 3

5 ( 1) 5 xn : 2

5x < 1 () jxj < 5=2

n=0

1

X 1

X 1

X

x2 + 1 1

f (x) = = x2 + 1 (1 x) = x2 + 1 xn = xn+2 xn

x 1 n=0 n=0 n=0

1

X

= 1 x 2 xn

n=2

6

11. If U (x; y; z) = 2x2 yz + xz 2 ; where x = 2 sin t; y = t2 t + 1; z =

3 exp ( t) ;

dU

…nd at t = 0:

dt

dx dy dz

= 2 cos t; = 2t 1; = 3e t

dt dt dt

@U @U @U

= 4x + z 2 ; = z; = y + 2xz

@x @y @z

dU dx @U dy @U dz @U

= + + = (2 cos t) 4x + z 2 + (2t 1) ( z) + 3e t ( y + 2xz)

dt dt @x dt @y dt @z

= (2 cos t) 4 sin t + 9e 2t + (2t 1) 3e t + 3e t t2 + t 1 + 12e t sin t

dU

= (2) (9) + ( 1) ( 3) + ( 3) ( 1) = 24

dt t=0

2 2 2 2

@w 1 @w @w @w

+ = +

@r r2 @ @x @y

xr = cos ; x = r cos

yr = sin ; y = r cos

Now use chain rule II

@w @w @x @w @y @w @w

= + = cos + sin

@r @x @r @y @r @x @y

2 2 2

@w @w @w @w @w

= cos2 + sin2 + sin 2 (1)

@r @x @y @x @y

Similarly

@w @w @x @w @y @w @w

= + = r sin + r cos

@ @x @ @y @ @x @y

2 2 2

1 @w @w @w @w @w

= sin2 + cos2 sin 2 (2)

r2 @ @x @y @x @y

@w 2 1 @w 2

(1) + (2) gives @r + r2 @ =

2 2

@w @w

sin2 + cos2 + sin2 + cos2

@x @y

2 2

@w @w

+

@x @y

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