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Chief Editor & Compiler:
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Revised Edition 2010

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Mathematicians, scientists, engineers, and students will

look this dictionary for defmitive coverage of all branches
of mathematics, both pure and applied. Featuring more
than 1500 terms, the book defmes terms and expressions
in algebra, number theory, operator theory, logic, com-
plex numbers, fmite mathematics, topology, and other ar-
eas----each with definition along with pictorial represen-
tations of many terms.
This dictionary is authoritative, comprehensive compris-
ing latest terms and is carefully reviewed to ensure its
accuracy, clarity, and completeness. This Dictionary of
Mathematics puts a wealth of essential information at
your fingertips. Whether you're a professional, a stu-
dent, a writer, or a general reader with science curiosity,
this comprehensive resource defines the current language
of pure and applied Mathematics and gives you a better
understanding of the ideas and concepts you need to
It has, for the first time, brought together in one easily
accessible form the best-expressed thoughts that are es-
pecially illuminating and pertinent to the discipline of
Mathematics. This dictionary will be a handy reference
for the mathematician or scientific reader and the wider
public interested in who has said what on mathematics.
· The overall aim of the dictionary is to provide an acces-
sible description of what one judges to be the core ma-
terial for damn good dictionary. The subject has a repu-
tation for being disagreeably difficult. I have tried to
alter that perception by showing that key ideas can be
presented simply judiciously but not overwhelmingly de-
ployed, clarifies and provides power.
11 2-by-2 table I abeliangroup 5

.2-by-2 table .
1. this is a two-way table ; A~
where the numbers of levels
of the ro·.v and column-classi-
T 45'

fications are each 2. If the row I 0.

and column classifications

each divide the observational
units into subsets, then it is I
likely that it will be useful to
analyse the data using the
Fisher Test. ~ .8
• 3-D figure ; 'prime'; designates an image
a set of points in space; ex- : corresponding to the preimage
amples: box, cone, cylinder, ~ using the same variable.
parallelpiped, prism, pyramid, I
.• aRb
regular pyramid, right cone,
right cylinder, right prism,
sphere. I.
I a is an element in b

~ a Japanese counting device and
: calculator.
~ • abelian group
I a group in which the binary

.._'1 ~.if..... . •. .if. ...... (~, '=)

Wi'Z" w;;g,

• 45-45-90 triangle
an isoscoles right triangle
!!!!!6=" sbseisss IIIJlinetnlnsj'tmnllritm II
?peratio~ is commutative, that ~ • additive identity property
IS,. ab= bafor all elements a abd ; the sum .pf any number and
b m the group. : zero is the original number·
• abscissa ~ zero is the identity element of
the x-coordinate of a point in a ~ addition.
2-dimensional coordinate sys- ; • adjacent angles
tern . . .g
; two ht and nonzero
• absolute value : angles that have a common side
the positive value for a real ~ in the interior of the angle
n~ber, disregarding the sign. ; f?rmed by the non-s:ommon
Wntten 1x I. For example, : SIdes
131 =3, 1-41 =4, and 101 =0. ~ lnIeriorangl ....nlhe
....... side oflhe InirIlIversaI A IntedonI on the ......

• abundant number ~ ... ~"

Be 0 DE ::~
a positive integer that is smaller ;
than the sum of its proper divi- ~
sors. .
• acceleration .
~e rate of change of velocity ; • ad)a~t interior angle
With respect to time. : the mtenor angle that forms a
• "'......-...hl I els f ~ linear pair with a given exterior
--1'~ e eVi 0 accuracy
~e p~eClSlon determined by the
sItuation or the given numbers
stude?ts should help develo~

I angle of a triangle.
: . ."
adjacent SIde
~ (of an a triangle~, one
what IS acceptable according to : of the two SIdes of the mangle
the situation. ~ that form the sides of the angle.
• accuracy ; • affine superimposition
the closeness of a measurement ; a su~rimposition for which the
or estimate to its true value. : assocIated transformations are
I all affine.
• acute angle :
an angle whose measure is ~ • affine transforma,tion
greater than 0 but less than 90 ; a transformation for which
degrees. : parallel lines remain parallel.·

llilleeimlie elJllllhon lilleeimlie numb:.. =========~7
Mfine transformations of the ~ was applied to landmark-
plane take squares into paral- ; based shape .
lelograms and take circles into
ellipses of the same shape. M- I 'g
fine transformations of a 3-di- I :or
mensional space take cubes
into parallelopipeds (sheared '. ---- !r-<7H:~,
bricks) and spheres into ellip- I
L ----"8;-
---------------.1 -' . '
_:l____ ~-----
soids all of the same shape. ,, '
~.::~~- . : .t,. ....
Similar results are produced
in higher dimensional spaces . I x,. x"
Equivalent to "uniform trans-
formation" . As far as form is ~ - algebraic equation
concerned' (that is, ignoring I an equation of the form
translation and rotation), any ~ f( x) = 0 where f is a polyno-
affine transformation can be : mial.
diagrammed as a pure strain I

taking a square to a rectangle tPq = Wq • 1l.y • tlq

on the same axes. In studies where
of shape, where scale is ig-
nored as well, the picture is the

Wq = q. eq
same but now the sum of the q = (ra - i) . ax + q.m
squares of the axes is un- st
changing. Still ignoring scale I
tlq = !6f.
(that is, as far as shape is con- and
cerned), any affine transfor-
mation can be also dia- I
6= (~)!
grammed as a pure shear tak - I
ing a square into a parallelo- : _ algebraic number
gram of unchanged base seg- ~ a number that is the root of
ment and height. This dia- ; an algebraic polynomial. For
gram of shear came into : example, (sqrt 2) is an alge-
morphometrics via an applica- ~ braic number because it is a
tion to principal components ~ solution of the equation x2 =2.
analysis somewhat before it

.MiJt--'nes~====== II.
,!!!!8~~~~~~~~~~. tdgorithm I RltemateinterWrangles II
~- terion level (often 0.05). The
{~J.. l. .'1· ... {-~. -Ti.~. -rz}' 11,

U .... U1C(.-21J,.1.'1· •• {-~, IT'~' -Ti}; 11,

; outcome is classified as show-
AlqebCnct, · 2 '1 . 11' to, -~. 0, -,}. 11 .
1 ing statistical signifi·lCance if the
u""0;cl.-2I1'.'I'., {o, i, 0, ~}, 11, I actual alpha (probability of the
u"',""cl. -2I1'. 'I'., {i, -IT' + IT}' 11.
outcome under the null hypoth-
.1"""<1> -211'. 11' •. {i, Tz-' + -T,-}' 11}
esis) is no greater than this
_ algorithm nominal alpha criterion level.
1. a formal statement, clear . ~ This reasoning is applicable for
all types of statistical testing,
complete and unambiguous, of I
how a certain process needs to : including re-randomisation sta-
be undertaken. I tistics which are the concern of

2. an algorithm expressed in a I this present glossary.

programming language for a - alphametic
computer . a cryptarithm in which the let-
_ allometry I ters, which represent distinct

any change of shape with size. I digits, form related words or

It describes any deviation of the meaningful phrases.
bivariate relation from the - alternate exterior angles
simple functional form yIx = c, I if two parallel lines are cut by a
where c is a constant ~d x and I transversal, alternate exterior
y are size measures in units of : angles are outside the parallel
the same dimension. I lines and on opposite sides of

I the transversal.
- alpha
also known as size or type-l er- I - alternate interior angles
ror. This is the probability that, if two parallel lines are cut by a
according to some null hypoth-
esis, a statistical test will gener- I y
ate a false-positive error : af-
firming a non-null pattern by
chance. Conventional method- I
ology for statistical testing is, in
advance of undertaking the
test, to set a nominal alpha cri- I
transversal, alternate interior ~ or the line containing the oppo-
angles are inside the parallel ; site side, or the length of the
lines and on opposite sides of : altitude segment.
the transversal. ~ • altitude of a conic solid
• alternative hypothesis ~ the length of a segment whose
in hypothesis testing, a null hy- ; endpoints are the vertex and a
pothesis (typically that there is : point on the plane of the base
no effect) is compared with an ~ that is perpendicular to the
alternative hypothesis (typically ~ plane of the base
that there is an effect, or that I • altitude of a cylindric solid
there is an effect of a particular
~ the distance be,tween the planes
sign). For example, in evaluat-
: of the bases
ing whether a new cancer rem-
edy works, the null hypothesis ~ • altitude of a trapezoid
typically would be that the rem- I the distance between the bases
edy does not work, while the ~ of a trapeziod
alternative hypothesis would be :I • altitude of a triangle.
that the remedy does work. : the perpendicular segment
When the data are sufficiently I from a vertex to the line con-
improbable under the assump- ; taining the opposite side of a
tion that the null hypothesis is : triangle
true, the null hypothesis is re- I
jected in favour of the alterna- : • ambiguous
tive hypothesis. (This does not ~ not stable; changing
imply that the data are probable I • amicable numbers
under the assumption that the ; two numbers are said to be
alternative hypothesis is true, : amicable if each is equal to the
nor that the null hypothesis is ~ sum of the proper divisors of
false, nor that the alternative ; the other.
hypothesis is true.
; • analyse
• altitude : to break down into parts and
(of a triangle) A line segment ~ explain or demonstrate the
drawn from a vertu that is per- I logic of a situation or a process.
pendicular to the opposite side
10 angle I anisotropy II
• angle I tex at the viewer's eye, one side
1. (of a polygon) an angle hav- I horizontal, and the viewer's line
ing its vertex at one of the of sight to the object as the
polygon's vertices, and having I other side.
two of the polygon's sides as its I • angle of rotation
I the angle between a point and
2. two noncollinear rays (the
its image under a rotation, with
sides of the angle) having a com- I
its vertex at the center of the
mon endpoint (the angle's ver- I rotation. and sides that go
through the point and its im-
• angle bisector age. Also, the measure of the
a ray that has the vertex of the I angle.
angle as its endpoint, and that I • angle ruler
divides the angle into two con- a hinged ruler with a protrac-
gruent angles.
tor attached for reading the
LI!OH'''' --..\.ooe •• _ I measure of an angle in degrees.
I • angle side
one of the two rays forming an
• angular velocity
I (of an object moving around a
circle) the rate of change, with
respect to time, of the measure
• angle of depression I of the central angle that inter-
(of an object lower than the I cepts the arc between the ob-
viewer) The angle with its ver- : ject and a ftxed point.
tex at the viewer's eye, one side I
horizontal, and the viewer's line I • anisotropy
of sight to the object as the anisotropy is a descriptor of one
other side. I aspect of an affine transforma-
tion. In two dimensions, this is
• angle of elevation the ratio of the axes of the el-
(of an object highet than a I lipse into which a circle is trans-
viewer) The angle with its ver- formed by an affine transfor-
IllInnulus I lire length 11

mation. In general, it is the ~ _ antecedent

maximum ratio of extension of ; the 'if' part of a conditional'
l~n~ in one direc~on to exten- ; represented by p; aka hypoth:
s~on m a perpendlCular direc- : esis, given, problem
tlon. I ••
: - antlpnsm
- annulus I a polyhedron resulting from
the region between two concen- : rotating one base of a prism
tric circles of unequal radius. ~ and connecting the vertices so
I that the lateral faces are tri-
~ angles.

~ - apothem
: (of a regular polygon) a line
~ segment between the center of
; the polygon's circumscribed
: circle to a side of the polygon
~ that is also perpendicular to
; that side. Also, the length of
: that line segment.
: - arc
_ ANSI ~ (of a circle) Two points on the
acronym for the American Na- ; circle (the endpoints of the arc)
tiona! Standards Institute. This : and the points of the circle be-
body publishes specifications ~ tween them. An angle inter-
for a number of standard pro- I cepts an arc if the sides of the

gramming languages. The ~ angle ~tersect the circle at the

specifications are generally ar- : ~ndpomts of the arc. Th~ arc is
ranged to concur with those of ~ mcluded by the chord wlth the
ISO, ; same endpoints.
_ ante ~ - arc length
the up-front cost of a bet: the : the portion of the circumference
money you must pay to play the ~ of the circle described by an arc,
game. From Latin for "before." ; measured in units of length.

MII,.",.riu======= II

• arc measure I association, which is a special

the measure of the central angle I case of association in which
that intercepts an arc, measured large values of one variable tend
in degrees. I to occur with large values of the
I other, and small values of one
tend to occur with small values
.Sl..... //
; / ",-"
"- of the other (positive associa-
.~.,.4.7•. / /

'" tion), or in which large values

;;,dA( - '.00 I ;, '"'- I
I I · , of one tend to occur with small
\ / _----;;---0-
;/;--- I
values of the other, and vice
versa (negative association).
"'--- - , I • associative property
• area property about grouping of
the amount of space taken up numbers; of addition, the c for-
in a plane by a figure I mula (a + b) + c = a + (b +
• arithmetic mean
the arithmetic mean of n num- I
• assume
to accept as true without facts
bers is the sum of the numbers
divided by n. I or proof.
• association I • asymptote
two variables are associated if I a straight line always approach-
some of the variability of one ing but never intersecting a
can be accounted for by the curve.
other. In a scatterplot of the two I • automatic drawer
variables, if the scatter in the a computer program that lets
values of the variable plotted on you build constructions
the vertical axis is smaller in
• automorphism
narrow ranges of the variable
an isomorphism from a set
plotted on the horizontal axis
I onto itself.
(i.e., in vertical "slices") than it
is overall, the two variables are I • average
associated. The correlation co- a sometimes vague term. It usu-
efficient is a measure of lillear ally denotes the arithmetic

II = = = = = = = . M J J , . " , . , ; u

mean, but it can also denote the ~ ther lands heads or lands tails
median, the· mode, the geomet- ; is the sum of the chance that the
ric mean, and weighted means, : coin lands heads and the chance
among other things. ~ that the coin lands tails, because
I both cannot occur in the same
: coin toss. All other mathemati-
~ cal facts about probability can
I be derived from these three axi-
~ oms. For example, it is true that
: the chance that an event does
~ not occur is (100% the chance
; that the event occurs). This is a
: consequence of the second and
• axioms of probability ~ third axioms.
there are three axioms of prob- I • axis
Iability: Chances
Th are always at .I (ofa cYlinder, ) the line segment
east z~ro. e c~ance that : connecting the centers of the
something happen! IS 100%. If I bases
two events cannot both occur at : .
the same time (if they are dis- ~ • base
joint or mutually exclusive), the ; I. the side of an isoscoles tri-
chance that either one occurs is : angle whose endpoints are the
the sum of the chances that ~ vertices of the base angles
each occurs. For example, con- I 2. a side of a polygon or face of
sider an experiment that con- : a solid used for reference when
sists of tossing a coin once. The ~ drawing an altitude or other
first axiom says that the chance I feature.
~at the coin lands heads, for ~ 3. a face of a solid used for ref-
mstance, must be at least zero. : erence when drawing an alti-
The second axiom says that the I tude or other feature.
chance that the coin either lands ; 4. the congruent parallel poly-
heads or lands tails or lands on : gons of a prism. If the faces are
its edge or doesn't land at all is ~ all rectangular, any parallel pair
100%. The third axiom says; can be considered the bases.
that the chance that the coin ei-

Otherwise, the nonrectangular ~ P(AIB) = P(B IA) xP(A)/(

pair forms the bases. i P(B IA) xP(A) + P(B lAc)
5. in the expression xY, x is called : xP(Ac».
the base and y is the exponent. ~ • bending energy
• base angles ~ bending energy is a metaphor
1. (of an isosceles triangle) The i borrowed for use in
two angles opposite the two : morphometrics from the me-
congruent sides. ~ chanics of thin metal plates.
2. (of an isosceles triangle) The I Imagine a configuration of
two angles opposite the two : landmarks that has been printed
congruent sides. ~ on an infinite, infinitely thin,
3. (of a trapezoid) A pair of I flat metal plate, and suppose
angles with a base of the trap- ~ that the differences in coordi-
ezoid as a common side. : nates ~ these same ¥dmarks
• b Ii I in ano er picture are taken as
ase ne : . A: I f tho
for a system of two-point shape I vernc 'tf'~ a~ements o. IS
r. I dm ks· : plate perpendicular to Itself,
coordinates lor an ar m a I e · dina
I th b lin . th lin one artesIan coor te at a
pane, ease elS e e : . Th be din f
connecting the pair of land- I nme. e n g energy 0
. d 1::._ d : one of these out-of-plane
madcs that are asslgne to llAe I " h h )). th (·deal
1ocanons , an (1 ,0)·me·
'. (0 0) d th . s ape c anges IS e); -
. I I I ized) energy at would be re-
constructIon. n genera,. . ed be d th tal I
baselines work better if they are i qwr to n e me pate
closely aligned with the long : s.o that the landmarks .were
. f I lifted or lowered appropnately.
aXIS 0 the mean landmark . Whil· h· bending
shape and pass near the centroid i. m p YSI~
eeal eneder~
f th t h . IS a r quannty, measur m
o a mean s ape ; appropriate units (g cm2 sec2),
• Bayes' rule ~ there i~ an alternate formula
Bayes' rule expresses the con- : that remains meaningful in
ditional probability of the event ~ morphometries: bending en-
A given the event B in terms of i ergy is proportional to the in-
the conditional probability of : tegral of the summed squared
the event B given the event A: ~ second derivatives of the "ver-
II hentlinamewmlltriJ&lhettl .~~~~~~~~~15
tical" displacement the extent to ~ energy of a general transforma-
which it varies from a uniform; tion is the sum xtLk-lX +y'Lk:ly
tilt. The bending energy of a ~ of ~e bending energy of Its
shape change is the sum of the : honzontal:-co~~nent, mod-
bending energies that apply to I eled as ~ vemcal pl~te, pl~
any two perpendicular coordi- ~ the bending energy of Its v~~­
nates in which the metaphor is : cal y-component, modeled Slffil-
evaluated. The bending energy I !arly as a "vertical" plate.
of an affme transformation is ~ • Bernouilli process
zero since it corresponds to a : this is the simplest probability
tilting of the plate with?ut any ~ model a single trial between
bending. The value obtamed for I two possible outcomes such as
the bending energy correspond- : a coin toss. The distribution
. ing to a given ~splacement is ~ depends upon a . single
inversely pr?pomonal to scale. ~ parameter,'p', representmg the
Sl~ch quantities should not ?e ; probability attributed to one
interpreted as measures o~ dis- : defmed outcome out of the two
similarity (e.g:, taxonOIll1C or ~ possible outcomes.
evolutionary distance) between .
two forms. ~ • beta
. ' 2 be
I also known as type- error, ta
• bending energy ~atrix : is the complement to power :
the formula for bending ~nergy ~ beta = (I-power). This is the
the formula whose ~alue IS pro- ; probability that a statistical t~t
portional to that mtegral of : will generate a false-negative
those summed squared. second ~ error: failing to assert a defmed
derivatives is. a quadratic form ; pattern of deviation from a null
(usually wntten Lk·l) deter- : pattern in circumstances where
mined by the coordinates of the ~ the defmed pattern exists. Con-
landmarks of the reference I ventional methodology for sta-
form. That is, if h is a vector : tistical testing is to set in ad-
describing the heights of a plate ~ vance a nominal alpha criterion
above a set of landmarks, then I level the corresponding level for
bending energy is htLk-lh. In : BETA will depend upon the
morphometrics, the bending ~ nominal alpha criterion level

M s t h _ t i c s = = = = = = II
16 bias I biMr,ynumber II
and upon further considerations J swer that differs from the truth.
including the strength of the J The bias is the average (ex-
pattern in the data and the pected) difference between the
sample size. Interest is gener- J measurement and the truth. For
ally in the relative power of dif- J example, if you get on the scale
ferent tests rather than in an with clothes on, that biases the
absolute value. It is question- : measurement to be larger than
able whether the concept of J your true weight (this would be
BETA error is properly appli- : a positive bias). The design of
cable without considering the an experiment or of a survey can
concept of sampling from a J also lead to bias. Bias can be
population, which is separate deliberate, but it is not neces-
from the concerns of this Glos- sarily so.
sary. Applicability of this rea- I • biconditional
soning is also closely bound up I Q conditional and its converse
with the choice of test statistic. ~ where the converse is also true; r

:- 4.).(i)'~~ (lao::: :=:=::.. , uses the words if and only if.


