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Sampling – Catch and Process

Competence Assurance System


Sampling

Support for tests ML2.1.1, ML2.2.1


This presentation contains information proprietary to Geoservices and is not to be displayed or reproduced for
third parties without prior authorization.

ML2.1.1_Sampling_Catch_And_Process PPT Sept 2006


Sampling – Catch and Process
Information-gathering During Well Construction
ML ML
Surface MWD Sub-Surface

OH
LWD Logging
Completion
Depth

Cased Hole
Testing Logging

Seconds Minutes / Hours Days / Weeks Months


Time
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Sampling – Catch and Process
Formation Evaluation

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Sampling – Catch and Process
Main sedimentary rocks

Main Sedimentary Rocks found in drilling are:-


CARBONATE Rocks ARGILLACEOUS Rocks SILICEOUS Deposits
• Limestone • Shale • Siltstone
• Dolomite /Dolostone • Clay • Sand
• Chalk • Claystone • Sandstone
• Marl • Chert (flint)
• Breccia/ Pudding Rock
EVAPORITES ORGANICS
• Gypsum • Coal
• Anhydrite • Lignite
• Halite (Main salt seen) • Bituminous Minerals

Not ALL Rock types may be seen in a well.

ML2.1.1_Sampling_Catch_And_Process PPT Sept 2006


Sampling – Catch and Process
Geological Data - Washing, Grading, Analysis
Sieve 2 (or 5) mm

Raw Sample Cavings?


Sieve 0.25 mm

Washing
Sieve 0.063 mm

Drying
Washing

Fluoroscope Reference
Sample Set
Microscope

The types and quality of samples Calcimetry


Shale Density
collected can be effected by the Shale Factor

rocks drilled. Geochemical Washed


and Dried
Unwashed wet

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Sampling – Catch and Process
Sampling Intervals
The client makes all decisions on sampling with the well program
listing sampling information on the :-
 Number of samples collected per depth.
 Types of samples collected per depth.
 Volume (amount /weight of sample) to be collected per
depth.
More than one sampling interval may be required, depending
on depth, with average sample collection intervals being :
* 10 m (thirty feet) for shallow formations
* 3 m (ten feet) for deeper formations
* 1 m (three or five feet) for reservoir zones.

If sampling requirements from more than one source result in a


conflict, the Client (through the project Geologist) has priority.
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Sampling – Catch and Process
Sample Types
IF NO INFORMATION AVAILABLE ON SAMPLE INTERVAL :-
 Check well program.
 Ask Client and/or Well-site Geologist.
 Check Section 5 Engineers Hand book.
 Do as previously done for same client.

Not all types of samples will be collected at the same time.

Unwashed (Wet) – Collected at shakers, put directly into cloth & plastic sample bags
Washed (Wet) – Collected at shakers, washed and put in to cloth & plastic sample
bags
Unwashed & Dried – Collected at shakers, dried in Oven/ Microwave, placed in
cloth & plastic sample bag (Only works with WBM type).
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Sampling – Catch and Process
Sample Types
Washed & Dried – Collected at shakers, washed in sieves, then dried in Oven /
Microwave and put in paper or plastic sample envelopes.

Washed – Collected at shakers and washed in sieves. Used for examinations


& testing - Microscope, Geological description and Hydrocarbon
fluorescence testing (UV Light).

Geochemical - Unwashed Sample collected at shakers and sealed in metal tins.


Calcimetry – HCl (Hydrochloric) acid used to test rock to find the percentage of
carbonate in the rock.
Shale Density – Physical density of the rock.
Thin Section - (optional service) Rock slides – Mainly Carbonates
Core chips - (optional service) – Rock Pieces for microscopic examination

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Sampling – Catch and Process
‘Spot’ Sampling

Samples taken outside the main sampling sequence (interval).


Collected directly from the shaker, but processed as a normally
sample.
A ‘spot’ sample should be taken whenever questions arise
concerning down hole conditions, including :-
• At the end of circulation prior to tripping.
• One lag time after the start of a drilling break (ROP Change).
• One lag time after change in torque and/ or standpipe
pressure indicates bit problems.