t:'41 6:1 rt.,

. ~~~t:¥
I ,
• bijection
IAJ -p-I"-D ",""
~~c;-I , •• m /~,.,~
- , (I·/b"SV.>'1t',~ I
I I a one-to-one onto function.
{ lAl .p-}... -,l p- ....)
~~.. to-ue-o.
~, -~
l '.' •• I
,.",... .... ""'' '-O''.I0(h3 t14tiIJ , - ::=::-.:r ......... : I • bilateral symmetry
a,t"";""IJ.Q:d.. ,.th.
..r-----~J••• ........._ _
Wl-tS) J·.~~_~~L_ t!ffllW~
I reflectional symmetry with only
one line of symmetry.
....... ,,-...t[!p-,.~.., ......)., ih:::::" 1 • bimodal
I-d--~'!!.~I .... uacD
,\I) 11~
I I having two modes.
binary number
r. . . - -"~~;;:c!W~");'~~5~ =.-1
~ r.1'IWJ'>(.~-s!:i'" ttel!'" a-:u..- I •
I a number written to base 2.
~." ...,m:.)a~
... -

r.a.,-os.'- ~.Jt'"
-_.. ...... "'.add ..."""
I;' :. :. .... • tIII OIl

• bias
a measurement procedure or J
.- _ . . .2

.... • .•• .. 2

estimator is said to be biased if, I
on the average, it gives an an-
II hiM", operation I biseet 17

• binary operation ~ probability histogram of the

a binary operation is an opera- I binomial distribution.
tion that involves two operands.
; • binomial test
For example, addition and sub-. .. . . .
traction are binary operations. ; this IS a stansnc~ test refemng
•. . : to a repeated bmary process
bmolD1~. I such as would be expected to
an expression that IS the sum of : generate outcomes with a bino-
two terms. ~ mial distribution. A value for
• binomial coefficient ~ the parameter 'p' is
the coefficients of x in the ex- ; hypothesised (null hypothesis)
pansion of (x+ 1)n. : and the difference of the actual
I value from this is assessed as a
• binomial distribution ; value of alpha.
a random variable has a bino-
mial distrib,:!:tion (with param- ~ • biplot
eters n -and p) if it is the num- : a single diagram that represents
ber of "successes" in a fixed ~ two separate scatterplots on the
number n of independent ran- ; same pair of axes. One scatter
dom trials, all of which have the : is of some pair of columns of
same probability p of resulting ~ the matrix U of the singular
in "success." Under these as- I value decomposition of a ma-
sumptions, the probability of k : trix S, and the other scatter is
successes (and n _k failures) is ~ of the matching pair of columns
nC pk(l-p)n-k, where nC is the I of V. When S is a centered data
k k
number of combinations of n ~ ~atrix, the effect is to plot prin-
objects taken k at a time: nC = : Clpal component loadings and
~ scores on the same diagram.
n!j(k!(n-k)!). The expected
value ~f a r~do~ v~iabl~ wi~ ~ • biquadratic equation
the Bmomial dIstnbutIon IS ; a polynomial equation of the
nxp, and the.stanruu:d error of : 4th degree.
a random vanable With the Bi- I •
nomial distribution is (nxpx(l ~. bl~e~t .
p» V2. This page shows the ; to diVide mto two congruent
I parts.
18 bisecWrpflJ~t I bootstmp II
• bisector pf a segment ~ human subjects, it is usually
any plane, point or two-dimen- ; necessary to administer a pla-
sional figure containing the the cebo to the control group.
midpoint of the segment and no I • bootstrap
other points on that segment I this is a form of randomisation
• bit I test which is one of the alterna-
a binary digit. tives to exhaustive re-
• bivariate randomisation. Th~ bootstrap
having or having to do with two I scheme involves generating
variables. For example, bivari- I subsets of the data on the basis
ate data are data where we have of random sampling with re-
two measurements of each "in- I placements as the data are
dividual." These measurements I sampled. Such resampling pro-
might be the heights and vides that each datum is equally
weights of a group of people I represented in the
(~ghID VIdi ·dual"· ) th I randomisation scheme; how-
IS a person, e: ever, the bootstrap procedure
hel ts 0 f fathers and sons (an I h Co hi h di· .h
IVI ua1"·IS a f at h er-son ..
".IIId··d . asf leatures
h w c d songws f
.) th d I It rom t e proce ure 0 a
pair, e pressure an tem-.. M earl0 test. The distm-
onte- .
perature of a fIXed volume of I ..
( ". di .dual"· th 1· gwshing features of the boot-
gas an ID VId IS ~ vo - ; strap procedure are concerned
ume 0 f gas un er a certam set. .th lin th .
of experimental conditions), ; WI o~er-samp thg erebels nO
· · constramt upon e num r 0 f
etc. Scatterp1ots, the corre1anon·. tha d be
coefficient, and regression ~ nmes d ~ a atum ~ay inglrep-
make sense for bivariate data ; resente lingID genberaong a ~ e
.. d . resamp su set; the SIZe 0 f
but not uruvariate ata. ; the resampling subsets may be
• blind experiment fixed arbitrarily independently
in a blind experiment, the sub- : of the parameter values of the
jects do not know whether they ~ experimental design and may
are in the treatment group or ; even exceed the total number of
the control group. In order to : data. The positive motive for
have a blind experiment with ~ bootstrap resampling is the gen-

II bootstrapestimateofstandarderror I: model 19

eral relative ease of devising an ~ the sample to estimate the SE

appropriate resampling algo- ; of sampling from the popula-
rithm when the experimental : tion. For sampling from a box
design is novel or complex. A ~ of numbers, the SD of the
negative aspect of the bootstrap ; sample is the bootstrap estimate
is that the form of the : of the SD of the box from
resampling distribution with ~ which the sample is drawn. For
prolonged resampling con- I sample percentages, this takes
verges to a form which depends ~ a particularly simple form: the
not only upon the data and the : SE of the sample percentage of
test statistic, but also upon the I n draws from a box, with re-

bootstrap resampling subset ~ placement, is SD(box)/nY2,

size thus the resampling distri- : where for a box that contains
bution should not be expected ~ only zeros and ones, SD(box)
to converge to the gold standard ; - ( (fraction of ones in
form of the exact test as is the : box) x (fraction of zeros in box)
case for Monte-Carlo ~ )Y2. The bootstrap estimate of
resampling. An effective neces- ; the SE of the sample percent-
sity for the bootstrap procedure : age consists of estimating
is a source of random codes or ~ SD(box) by ((fraction of ones
an effective pseudo-random I in sample) x (fraction of zeros
generator. : in sample»'h. When the
~ sample size is large, this ap-
- bootstrap estimate of
standard error I proximation is likely to be

the name for this idea comes ~ good.

from the idiom "to pull oneself : - box
up by one's bootstraps," which ~ a surface made up of rect-
connotes getting out of a hole ~ angles; a rectangular parallel-
without anything to stand on. ; epiped
The idea of the bootstrap is to
~ • box model
assume, for the purposes of es-
: an analogy between an experi-
timating uncenainties, that the
~ ment and drawing numbered
sample is the population, then
; tickets "at random" from a box
use the SE for sampling from
: with replacement. For example,

Msthemsties=========~ II
suppose we are trymg , to evalu- I,
ate a cold remedy by giving it ;
or a placebo to a group of n in- : R
dividuals, randomly choosing ~
half the individuals to receive I Q
the remedy and half to receive :
the placebo. Consider the me- ~
dian time to recovery for all the I
individuals (we assume every- ~
one recovers from the cold :
eventually; to simplify things, ~ • box plot
we also ~sume that no one ,re- ; a representation of data above
covered m exactly the median: a numbered scale where the
time, and that n is' even). By ~ "box" encloses all data between
defmition, half the individuals ;~ the median of the lower half
got better in less than, the me- : (quartile 1) and the median of
dian time, and half 10 more ~ the upper half (quartile 3), with
than the median time. The in- I a vertical line inside the box to
dividuals who received the: indicate the median of the data;
treatment are a random sample ~ a dot represents each of the high
of size n/2 from the set of n I and low values of the data, and
subjects, half of whom got bet- ~ a horizontal line called a whis-
ter in less than median time, and : ker connects each dot to the
half in longer than median ~ box.
time, If the remedy is ineffec-; b h d b d
tIve, the number 0 f sub'Jects : • ranc
, -an - oun . ,
w h0 recelve' d the remedy and I exploratIon
" , 'of a randOlrusanon
' 1 th
w ho recovered mess an me- I : distrlbunon
' ,
m such a way as to
' 'lik th
dian orne lS e e sum 0 , f nl2 . anOclpate "Ithe effect' of the next
draws Wlth ' replacement firom a I, rannOffilSatIOn d 're atIve
. to ale
box with two tickets in it: one ; present r~ OffilSanon. ,-
with a "1" on it and one with a : lows selecove search of ~aro~-
"0"" I lar zones of a randoffilsatIon
on It. .. distrl'b'
uoon; m. the context 0 f a
~ randomisation test such selec-

II =======MsthtmUJms
II hreaItdownpoint I canonicalcorreUJ";"nalysis 21

tive search may be concerned ~ relations. Each score (linear

with the tail of the i combination) from either list is
randomisation distribution : correlated with no other com-
~ bination from its list and with
• breakdown point .
the breakdown point of an esti- ~ ~nly one score from the other
mator is the smallest fraction of i st.
observations one must corrupt
to make the estimator take any
value one wants. '-------------

• byte
the amount of memory needed
to represent one character on a
computer, typically 8 bits.
• calculator notation ~ • canonical correlation
the symbols used by a calcula- i analysis
tor for scientific notation. : a multivariate method for as-
• caliban puzzle ; sessing the associations be-
a logic puzzle in which one is I tween two sets of variables
asked to infer one or more facts : within a data set. The analysis
from a set of given facts. ~ focuses on pairs of linear com-
I binations of variables (one for
• canonical ~ each set) ordered by the mag-
a canonical description of any
: nitude of their correlations with
statistical situation is a descrip-
~ each other. The fIrst such pair
tion in terms of extracted vec-
; is determined so as to have the
tors that have especially simple
: maximal correlation of any
ordered relationships. For in-
~ such linear combinations. Sub-
stance, a canonical correlations
; sequent pairs have maximal cor-
analysis describes the relation
: relation subject to the constraint
between two lists of variables
~ of being orthogonal to those
in terms of two lists of linear
I previously determined.
combinations that show a re-
markable pattern of zero cor- I

Msthmulties======= II
22 canonical 11am; analysis I causation, causal relation II
• canonical variates analysis ~. capacity
a method of multivariate analy- ; the amount of liquid that can fill
sis in which the variation among : an object.
groups is expressed relative to I • I
the pooled within-group cova- I • cartesian p ane .
. . C . I . a rectangular coordinate svstem
nance matrIX. anoruca varI- . . . J'
al . finds lin I COnSIStIng of a honzontal num-
ates an. YSIS ear tr~s- ber line (x-axis) and a vertical
fiormatlons of the data which I b lin ( .).
maximise the among group ~um ethr e . ~-axIS , mtersect-
. . , I mg at e ongm (zero on each
varIatIOn relatIve to the pooled . be lin)
within-group variation. The ca- ; num r e.
nonica! variates then may be I • categorical variable
displayed as an ordination to : a variable whose value ranges
show the group centroids and ~ over categories, such as {red,
scatter within groups. This may ; green, blue}, {male, female},
be thought of as a "data reduc- : {Delhi, Calcutta, Mumabai},
tion" method in the sense that ~ {short, tall}, {Asian, Mrican-
one wants to describe among ; American, Caucasian, Hispanic,
group differences in few dimen- : Native American, Polynesian},
sions. The canonical variates are ~ {straight, curly}, etc. Some cat'-
uncorrelated, however the vec- ; egorical variables are ordinal.
tors of coefficients are not or- : The distinction between cat-
thogonal as in Principal Com- ~ egorical variables and qualita-
ponent Analysis. The method is I tive variables is a bit blurry.
closely related to multivariate .I • catenary
analysis of variance : a curve whose equation is y =
(MANOVA), multiple discrimi- ~ (a/2)(e +e- X/ 3 A chain sus-
X/ 3 ) .

nant analysis, and canonical cor- I pended from two points forms
relation analysis. A critical as- : this curve
sumption is that the within- ~ •.
group variance-covariance;. causation, causal relation
structure is similar otherwise : two variables are causally re-
the pooling of th~ data over ~ lated if changes in the value of
groups is not very sensible. i one cause the other to change.
For example, if one heats a rigid

II =======.M.thelulies
II ceilingfunction I centroid 23
container filled with a gas, that I • center of gravity
causes the pressure of the gas I the mean of the coordinates of
in the container to increase. points in a figure, whether one,
Two variables can be associated I two, or three-dimensional
without having any causal rela- I • central angle
tion, and even if two variables
I (of a chord or arc) An angle
have a causal relation, their cor- : whose vertex is the center of a
relation can be small or zero. I circle and whose sides pass
• ceiling function I through the endpoints of a

the ceiling function of x is the chord or arc.

smallest integer greater than or • central angle of a circle
equal to x. an angle whose vertex is the
• center I center of the circle
(of a circle or sphere) The point I • central limit theorem
from which all points on the fig- the central limit theorem states
ure are the same distance.
that the probability histograms
• center of a circle I of the sample mean and sample
the point that all points in the sum of n draws with replace-
circle are equidistant from . ment from a box of labeled tick-
I ets converge to a normal curve
I as the sample size n grows, in
the following sense: As n grows,
I the area of the probability his-
I togram for any range of values
approaches the area tmder the
normal curve for the same
range of values, converted to
--.. \
... \
'''' standard units.
• centroid
• center of a rotation the point of concurrency of a
the point where the two inter- I triangle's three medians.
secting lines of a rotation meet

MlJthemR.tiu======= II
",,24=========== ..centroid size I Chebychev'si1UlJUR1ity II
_ centroid size - cevian
centroid size is the square root I a line segment extending from
of the sum of squared distances a vertex of a triangle to the op-
of a set of landmarks from their I posite side.
centroid, or, equivalently, the I
square r'?Ot of the sum of the ~
variances of the landmarks
about that centroid in xand y- I
directions. Centroid Size is used
in geometric morphometries _ chance variation, chance
because it is approximately I error
uncorrelated with every shape a random variable can be de-
variable when landmarks are composed into a sum of its ex-
distributed around lTiean posi- ~ pected value and chance varia-
tions by independent noise of ; tion around its expected value.
the same small variance at ev- The expected value of the
ery landmark and in every di- I chance variation is zero; the
rection. Centroid Size is the size I standard error of the chance
measure used to scale a con- variation is the same as the stan-
figuration of landmarks so they dard error of the random vari-
can be plotted as a point in I able-the size of a "typical" dif-
Kendall"s shape space. The de- ference between the random
nominator of the formula for variable and its expected value
the Procrustes distance between I
- Chebychev's inequality
two sets of landmark configu-
I for lists: For every number
rations is the product of their
k>O, the fraction of elements
Centroid Sizes. in a list that are k SD's or fur-
- certain event I ther from the arithmetic mean
an event is certain if ItS prob- of the list is at most Ijk2. For
ability is 100%. Eve~ if an event random variables: For every
is certain, it might not occur. I number k>O, the probability
However, by the complement I that a random variable X is k
rule, the chance that it does not SEs or further from its expected
occur is 0%. I value is at most l/k2.
II chi-square curve I chi-squared d~tion 25

• chi-square curve ~ dependent trials, each of

the chi-square curve is a fam- ; which can result in one of k
ily of curves that depend on a : possible outcomes. Suppose
parameter called degrees of ~ that in each trial, the probabil-
freedom (d.f.). The chi- ; itythatoutcome i occurs is pi,
square curve is an approxima- : for i = 1, 2, ... , k, and that
tion to the probability histo- ~ these probabilities are the
gram of the chi-square statis- I same in every trial. The ex-
tic for multinomial model if : pected number of times out-
the expected number of out- ~ come 1 occurs in the n trials
comes in each category is I is n.xp1; more generally, the
large. The chi-square curve is ~ expected number of times out-
positive, and its total area is : come i occurs is
100%, so we can think of it as ~ • chi-squared distribution
the probability histogram of a ~ where expected frequencies are
random variable. The balance
; sufficiently high, hypothesised
point of the curve is d.f., so
: distributions of counts may be
the expected value of the cor-
~ approximated by a normal dis-
responding random variable ; tribution rather than an exact
would equal d.f.. The stan-
: binomial distribution. The cor-
dard error of the correspond-
~ responding distribution of the
ing random variable would be
; chi-squared statistic can be de-
(2xd.f.)V2. As d.f. grows, the
: rived algebraically this is the
shape of the chi-square curve
~ chi-squared distribution which
approaches the shape of the
I has been computed and pub-
normal curve.
~ lis~ed historically as extensive
• chi-square statistic : prmted tables. Use of the tables
the chi-square statistic is used ~ is notably simple, as the chi-
to measure the agreement be- ; squared distribution depends
tween categorical data and a : upon only one parameter, the
multinomial model that pre- ~ degrees of freedom, defined as
diets the relative frequency of ; one less than the number of cat-
outcomes in each possible cat- : egories.
egory. Suppose there are n in- I

Mslthema.ties======= II
26 chi-SlJ.tl4red statistic I circumfoYence II
• chi-squared statistic
this is a long-established test
statistic for measuring the ex-
tent to which a set of categori- :
cal outcomes depart from a. I

Q Chord


hypothesised set of probabili- ~ E F

ties. It is calculated as a sum of : A line segment that connects 2

terms over the available catego- ~ points on a circle.

ries, where each term is of the i CD and EF are chords of circle A.

form: ((0-E)2)fE; '0' repre- • circle

sents the observed frequency for I the set of points on a plane at a
the category and 'E' represents certain distance (radius) from
the corresponding expec~ed ~e- ~ a certain point (ceI1ter); a poly-
quency based upon multIplymg : gon with infinite sides
the sample size by the I •
h thesised probability for the : • cl1'cular cone . .
c~gory being considered ~ a cone whose base IS a crrcle.
(therefore 'E' will generally not I • circularity

be an integer value). In situa- : when on a search, circling back

tions where the numbe~ of cat- ~ to a previous place visited (defi-
egories is 2 an alternatIve pro- ~ nition, web site, etc.), ustially
cedure is to use an exact i unhelpful or redundant
biniomial test.
i • circumcenter
• chord : the circumcenter of a triangle
1. a line segment whose end- ~ is the center of the circum-
points lie on a circle.. ; scribed circle.
2. the line joining two pomts on
a curve is called a chord. i • circumcircle
: "the circle circumscribed about
• chord of a circle I
: a figure.
a segment whose end~oints
are on a circle ~ • circumference
i the distance around a circle,
~ given by the formula C = 2m;
II circumscribed I cluster analysis 27
where r is the radius of the ~ • class interval
circle. ; in plotting a histogram, one
• circumscribed : starts by dividing the range of
passing through each vertex of ~ v~ue~ into a set of non-ov~rlap­
a figure, usually referring to ~ pmg ~tervals, called class mter-
circles circumscri bed around . vals, m such a way that every
polygons or spheres circum _ ~ ~atum is contained in some class
scribed around polyhedrons. I mterval.
The figure inside is inscribed in I • class of functions
the circumscribed figure. ~ family of functions such as lin-
• cissoid : ear, quadratic, power (polyno-
a curve with equation y2(a_ ~ mial), exponential, or logarith-
X)=X3. ; mic.
~ • classes of numbers
: family of numbers or number
~ systems such as natural, inte-
; ger, rational, irrational, real, or
: complex.
: • classify
~ to categorise something accord-
; ing to some chosen character-
: istics.
: • clockwise
~ in orientation, the direction in
; which the points are named
: when, if traveling along the line,
~ the interior of the polygon is on
~ the right.
• class boundary
a point that is the left endpoint I • cluster analysis
of one class interval, and the ~ a method of analysis that rep-
right endpoint of another class : resents multivariate variation in
I data as a series of sets. In biol-
~ ogy, the sets are often con-