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Sampling – Catch and Process
Precautions When Working with Samples

• Wear appropriate Personal Protective


Equipment (PPE) for any task involving
exposure to drilling fluids and sample
testing reagents
• Wash samples in a well-ventilated area
• Perform chemical tests only under the
cabins’ Local Exhaust Ventilation (LEV)
hood (equivalent to a Fume cupboard).
! Caution:
IF UNSURE of hazards, or precautions to take for any chemicals refer to the
Geoservices COSHH (Control of Substances Hazardous to Heath) document.
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Sampling – Catch and Process
Rules for Good Sampling

• Cuttings 3mm or less in diameter. Larger than 3mm normally taken as cavings.
• Correctly lagged samples. Caught a minute or two early/ late no difference.
10 minutes or more early/late makes sample information worthless.
• Samples must represent the entire interval being drilled.
If the sample is collected directly from the shaker screens (Spot Sample), it will only
represent a small fraction of the drilled interval.
• Always report samples honestly.
If a sample was missed, report it as missed and place missed sample bag in boxes as
if sample collected (some clients may ask you to list samples missed in reports).
Do not ‘make up’ samples to cover up a missed interval (Double bagging).

If drilling to quickly to collect samples as per program get permission


from geologist to change sample collecting intervals.

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Sampling – Catch and Process
Sample Collection
The importance of a representative sample of an entire interval is
illustrated below. The table shows, the size of a sample is very small
in relation to the amount of cuttings produced.

Volume of Cuttings Produced for Each 3m of Hole


Hole Size (in.) M3 Litres Gallons
6 0.0548 54.8 12.05
7 0.0746 74.6 16.4
8-1/2 0.1133 113.3 24.92
3m 12-1/4 0.2331 233.1 51.27

Sample Size % of total volume


Hole Size sample represents
355 ml
6 0.64%
7 0.48%
8-1/2 0.31%
12-1/4 0.15% After Engen, CWLS Insite, June 2004

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Sampling – Catch and Process
Sample Collection
Mud Box
(possum
belly)
FlowControl
Gates

Coarse
Solids
Fine Screen
Solids
Discharge Mud and fine
solids
Coarse Board (plate) used
Solids
Discharge

5 gallon Pail
(best results)

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Sampling – Catch and Process
Header Box – mud comes from flow line Sample Collection
GZ1, GZ11, GZG, QGM Samples
DEGASSERS CAN BE collected
INSTALLED IN HEADER
BOX. BUT MUST BE AS
here.
CLOSE TO FLOW LINE Normal
AS POSSIBLE
& spot
samples
Discharge line to sand
traps. Alternate sample
location for collecting
samples

SHAKER ROOM MAY CONTAIN 3 OR MORE SHAKERS.


THE HEADER BOXES MAY BE CONNECTED TO FORM
ONE A LARGE TANK.

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Sampling – Catch and Process
Sample Collection
Place correctly at end of shakers sample bucket/catching tray.
Position where cuttings flow is fastest. Always collect samples
from the same shaker.
A constant trickle of cuttings should build up until bucket/ catching
tray is full.
When collecting the samples, take material from all layers not just
the top or bottom.
After collected sample ALWAYS EMPTY bucket/ catching tray. So
that the next sample is representative of the depth interval to be
collected in the bucket/ catching try.

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Sampling – Catch and Process
Alternate Sampling Locations

Under some conditions, Samples need to be collected from other


locations besides the shale shakers :-
• Desander /Desilter outflow line (Not present on all rigs)
- If you suspect that very fine- grained sands /silts/ clays are
being lost during sieving.
• Solids Discharge Line (Mud flow line)
- If the shale shakers are bypassed for any reason.
To get sample, collect the returning mud and cuttings in a
bucket and filter the mud using the different sieves to simulate
the shale shakers.