28 corJJicient I combinatitms II
structed in a hierarchical man- ~ • coincidental lines
ner and shown in the form of a ; lines that are identical (one and
tree-like diagram called a den- : the same)
drogram. ~ • collinear
• coefficient ~ lying on the same line.
a coefficient, in general, is a ~ • combinations
number multiplying a function. the number of combinations of
In multivariate data analysis, n things taken k at a time is the
usually the "function" is a vari- I
number of ways of picking a
able measured over the cases of : subset ofk of the n things, with-
the analysis, and the coefficients I
out replacement, and without
multiply these variable values I
regard to the order in which the
before we add them up to form elements of the subset are
a score. A coefficient is not the
pickc:d. The number of such
same as a loading. combinations is nCk = n!j(k!(n-
• coincide k)!), where k! (pronounced "k
lying exactly on top of each factorial") is kx(k-l)x(k-2)x
other. Line segments that coin- ... x 1. The numbers nCk are
cide are identical; they have all I also called the Binomial coeffi-
the same points. I cients. From a set that has n el-
ements one can form a total of
I 2n subsets of all sizes. For ex-
I ample, from the set {a, b, c},
: which has 3 elements, one can
: form the 23 = 8 subsets U, {a},
I {b}, {c}, {a,b}, {a,c}, {b,c},
{a,b,c}. Because the number of
subsets with k elements one can
I form from a set with n elements
is nck, and the total number of
subsets of a set is the sum of
~ the numbers of possible subsets
; of each size, it follows that
nco +nC1 +nC2 + ... +nCn = 2n.
II ~m#n~~I~~n~~~~~~~~~~~2==9
The calculator has a button ~ - complementary angles
(ncm ) that lets you compute the ; two angles whose measures
number of combinations of m : have the sum 90°.
things chosen from a set of n I
things. To use the button, first I
type the value of n, then push
the nCm button, then type the
value of m, then press the "=" I
~ ()
mLABC + mLCBD =90"
LABC and LCBD are complementary angles.
- commutative properties I
properties about order of addi- : - complex numbers
tion' a + b = b + a; of multi- ~ complex numbers are an alge-
plication, a x b = b x a" ; braic way of coding points in
- compass : the ordinary Euclidean plane
a drawing tool used to draw ~ so that translation (shift of
circles at different radii ; position) corresponds to the
:I addition of complex numbers .
- compatible numbers : and both rescaling (enlarge-
numbers that can be easily ma- I ment or shrinking) and rota-
nipulated and operated on men- ~ tion correspond to multiplica-
tally. : tion of complex numbers. In
_ complement rule ~ this system of notation, in-
the probability of the comple- ; vented by Gauss, the x-axis is
ment of an event is 100% mi- : identified with the "real num-
nus the probability of the event: ~ bers" (ordinary decimals
P(Ac) = 100% peA). ; numbers) and the y-axis is
: identified with "imaginary
I f b f .I num b ers" (t h e square roots 0 f
e.comp e~ent 0 a su .set 0 ; negative numbers). When you
a gIven set IS the collecnon of" ul" I "
r thi" b
all elements of the set that are ; ~ tip pomts on " s axiS hY
not elements of the subset. : t emse ves accord mg to t e
I rules, you get negative points
: on the "real" axis just defined.
~ Many operations on data in

MJJ.th_tics========== II
~30~~~~~~~~~~~~~~mmW~l~i~p70b~i~ /I

two dimensions can be proved I • concentric circles

valid more directly if they are I circles that share the same
written out as operations on center, but have different ra-
complex numbers. I dii
• compose numbers
put a set of numbers together I
to form a new number using
addition or multiplication.
• composite transforma-
the composite of a first trans-
formation S and a second
transformation T is the trans- I
formation mapping a point P
onto T(S(P». • concrete materials
I objects to be manipulated (e.g.,
• composition
(of transformations) The trans- I pattern blocks, snap cubes,
formation that results when geoboards, tangrams, color
one transformation is applied ~ tiles, base ten blocks).
after another transformation. • concurrent
I intersecting at a single point
• compound eventS
two or more events in a prob- ( called the point of
I concurrency).
ability situation such as flipping
a coin and spinning a spinner. I • conditional
I a statement that tells if one
• concave
curved from the inside. thing happens, another will fol-
• concave polygon
a polygon having at least one • conditional probability
diagonal lying outside the poly- I suppose we are interested in the
gon; not convex. probability that some event A
occurs, and we learn that the
I event B occurred. How should

II =======MRthem4ries
we update the probability of A ~ if we are restricting the out-
to reflect this new knowledge? ; come space to B, we need to
This is what the conditional : divide by the probability of B
probability does: it says how the ~ to make the probability of this
additional knowledge that B ; new S be 100%. On this scale,
occurred should affect the prob- : the probability that AB hap-
ability that A occurred quanti- ~ pened is P(AB)fP(B). This is
tatively. For example, suppose , the deftnition of the conditional
that A and B are mutually ex- : probability of A given B, pro-
clusive. Then if B occurred, A ~ vided P(B) is not zero (division
did not, so the conditional prob- ~ by zero is undefined). Note
ability that A occurred given ; that the special cases AB = {}
that B occurred is zero. At the : (A and B are mutually exclu-
other extreme, suppose that B ~ sive) and AB = B (B is a subset
is a subset of A, so that A must ; of A) agree with our intuition
occur whenever B does. Then : as described at the top of this
if we learn that B occurred, A ~ paragraph. Conditional prob-
must have occurred too, so the ; abilities satisfy the axioms of
conditional probability that A : probability, just as ordinary
occurred given that B occurred ~ probabilities do.
is 100%. For in-between cases,
~ - conditional proof
where A and B intersect, but B
; a proof of a conditional state-
is not a subset of A, the condi-
tional probability of A given B ,
: ment.
is a number between zero and : - cone
100%. Basically, one "restricts" ~ a solid whose surface consists
the outcome space S to consider , of a circle and its interior, and
only the part of S that is in B, : all points on line segments that
because we know that B oc- ~ connect points on the circle to a
curred. For A to have happened ~ single point (the cone's vertex)
given that B happened requires ; that is not coplanar with the
that AB happened, so we are : circle. The circle and its interior
interested in the event AB. To ~ form the base of the cone. The
have a legitimate probability ; radius of a cone is the radius of
requires that P(S) = 100%, so : the base. The altitude of a cone

Msthemtllti&s========== II
~32~~~~~~~~~~~Mlmn~m~M II
is the line segment from the ~ the family, and these likelihoods
vertex to the plane of the base ; may be then used to defme a
an~ perpendic~ar to it. The ~ contiguous set of values which
?elgh~ of a cone 18 t.he length of : occupy a certain proportion of
Its aln~de. If the line segment I the total unit weight of the like-
c~nnecnng the vertex of a cone : lihoods integrated over all val-
with th~ center of its base is ~ ues of the test statistic, the con-
perpendi~ar ~o the base, then ~ fidence interval is defmed by
the cone 18 a nght cone; other- ' the minimum and maximum
wise it is oblique. ~ values of the range of values so
• confidence interval ~ defined. The proportion of the
for a given re-randomisation ; total weight within the range of
distribution, a family of related : values is regarded as an alpha
distributions may be defined ~ probabili~ ~at, the v~ue of the
according to a range of hypo- I test stanstic hes WIthin this
the~cal values of the pattern ~ range, Generall~ the defmition
whIch the test statistic mea- : of a confidence mterval cannot
sures. For instance, for the pit- ~ be unique wi~out imposing
man permutation test to test for ' further constramts. Approaches
a scale shift between .two ~ to providing suitable con-
groups, a related distribution ~ ~traints, s~ch that a confidence
may be formed by shifting all ; mtet;al will be unique, include
the observations in one group : d~g the confidence interval
by a common amount where ~ : to mclude the whole of one tail
this common shift is r~garded ; of the ~istribution; or to be
as a continuous variable, With : centred m some sense upon the
fmite numbers of data the num- ~ outcome value; or to be centred
ber of related distributions will ; bet,ween TAILS of equal
be fmite, and typically consid- ~ weIght" In, the ,cas,e of re-
erably smaller than the number : randomIsanon distributions,
of points of the randomisation I these are discrete distributions
distribution. The likelihood of : so there will generally be no
the outcome value may be cal- ~ range of,values with weight cor-
culated for each distribution in I responding exactly to an arbi-
: trary nominal alpha criterion

II ===:========Mstht:'l'/Ul.tU:s
II con.fideme level I congruentfiDU1'eS. 33

level, and the problem of non- ~ the treatment (if any). For ex-
uniqueness is therefore not gen- ; ample, prominent statisticians
eratly solvable. : questioned whether differences
~ between individuals that led
; some to smoke and others not
: to (rather than the act of smok-
~ ing itself) were responsible for
I the observed difference in the
~ frequencies with which smok-
: ers and non-smokers contract
I various illnesses. If that were

~ the case, those factors would be

- confidence level : confounded with the effect of
the confidence level of a confi- ~ smoking. Confounding is quite
dence interval is the chance that ; likely to affect observational
the interval that will ~esult on~e : studies and experiments that
data are collected wIll contam I are not randomised Confound-
the corresponding parame~er. If ~ ing tends to be d~creased by
one computes confidence mter- : randomisation.
vals again and again from inde- ~
pendent tiata the long-term . - congruent
limit of the fr;ction of intervals ~ equilateral, equal, exactly the
that contain the parameter is I same (size, shape, etc.)
the confidence level. ; - congruent angles
• confounding : two or more angles that have
when the differences between ~ the same measure.
the treatment and control I: - congruent clrc • I
groups other than the treat- I two or more circles that with the
ment produce differences in re- : same radius.
sponse that are not distinguish-
able from the effect of the treat- : - congruent figures
~ two figures where one is the
ment, those differences be-
I image of the other under a re-
tween the groups are said to be
~ flection or composite of reflec-
confounded with the effect of
: tions.

MIIthemtlnes======= \I
~34~~~~~~~~~~C~ongruen=.tpolygOllS I constantofRnetpmtUm II
• congruent polygons • consecutive vertices
two or more polygons with the I (of a polygon or polyhedron),
exact same size and shape. two vertices that are connected
I by a side or edge.
• congruent segments
two or more segments that have I • consensus configuration
the same measure or length. I a single set of landmarks in-
tended to represent the central
• conic section
tendency of an observed sample
the cross section of a right cir-
I for the production of superimpo-
cular cone cut by a plane. An el-
sitions, of a weight matrix, or
lipse, parabola, and hyperbola I
some other morphometric pur-
are conic sections.
I pose. Often a consensus configu-

=:. :\ ,, .......
1\ ration is ·computed to optimize
/ \ !
- ............
- ... ...... ~ some measure of fit to the full
I I ..- I sample : in particular, the
=-'= I \ - ) '/
Procrustes mean shape is com-
I \
l '
1\ \

f,I .-------\\ ~
/ \\
puted to minimise the sum of
squared Procrustes distances
.'----- - - -- /
I from the the consensus land-
• conic solid marks to those of the sample.
the set of points between a point I
(the venex) and a non-coplan;:lI • consequent
region (the base), including the I the second or "then" part of a
point and the region. I conditional statement.

• conjecture I • constant of an equation

a guess, usually made as a re- the term that has no variable in
sult of inductive reasoning. an equation; example: "0
1 (v - va) 2
• consecutive angles x - Xo = vot + - - - t
2 t
(of a polygon), two angles that I
1 1
have a side of the polygon as a I x - Xo = Vat + -tit - -vat
2 2
common side. 1 1
x - Xa = .,..-vat + -vt
• consecutive sides 2 2
(of a polygon), two sides that I x - Xo = -(tJo + tI)t
have a common vertex.

II =====.===MsJthmuJnes
II ~consts~~n~tffl,~te~oJi~'ch~'Q;~~~e~Iconti~~·n~Uf,~·ty=~ 35

• constant rate of change ~ The expected number of suc-

set .of data or table of values in ; cesses is np = 10, and the stan-
which ~e amount of the depen- ~ dard error is (np( I-p» lh = 6lh
dent vanable changes by a con- . = 2.45. If we consider the area
stant (fixed) value as the value ; under the normal curve at the
of the independent variable : point 10 successes transformed
changes by a constant value. ~ to standard units,' we get zero:
• construct ~ the area under a point is always
create a figure using only a ; zero. We get a better approxi-
straight edge and compass. : mation by considering 10 suc-
~ cesses to be the range from 9
• construction ; 1/2 to 101/2 successes. The only
a precise way of drawing which : possible number of successes
allows only 2 tools: the straight- ~ between 91/2 and 10 1/2 is 10,
edge and the compass ; so this is exactly right for the
• continuity correction : binomial distribution. Because
in using the normal approxima- ~ the normal curve is continuous
tion to the binomial probabil- ; and a binomial random variable
ity histogram, one can get more : is discrete, we need to "smear
accurate answers by fmding the ~ out" the binomial probability
area under the normal curve ' over an appropriate range. The
corresponding to half-integers, ; lower endpoint of the range, 9
transformed to standard units. : 1/2 successes, is (9.5 10)/2.45
This is clearest if we are seek- '. = -0.20 standard units. The
ing the chance of a particular ~ upper endpoint of the range, 10
number of successes. For ex- : 1/2 successes, is (10.5 10)/2.45
ample, suppose we seek to ap- ~ = +0.20 standard units. The
proximate the chance of 10 suc- ; area under the normal curve
cesses in 25 independent trials, : between -0.20 and +0.20 is
each with probability p = 40% ~ about 15.8%. The true bino-
of success. The number of suc- ; mial probability IS
cesses in this scenario has a bi- : 25CI0x (0.4)10x (0.6)15 =
nomial distribution with pa- ~ 16%. In a similar way, if we
rameters n = 25 and p = 40%. ' seek the normal approximation
: to the probability that a bino-
36 cuntinUIIIIS tlistriburion I cuntmaitm II
I ..

mial random variable is • the ~ for any possible ~a!ue of ~e

range from i successes to k suc- ; cumulative probab~ty there IS
cesses, inclusive, we should find ~ an exact; c~n:espon~ value of
the area under the normal curve : the statIStiC m question.
from i-I/2 to k+ 1/2 successes, I • continuous variable
transformed to standar~ .units. ~ a quantitative variable. is con-
If we seek the probability of : tinuous if its set of pOSSible val-
more than i successes and fewer ~ ues is uncountable. Examples
than k successes, we should find ; inclUde temperature, exact
the area under ¢e normal curve : height exact age (including
corresponding to the range i + 1/ ~ parts of a second). In practice,
2 to k-I/2 successes, trans- lone can never measure a con-
formed to standard units. If we : tinuous variable to infinite pre-
seek the probability of more ~ cision so continuous variables
than i but no more than k suc- ; are so~etimes approximated by
cesses, we should find the area: discrete variables. A random
, I .
unde.r the normal curve corre- : variable X is also called conttnu-
sponding to the range i + 1/2 to I ous if its set of possible values
k+ 1/2 successes, transformed ~ is uncountable, and the chance
to standard units. If we se~~ the : that it takes any particular value
probability of at least I but ~ is zero (in symbols, ifP(X = x)
fewer than k successes, we ; = 0 for every real number x).
should fmd the area under the : A random variable is continu-
normal curve corresponding to ~ ous if and only if its cumulative
the range i-I/2 to k-I/2 suc- ; probability distributi?n function
cesses, transformed to standard : is a continuous funCtIon (a func-
units. Including or excluding the ~ tion ,with no jumps).
half-integer ranges at the ends I •
of the interval in this manner is : • contrac~on . .
called the continuity correction. ~ the oppo~lte of dilatlo~ a ~-
. ure resulttng from multlplymg
• continuous distribution ~ all dimensions of a given figure
a probability distribution of a ; by a number betwec:n zero and
continuous statistic, based upon ~ one.
an algebraic formula, such that :
II contm,positi1le I cunwnien&e sample 37
- contrapositive ~ a controlled experiment, and to
if p and q are two logical propo- ; control for a possible confound-
sitions, then the contrapositive : ing variable.
of the proposition (p IMPLIES
: - controlled experiment
q) is the proposition «NOT q) ~ an experiment that uses the
IMPLIES (NOT p) ). The ; method of comparison to evalu-
contrapositive is logically : ate the effect of a treatment by
equivalent to the original ~ comparing treated subjects
proposition. I with a control group, who do
_ control for a variable ; not receive the treatment.
to control for a variable is to try
:I - controlled, randomised
to separate its effect from the •
: expenment
treatment effect, so it will not I a controlled experiment in
confound with the treatment. ~ which the assignment of sub-
There are many methods that : jects to the treatment group or
try to control for variables. ~ control group is done at ran-
Some are based on matching ; dom, for example, by tossing a
individuals between treatment : com.
and control; others use assump- I
tions about the nature of the : - convenience sample
effects of the variables to ~ to ~ a sample drawn because of its
model the effect mathemati- ; convenience; not a probability
cally, for example, using regres- : sample. For example, I might
sl0n. ~ take a sample of opinions in
; Delhi (where I live) by just ask-
- control group : ing my 10 nearest neighbors.
the subjects in a controlled ex- I
: That would be a sample of con-
periment who do not receive I venience, and would be unlikely
the treatment. : to be representative of all of
-control ~ Delhi. Samples of convenience
there are at least three senses ~ are not typically representative,
of "control" in statistics: a ; and it is not typically possible
member of the control group, : to quantify how unrepresenta-
to whom no treatment is given; I

38 .. ~~~~WD~e,!!!!!·c~O'1¥I1i~m!!!!!~!!!!!mee~!!!!!1coo!!!!!~"~rJt~~na~te II.
tive results based on samples of ~ 2. if P and q are two logical
convenience will be. i propositions, then the converse
T_. of the proposition (p IMPLIES :
-~~-=.:=.:- ~ q) is the proposition (q IM-
v.,..., 1>..
~ i __i PLIES p).
of _..... .:..

. c.:
..... ."" .....
i-conversion factor •

~,-# > . . ,,' .,., - -'Ii>! 00. : relationship between two umts

. ':" ~ : : : - :: ~ from different systems of mea-

_001 i surement used to convert from
_ converge convergence ; . one system ~o the other (e.g.,
a sequence ~f numbers xl, x2, : 2.~4 centimeters corresponds to
x3 . . . converges if there is a ~ 1 mch).
number x such that for any num- i_convex polygon
ber E>O, there is a number k : a polygon having no diagonal
(which can depend on E) such ~ lying outside the polygon.
that Ixj xl < E whenever j > k. I
. . . . - convex
If such a number x eXISts, It 18 f set hich all 0 0 0

called the limit of the sequence ~ a set 0 pomts om w eg-

fSth 0

1 x2 3 i ments connectmg pomts 0 e

x, , x 0 0 • set lie entirely in the set; There
0 :

- convergence in probability ~ are three things one can do to

a sequence of random variables i see if a figure is convex look for
Xl, X2, X3 converges in : "dents", extend the segments
0 0 0

probability if there is a random ~ (they shouldn't enter the fig-

variable X such that for any jure), and connect any two
number E>O, the sequence of : points within the figure with a
numbers P( IXI XI < e), P( 1X2 ~ segment (if any part of the seg-
XI < e), P( IX3 XI < e), . I ment lies outside the figure, it's 0 0

converges to 100%. : concave).