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Sampling – Catch and Process
Sample Washing
Water Based Mud (WBM):
Normally samples washed to remove unconsolidated material and mud in
the sink in the mud logging unit. A gentle stream of water should be used
to clean the sample.
Oil Based Mud (OBM)/ Synthetic Based Mud (SBM):
Wash cuttings in a well ventilated area outside the cabin (Usually the
shaker room). Two buckets are used :-
Initial wash/ Base Oil - containing base fluid (mud without chemicals)
Final wash - containing water and detergent. An additional rinse with a
detergent solution may be required in the mud logging unit.
Buckets refilled regularly during a shift (frequency depends on number of
samples caught)-(take buckets back to unit when not in use).
Check waste material disposal procedures (Instructions) at each rig site.
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Sampling – Catch and Process
Wash Baths for Samples from Oil Based Muds

Rinse – Detergent & Water Initial Wash – Base Oil Photo: Jim Peck

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Sampling – Catch and Process
Sieving Samples
Used to separate fine cuttings (from hole bottom) from
cavings.
Sieve sizes are:- 5mm, 2mm, 1mm, 0.5mm, 0.250mm, 0.125mm and
0.063mm (63 micron).
Sieve sizes normally used are:- 5mm (or 2mm), 0.250mm, and
0.063mm. A solid metal pan can be used as well if drilling very fine silts
and clays.
Poorly consolidated clays and silts material may wash out of the sieves
entirely. We then have to not only modify our sample collection point,
but also how a sample is processed. In such cases it may be necessary
to estimate the percentage of clay washouts, by measuring the volume
of cuttings before and after sieving.

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Sampling – Catch and Process
Measuring Clay Washouts
Place 50 cc of unwashed sample in a graduated cylinder.
Empty the contents of the cylinder into the top (5mm) sieve, and
wash until all drilling mud residue is gone.
After washing, return the remaining contents of the 2mm, 0.25mm
and 0.063mm sieves to the graduated cylinder; throw away the
contents of the 5mm sieve (after weighting) - cavings.
Obtain the difference between the original and the resulting
volume, then convert to a percentage; this is the percentage of
clays ‘washouts’.
Normally if clay wash out occurs at the start of the well when the
rocks are still very soft.
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Sampling – Catch and Process
Geochemical Sampling
Taken for analysis of fluid composition in the cuttings - special handling
required to avoid contamination by bacteria found at surface.

Check with the client or well program to see which procedure (instructions)
you are to follow
- Some clients have own procedures (instructions) for collecting Geochemical
Samples.
- A procedure is also listed in the Geoservices Engineers Handbook :-

• Collect approximately 750 cc of sample in a metal can


• Fill the can to within 1.5 cm of the top with fresh water, then add
4-6 drops of bactericidal solution (zepherin chloride or equivalent).
• Seal the can (use locking clips if ‘paint can’ containers are used)
and store upside-down in the appropriate storage box, in sequence.

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Sampling – Catch and Process
Cuttings Size / Shape

Appearance of shale cavings resulting from Underbalance


or Undercompaction

Concave cross-section , elongated, flaky

Appearance of shale cavings resulting from Stress Effects

Blocky with micro fissures

Cuttings shape is not a definite indication of abnormal pressure.

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Sampling – Catch and Process
Cavings – Stress Relief

Scale
Well Name
Depth
Date and Time

ML2.1.1_Sampling_Catch_And_Process PPT Sept 2006


Sampling – Catch and Process
Cavings – Underbalance / Undercompaction

Rock Pieces

Scale

Photo: G. G. Haines

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Sampling – Catch and Process
Soft Clays Cut with PDC Bit

These are not


true cavings, but
clays sheared by
the cutting
action of the bit.

Photo: Jim Peck

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Sampling – Catch and Process
Storing Unwashed Samples

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Sampling – Catch and Process
Sample Packaging
WET SAMPLES GEOCHEMICAL SAMPLES
Cloth Samples Bags : 1 liter Metal can :

- Oil company name - Oil company name


- Well name - Well name
-Depth -Depth

(To avoid labels being erased


WASHED & DRIED cellotape used to preserve writing)
Dry Samples Envelopes :
Caution: Permanent marker pens
- Oil company name
used rather than ‘indelible’
- Well name markers when samples are
-Depth obtained from an oil-based
mud system

ML2.1.1_Sampling_Catch_And_Process PPT Sept 2006


Sampling – Catch and Process
Sample Packaging
WET SAMPLE BOXES (wood / plastic / metal)
Mark outside of boxes with :
- Oil company name - Well name
- Depth From - Depth To
- Set Number - Box Number
- Address Labels