- converse : _ coordinate
1. (of a conditional statement), ~ a number that identifies (or
the statement formed by ex- I helps to identify) a point on a
changing the "if" and "then" : number line (or on a plane, or
parts 0 f an ""
- en statement :I m
. space)


- coordinate geometry ~ vector may be thought of as

the study of geometrically rep- ; coordinates in a geometric
resenting ordered pairs of num- : sense.
: - coordinatised. line
~ a line on which every point is
; identified with exactly 1 num-
: her and vice versa; a one-di-
~ mensional graph. The distance
I between 2 parts on a
: coordinatised line is the abso-
~ lute value of the difference of
I their coordinates.
- coordinate plane
a plane in which every point is I _ coplanar
identified with exactly 1 num- ~ lying in the same plane.
ber and vice versa; a two-di- ; - coprime
mensional graph : integers m and n are coprime if
_ coordinate proof ~ gcd(m,n) =1.
a proof using coordinate geom- ~ _ corollary to a theorem
etry. ; a theorem that is easily proved
_ coordinate system : from the first
set of ordered pairs used to 10- I p
cate an object or point on the I
two-dimensional plane.
- coordinates
a set of parameters that locate
a point in some geometrical I
space. Cartesian coordinates,
for instance, locate a point on a
plane or in physical space by I
projection onto perpendicular
lines through one single point, :I - correI abon
the origin. The elements of any I relation between two or more
; variables. Frequently the word

M/lthemR,riu==--====== II
is used for Pearson's producr- I • correlation
moment correlation which is I a measure of linear association
the covariance divided by the between two (ordered) lists.
product of the standard ~ Two variables can be strongly
deviations,rxy=Sxy / Sx.Sy- This ; correlated without having any
correlation coefficient IS + 1 or causal relationship, and two
-1 when all values fall on a variables can have a causal re-
straight line, not parallel to ei- I lations hip and yet be
ther axis. However, there are uncorrelated.
also Kendall, Spearman, • corresponding angles
tetrachoric, etc. correlations I if two parallel lines are cut by a
which measure other aspects of ~ transversal, corresponding
die relation between two vari- angles are translations of each
ables. , other along the transversal .
• correlation coefficient • cosine
the correlation coefficif!nt r is I (of an acute angle) The ratio of
a measure of how nearly a the length of the adjacent side
scatterplot falls on a straight I to the length of the hypotenuse
line. The correlation coeffi- I in any right triangle containing
cient is always between -1 and I the angle.
+ 1. To compute the correla- .
tion coefficient of a list of ; • coterminal angles
pairs of measurements (X,Y), : two angles that have the same
first transform X and Y indi- .~" terminal side
vidually into standard units. "I • countable set
Multiply correspopding ele- ; a set is countable if its elements
ments of the transformed : can be,put in one~to-one corre-
pairs to get a single list of ~ spondence with a subset of the
numbers. The correlation co- ; integers. For eXaniple the sets
efficient is the mean of. that {O~ 7 -3} {red, gre~n, blue}
list of. products. This page .~. { ... , , "'-2 :1" 0" 1 2 ... }',
contams a .too~ tha~ lets y?U I {straiWtt, curly}, and the set of
generate" bIVarIate data WIth : all fractions are countable. If a
· coeffiICIent
any correIanon . YQU .I set is not countable
. , it is un-
II counterclockwise I criticalveUue 41
countable. The set of all real ~ given transformation has only
numbers is uncountable. lone direction of covariants, but
: a full plane (four landmarks) or
• counterclockwise
in orientation, the direction in ~ hyperplane (five or more land-
which points are named when I marks) of invariants.
· travelling on the line, the in-'
if C<:MI:I'iAntl"lft.lrlcTII'rtSf.r rr'..¢qUCOtr~!lI,tha._orreI4UM ....rflcllll'4 ..,
(aC'lt.. lllt.~ rl'(HTl ")tIJvJ1(1U7'PolnbLtIC.WJst.~J
terior of the figure is on the left
• counterexample
a situation in a conditional for I
which the antecedent is true, but
the conditional is false; aka con- I
tradiction ~ • cover
• counting techniques ; a confidence interval is said to
a variety of methods used to : cover if the interval contains the
determine the total possible ~ true value ofl the parameter.
outcomes, typically in a prob- I Before the data are collected,
ability situation, including the : the chance that the confidence
multiplication principle, trees ~ interval will contain the param-
and lists. I eter value is the coverage prob-
~ ability, which equals the confi-
• covariant : dence level after the data are
a covariant of a particular shape I collected and the confidence in-
change is a shape variable ~ terval is actually computed.
whose gradient vector as a func-
tion of changes in any complete ; • coverage probability
set of shape coordinates lies : the coverage probability of a
precisely along the change in ~ procedure for making confi-
question. For transformations ; dence intervals is the chance
of triangles, the relation be- : that the procedure produces an
tween invariants and covariants ~ interval that covers the truth.
is a rotation by 90 degrees in ~ • critical value
the shape-coordinate plane. For ; the critical value in an hypoth-
more than three landmarks, a : esis test is the value of the test

42 cross-seaional study I Ciunulati; Probability Distribution Pmu:tUm... II
statistic beyond which we ~ has some or all of its digits re-
would reject the null hypoth- ; placed by letters or symbols and
esis. The critical value is set so : where the restoration of the
that the probability that the test ~ original digits is required. Each
statistic is beyond the critical ; letter represents a unique digit.
value is at most equal to the sig- ~ • cube
nificance level if the null hy- : a solid figure bounded by 6 con-
pothesis be true. I
: gruent squares.
• cross-sectional study I ub'IC equa0'on

. • • C
a cross-sectlonal study com- . I 'al ti f d
pares different individuals to ~ a po oml equa on 0 e-
each other at the same time- ; gree .
it looks at a cross-section of a ;
population. The differences be-
tween those individuals can cQn- ~
found with the effect being ex- ;
plored. For example, in trying :
to determine the effect of age ~
on sexual promiscuity, a cross- ;
sectional study would be likely :
to confound the effect of age ~
with the effect of the mores the ;
subjects were taught as children::
theoIder m
. di 'duals
ed·th VI
ably r~s WI a very ~ler- ~
b I.
pro -.
C u1 u' 'D-. b bili'ty
um a ve .ero a
D'IS m'bU u'on F unc0'on
. (CDF)
~ntthanatt1tuthde towards proIDlS . cu- ; the cumulative distribution
Ity e younger sub~ects .. fun' f d . bl
Thus It · uld be . rud ; etlon 0 a ran om varia e
'b wo ...1:.a:
Imp• ent .
to: .IS the ch ance that the rand om
attn ute wuerences m proIDlS- I . bl . 1 than ual
. th' C f. varia e IS ess or eq to
CUlty to e agmg process. ..: fun' f In bols
1 .rudinal tud I X, as a etlon 0 x, sym ,
ong! s y. : if F is the cdf of the random
• cryptarithm ~ variable X, then F(x) = P( X < =
a number puzzle in which an ; x). The cumulative distribution
indicated arithmetical operation : function must tend to zero as x
II :........... 1~tur,fue *=========!!!!!!4!!!!!!3
approaches minus inftnity, and ~ - cyclic polygon . .
must tend to unity as x ap- ; a polygon whose vernces lie on
proaches inftnity. It is a positive ~ a circle.
function, and increases mono- : _ cyclic quadrilateral .
tonically: ify > x, thenF(y) >= ~ a quadrilateral that can be m-
F(x). The cumulative distribu- ; scribed in a circle.
tion function completely
characterises the probability dis- ; - cylinder .
tribution of a random variable. : a solid whose surface COnsISts of
. ~ all points on two circl~ in ~o
- curved ~pace. I parallel planes, along WIth pomts
a space wlth coordinates and : in their interiors (the bases of the
a distance f~ction such that ~ cylinder), and all points o~ line
the area of Circles, volume of I segments joining the two arcles.
spheres, etc. are not pro~or- : The axis of the cylinder is the line
tional to the ap.propnate ~ segment that joins the centers of
power of the radIUs, e. g., I the bases. The radius of the cyl-
Kendall's shape space. In : inder is the radius of a base. An
curved spaces, the usual iI?tui - ~ altitude of a cylinder is a line seg-
tions about what "straight I ment between. and perpendicu-
lines" can be expected .
to do :I lar to the planes of the bases. The
will be fa~lty. For mstaI?ce, : height of a cylinder is ~e ~ength
corresponding to every trlan- ~ of an altitude. If the axIS IS per-
gular shape i? Kendall's sha~e ; pendicular to the basc:s, then the
space, there IS. another t?at I! : cylinder is a right cylinder; oth-
"as far fronl ~t as 1?osslble, ~ erwise, it's oblique.
just like there IS a pomt on the I •• •
surface of the earth as far as : - cylindric s?lid
possible from where you now ~ the set o~ pomts ~~n a re-
sit. ; gion ~d I~ trans~nondm.s~ce,
: including llle region an Its .lffi-
- cycle ~ age
(of a periodic curve) One se~-
tion of a curve that, when laid ; - cylindric surface
out repeatedly end-to-end, :I the union of the bases and the
forms the entire curve. : lateral surface

~lhemsti&s======= II
44 dart-I dejieientcotmlintJte I
.dart ~ The~e are 52! (52 factorial)
a concave kite. ~ possible orderings.
~ data . ; • decompose numbers
used as a basis for ; break up numbers into addends
reasonmg. . or factors.
• decagon ~ • deductive reasoning
a ten-sided polygon ~ reasoning accepted as logical
• decimal number ; from agreedupon assumptions
a number written to the base 10. : and proven facts.
• decision rule : - deductive system
a rule for comparing the out- ~ an arrangement of premises
come value of alpha with a ; and theorems, in which each
nominal alpha criterion level: theorem can be proved by de-
(such as 0.05). An outcome ~ ducti~e reasoning using only the
value smaller (more extreme) ; premIses ~nd ~revious theo-
than the nominal alpha criterion : rems, and m which each defini-
level leads to a decision of sta- ~ tion uses only terms that have
tistical significance of the find- ; been defmed previously in the
ing that the test statistic has a : system.
value other than its (null-) ~ • deficient coordinate
hypothesised value. ~ in addition to landmark loca-
• deck of cards ; tions, a digitiser can be used to
a standard deck of playing cards : supply information of other
contains 52 cards, 13 each of ~ sorts. For example, a point can
four suits: spades, hearts, dia- ~ ?e used .to encode part of the
monds, and clubs. The thirteen ; inf~rma~o~ about a curving arc
cards of each suit are {ace 2 3 : by Identifying the spot at which
4? 5,6,7,8,9, 10, jack, q~n: ~ the ar~ lies farthest from some
king}. The face cards are {jack, I other unage structure (perhaps
queen, king}. It is typically as- : another such curving arc). The
sumed that if a deck of cards is ~ null model of independent
shuflled well, it is equally likely ; Gauss~ noise does not apply
to be in each possible ordering. ; to posItion along the tangent

II MJkimtnumbwl derWed~~~~~~~~~~

direction of the curve that is ~ missing observation can be

digitised in this ~ay, an~ s~ that ; computed as.
Cartesian coordinate IS defi - ; _ denominator
cient." The usual model of in- : in the fraction xly, x is called the
dependent G~ussi~ ~oise is ~ numerator and y is called the
inapplicable m pnnclple for ; denominator.
such points.
; - dense line
- deficient number : the line that contains the shon-
a positive integer that is lar~~r ~ est path between two points
than the sum of its proper diVl-
sors. ~ - density
; the ratio of the mass of an ob-
- definition : ject to its volume.
a statement that clarifies or ex- I
plains the meaning of a word : - density scale
or phrase. ~ the vertical axis of a histogram
; has units of percent per unit of
- degree : the horizontal axis. This is called
a unit of m,easure for angles and ~ a density scale; it measures how
arcs equivalent to 1/360 of ro- I "dense" the observations are in
tation around a circle. A right ~ each bin ..
angle measures 90 degrees, . de . bl
s bolized b 90°. ; - depen nt vana e .
ym y : in regression, the vanable
- degrees of freedom . ~ whose 'values are supposed to
given a set of parameters ~stt- ; be explained by chang~ in the
mated from the data, the de- : other variable (the the mdepen-
grees of freedom" of s?me sta- ~ dent or explanatory variable).
tistic is the n~ber of m~epen- ; Usually one regresses th~ de-
dent observanon~ ~equ'tred to : pendent variable on the mde-
compute the stattsttc. For ex- ~ pendent variable.
ample the variance has n-1 de- ;
grees ~f freedom because only : - derived measurem~nt
n-1 of the observations are ~ a. me~urement that IS a com-
needed for its computation ; bmatton of two other measure-
given the sample mean. The :

MMhemsnes===--==--==--==== II
=========. describe I dijfermtUJte II
ments such as speed in miles per ~ • diagonal
hour. I. a line segment connecting two

• describe :I nonconsecutive vertices of a

to explain orally or in writing. : polygon or polyhedron.
I di
• determine .• ameter
to know, or make it possible ~ the. longest ~ord of ~ figure. In
to know, all the characteristics ; a CIrcle, a diameter IS a chord
of a fi?ure. For example, : that passes through the center
three Sides determine a tri _ .~ of the circle.
angle; three angles do not de- ~ • diameter of a circle (or
termine a triangle. ; sphere)
• develop : the segment whose endpoints
to be ~volved in reasoning, ex- ~ are points <;>n a circle (or sphere)
ploratlon, conjecturing, using I ~t co~tams. the. center of the
manipulatives or sketches to gain : CIrcle as Its mldpomt; the length
understanding of concepts or re- ~ of that segment
lationships. I • difference of means

• develop fluency ; a test statistic of intuitive appeal

to. become skillful in working ; for. measuring difference in 10-
With numbers both in accu- . cation between two samples
racy and speed. ~ wi~ inte~al-scale data. Em-
. ploymg this test statistic in an
• deviation :I exact test defmes the pitman
a deviation is the difference I permutation tests(l or 2).
b etween a d atum and some :
reference value, typically the ~ • differential calculus
mean of the data. In comput- ; part of calculus that deals
ing the SD, one fmds the rms : ~I~ the opeation of differen-
of the deviations from the ~ tIatIon of functions.
mean, the differences be- ; • differentiate
tween the individual data and ; to distinguish from other mem-
the mean of the data. : bers of a class, based upon
~ some chosen properties or cri-
; teria.
II tIi,gimetie I discrete line 47

• digimetic ~ - direction
a cryptarithm in which digits ; the way a number goes positive
represent other digits. : or negative
• digit : - direction of a translation
in the decimal system, one of ~ the compass direction in which
the numbers 0, I, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, ; a translation goes.
7, 8, 9. ~ _ disc
- dihedral angle : a circle together with its inte-
the angle formed by two planes ~ rior.
meeting in space.
~ - dis.crete distribution
; a probability distribution of
: some statistic, based upon an
~ algebraic formula or upon re-
I randomisation or upon actual

c ~ data, in which the cumulative

: probability increases in non-
- dilation ~ infmitesmal steps correspond-
a nonrigid transformation that ; ing to non-infmitesmal weight
enlarges or reduces a geomet- : associated with possible values
ric figure by a scale factor rela- ~ of the statistic in question. This
tive to a point (the center of the ; situation is characteristic of
dilation). : randomisation distributions,
• dimensions ~ and also of test statistics which
the width, length, and height of ; are essentially discrete.
a plane or space figure ~ _ discrete line /,
_ diophantine equation : a line made of dots with space
an equation that is to be solved ~ in between their centers.
in integers.
• direct variation
a variation of the type y = kx; E
the graph is a straight line
through the origin.
~ a
- discrete variable score which can be used to
a qUantitative variable whose set i classify the specimen as belong-
of possible values is countable. ing to one or another predefined
Typical examples of discrete ~ group.
variables are variables whose i di·· tuall I
possible values are a subset of : - . sJOlnt or mu Y exc u-
. . I sive events
the mtegers, such as SOCial Se- . dis· .
. be th . two events are ~omt or mu-
cunty num rs, e number of I tuall . I . ifth
· f:~_:1. d d . yexc USlve e occurrence
peopIe m a aJ.IlllY, ages roun . e .I 0 f one IS..mcompan·bI·th e WI the
to the nearest year, etc. D15crete f th th th .
. bl " hunky." C f occurrence 0 eo er; at 15,
. es are. blc A di. . . con- I ifth
ey can' t both happen at once
ttnuous vana e. screte ran- I (ifth ha .
dom variable is one whose set ey) Eq~ nal° outltcome m com-

of POSdSI·ble va l' bi I mon . wv en y, two events

.ubes 1~ cdi~unta eif· : are disjoint if their intersection
A ran om vana le 15 screte I · th
· ula . b IS e empty set.
and 0 nly if Its cum nve pro -
ability distribution function is a ~ • displacement
stair-step function; i.e., if it is . the volume of fluid that rises
piecewise constant and only in- above the original fluid line
creases by jumps. ~ when a solid object is placed

• discriminant analysis
i. into the fluid .
a broad class of methods con- i-dissection
cemed with the development of : the result of dividing a figure
rules for assigning unclassified ~ into pieces.
objects/specimens to previously I • distance

defmed groups. ; 1. the distance between points

_ disctiminant function : A and B is written as AB
a discriminant function is used ~ 2. this term has several mean-
to assign an.observation to one I ings in morphometrics; it
of a set of groups. Linear dis- : should never be used without a
criminant functions take a vec- ~ prefixed adjective to qualify it,
tor of observations from a ~ e.g., Euclidean distance,
specimen and multiplies it by a i Mahalanobis distance,
vector of coefficients to produce
Procrustes distance, taxonomic ~ tion is zero for small enough
distance. ; (negative) values of x, and is
3. (of a translation), the length : unity for large enough values
of the translation vector be- ~ of x. It increases monotoni-
tween a figure and its image. ; cally: if y > x, the empirical
: distribution function evalu-
- distance between 2 parallel
lines ~ ated at y is at least as large
the length of a perpendicular I as the empirical distribution
segment between them ; function evaluated at x.
: - distribution
~ the distribu~ion of a set of nu-
I merical data is how their val-

; ues are distributed over the

: real numbers. It is completely
~ characterised by the empiri-
AF02.165_ ; cal distribution function.

: Similarly; the probability dis-

~ tribution of a random vari-
; able is completely
- distribution function, : characterised by its probabil-
empirical ~ ity distribution function.
the empirical (cumulative) ; Sometimes the word "distri-
distribution function of a set
. . : bution" is used as a synonym
of numencal data IS, for. eachf'I tior the empirIc .. al distn'butIon
re al vaI ue 0 f x, t he firactIon 0 . f ' h b bT
observations that are less ~ d~nc~blOn. or fit e pro a I tty
; Istn utIon unctIon.
t han or equaI to x. A pIot 0 f
the empirical distribution ~ - distributive law
function is an uneven set of : the formula a(x+y)=ax+ay.
~tairs. The ~idth of the sta~rs ~ _ distributive property
IS the sp~cmg be~een adJa- ~ thepropertywhichrelatesmul-
cent data, the height of the . tiplication and addition' the
stairs depends on how many ~ formula, a(b + c) = a x + a b
data have e~ac~ly ~he same I -x c.
value. The distnbutlon func- :
50 . diPitlend I drawing II
• dividend ~ • domino
in the expression "a divided by ; two congruent squares joined
b", a is the divident and b is the : along an edge.
. I
diVIsor. : • dot
• divisor ~ a description of a point in which
in the expression "a divided by ; the point has a definite size
b", .a is the divident and b is the :I
di • d ouble I"me graph s
VIsor. : graphs in which two sets of data
• dodecagon. ~ are graphed at the same time,
a twelve-sided polygon I connecting each set with line
• dodecahedron ; segments.
a solid figure with 12 faces. A : • double-blind, double-
regular dodecahedron is a ~ blind experiment
regular polyhedron with 12 I in a double-blind experiment,
faces. Each face is a regular; neither the subjects nor the
pentagon. : people evaluating the subjects
I knows who is in the treatment
; group and who is in the control
: group. This mitigates the pla-
~ ceho effect and guards against
; conscious and unconscious
: prejudice for or against the
~ treatment on the part of the
; evaluators.
; .draw
: to create a figure using num-
" ~ bered scales on tools such as .
• d omam . rul~
the domamo . f a fun' mon fi()'
x IS I• ers and protractors.
the set of x values for which the ; • drawing
function is defined. ; a freehand picture using any
: tool.
II dual I eigenshapes 51
~ - edge
; (of a solid) The intersection of
: two faces.
: - edgel
I an extension of the notion of

~ landmark to include partial in-

: formation about a curve
~ through the landmark. An
; edgel specifies rotation of a di-
: rection through a landmark,
~ extension along a direction
; through a landmark, or both.
: The formula for thin-plate
~ splines on landmarks can be
-dual I extended to encompass data
(of a tessellation), the new ~es­ : about edgels as well. They are
sellation formed by connectmg :I intended
, .
eventually to circum-
(with line segments) the centers ~ vent any need for deficient co-
of polygons with a cOI?mon ; ordinates in multivariate mor-
edge in another tessellanon. : phometric analysis.
- duodecimal number : - Egyptian fraction
system . ~ a number of the form l/x where
the system of numeration with ; x is an integer is called an Egyp-
base 12. : tian fraction.
- ecological correlation : - eigenshapes
the correlation between aver- ~ principal components for out-
ages of groups of individual~, ; line data. An eigenshape
instead of individuals. EcologI- : analysis begins with the selec-
cal correlation can be mislead- ~ tion of a distance function be-
ing about the association of in- ; tween pairs of outlines. At the
dividuals. : end one gets "eigenshapes,"
: which have the propernes .
~ principal component vectors
52 :enPeCtors I empirietdlmPof.."tII'lIJIes II

(uncorrelated, describing the· ~ • ellipse

sample in decreasing order of ; a plane figure whose equation
variance) and also are outline: is x2ja2+y2jb2=1.
shapes themselves, so .that the ~ • ellipsoid
scores for each speclme~ of ~ a solid figure whose equation is
the sample can be combll~ed ; x2ja2+y2jb2+z2jc2=1.
to produce a new outhne :
shape that approximates it in I • elliptic Fourier analysis
some possibly useful way. : a type of outline analysis in
Eigenshapes apply to curves ~ which differences in x and y
as relative warps apply to ~ (and p~ssibly z) coordinates of
landmark shape. . an outline are fit separately as
a function of arc length by Fou-
• eigenvectors I rier analysis.
in the equation given to define
eigenvalues, E contains the ~ • elliptic geometry
eigenvectors. In the common ; a geometry in which there are
data analysis case, E is an or- : no parallel lines.
thonormal. matrix (i. e., ~ • empirical law of averages
EtE=I and EEt~I) .. When ~ the Empirical Law of Aver-
sorted by descen?IDg elgenv~- ; ages lies at the base of the fre-
ues, t~e first elge.nve~tor IS : quency theory of probability.
that bnear combmatl0n of I This law: which is in fact an
var~ables that has the .greatest : assu'llp;ion abo~t how'the
vanance. The second elgenvec- world works rather than a
tor is t~e linear combination I mathematical 'or physical law,
of vanables that has the I states that if one repeats a ran-
greatest variance of such com- dom experiment over and
binations orthogonal to tl}e lover, independently and under
first, and so on. I "identical" conditions, the

• elementary function fraction of trials that result in

one of the functions: rational a given outcome converges to
functions, trigonometric func- I a limit as the number of trials

tions, exponential functions, and grows without bound.

logarithmic functions.
II empty set I equidisttmt 53

• empty set ~ • enumerable set

the empty set, denoted {} or 0, ; a countable set.
is the set that has no members.
; • epicyc10id
• endpoint convention : the locus or path of a point on a
in plotting a histogram, one ~ circle as it rolls around another
"must decide whether to in- ; circle.
clude a datum that lies at a Eptcycloid
class boundary with the class
interval to the left or the right
of the boundary. The rule for
making this assignment is
called an endpoint convention. I
The two standard endpoint
conventions are to include the
left endpoint of all ~lass inter- I
vals and exclude the right, ex-
cept for the rightmost class Coustle Cuns (wrt horizontal reus)

interval, which includes both I

of its endpoints, and to in- ~ • equianglular
clude the right endpoint of all : having angles of the same mea-
class intervals and exclude the I sure
left, excep~ fo~ the leftmost in- ~ • equiangular polygon
~erval, w~ch mcludes both of ; a polygon all of whose interior
ItS endpomts. : angles are equal.
• end~oihts . ~. equichordal point
the pomts at the ends of a line ~ a point inside a closed convex
segment or arc. ; curve in the plane is called an
• ends of a kite : equichordal point if all chords
the common vertices of the ~ through that point have the
equilateral sides of a kite ; same length.
.enneagon ; • equidistant
a nine-sided polygon : equally distant.
54 elJuilateml I esti'flUl,tqr II
• equilateral I in place of a test upon the de-
equal in length I scriptively more valid one, with
corresponding savings in
• equilateral polygon I amount of computation re-
a polygon all of whose sides are
I quired. An example of such
equivalent test statistics occurs
• equilateral triangle for the situation of comparison
a triangle whose sides are equal I of levels of a single interval-
in length scale variable between two
groups. In this situation, the
I descriptively valid statistic, as
defined for the Pitman permu-
tation test, is the difference of
I means, but simpler equivalent
test statistics include the mean
for one designated group, or
I (most simply) the total of scores
I in one designated group.
I • error tolerance
• equivalent test statistic the value allowable above and
within a randomisation set, it is I
possible that two different sta- below a number or its approxi-
. I mation.
tistics may be inter-related in a
manner which is provably I • escribed circle
monotonic irrespective of the an escribed circle of a triangle
data. In such a situation a is a circle tangent to one side of
randomisation test performed I the triangle and to the exten-
on either of these test statistics sions of the other sides.
will necessarily have the same : • estimatot:
outcome in terms of alpha. If I an estimator is a rule for "guess-
one of the statistics is of good ; ing" the value of a population
descriptive validity whereas the I parameter based on a random
other is simpler to compute, : sample from the population. An
then a raridomisation test upon ~ estimator is a random variable,
the simpler statistic may be used . because its value depends on

II ~=====~Msthemstir;s
II euclitleandistancema;t'l'ixanalysis I ;"",t==========5=5
which particular sample is ob- ~ - Euler segment
tained, which is random. A ca- ; the line segment containing the
nonical example of an estimator : centroid of a triangle, whose
is the sample mean, which is an ~ endpoints are the orthocenter
estimator of the population ; and the circumcenter of the tri-
mean. : angle.
- euclidean distance matrix : - Euler's formula for poly·
analysis ~ hedrons octahedron
EDMA. A method for the sta- I an eight-sided polyhedron. The
tistical analysis of full matrices of : regular octahedron is one of the
all interlandmark distances, av- ~ Platonic solids.
eraging elementwise within ~ _ Euler's constant
samples, and then comparing I the limit of the series 1/1 + 1/
those averages between samples ~ 2+1/3+ ... +1/n-ln n as n goes
by computing the ratios of cor- : to infInity. Its value is approxi-
responding mean distances. ~ mately 0.577216 .
• euclidean space I _ even function
a space where distances be-
; a function f(x) is called an even
tween two points are defmed as
: function if f(x) =f( -x) for all x.
Euclidean distances in some I
system of coordinates. : - even node
~ a node that has an even num-
• euler line
; ber of arcs
the line through a triangle'S cir-
cumcenter, orthocenter, and ; - even nwnber
centroid. Named after Swiss : an integer that is divisible by 2.
mathematician and physicist : _ event
Leonhard Euler. ~ an event is a subset of outcome
A Euler or nine.point circIc of ABC. ; space. An event determined by
: a random variable is an event
~ of the form A=(X is in A).
; When the random variable X is
: observed, that determines
~ whether or not A occurs: if the
value of X happens to be in A, ~ group for the development and
A occurs; if not, A does not oc- ; promulgation of the ideas of re-
cur. : randomisation statistics.
• exact binomial test : .excenter
a statistical test referring to the ~ the center of an excircle.
binomial distribution in its ex- I • excircle
act algebraic form, rather than
through continuous approxima- ~ an escribed circle of a triangle.
tions which are used especially I
where sample sizes are substan- :
• exact number
a numerical result that has not I
been rounded or estimated.
• exact test
- the characteristic of a re-
randomisation test based upon ~ • exclusive OR
exhaustive re-randomisation, ~ one or the other, but not both
that the value of alpha will be
fixed irrespective of any random I • exhaustive re-
sampling of randomisations or ~ randomisation
uponanydistributionalassump- : a series of samples from a
tions. Notable examples are the ~ randomisation set which is
exact binomial test, fisher test, ; known to generate every
the Pitman permutation tests ( 1 randomisation. In particular,
and 2), and various non-para- I sampling which generates every
metric tests based upon ranked I randomisation exactly once.
data. ; • exhaustive
• exact-stats : a collection of events {AI, A2,
this is the name of the academic ~ A3, ... } is exhaustive if at least
initiative which produced this ; one of them must occur; that
present glossary. exact-stats is : is, if S = Al U A2 U A3 U ...
a closed e-mail based discussion ~ where S is the outcome space.
II existentUdstll:tement I e:cpectedi =nxpi 57
• existential statement ~ pected value of a constant a
a conditional that uses the word times a random variable X is the
'same' ~ constant times the expected
: value of X (E(axX ) = aX
• expansion I E(X».
a size change where k is greater
than I t • expected i = nxpi

• expectation, expected ~ if the model be correct, we

value : would expect the n trials to re-
the expected value of a random ~ s~t in o.utcome i about nxpi
~ariable is the long-term limit- ; tunes, gIve or take a bit. Let
mg average of its values in in- : observed i denote the number
dependent repeated experi- I : 0f tIm~S
' an outcome of type i
ments. The expected value of t occurs m the n trials, for i = I,
the random variable X is de- :t 2,• •... , k. The chi-squared sta-
noted EX or E(X). For a discrete : tlStl~ summarises the discrep-
random variable (one that has I anCles between the expected
a countable number of possible : number of times each outcome
values) the expected value is the ~ occurs (assuming that the
weighted average of its possible ~ model is trU~) and the observed
~alues, where the weight as- ; number of tImes.each outcome
sIgned to each possible value is : occurs, by summmg the squares
the chance that the random vari- ~ of t~e discrepancies,
able takes that value. One can ; normalIsed by the expected
think of the expected value of a : ~umbe~s, over all the catego-
random variable as the point at ~ nes: chi-squared = (observed1
which its probability histogram ; expected1)2/expected1 + (ob-
would balance, if it were cut out : served2 expected2)2/expected2
of a uniform material. Taking ~ + . . . + (observed k expected
the expected value is a linear t ~)2/expectedk. As the sample
operation: if X and Y are two : SIZe n mcreases, if the model is
random variables, the expected ~ c.OITecr, the s~pling distribu-
value of their sum is the sum of t ~on of the chi-squared statistic
their expected values (E(X +Y) : IS approximated increasingly
= E(X) + E(Y», and the ex- ~ well by the chi-squared curve

MsthlJllllilties=======-===== II
58 txperiment I ~tment /I

with (#categories 1) = k 1 de- ~ _ explanatory variable

grees of freedom (d.f.), in the ; in regression, the explanatory
sense that the chance that the : or independent variable is the
chi-squared statistic is in any ~ one that is supposed to "explain"
given range grows closer and; the other. For example, in ex-
closer to the area under the Chi- amining crop yield versus quan-
Squared curve over the same tity of fertilizer applied, the
range. This page illustrates the I quantity of fertilizer would be
sampling distribution of the chi- the explanatory or independent
square statistic. variable, and the crop yield
_ experiment I would be the dependent vari-
what distinguishes an experi- I able. In experiments, the ex-
ment from an observational planatory variable is the one
I that is manipulated; the one
study is that in an experiment,
that is observed is the depen-
the experimenter decides who I
dent variable.
receives the treatment.
- experimental design - explicit form
I a formula for any term of a se-
this term overtly refers to the
planning of a pJrocess of data I quence given the number of the
collection. The term is also used I term.
to refer to the information nec- - exploration - indirect
essary to describe the interre- I measurement clinometer
lationships within a set of data. I a tool for measuring angle of
Such a description involves con- elevation or depression, con-
siderations such as number of ~ sisting of an edge to sight along,
cases, sampling methods, iden- I a plumb line, and a protractor.
tification of variables and their I _ expoential function to
scale-types, identification of re- base a
peated measures and replica- I the function f(x)=ax•
tions. These considerations are I
essential to guide the choice of : - exponent
TEST STATISTIC and the pro- ~ in the expression xl', x is called
cess of RE-RANDOMI-· the base and y is called the ex-
SATION. ponent.
II '-"Punmtislfunaiun Ifoetorial 59

• exponential function ~ • extrapolate

the function f(x) =cX. ; to use given information to pre-
: dict values beyond the set of
Future Value as an Exponential FlIDction
~ given values using either a for-
Amction ; mula or a reasonable estimate.
Relatillg to OUr c.... ; • face .
FV : PV(l + If : PVoi"'J+'" = ed" : (of a polyhedron) one of the
~ polygons and its interior form-
b=lt(1+1l, 1= ...·1 ~ ing the surface of a polyhedron.
• expression I • face angle
combination of numerals or
: the plane angle formed by ad-
numerals and variables that in-
~ jacent edges of a polygonal
dicate a ftnite number of opera-
~ angle in space.
tions, not an equation.
I • factor (noun)
• exradius ~ an exact divisor of a number.
an exradius of a triangle is the
: This 7 is a factor of 28.
radius of an escribed circle. I
: • factor (verb)
• exterior angle I to fmd the factors of a number.
1. (of a triangle), an angle that
forms a linear pair with one of ~ • factor analysis
the interior angles of a triangle. ; factor analysis is a multivariate
2. (of a polygon), an angle that : technique for describing a set of
forms a linear pair with one of ~ measured variables in terms of
the interior angles of a polygon. ; a set of causal or underlying
: variables. A factor model can be
• exterior of an angle ~ characterised in terms of path
the nonconvex set formed by an
; diagrams to show relations be-
angle that measures less than
: tween measured variables and
180 degrees.
~ factors.
• externally tangent ~ • factorial
(circles) intersecting at exactly
; the factorial operator is appli-
one point, with neither circle
: cable to a non-negative integer
inside the other.
~ quantity. It is notated as the
60 foirbet IfibCl' II
postfixed symbol 'I'. The result- ~ neously (the nwnber of Type I
ing value is the product of the ; errors divided by the nwnber of
increasing integer values from: rejected null hypotheses), with
I up to the value of the argu- ~ the convention that if no hy-
ment quantity. For instance : 3! ; pothesis is rejected, the false
is lx2x3 = 6. By convention O! : discovery rate is zero.
is taken as producing the value ~ .....__ :1: fr cti"
1 f: .al val . J.CUlllllar a ons
. ~~on. h u~ mcreas.e v~ry ~ commonly used fractions such
rapt y Wlty 1mcre~~ m . ~ ; as halves, thirds, fourths, fifths,
argwthume~t va ue; t diS .raP l : sixths, eighths and tenths.
gro IS represente 10 the ~
similarly rapid growth in num- . • family tree
bers of combinations.. ~ hierarchy; tower or pyramid of
• fair bet ~ power or importance
a fair bet is one for which the I • farey sequence
expected value of the payoff is ~ the sequence obtained by ar-
zero, after accounting for the : ranging in nwnerical order all
cost of the bet. For example, ~ the proper fractions having de-
suppose I offer to pay you Rs.2 ; nominators not greater than a
if a fair coin lands heads, but : given integer.
you must ante up Rs.l to play. ~ • Fermat number
Your expected payoff is - Rs.I + I a nwnber of the form (22n+ I)
Rs.OxP(tails) + :
Rs.2xP(heads) = - Rs.l + ~ • Ferma~s sp~al
Rs.2x50% = Rs.O. This is a I a parabolic Sptral.
fair bet-in the long run, if you ; • fiber
ma~e this bet over and over : the set of preshapes (configu-
agam, you would expect to ~ rations that have been centered
break even. ; at the origin and scaled to unit
• false discovery rate : centroid size) that differ only by
in testing a collection ofhypoth- ~ a rotation. It is the path,
eses, the false discovery rate is I through preshape space, fol-
the fraction of rejected null hy- ~ lowed by a centered and scaled
potheses that are rejected erro-
II Fibonacci numb",. Ifinite element ~'t!1=uurJ,=:y.""'SU,,,,'=======",,6=1
configuration under all possible ~ • figure
rotations. ; a representation of an object by
• Fibonacci number : the coordinates of a specified set
a member of the sequence 0, 1, ~ of points, the landmarks.
1, 2, 3, 5, ... where each num- ~ • figure space
ber is the sum of the previous ; the 2por 3p-space of figures, i.
two numbers. : e., the original coordinate data
. vectors.
~ • finite element scaling
I analysis
: without the word "scaling," fi-
~ nite element analysis is a com-
I putational system for con-
~ tinuum mechanics that esti-
: mates the deformation (fully
~ detailed changes of position of
; :ill component particles) that are
T.... tIIe ..... ""'wm ...... _ ...........
mnabem 1ft the pd8m. : expected to result from a speci-
~ fied pattern of stresses (forces)
• field properties ; upon a mechanical system. As
closure for addition and mul- : applied in morphometrics,
tiplication, commutative for ~ FESA solves the inverse prob-
addition and multiplication, ; lem of estimating the strains
associative for addition and : representing the hypothetical
multiplication, identity for ~ forces that deformed one speci-
addition and multiplication, I men into another. These results
inverse for addition and mul- : are a function of the "finite ele-
tiplication, distributive for ~ ments" into which the space
multiplication over addition. I between the landmarks is sub-

• figurate numbers ; divided. FESA can be compared

polygonal numbers : with the thin-plate spline, which
~ interpolates a set of landmark
; coordinates under an entirely
: different set of assumptions.
62 Jinitegroup I Fisher test II
• finite group ~ exactly once), and the SE
a group containing a finite num- ; should be zero. This is indeed
ber of elements. : what the finite population cor-
~ rection gives (the numerator
• finite population correc-
tion ; vanishes).
when sampling without replace- ; • Fisher test
ment, as in a simple random : named after the statistician RA
sample, the SE of sample sums ~ Fisher. This is an exact test to
and sample means depends on I examine whether the pattern of
the fraction of the population: counts in a 2x2 cross classifica-
that is in the sample: the ~ tion departs from expectations
greater the fraction, the smaller ~ based upon the marginal totals
the SE. Sampling with replace- ; for the rows and columns. Such
ment is like sampling from an : a test is useful to examine dif-
infinitely large population. The ~ ference in rate between two bi-
adjustment to the SE for sam- ; nomial outcomes. The
pling without replacement is : randomisation set consists of
called the ftnite population cor- ~ those reassignments of the
rection. The SE for sampling ; units which produce tables with
without replacement is smaller : the same row and column to-
than the SE for sampling with ~ tals as the outcome. The
replacement by the fmite popu- ; randomisation set will thus con-
Iation correction factor ((N -n)/ : sist of a number of tables with
(N 1»'12. Note that for sample ~ different respective patterns of
size n=l, there is no difference I counts; each such table will have
between sampling with and a number of possible
without replacement; the fmite randomisations which may be
population correction is then I a very large number. For this
unity. If the sample size is the test there are several reasonable
entire population of N units, test statistics, including : the
there is no variability in the re- ~ count in anyone of the 4 cells,
sult of sampling without re- ; chi-squared, or the number of
placement (every member of : randomisations for each 2x2
the population is in the sample ~ table with the given row and

II ======--=MJJthemlJnes

II Fisher'sl'&ll&ttest Iflexibly 63

column totals; these are equiva- ~ pothcsis be true, the two

lent test statistics. The calcula- ; sampl~s arc like one larger
tion for the Fisher test is rela- : sample frum a single population
tively undemanding ~ of zeros and ones. The alloca-
computationally, making refer- ; tion of ones between the two
ence to the algebra of the hy- : samples would be expected to
pergeometric distribution, and ~ be proportional to the relative
the test was widely used before , sizes of the samples, but would
the appearance of computers. : have some chance variability.
This test has historically been ~ Conditional on G and the two
regarded as superior to the use ~ sample sizes, under the null
of chi-squared where sample ; hypothesis, the tickets in the
sizes are small. Statistical tables : first sample are like a random
have been published for the ~ sample of size ni without re-
Fisher test for a number of ; placement from a collection of
small 2x2 tables defined in : N = ni + n2 units of which G
terms of row and column totals. ~ are labelled with ones. Thus,
_ Fisher's exact test ; under the null hypothesis, the
for the equality of two percent- ~ number of tickets labeled with
ages, Consider two populations . ones in the first sample has
of zeros and ones. Let pI be the ' (conditional on G) an hyper
of ones in the frrst : geometric distribution with pa-
~ rameters N, G, and nl. Fisher's
population, and let p2 be the , exact test uses this distribution
proportion of ones in the sec-
ond population. We would like ~ to set the ranges of observed
to test the null hypothesis that : values' of the number of ones in
pI = p2 on the basis of a simple ~ the first sample for which we
random sample from each; would reject the null hypoth-
population. Let ni be the size ~ eSlS.
of the sample from population : - flexibly
1, and let n2 be the size of the ~ usually applied to computation,
sample from population 2. Let ; where students should be able
G be the total number of ones : to mentally manipulate num-
in both samples. If the null hy- ~ bers and components of num-

bers to create a solution to a ~ • foot of altitude

problem. i the intersection of an altitude of
• floor function a triangle with the base to which
I it is drawn.
the floor function of x is the
greatest integer in x, i.e. the ~ • foot of line
largest integer less than or i the point of intersection of a line
equal to x. : with a line or plane.
• flowchart • football-shaped
a concept map that shows a: scatterplot
step-by-step process. Boxes I in a football-shaped scanerplot,
represent the steps, and arrows most of the points lie within a
connect the boxes to order the : tilted oval, shaped more-or-Iess
process. I like a football. A football-
• flowchart proof shaped scatterplot is one in
a logical argument presented in which the data are
the form of a flowchart. I homoscedastically scattered
about a straight line.
• focal chord
a chord of a conic that 'passes i • form
through a focus. in morphometries, we repre-
sent the form of an object by a
• focal radius point in a space of form vari-
a line segment from the focus ables, which are measurements
of a geometric object that are
tIDchanged by translations and
rotations. If you allow for re-
flections, forms stand for all the
figures that have all the same
interlandmark distances. A
form is usually represented by
one of its figures at some speci-
fied location and in some speci-
of an ellipse to a point on the I fied orientation. When repre-
perimeter of the ellipse. sented in this wa~~ location and

II = = = = = = = = = = M a t h _ t i & s
II form space Ifranu. mmpli"9franu *========6=5
orientation are said to have been ~ (structural complexity at
"removed." ; smaller scales is mathematically
_ form space : indistiguishable from that at
~ larger-scales) over all scales con-
th~ space of figures with differ-
; sidered.
ences due to location and ori-
entation removed. It is of 2p-3 I BON Size Offset
Width 540
dimensions for two-dimen- 2 2 2 Height 110
sional coordinate data and 3p-6 3 .. 3
dimensions for three-dimen- I . 13 .. ~
5 22 5
sional coordinate data. C!!!D
6 33 6
_ formula 44 7 I Dd.ulll
8 55 8
a concise statement expressing 9 66 9
the symbolic relationship be- I 10 77 .10
tween two or more qu;mtities. 88 ~
"12 111 "
- Fourier analysis I
in morphometries, the decom- : - fraction
position of an outline into a ~ an expression of the form alb . .
weighted sum of sine and co-
sine functions. The chapter by ~ - frame, sampling frame
Rohlf in the Blue Book pro- I a sampling frame is a collec-
vides an overview of this and ~ tion of units from which a
other methods of analysing out- : sample .will be drawn. Ideally,
line data. I the frame is identical to the

; population we want to learn

- fourier series : about; more typicaHy, the
a periodic function with period ~ frame is only a subset of the
2 pi. ; population of interest. The
_ fractal : difference between the frame
a self-similar geometric figure. ~ and the population can be a
_ fractal dimension ; source of bias in sampling de-
a measure of the complexity of
. sign, if the parameter of
I terest has a different value for
a structure assuming a consis- I the frame than it does for the
tent pattern of self-similarity
population. For example, one