DRIED SAMPLE BOXES (cardboard / Plastic Boxes)


Mark outside of boxes with :
- Oil company name - Well name
Mark labels on ALL - Depth From - Depth To
Sides of the Boxes
- Set Number - Box Number
- Address Labels

Caution: use permanent marker pens rather than ‘indelible’ markers


when samples are obtained from an oil-based mud system
ML2.1.1_Sampling_Catch_And_Process PPT Sept 2006
Sampling – Catch and Process
Consumables Planning and Ordering

Typical consumables required during the course of our operations include:


• Geological sampling materials - Cloth bags (wet samples)
- Plastic insert bags (wet samples)
- Paper envelopes /plastic bags (dry samples)
- Boxes (Plastic/Wood/Cardboard)
- Metal cans (geochemical samples)

• Liquid & powdered Chemicals - Geological analysis


- Drying Agents -Silica gel/Calcium Chloride
- Well operations
• Calibration gases - hydrocarbons and H2S
• Office equipment and stationary

ML2.1.1_Sampling_Catch_And_Process PPT Sept 2006


Sampling – Catch and Process
Consumables Planning and Ordering
The Well Program contains the sample intervals and sampling requirements
for a well. We need to calculate sampling materials required with :-
Minimum stocks to complete the current well - If a base exists in the
country of operation.
Minimum stocks to complete the current drilling program - If no base
exists in the country of operation.

Calculate the number of paper envelopes, cloth or plastic bags and metal cans
required allowing 15% extra for wastage and possible changes in sampling
requirements using the following formula :-

1.15 x Expected total depth x Number of samples per interval


Sampling interval

ML2.1.1_Sampling_Catch_And_Process PPT Sept 2006


Sampling – Catch and Process
Consumables Planning and Ordering
Calculate the amounts of sampling materials required to
complete the well plus 15% excess.
Calculate the number of boxes required if 30 samples per
wet box and 40 samples per dry box
10 m sample interval. Starts sampling @150m
4 x Wet samples, 3 x Dry samples,
1 x Geochemical sample every 50m 10 m (30 ft) for
Shallow formations
3 m sample interval. 2010m to 3500m
6 x Wet samples, 4 x Dry samples,
2010 m
3 m (10 ft) for
1 x Geochemical sample every 30m
deeper formations
1 m sample interval. 3500m to 4200m
6 x Wet samples, 6 x Dry samples,
3500 m
1 m (3 or 5 ft) for
1 x Geochemical sample every 20m reservoir zones.

4200 m

ML2.1.1_Sampling_Catch_And_Process PPT Sept 2006


Sampling – Catch and Process
Consumables Planning and Ordering
2010 – 150 = 1860 m 1860 / 10 = 186 sample depths
Wet samples 4 x 186 = 744 * 1.15 = 855.6 = 856 samples
Dry samples 3 x 186 = 558 * 1.15 = 641.7 = 642 samples
Geochemical = 1860 / 50 = 38 *1.15 = 44 tins
3500 – 2010 = 1490 m 1490 / 3 = 496.7 = 497 sample depths
Wet samples 6 x 497 = 2982 * 1.15 = 3429.3 = 3430 samples
Dry samples 4 x 497 = 1988 * 1.15 =2286.2 = 2287 samples
Geochemical = 1490 / 30 = 50 *1.15 = 58 tins 10 m
4200 – 3500 = 700 m 700 / 1 = 700 sample depths
Wet samples 6 x 700 = 4200 * 1.15 = 4830 samples 2010 m
Dry samples 6 x 700 = 4200 * 1.15 = 4830 samples
Geochemical = 700 / 20 = 35 *1.15 = 41 tins 3m
Total wet samples = 856 + 3430 + 4830 = 9116 / 30 = 304 Total wet boxes 3500 m
Total dry samples = 642 + 2287 + 4830 = 7759 / 40 = 194 Total dry boxes
Total tins required = 44 + 58 + 41 = 143 1m
4200 m

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Sampling – Catch and Process

Subtitle

ML2.1.1_Sampling_Catch_And_Process PPT Sept 2006


Photo: G. G. Haines