MRthmuJti&s======= II
66 frelJumcy I funetion rule II
might desire to estimate the ~ (fraction or percentage) of ob-
current annual average in- ; servations in different ranges,
come of 1998 graduates of : called class intervals.
the University of Delhi. I pro- I
pose to use the sample mean
income of a sample of gradu-
ates drawn at random . To fa- I
cilitate taking the sample and I
contacting the graduates to
obtain income information I 1-
from them, I might draw I
names at random from the list
of 1998 graduates for whom
the alumni association has an I -- .
accurate current address. The I
population is the collection of :
1998 graduates; the frame is I
those graduates who have cur- - frustum
rent addresses on file with the for a given solid figure, a re-
alumni association. If there is I lated figure formed by two par-
a tendency for graduates with I allel planes meeting the given
higher incomes to have up-to- solid. In particular, for a cone
date addresses on file with the I or pyramid, a frustum is deter-
alumni association, that would I mined by the plane of the base
introduce a positive bias into and a plane parallel to the base.
the annual average income es- I NOTE: this word is frequently
timated from the sample by I incorrectly misspelled as
the sample mean. frustrum.
_ frequency _ function rule
the number of times a value I the set of operations that de-
occurs in some time interval. I scribes the process that takes
the independent variable and
_ frequency table transforms it into the dependent
a table listing the frequency I variable in a consistent way.
(number) or relative frequency
• fundamental region I variance and correlation of the
a region used in a tesselation I variables in measuring dis-
tances between points, i. e., dif-
• fundamental rule of
I ferences in directions in which
I there is less variation within
if a sequence of experiments or
groups are given greater weight
trials TI, T2, T3, ... , Tk could I
than are differences in directions
result, respectively, in nl, n2 n3,
I in which there is more varia-
· .. , nk possible outcomes, and
the numbers nl, n2 n3, ... ,nk I tion.
do not depend on which out-
comes actually occurred, the
entire sequence of k experi- I
ments has nl x n2 x n3 x dj(~) = mill
IIx - eil Vd;(%)=~

x nk possible outcomes.
• game theory
a field of study that bridges I
mathematics, statistics, eco-
nomics, and psychology. It is • generalised superimposi-
used to study economic I
behaviour, and to model conflict I the superimposition .ofa set of
between nations, for example, configurations. onto their con-
"nuclear stalemate" during the I
sensus configuration. The fit-
Cold War. I ring may involve least-squares,
• gaussian curve resistant-fit, or other algo-
a normal curve. rithms and may be strictiy or-
I thogonal or allow affine trans-
• generalised distance I formations.
d. A ,synonym for Mahalanobis
distance. Defined by the equa- ; • geoboard
tion for two row vectors x. and a flat board into which nails

Xj for two individuals, and p I have been driven in a regular
variables as: , where S is the pxp I rectangular pattern. These nails
variance-covariance matrix. It represent the · lattice points in
takes into consideration the the plane.
=======~* =D=eodeS'ie='=I=Beomem&=='morp==~=='= "
• geodesic ~ The expected value of the geo-
the arc on a surface of shortest . metric distribution is lip, and
length joining two given points. its SE is (l-p)V2/p.
• geodesic distance • geometric mean
the length of the shortest path I the non-negative number whose
between two points in a suitable , square is the product of two
geometric space (one for which given non-negative numbers;
curving paths have lengths). On I the side of a square having the
a sphere, it is the distance be- I same area as a rectangle whose
tween two points as measured length and width are given.
along a great circle.
• geodesy
a oranch of mathematics deal-
ing with the shape, size, and
curvature of the Earth.
-.,~_ O____
~~ 0 OJ
,. ________________. __,


• geometric distribution

... - ." ...

the geometric distribution de- I • geometric morphometrics
scribes the number of trials ·up , geometric morphometrics is a
to and including the first suc- collection of approaches for the
cess, in independent trials with I multivariate statistical analysis
the same probability of success. I of Cartesian coordinate data,
The geometric distribution de- usually (but not always) limited
pends only on the single param- to landmark point locations.
eter p, the probability of success I The "geometry" referred to by
in each trial. For example, the the word "geometric" is the
number of times one must toss geometry of Kendall's shape
a fair coin until the first time I space: the estimation of mean
the coin lands heads has a geo- shapes and the description of
metric distribution with param- sample variation of shape using
eter p = 50%. The geometric I the geometry of Procrustes dis-
distribution assigns probability tance. The multivariate part of
px(l p)k-lto the event that it geometric morphometrics .is'
takes k trials to the first success. ' usually carried out in a linear

II =~=-=-=-====.MsJthmultiu
IIBeometrie probllhility 1 probllhility IB~~1 symmetry . 69

tangent space to the non-Eu- ~ - geometry

clidean shape space in the vicin- ; the branch of mathematics that
ity of the mean shape. More : deals with the nature of space
generally, it is the class of mor- ~ and the size, shape, and other .
phometric methods that pre- ; properties of figures as well as
serve complete information : the transformations that pre-
about the relative spatial ar- :I serve these propernes.
rangements of the data I •
: - gergonne pomt
throughout an analysis. As such,
I in a triangle, the lines from the
these methods allow for the
: vertices to the points of contact
visualisation of group and indi-
~ of the opposite sides with the
vidual differences, sample
I inscribed circle meet in a point
variation, and other results in
~ called the Gergonne point.
the space of the original speci-
mens. ; - given
: information assumed to be true
- geometric probability 1 ~ in a proof
(of an event) Its likely outcome, ~ - glide reflection
expressed as the ratio of the ; an isometry that is a composi-
number of successful outcomes : tion of a translation (glide) and
of the event to the number of ~ a reflection over a line that is
possible outcomes. ; parallel to the translation vec-
: tor.
- geometric progression I
a sequence in which the ratio of :
each term to the preceding ~
term is a given constant.
- geometric series I
a series in which the ratio of :
each term to the preceding I
term is a given constant. ; - glide-reflectional symme-
: try
- geometric solid ~ the property of a geometric
the bounding surface of a 3-di-
~ figure that it coincides with its
mensional portion of space.
image under some glide re- I

- gnomon magic square
a 3 X 3 array in which the ele-
ments in each 2 X 2 corner I

have the same sum.

- gold standard
the gold standard is the form ~ _ golden spiral
of test which ~s ~ost ~ait?ful : a spiral through vertices of
t? the randOI~llsatl0n distnbu- I nested golden rectangles
non, for a gIven test statistic : .
~nd experimental design. This ~ - grace~ g~aph
Involves exhaustive randomi- I a graph IS Said to be graceful if
sation. Other randomisation : you can number the n vertices
~ests may reasonably be ~ with the integers from 1 to n
Judged by comparison with I and ~en label each edge with
this form. : the dIfference between the
~ numbers at the vertices, in such
- goldback's conjecture I a way that each edge receives a
if n is an even number greater : different label.
than 2, then there are always I
: _ grad (0" grade)
2 prime numbers whose sum
~ 1/100th df a right angle
is n
_ golden ratio . - grade
the ratio of two numbers ; the tilt of a real-life object in
(larger number : smaller; relation to the horizontal, often
number) whose ratio to each : ~e~ to determine how steep a
other equals the ratio of their ~ hill IS
sum to the larger number. ; - graph
_ golden rectangle ; a gr~ph is a set of points (called
a rectangle in which the ratio : vertices) and a set of lines
of the length to the width is ~ (cal~ed edges) joinging these
the golden ratio. vernces.
IloraPhofaveraoes Igrowingpattem .. ==========7=1

_ graph of averages ~ - greatest common factor

for bivariate data, a graph of ; the greatest number that is a
averages is a plot of the aver- : factor of each of the given num-
age values of one variable (say ~ bers.
y) for small ran~es of values of ~ _ greatest lower bound
the. other van able (say x), ; the greatest lower bound of a
ag~st the value of ~e s.econd set of real numbers, is the larg-
vanable (x) at the ffildpomts of I est real number that is smaller
the ranges . I than each of the numbers in the
- graph theory I set.
the mathematics of complicated : _ grid
networks :I a tesse IatlOn
' 0
f congruent
, squares sometimes used to
~ measure distance
. - group '.
~ a mathematical system consist-
~ ing of elements from a set G
; and a binary operation * such
: that
~ x*y is a member of G whenever
• great circle ; x and yare
a circle on a sphere with a di- : (x*y) *z=x* (y*z) for all X, Y, and
ameter equal to that of the ~ z
sphere. The shortest path con- ; there is an identity element e
necting two points on the sur- : such that e*x=x*e=e for all x
face of a sphere lies along the ~ each member x in G has an in-
great circle passing through the ; verse element y such that
points. ; x*y=y*x=e
• greatest common divisor : . growing pattern
the greatest common divisor of ~ a pattern where the number
a sequence of integers, is the I of objects in the pattern in-
largest integer that divides each ~ creases from term to term.
of them exactly.

• growth formula I • harmonic mean

either a linear ·or exponential I the harmonic mean of two
equation that describes the numbers a and b is 2abj(a + b).
growth over time.
Hannoni c Mean
• growth pattern
a set of values usually visualised I
by plotting points on a grid and 1 n
fitting either a linear or an ex- 1 n 1 n 1
pOnential equation to the scat- L L -
ni =1 Xi i = 1 Xi
tel'" plot.
• half-line
a ray. -1 1 n 1
HM =- L
n i =1 Xi
• half-plane
the part of a plane that lies on I
• hectare
one side of a given line.
I a unit of measurement in the
• Hankel matrix metric system equal to 10,000
a matrix in which all the ele- square meters (approximately
ments are the same along any I 2.47 acres).
diagonal that slopes from north-
I • height
east to southwest.
l.the length of an altirude.
• harmonic analysis 2. (of a prism), the length of an
the study of the r.epresentation I altitude.
of functions by means of linear I • helix
operations on characteristic sets the path followed by a point
of functions.
moving on the surface of a right
• harmonic division I circular cylinder that moves
a line segment is divided har- I along the cylinder at a constant
monically by two points when ratio as it moves around the
it is divided externally and in- I cylinder. The parameteric equa-
ternally int he same ratio. I tion for a helix is
x=a cos t
y=a sin t
I z=bt
1/ hemisphere I ~mm 73
_ hemisphere ~ - hexahedron
half of a sphere including a ; a polyhedron having 6 faces.
great circle as its base. : The cube is a regular hexahe-
~ dron.
- heptagon
a polygon with 7 sides. ~ - hexomino
_ heronian triangle ; a six-square polyomino.
a triangle with integer sides and ; - hidden lines
integer area. : broken lines used to signify
~ lines that normally wouldn't be
- heteroscedasticity
I seen in a drawing
"Mixed scatter." A scatterplot
or residual plot shows ; - hierarchy
heteroscedasticity if the scatter : a chart that shows varying lev-
in vertical slices through the ~ els of importance
plot depends on where you take I h"
: - Istogram
the slice. Linear regression is I a histogram is a kind of plot that
not usually a good idea ·if the
~ summarises how data are dis-
data are heteroscedastic.
: tributed. Starting with a set of
- hexagon ~ class intervals, the histogram is
a polygon with 6 sides. ; a set of rectangles ("bins") sit-
: ting on the horizontal axis. The
- hexagonal number
a number of the form n(2n-l) . ~ bases of the rectangles are the
; class intervals, and their heights
- hexagonal prism : are such that their areas are pro-
a prism with a hexagonal base. ~ portional to the fraction of ob-
; servations in the corresponding
: class intervals. That is, the
~ height of a given rectangle is
I the fraction of observations in
: the corresponding class interval,
~ divided by the length of the cor-
I responding class interval. A his-
~ togram does not need a verti-
: cal scale, because the total area
74 historical controls .' homology II
of the histogram must equal I the outcome other than the
100%. The units of the vertical I treatment tend to change over
axis are percent per unit of the time as well. (In this example,
horiwntal axis. This is called I the level of other potential car-
the density scale. The horiwn- I cinogens in the environment
tal axis of a histogram needs a also could have changed.)
scale. If any observations coin-
- homeomorphism
cide with the endpoints of class I
a one-to-one continuous trans-
intervals, the endpoint conven-
I formation that preserves open
tion is important. This page
and closed sets.
contains a histogram tool, with I
controls to highlight ranges of ~
values and read their areas.
- historical controls
sometimes, the a treatment I
group is compared with indi-
viduals from another epoch
who did not receive the treat- I
ment; for example, in studying I
the possible effect of fluori- - homology
dated water on childhood can- I the notion of homology bridges
cer, we might compare cancer I the language of geometric
rates in a community before morphometrics and the lan-
and after fluorine was added to I guage of its biological or biom-
the water supply. Those indi- I athematical applications. In
viduals who were children be- theoretical biology, only the ex-
fore fluoridation started would I plicit entities of evolution or
comprise an historical control I development, such as mol-
group. Experiments and stud- ecules, organs or tissues, can be
ies with historical controls tend "homologous." Following
to be more susceptible to con- I D'Arcy Thompson, morpho-
founding than .those with con- metricians often apply the con-
temporary controls, beca.use cept instead to discrete geomet-
many factors that might affect I ric structures, such as points or
\I htmumwrpmsm I hypergeometric d~=tion========7=5
curves, and, by a further exten- ~ in vertical slices through the
sion, to the multivariate de- ; plot does not depend much on
scriptors (e.g., partial warp : where you take the slice. C.f.
scores) that arise as part of ~ heteroscedasticity.
most multivariate analyses. In ~ • horizontal line
this context, the term "homolo- ; a line whose slope is zero
gous" has no meaning other
than that the same name is used ; • hyperbola
for corresponding parts in dif- : a curve with equation x2/a2_y2/
ferent species or developmen- •. b2 =1.
tal stages. To declare something ~ • hyperbolic spiral
"homologous" is simply to as- • the curve whose equation in
sert that we want to talk about : polar coordinates is r*theta=a.
processes affecting such struc- • .
tures as if they had a consistent : • hyperboloid '
biological or biomechanical ~ a geometric solid whose equa-
2 2 2 2 2
mearung. 1m1 ar1y, to d ec Iare • tion is x /a + y2/b _Z /C = 1 0[,
- x /a + y2/b _z,2/C,2= ,_ 1.
. lanon
' (such as a thin.: 2 2 2
an rnterpo
plate spline) a "homology map" ~ • hypergeometric ~stribu-
means that one intends to refer tion ,
to its features as if they had ~ the hypergeometricdi~tribu­
something to do with valid bio- ; cion with parameters,N, G and
logical explanations pertaining : n is the distribution of the
to the regions between the ~ number of "good~ obje'ct~ in
landmarks, about which we ; a simple random sample of
have no data. : size n (i.e., a random sample
• homomorphism ~ without replacement in which
a function that preserve the op- ; every subset of size n has the
erators associated with the : same chance of occurring)
specified structure. ~ from a population of N ob-
• jects of which G are "good."
• homoscedasticity : The chance of getting exactly
"Same scatter." A scatterplot or ~ g good objects in such a
residual plot shows • sample is GCg x N-GCn-g!
homoscedasticity if the scatter ; NCn, provided g < = n, g < =

MIJ. . .n u = = = = = = = =___ 11
76 hyperplllne I hypothesis tutino II

G, and n g < = N G. (The I • hypotenuse

probability is zero otherwise.) I the side opposite the right angle
The expected value of the hy- in a right triangle. The other
pergeometric distribution is I two sides are called legs.
n x GjN, and its standard er- I • hypothesis testing
ror is ((N-n)j(N-I»V2 x (n X I statistical hypothesis testing is
GjN x (I-GjN) ) V2 .
formalised as making a decision
• hyperplane : between rejecting or not reject-
a k-I dimensional subspace of I ing a null hypothesis, on the
a k-dimensional space. A hy- : basis of a set of observations.
perplane is typically Two types of errors can result
characterised by the vector to I from any decision rule (test):
which it is orthogonal. rejecting the null hypothesis
when it is true (a Type I error),
• hyperspace I and failing to reject the null hy-
a space of more than three
pothesis when it is false (a Type
II error). For any hypothesis, it
I is possible to develop many dif-
I ferent decision rules (tests).
: Typically, one specifies ahead of
~ time the chance of a Type I er-
; ror one is willing to allow. That
chance is called the significance
level of the test or decision rule.
I For a given significance level,
• hypersphere one way of deciding which de-
a generalisation of the idea of a cision rule is best is to pick the
sphere to a space of greater than I one that has the smallest chance
three dimensions. of a Type IT error when a given
alternative hypothesis is true.
• . ~ The chance of correctly reject-
a generalisanon of the ldea of ; ing the null hypothesis when a
volume to a space of more than given alternative hypothesis is
three dimensions.
II icoSahedron I implies, ~ical imPlica; 77

true is called the power of the ~ tion ( (p AND q) OR ((NOT

test against that alternative. ; p) AND (NOT q» ).
• icosahedron ; • image
a polyhedron with 20 faces. : the reflection of the preimage
Usually refers to a regular : • imaginary axis
icosahedron, one of the Platonic
~ the y-axis of an Argand diagram.
solids .
.1 empotent .~ • imaginary number
. .I a complex number of the form
the element
x III some algebraJ.c.
. . .
. h . al and'l=sqrt( -
Xl were x IS re
structure IS called Idempotent if ~ 1).
x*x=x. .
• identify
to choose from a set or to name Simplify:
a)./=4 . J( -I)(.) ' "
cases in which the desired re- I
suIt is present or true.
• identitiy transformation
a size change where k equals 1
• identity reflection : • imaginary part
a reflection where the preimage ~ the imaginary part of a complex
and the image are the same. I munber x+iy where x and y are

• iff : real is y.
if and only if. : • implies, logical implication
• iff, if and only if ~ logical implication is an opera-
if p and q are two logical propo- I tion on two logical proposi-
sitions, then(p iff q) is a propo- ~ tions. If p and q are two logical
sition that is true when both p : propositions,(p IMPLIES q) is
and q are true, and when both ~ a logical proposition that is true
p and q are false. If is logically ; if P is false, or if both P and q
equivalent to the proposition ( : are true. The proposition (p
(p IMPLIES q) AND (q IM- ~ IMPLIES q) is logicallyequiva-
PLIES p) ) and to the proposi- ; lent to the proposition ((NOT
: p) ORq).

MAtbmuJncs======= II
,,;,,78==========im~7 subset I irulepnulmt, irukperulm&e II
• improper subset I • independent and identi-
a subset that includes the entire I cally distributed
parent set. a collection of two or more ran-
I dom variables {Xl, X2, . . . , }
• incenter I is independent and identically
the point of concurrency of a
distributed if the variables have
triangle's three angle bisectors.
I the same probability distribu-
• incircle I tion, and are independent .
the circle inscribed in a given
I •independent variable
in regression, the independent
• included angle ~ variable is the one that is sup-
an angle formed between two I posed to explain the other; the
given sides of a triangle. term is a synonym for "explana-
• inclusive OR tory variable." Usually, one re-
one or the other, or both; and/ I gresses the "dependent vari-
or able" on the "independent vari-
able." There is not alwavs a
• incoming angle -
I clear choice of the independent
the angle formed between the variable. The independent vari-
path of an approaching object able is usually plotted on the
(a billiard ball, a light ray) and I horizontal axis. Independent in
the surface it rebounds against I this context does not mea.., the
(a cushion, a mirror) . same thing as statistically inde-
pendent .
• independent, indepen-
two events A and B are (statis-
ti~ally) independent if the
I chance that they both happen
simultaneously is the product of
tl:ie chances that each occurs in-
I dividually; i.e., if P(AB) =
P(A)P(B). This is essentially
equivalent to saying that learn-

II = = = = = = = M J J t__ri&s
II iruJ,icaturrandmn variable I indirta;s"=rem&n==t=========

ing that one event occurs does ~ every event determined by X

not give any information about I and Y
whether the other event oc- : • indicator random variable
curred too: the condi tional ~ the indicator [random variable]
probability of A given B is the ~ of the event A, often written
same as the unconditional prob- ; lA, is the random variable that
ability of A, i.e., P(AIB) = : equals unity if A occurs, and
P(A). Two random variables X ~ zero if A does not occur. The
and Yare independent if all ; expected value of the indicator
events they determine are inde- : of A is the probability of A,
pendent, for example~ i~ the ~ P(A), and the standard error of
event {a < X < = b} IS mde- I the indicator of A is (P(A) x (1-
pendent of the event {c < Y < = : P(A)) V2. The sum lA + IB +
d} for all choices of a, b, c, and ~ 1C + ... of the indicators of a
d. A collection of more than two ; collection of events {A, B, C, ..
random variables is indepen- ~ . } counts how many of t~e
dent if for every proper subset : events {A, B, C, ... } occur m
of the variables, every event ~ a given trial. The product of the
determined by that subset of the ; indicators of a collection of
variables is independent of ev- : events is the indicator of the
ery event determined by the ~ intersection of the events (the
variables in the complement of ; product equals one if and only
the subset. For example, the : if all of indicators equal one).
three random variables X, Y, ~ The maximum of the indicators
and Z are independent if every ; of a collection of events is the
event determined by X is inde- : indicator of the union of the
pendent of every event deter- ~ events (the maximum equals
mined by Y an~ ~very event lone if any of the indicators
determined by X IS mdependent : equals one).
of every event determined by Y ~ . .
and Z and every event deter- ; • mdirect measure~en.t
mined by Y is independent of : a meas~ement .that IS lffipOS-
every event determined by X ~ sible o~ lffipraCtlcal t? be me~­
and Z and every event deter~ I sured directly or phYSICallY, us -

mined by Z is independent of ~

MlJthenuJrics======= II
80 indirect proof I inst:ribetl1l1llJk "
ally calculated using a formula I • infinitesimal
or a known relationship. I a variable that approaches 0 as
a limit.
• indirect proof
a proof that begins by assum- • inflection
ing the conclusion is not true ~ a point of inflection of a plane
and leads to a contradiction of ; curve is a point where the
either the assumption or a pre- curve has a stationary tangent,
viously proved theorem. at which the tangent is chang-
I ing from rotating in one di-
• indirect technique
the method used to determine I rection to rotating in the
oppostie direction.
an indirect measurement.
• inductive reasoning • initial side
I the side that the measurement
the process of observing data,
of an angle starts from ..
recognizing patterns, and male-I
ing conjectures about • injection
generalisations. a one-to-one mapping.
• inequality • inscribed
the statement that one quantity I (in a polygon or polyhedron)
is less than (or greater than) Intersecting each side or face
another. of a figure exactly once. Usu-
I ally referring to circles in-
• infinite
becoming large beyond bound. I scribed in polygons or spheres
inscribed in polyhedrons. The
I figure outside is circum-
scribed around the inscribed
• inscribed angle
an angle formed by two chords
I of the circle with a common
endpoint (the vertex of the
II instance ofa sentence I intersecting p:es===========""8,,,1

• instance of a sentence ~ circle IS less than that of the

a situation where the statement ; radius.
is true ; • interior of an angle
• integer the convex set formed by an
any whole number or its oppo- I angle that measures less than
Site. 180 degrees.
• integral coefficient I • internally tangent
in the expression, 3x, 3 is the (circles) Intersecting at exactly
coefficient. Integral coeffi- one point, with one circle inside
cients are coefficients that are I the other.
I • interpolate
• intercepted arc determine a value within a set
an arc of a circle whose end- of given values using a formula,
points are marked by the sides I rule, or reasonable estimation.
of a central angle or an lll-
I • interpolation
scribed angle.
given a set of bivariate data (x,
y), to impute a value ofy corre-
~ sponding to some value of x at
; which there is no measurement
of y is called interpolation, if
I the value of x is within the range

of the measured values of x. If

the value of x is outside the
I range of measured values, im-

Angle A = Angle B I puting a corresponding value of

y is called extrapolation.
• interior angles
angles between two lines cut by I
• inter-quartile range
a transversal. the inter-quartile range of a list
I of nwnbers is the upper quartile
• interior of a circle minus the lower quartile.
the set of points whose dis- I
tance from the center of the I • intersecting planes
planes that share a line

MR.thematics=================== II
"",8"",2========'"",'n"",tersec==~oftwosetSAllndB I i~verseoperation II
I fully be added or subtracted and
I that the mean is a representa-
tive measure of central ten-
I dency. Such data are common
I in the domain of physical sci-
ences or engineering e.g.
lengths or weights .
• intersection of two sets A • invar.iant
andB I an invariant, generally speaking,
the set of elements which are is a quantity that is unchanged
in both A and B. (even though its formula may
I have changed) when one
A.B or A.,-,B
The above operation is cOIIum.alive. associative, changes some inessential aspect
anddistribttive of a measurement. For in-
AB=BA (AB)C=A.(BC) A(B+C)=AB+AC I stance, Euclidean distance is an
We note that if A. c B, thenAB =A.. Hence invariant under translation or
AA =.'1. {$} A = {$} AF= A rotation of one's coordinate sys-
• intersection I tern, and ratio of distances in
the intersection of two or more I the same direction is an invari-
sets is the set of elements that ant under affine transforma-
all the sets have in common; the I tions. In the morphometrics of
elements contained in every one I triangles, the invariants of a
of the sets. The intersection of : particular transformation are
the events A and B is written the shape variables that do not
'1\ and B" and '1\B." C.f. union. I change under that transforma-
• interval scale
a characteristic of data such that • inverse
the difference between two val- a form of conditional; if not p,
ues measured on the scale has I then not q.
the san1e substantive meaning! I • inverse operation
significance irrespective of the examples of inverse operations
common level of the two val- I are addition and subtraction,
ues being compared. This im- I multiplication and division, ex-
plies that scores may meaning-

II ===================MJJthemllti&s
II in17eNe sine, cosine, or tangent I isome; 83

tracting a root and raising to a I combinations of shapes;

power. shapes that may contain
curved portions rather than
• inverse sine, cosine, or
tangent I straightline segments .
(of a number) The acute angle '.ISO
whose sine, cosine, or tangent I acronym for the International
is the given number. Standards Organisation, based
in Geneva, Switzerland. This
• inverse variation
I body publishes specifications
a variation of the type xy = k;
the graph is a hyperbola with I for a number of standard pro-
axes as asymptotes. gramming languages. The
I specifications are arranged gen-

• irrational number erally to concur with those of

decimal number that never ANSI.
ends, never repeats (Ex: pi) I
: • isogonal conjugate
• irrational number ~ isogonal lines of a triangle are
a number that is not rational. ; cevians that are symmetric with
• irregular region : respect to the angle bisector.
region whose boundary is not the ~ Two points are isogonal conju-
union of circular arcs or seg- ; gates if the corresponding lines
ments to the vertices are isogonal.

• irregular shapes • isometric drawing

shapes that are not one of the I a type of drawing that shows
named geometric shapes or I three faces of a three-dimen-

•• sional object in one view. The
isometric drawing of a cube
I shows all the edges equal, but

each square face is represented

as a 60°-120°-60°-120° rhom-
I bus.

I • isometry
: an isometry is a transformation
of a geometric space that leaves

Mllthemntics==================== II
84 isosceles tetrahedron I isotropic II
distances between points un-
changed. If the space is the Eu- I
clidean space of a picture or an
organism, and the distances are
distances between landmarks,

ean translations, rotations, and • isosceles triangle

reflections. If the distances are I a triangle with at least two con-
Procrustes distanc~s between I gruent sides. If a triangle has
shapes, the isometnes (~or the I exactly two congruent sides,
simplest case, landmarks ~n two : they are called the legs and the
dimensions) are the rotatlons ~f I ano-Ie between them is called the
Kendall's shape spat~ .. For. tn- ~ ve~ex angle. The ~ide opposite
angles, these can be ~lsuahsed : the vertex angle IS called the
as ordinary rotatIOns of I base. The nonvertex angles are
Kendall's "spherical black- called the base angles.
• isoscoles trapezoid
• isosceles tetrahedron
a trapezoid that has a pair of
a tetrahedron in which each pair
I equiangular base angles
of opposite sides have the same
length. I • isotomic conjugate

two points on the side of a tri-

angle are isotomic if t~ey ~re
I equidistaru: from the.
of that side. 1\vo pomts mSlde
a triangle are isotomic conju-
o-ates if the correspon d..lllg
I cevians through these pomts
meet the opposite sides in
• isosceles trapezoid isotornic points .
a trapezoid whose two nonpar- • isotropic
allel sides are congruent. I invariant with respect to di-

rection. Isotropic errors have

the same statistical distribu-

II =======MR.th_ti.cs
II jointprobability distribution 'I Kenda;'S""S""hR""ifJ""esp=ac""e=~=====8~5
tion in all directions implying ~ - Jordan matrix
equal variance and zero corre- ; a matrix whose diagonal ele-
lation between the original : ments are all equal (and non-
variables (e.g., axis coordi- ~ zero) and whose elements
nates). ; above the principal diagonal are
_ joint probability distri- : equal to 1, but all other ele-
. ments are O.
if Xl, X2, ... , Xk are ran- 0 0 0 -1 0 0 0
dom variables, their joint I 0 0 0 0 0 0
probability distribution gives 0 0 2 0 0 0 0
the probability of events de- ..
termined by the collection of I A:= 0 0 2 0 0 0
random variables: for any col- 0 0 -1 0 2 0 0
lection of sets of numbers -3 2 0 -1 2
{AI, ... ,Ale}, the joint prob- I 0 -1 0 0 0 0
ability distribution deter- I •
mines P( (Xl is in AI) and: - Joule
(X2 is in A2) and ... and (Xk ~ a unit of energy or ~ork.
is in Ak) ). ~ _ jump discontinuity
_ joint probability function ; a discontinuity in a function
a function that gives the prob- : where the left and righ-hand
ability that each of two or ~ limits exist but are not equal to
more random variables takes ; each other.
at a particular value.
; - justify
- Jordan curve : give a logical explanation or in-
a simple closed curve. ~ formal proof of a mathemati-
; cal situation, computation or
: property.
: - Kendall's shape space
~ the fundamental geometric con-
I strUction, due to David Kendall,
: underlying geometric
~ morphometrics. Kendall's

MRthmuJri&s======= II
86 kilonIem-l I II
shape space provides a com- I sides are called the vertex
plete geometric setting for I angles. The angles between the
analyses of Procrustes distances pairs of non-congruent sides are
among arbitrary sets of land- I called the non-vertex angles.

marks. Each point in this shape I • knight's tour

space represents the shape of a I a knight's tour of a chessboard

configuration of points in some : is a sequence of moves by a

Euclidean space, irrespective of I knight such that each square of
size, position, and orientation. ~ the board is visited exactly once.
In shape space, scatters of :
points correspond to scatters of ~ • knot
entire landmark configurations, . a ·curve in space formed by in-
not merely scatters of single terlacing a piece of string and
landmarks. Most multivariate I then joining the ends together.

methods of geometric

morphometrics are
linearisations of statistical I

analyses of distances and direc- I .1ONM "Ill" IMTZIW' .......

tions in this underlying space. WI.. ~~~

• kilometer
a unit of length equal to 1,000 I -~S
meters .
• kinematics
a branch of mechanics dealing
with the motion of rigid bodies
without reference to their I ,D .....'
'_ AU·
.., , , .
masses or the forces acting on
the bodies.
• kite I the crucial matrix for comput-
a quadrilateral with exactly two I
ing the thin-plate spline
distinct pairs of congruent con- interpolant between two land-
secutive sides. The angles be- I mark configurations. In this
tween the pairs of congruent I entry, k stand,s"for the number
of landmarks, for historical

II ======~MII""'tiu
reasons . The equation of the ~ • lateral faces
thin-plate spline has coeffi- ; the faces of the lateral surface
cients Vlh, where h is. a vec- : of a prism, or a face of a pyra-
tor of the xor y-coordinates of ~ mid that is not a base
the landmarks in a target
~ • lateral surface
fo;m, followed by three D's
; the surface not included in the
(for two dimensional data, : base(s)
four D's for three-dimensional I

data). The entries in the ma- : • latin square

trix L are wholly functions of ~ an n X n array of numbers in
the starting or reference form I which only n numbers appear.

for the spline. Bending energy : No number appears more than

is the upper k-by-k square of :I once In
any row or coIumn.
~ • latitude
.la I the angular distance of a point
lateral area ~ on the Earth from the equator,
: measured along the meridian
• latera recta I through that point.
plural of lattice rectum.
• lateral area
the area of the lateral surface I
of a solid
• lateral edge
a segment whose endpoints are s
corresponding points of a cylin- I
dric solid's bases, or whose end- I
points are the vertex of a conic
solid and a vertex of its base ~ • lattice points
; points in the coordinate plane
• lateral edge : with integer coordinates
(of a prism) The intersection of I
two lateral faces. : • latus rectum
I a chord of an ellipse passing
through a focus and perpen-

M..themiJtUs======= II
88 ~awofaverages I law ofla1lJenumhers II

dicular to the major axis of the I • law of contrapositive

ellipse.Plural: latera recta. I the type of valid reasoning that
concludes the truth of a state-
ment from the truth of its
I contrapositive .
• laW' of cosines
the theorem that, for any tri-
o angle with angles of measure A,
I ~ o B, and C, and sides of lengths
"=1.) ; a, b~ and c (a opposite A, b op-
poSIte B, and c opposite C), c2
• law of averages I = a2 + b2 - lab cos C.
the Law of Averages says that
the average of independent ob- I • law of large numbers
servations of random variables the Law of Large Numbers says
that have the same probability that in repeated, independent
distribution is increasino-Iy I trials with the same probability
likely to be close to the expec~ed P of success in each trial, the
value of the random variables percentage of successes is in-
as the number of observations I creasingly likely to be close to
grows. More precisely, if X!, I the chance of success as the num-
X2 , X3 , . . . , are IIId ependent
0 ber of trials lOncreases. More
random variables with the same precisely, the chance that the
probability distribution, and I percentage of successes differs
E(X) is their common expected from the probability p by more
value, then for every number E than a fixed positive amount, E
> 0, P{ I (Xl + X2 + ... + Xn)j I > 0, converges to zero as the
n E(X) I < E} converges to number of trials n goes to in-
100% as n grows. This is fInity, for every number e > O.
equivalent to saying that the I Note that in contrast to the dif-
sequence of sample means Xl, I ference between the percentage
(XI+X2)j2, (Xl+X2+X3)j3,. of successes and the probabil-
.. converges in probability to I ity of success, the difference
E(X). between the number of suc-
cesses and the expected number

II =======MRthmMtiu
II law ofsines I likelihood ratio test 89
of successes, n X p, tends to ~ • least-squares estimates
grow as n grows. The follow- ; parameter estimates that
ing tool illustrates the law of : minimise the sum of squared
large numbers; the button ~ differences between observed
toggles between displaying the ; and predicted sample values.
difference between the number ; • leg of a right triangle
of successes and the expected : a side of a right triangle that
number of successes, and the ~ include the 90 degree angle
difference between the percent- I
age of successes and the ex- : • legs
pected percentage of successes. I (of an isosceles triangle), the

The tool on this page illustrates : two congruent sides of a non-

the law of large numbers. ~ equilateral isosceles triangle.
• law of sines .• lemata

angles with angles of measure lemmaI.

the theorem that, for any tri- ~ plural of lemma.

A~ B~ and C~ and sides of lengths ~ a theorem whose importance is

a~ b~ and c (a opposite A~ b op- : primarily as part of a proof of
posite B~ and c opposite C), sin I another theorem.
sin sin A = sin B = sin C
I • likelihood ratio test
; a test based on the ratio of the
• least common multiple : likelihood (the probability or
the least common multiple of a ~ density of the data given the
set of integers is the smallest ; parameters) under a general
integer that is an exact multiple : model, to the likelihood when
of every number in the set. ~ another, specified hypothesis is
• least upper bound ; true. Many of the commonly
the least upper bound of a set : used statistical tests are likeli-
of numbers is the smallest num- ~ hood ratio tests, e.g., the t-test
ber that is larger than every I for comparisons of means,
member of the set. : Hotelling's T2, and the analysis
: 0f vanance
· F-test.

MAthemtltics======= II
90 limit lline~t II
• limit
the actual area of a region
• line
an undefined term in most de- E
L I\. ~ E )

ductive systems. A straight ar-

rangement of infinitely many
points. A line has no thickness
and is therefore considered one-

r- v
• line of symmetry
the line of reflection of a figure
y I having reflectional symmetry.
i I • line perpendicular to a
-t-- ~---1--+-+7~ ---··-- ~ I
a line perpendicular to every line
in the plane that it intersects (or
anyone of them)
v A

• line of best fit I
given a collection of points, a : /
/ .I
line that passes closest to all of ~ .'
them, as measured by some . Li __________.___ j I
given criterion.
I • line segment
• line of reflection two points (the endpoints of the
the line over which every point I line segment) and all the points
of a figure is moved by a reflec- I between them that are on the
tion. line containing them. The line
segment connects the points.
I The measure of a line segment
I is its length.

II = = = = = = = M J J d l m u l r i u
lilinesyrnmetry Ilineartenn anequa;===========9=1
• line symmetry ~ • linear operation
a figure has line symmetry if ; suppose f is a function or op-
there is a least one line that di-
: eration that acts on things we
vides the figure into two parts ~ shall denote generically by the
that are mirror images of each ; lower-case Roman letters x and
other. : y, Suppose it makes sense to
~, multiply x and y by numbers
• linear association
two variables are linearly asso- I (which we denote by a), and
ciated if a change in one is as- I that it makes sense to add
sociated with a proportional things like x and y together, We
change in the other, with the I say that f is linear if for every
. f ' al I number a and every value of x
same constant 0 propornon - d fi hi h C() d C )
· h h h f : an y or w c l' x an 1(y are
lty t roug out t e range · 0 I d efimed , (') C(
1 l' a x x
).IS d efimed
measurement, The corre lanon: d al £:() d ") £:(
coefficient measures the degree I an equ s aX x, an (u x
of linear association on a scale : + y) is defined and equals f(x)
of -1 to 1. ~ + f(y) .
~ • linear pair
• linear combination
a sum of values each multiplied ; 2 supplementary adjacent
: angles whose noncommon
by some coefficient. A linear
combination can be expressed ~ sides form a line.
as the inner product of two vec- ~ • linear pair of angles
tors, one representing the data ; two adjacent angles whose dis-
and the other a vector of coelli- tinct sides lie on the same line.
• linear equation
ax + By + C = 0 <Angles 1 and 2 form a )

Linear Pair
• linear function
a function that, when applied to
I • linear term of an equation
consecutive whole numbers,
; the term w~th a variabl~, but no
generates a sequence with a
: exponent m an equauon; ex-
constant difference between
I ample: By in a linear equation
consecutive terms .

.MiJt"'nu======= II
",,92===========* lineartransfOrmatUm IlocatUm II
• linear transformation I ments, usually bits of geometry

in multivariate statistics, a lin- I or whole functions, that can be

ear transformation is the con- added together and can be mul-
struction of a new set of vari- I tiplied by real numbers in an
abIes that are all linear combi- I intuitive way. The points of a
nations of the original set. In plane don't form a linear vec-
geometric morphometrics, one tor space (what is "five times a
linear transformation takes I point"?), but lines segments
Procrustes-fit coordinates to connecting all the points to the
partial warp scores; another origin do form such a space.
takes them to relativewarp I • lines of sight
scores. A linear transformation I lines from an eye to what it sees
of a matrix A can be written in
that show perspective 'and what
the form y = Ax, where y is the ~ size to draw it
resulting linear combination of ;
x, a column vector, with the • loading
rows of A. I the correlation or covariance of
a measured variable with a lin-
x ear combination of variables. A
I loading is not the same as a co-

I efficient. In general, coefficients

supply formulas for the compu-

I tation of scores whereas load-
I ings are used for the biological
interpretation of the linear com-
bination .
• linear vector space
• local behaviour
in morphometrics, the most
I a description of the values of a
common k-dimensional linear
function or relation within a
vector space is the set of all real I
small interval of the indepen-
k-dimensional vectors, includ-
I dent variable.
ing all sums of these vectors and
their scalar multiples. More I • location
generally, but informally, a lin- one of the four main descrip-
ear vector space is a set of ~le- tion of a point

II =======MlJthenuuies
111OCRtion, measureofllongitudinaI7==========~9=3
• location, measure of I sion. An argument is valid if the
a measure of location is a way I conclusion has been arrived at
of summarising what a "typi- through deductive reasoning.
cal" element of a list is-it is a I
• logistic regression
one-number summary of a dis- I this relates to an experimental
I design for predicting a binary
• locus categorical (yes/no) olltome on
the path of a moving point; the the basis of predictor variables
set of all points in a plane satis- I measured on interval scales. For
fying some given condition or each of a set of values of the
property. predictor variables, the out-
• logarithm I comes are regarded as repre-
a logarithm of a number is the I
senting a binomial process,
with the binomial parameter 'p'
exponent to which a given base
I depending upon the value of the
must be raised to produce the
given number. predictor variable. The model-
ling accounts for the logarithm
• logarithmic growth I of the odds ratio as a linear
a set of values which are ap- I function of the predictor vari-
proximated by an equation of able. Fitting is via a weighted
the form y = log b x. I 1east-squares .
• logarithmic notation I method. randomisation tests
use of the symbols "log" or "in" for this purpose have been de-
in context. veloped by Mehta & Patel.
• logic • longitudinal study
the study of the formal laws of I a study in which individuals are
reasonmg. followed over time, and corn-
pared with themselves at differ-
• logical argument I ent times, to determine, for ex-
a set of premises followed by ample, the effect of aging on
statements, each of which relies I some measured variable. Lon-
on the premises or on previous I gitudinal studies provide much
statements, and ending with a more persuasive evidence about
final statement called a conclu-

Mathemlltics==================== II
94 loJl1er bountl I mRBie tour II
the effect of aging than do cross- I numbers. Lo =2, L} =1, Ln =Ln_
sectional studies. I } + Ln_r
• lower bound I • lune
any number below which a the portion of a sphere between
function value may approach I two great semicircles having
but not pass. I common endpoints (including
the semicircles).
• lowest common denorni-
nator • magic square
the smallest number that is ex- a square array of n numbers
actly divisib.1e by each denomi- I such that sum of the n numbers
nator of a set of fractions. in any row, column, or main di-
.loxodrome agonal is a constant (known as
I the magic sum).
on a sphere, a curve that cuts
all parallels under the same I
angle. 4 3 8

9 5 1

2 7 6

I • magic tour
if a chess piece visits each square
I of a chessboard in succession,
• l-tetromino I this is called a tour of the chess-
a tetromino in the shape of the board. If the successive squares
letter L. I of a tour on an n X n chess-
I board are numbered from 1 to
• lucas number n A 2, in order, the tour is called
a member of the sequence 2, 1, I a magic tour if the resulting
3, 4, 7, ... where each number is I square is a magic square.
the sum of the previous two

II =======MAtlmnRtics
II magnitude IMann-Whitney test 95
• magnitude ~ • manipulatives
the value of a number; its dis- ; objects that can be arranged,
tance from the origin : built, and moved around by
~ hand,
• magnitude of a rotation
the amount of rotation in de- ~ • Mann-Whitney test
grees ; this is a test of difference in
: location for an experimen-
• magnitude of a translation
the distance between any point ~ tal design involving two
I samples with data mea-
and its image
: sured on an ordinal scale or
• major arc ~ better. The test statistic is
an arc whose endpoints form ~ a measure of .<?:rdinal prece-
an angle over 180 degrees with ; dence. For each possible
the center of the circle; written : pairing of an observation in
the extra letter is used to dis- ~ one group with an observa-
tinguish it from a minor arc. ; tion in the alternate group,
: the pair is classified in one
• major axis
the major axis of an ellipse is ~ of three ways according to
it's longest chord. ; whether the difference is
: positive, zero or negative;
~ the numbers in these three
; categories are tallied over
: the randomisation set. The
~ randomisation set is the
I same as that for the Pitman
~ permutation test. This test
Reference srs1ltml
: is generally recommended
~ for comparisons involving
; ordinal-scale data but is not
• malfatti circles
three equal circles that are mu- : confined to this scale-type.
~ An equivalent formulation
tually tangent and each tangent
to two sides of a given triangle. ; of the test, based upon
: ranking the data and sum-
~ ming ranks within groups,
; is the Wilcoxon test.

MsthmuJties======= II
!!!!!!96~~~~~~~~==.MANi~.OVA I mmeimumliltelihootlestimtlte II
.MANOVA ~ world situation is abstracted to
see multivariate analysis of vari- I a model, the related math-
ance. ematical problem is posed and
I solved, and the mathematical
I solution is interpreted back into
making a transformation
the real-world situation as a
• margin of error solution to the real-world prob-
a measure of the uncertainty in I lem.
an estimate of a parameter;
I • mathematical notation
unfortunately, not everyone
agrees what it should mean. correct use of labels, symbols,
The margin of error of an esti- ~ and abbreviations in a math-
I ematics contett.
mate is typically one or two
times the estimated standard I • matrix
error of the estimate. arrangement of pixels
• Markov's inequality • maximum
for lists: If a list contains no the largest of a set of values.
negative numbers, the fraction I
• maximum likelihood
of numbers in the list at least estimate
as large as any given constant the maximum likelihood esti-
a>O is no larger than the arith- I
mate of a parameter from data
metic mean of the list, divided I
is the possible value of the pa-
by a. For random variables: if a rameter for which the chance of
random variable X must be I
observing the data largest. That
nonnegative, the chance that X I
is, suppose that the parameter
exceeds any given constant a>O I is p, and that we observe data
is no larger. than the expected x. Then the maximum likeli-
value of X, divided by a. hood estimate of p is estimate
• mathematical model I p by the value q that makes
a mathematical q,bject (such as P(observing x when the value
a geometric fig~re, graph, of p is q) as large as possible.
table, or equation) representing I For example, suppose we are
a real-world situation. In math- trying to estimate the chance
ematical modeling the real- that a (possibly biased) coin

II = = = = = = = M A . t h e m s r i e s
II mean I meamremmttype 97
lands heads when it is tossed. ~ symbols, if X is an estimator of
Our data will be the number of ; the parameter t, then
times x the coin lands heads in ; • mean, arithmetic mean
n independent tosses of the coin.
: the sum of a list of numbers,
The distribution of the number
~ divided by the number of num-
of times the coin lands heads is
i bers. See also average.
binomial with parameters n
(known) and p (unknown). The I.meaning
chance of observing x heads in : a version of a conditional that
n trials if the chance of heads in : defmes a term, where the term
a given trial is q is nex qx( l-q)n-
x. The maximum likelihood es-
timate of p would be the value
of q that makes that chance
I is in the antecedent.

the amount of openness in an
: angle
largest. We can find that value I
of q explicitly using calculus; it : • measure of an angle
turns out to be q = xjn, the frac- I the smallest amount of rotation
tion of times the coin is ob- ~ necessary to rotate from one
served to land heads in the n : ray of the angle to the other,
tosses. Thus the maximum ~ usually measured in degrees.
likelihood estimate of the I • measure of an arc
chance of heads from the num- ~ the measure of minor arc or
ber of heads in n independent : major arc is the measure of its
tosses of the coin is the observed ~ central angle.
fraction of tosses in which the
~ • measurement type
coin lands heads.
; this is a distinction regarding
• mean : the relationship between a phe-
average ~ nomenon being measured and
• mean squared error i the data as recorded. The main
the mean squared error of an : distinctions are concerned with
estimator of a parameter is the ~ the meaningfulness of numeri-
expected value of the square of ~ cal comparisons of data (nomi-
the difference between the es- . nal scale versus ordinal scale
I . al
timator and the parameter. In : versus mterv scale versus ra-

Mathematics================= II
98 ;w mangle rmethod ofcomptlrison II
tio scale this is known as I in the list after sorting the list
Stevens' typology), whether the I into increasing order. IT the list
scale of the measurements has an even number of entries,
(other than nominal scale mea- I the median is the smaller of the
surements) should be regarded I two middle numbers after sort-
as essentially continuous or dis- ing. The median can be esti-
crete, and whether the scale is mated from a histogram by
bounded or unbounded. I fmding the smallest number
such that the area under the his-
• medial triangle
togram to the left of that num-
the triangle whose vertices are
I ber is 50%.
the midpoints of the sides of a
2. (of a triangle), a line segment
given triangle.
connecting a vertex to the mid-
A I point of the opposite side.
I • member of a set
something is a member (or el-
ement) of a set if it is one of
I the things in the set.
I • mersenne number
c I a number of the form 2p-l
where p is a prime.
• ~edian size • mersenne prime
a SIZe measure based on the re- I a Mersenne number that is
peated . median of ~ prime.
interlandmark distances. Used·
in resistant-fit methods. ; • method of comparison
: the most basic and important
• median ~ method of determining
1. "Middle value" of a list. The ; whether a treatment has an ef-
smallest number suc~ that .at : fect: compare what happens to
least half the m the ~t ~ individuals who are treated (the
are no greater than It. IT the ~t I treatment group) with what
has an odd number of entrIes, : happens to individuals who are
the median is the middle entry ~ not treated (the control group).
1\ metric space I minor lire 99

• metric space ~ • minimal path

a space and a distance function ; the path of shortest length, as
defined on every pair of points : when fmding the shortest path
that meets the requirements of ~ from one point to another by
the definition of "metric" ; way of a fIxed line.
above. ; • minimal-change sequence
• mid-p : exploration of a randomisation
proposed by H.O Lancaster, ~ distribution is such a sequence
and further promoted by G.A. I that the successive
Barnard. This is a tail defIni- : randomisations differ is a
tion policy that the alpha value ~ simple way. In the context of a
should be calculated as the I ranodmisation test this can
sum o( the proportion of the ~ mean that the value of the test
tail for data strictly more ex- : statistic for a particular
treme than the outcome, plus ~ randomisation may be calcu-
one half of the proportion of ; lated by a simple adjustment to
the distribution corresponding : the value for the preceding
to the exact outcome value. ~ randomisation ..
This gives an unbiased esti-
~ • minimax strategy
mate of alpha.
; in game theory, a minimax
• midpoint : strategy is one that minimises
(of a line segment) The point ~ one's maximum loss, whatever
on the line segment that is the ; the opponent might do (what-
same distance from both end- : ever strategy the opponent
points. ~ might choose).
• mtOdsegment I
.• ° °
1.(of a trapewid), the line seg- I the smallest of a set of values.
ment connecting the midpoints I • minor arc.
of the two nonparallel sides.· h d·
2 (f nan . gl) lin . an arc w ose en pomts form
. 0 a t: ~ a .de s~gmen} ~ an angle less than 180 degrees
conn~dctmg t e ml pomts 0 ; with the center of the circle.
two Sl es :

MathBm4tics======= II
100 minor IlI4ds I monic polynomi,lll II
~ a representation of a math-
i ematical relationship or situ-
: ation.
: • modulo
I the integers a and b are said to
I be congruent modulo m if a-b
is divisible by m .
• modus ponens
the type of valid reasoning that
• minor axis uses "if P then Q' and the state-
the minor axis of an ellipse is ment P to conclude that Q must
its smallest chord. be true.
.mira • modus tollens
a plastic device which is used I the type of valid reasoning that
to determine and complete uses "if P then Q" and state-
symmetries by reflecting im- ment "not Q' to conclude that
ages and allowing the user to I "not P" must be trUe.
also see through the reflect- I • moment
ing surface. the kth moment of a list is the
• mixed variation average value of the elements
variation that contains both di- I raised to the kth power; that is,
rect and inverse variation. if the list consists of the N ele-
ments xl, x2, ... ,xN, the kth
• mode
I moment of the list is ( xlk' +
for lists, the mode is a most
x2k + xNk )fN. The kth mo-
common (frequent) value. A I
ment of a random variable X is
list can have more than one I
the expected value of Xk,
mode. For histograms, a mode
I B(Xk).
is a relative maXImum
("bump"). I ., monic polynomial
a polynomial in which the coef-
• model ficient of the term of highest
to create, using concrete ma-
I degree is 1.
terials, drawings or symbols;

II =======MJJthem4tics
• monochromatic triangle . ~ randomisation set, sampled
a triangle whose vertices are all ; without replacement, and using
colored the same. : the values of the test statistic to
~ generate an estimate of the
• monohedral tiling ; form of the full randomisation
a tessellation in which all tiles
are c;ongruent. : distribution. This procedure is
~ in contrast to the bootstrap pro-
• monomial I cedure in that the sampling of
an algebraic expression consist- ~ the randomisation set is with-
ing of just one term. : out replacement. An advantage
I of the Monte-Carlo test over the
• monotone
a sequence is monotone if its ~ bootstrap is that with succes-
terms are increasing or decreas- : sive resamplings it converges to
mg. ~ the gold standard form of the
. . ; exact test. An effective necessity
• mon~to~c funCtlO~ . : for the Monte-Carloprocedure
a funct10n IS monotone if It only I is a source of random codes or
~ncreases or only de~reases:. f ~ an effective pseudo-random
Increases monotOnIcally (IS : generator.
monotonic increasing) if x > y, ~ .
implies thatf(x) > = f(y). A ; • morphometrlcs
function f decreases monotoni- . from the Greek: "morph,"
cally (is monotonic decreasing) I meaning "shape," and
if x > y, implies thatf(x) < = I : "metron '
" meaning "measure-
f(y),. A function f is strictly : ment." Schools of
monotonically increasing if x > I morphometrics are
y, implies thatf(x) > f(y), and ~ characterised by what aspects of
strictly monotonically decreas- : biological "form" they are con-
ing if if x > y, implies thatf(x) ~ cerned with, what they choose
< f(y). ; to measure, and what kinds of
: biostatistical questions they ask
• Monte-Carlo test . ~ of the measurements once they
named after the famous SIte of . are made. The methods of this
gambling. casinos. A m~nte- ~ glossary emphasise configura-
carlo test mvolves generaong a ~ tions of landmarks from whole
random subset of the;

Msth_ties======= II
102 mse(x) =;( (#&-')2) I multinomial tlistributiun II
organs or organisms analysed ~ of the bias and SE of the esti-
by appropriately invariant bio- ; mator: MSE(X) = (bias (X) )2
metric methods (covariances of : + (SE(X))2.
taxon, size, cause or effect with I • multimodal distribution
position in Kendall's shape I a distribution with more than
space) in order to answer bio- lone mode. The histogram of a
logical questions. Another sort multimodal distribution has
of morphometries studies tis- I more than one "bump."
sue sections, measures the den-
sities of points and curves, and .4
uses these patterns to answer I ••
questions about the random ••
processes that may be control-
ling the placement of cellular I 4

structures. A third, the method

of "allometry," measures sizes
of separate organs and asks I • multinomial
questions about their correla- I an algebraic expression consist-
tions with each other and with ing of 2 or more terms.
measures of total size. There
• multinomial distribution
are many others.
consider a sequence of n in-
• mse(x) = e( (X-t)2 ) I dependent trials, each of
the MSE measures how far which can result in an out-
the estimator is off from what come in any of k categories.
it is trying to estimate, on the I Let pj be the probability that
average in repeated experi- each trial results in an out-
ments. It is a summary mea- come in category j, j = 1,2, ..
sure of the accuracy of the es- I ., k, so pI + p2 + ... + pk =
timator. It combines any ten- 100%. The number of out-
deney of the estimator to comes of each type has a mul-
overshoot or undershoot the I tinomial distribution. In par-
truth (bias), and the variabil- I ticular, the probability that the
ity of the estimator (SE). The n trials result in nl outcomes
MSE can be written in terms I of type 1, n2 outcomes of type

II =======MathimuJries
II multiple I multi"'ariatemultipleregr~ 103

2, . . . , and nk outcomes of ~ • multiplicity in hypothesis

type k is n!/(nl! x n2! x . . .; tests
X nk!) x plnl X p2n2 X .•. : in hypothesis testing, if more
X pknk, ifnI, ... ,nk are non- ~ than one hypothesis is tested,
negative integers that sum to ; the actual significance level of
n; th~ chance is zero other- : the combined tests is not equal
Wlse. ~ to the nominal significance
I level of the individual tests .
• multiple
the integer b is a multiple of the ~
- multivariate analysis of
integer a if there is an integer d variance
such that b=da. ~ MANOVA. An analysis ofvari-
_ multiple discriminant ~ ance of two or more dependent
analysis ; variables considered simulta-
discriminant analysis involving ~ neously.
three or more a priori-defmed : - multivariate data
groups. I a set of measurements of two

_ multiple regression ; or more variables per indi-

the prediction of a dependent ~ vidual.
variable by a linear combination: - multivariate
of two or more independent ~ morphometries
variables using least-squares ; °a term historically used for the
methods for parameter estima- : application of standard multi-
tion. ~ variate techniques to measure-
; ment data for the purposes of
- multiplication rule
the chance that events A and : morphometric analysis. Some-
B both occur (i.e., that event ~ what confusing now as any
AB occurs), is the conditional I morphometric technique must
: be multivariate in nature.
probability that A occurs given I
that B occurs, times the un- : - multivariate multiple
I •
conditional probability that B : regression
occurs. I the prediction of two or more
~ dependent variables using two

MIIthernatics======= II
!!::!lO!!::!4=====!!::!m!!::!ul!!::!tm!!::!'!!::!'I1II'!!::!Ut'!!::!te!!::!regremon: I negstiPe binomiRldistrihution II
or more independent vari- ~ • nearly normal distribution
abies. ; a population of numbers (a list
• . : of numbers) is said to have a
• multivanate regression I
.. nearly normal distribution if the
the prediction of two or more
I histogram of its values in stan-
dependent variables using one
independent variable.. : dard units nearly follows a nor-
. ~ mal curve. More precisely, sup-
• nadir I pose that the mean of the list is
the point on the celestial : JL and the standard deviation of
~ the list is SD. Then the list is
spehere in the direction down-
wards of the plumb-line. I nearly normally distributed if,

• nagel point for every two numbers a < b,

the fraction of numbers in the
in a triangle, the lines from the
vertices to the points of contact
I list that are between a and b is
of the opposite sides with the
I approximately equal to the area
excircles to those sides meet in
under the normal curve be-
a point called the Nagel point.
I tween (a JL)/SD and (a JL)/SD.

I • negation
/' I (of a statement) A statement
: that is false if the original state-
~ ment is true, and true if the
; original statement is false. The
: negation can usually be made by
~ appropriately adding the word
I not to the statement, or by pre-
: ceding the statement with the
phrase "It is not the case that. .
• natural number I .. " A double negation of a state-
anyone of the numbers 1,2,3, ment is a negation of the nega-
4,5, .... tion of that statement.
• navigational system • negative binomial distribu-
compass directions or bearings I tion
in a variety of formats. consider a sequence of inde-
pendent trials with the same
II negllti:"enumbQ' I ninepointcircle .. 105

probability p of success in ~ together, which gives the ex-

each trial. The number of tri- ; pression for P(N =k) above.
als up to and including the rth ; • negative number
success has the negative Bino- : a number smaller than O.
mial distribution with param- I
eters n and r. If the random : • net
variabJe N has the negative ~ a two-dimensional pattern that
binomial distribution with ; you can cut out and fold to form
parameters nand r, then :I a three-dimensional figure.
P(N=k) = k-1Cr-1 x pr x (1- : • network
p)k-r, for k = r, r+ I, r+2, ... ~ a group of nodes and arcs
, and zero for k < r, because
there must be at least r trials ~ • n-gon
to have r successes. The nega- ; a polygon with n sides
tive binomial distribution is I • nine point center
derived as follows: for the rth : in a triangle, the circumcenter
success to occur on the kth ~ of the medial triangle is called
trial, there must have been r- ~ the nine point center.
1 successes in the first k-1 tri-. . . .
als and the kth trial must re- ~ • rune pomt circle
suIt in success The chance of ; in a triangle, the circle that
the former is cite chance of r- : passes through the midpoints of
1 successes in k -1 independent ~ ~e sides is called the nine point
trials with the same probabil- I CIrcle.
ity of success in each trial,
which, according to the Bino-
mial distribution with param- I
eters n=k-1 and p, has prob-
ability k-1Cr-1 x pr-l x (1-
p)k-r. The chance of the lat- I
ter event is p, by assumption.
Because the trials are inde-
pendent, we can find the I
chance that both events occur I
by multiplying their chances

M/lthemtI,tics=======-:;;;;;;;;;:' II
~1~06~~~~~~~~~no~M~~~wi~mdm8ni~~I~mJ II
• no causation without ~ alpha criterion level, other-
manipulation ; wise not ('non-significant').
a slogan attributed to Paul : The commonest conventional
Holland. If the conditions I values for the nominal alpha
were not deliberately manipu- I criterion level are 0.05 and
lated (for example, if the situ- 0.01.
ation is an observational study ~ • nominal scale
rather than an experiment), it I
this is a type of measurement
is unwise to conclude that :
scale with a limited number of
there is any causal relation- I
possible outcomes which cannot
ship between the outcome and I
be placed in any order repre-
the conditions. See post hoc I senring the intrinsic properties
ergo propter hoc. of the measurements. Ex-
• node amples : Female versus Male;
a description of a point in a net- I the collection of languages in
work where it is possible for which an international treaty is
two different segments to share published.
the same endpoints • nomograph
• nominal alpha criterion I a graphical device used for com-
level I putation which uses a straight
a publicly agreed value for edge and several scales of num-
type-l error, such that the I bers.
outcome of a statistical test is I
classified in terms of whether • nonagon
I a nine-sided polygon.
the obtained value of alpha is :
extreme as compared with I 0cId_
this criterion level. The fine :
detail of the comparison in-
vol ves the tail definition I
policy. The outcome is classi-
fied as showing statistical sig-
nificance ('significant') if the I
outcome has low alpha as
compared with the nominal
II nf11'Ull9onal number 11I01II-PfJ//rametric:==========~1~O~7
• nonagonal number ~ • nonlinear association
a number of the form n(7n-5)/ ; the relationship between two
2. : variables is nonlinear if a
~ change in one is associated with
; a change in the other that is
associated with 9
: depends on the value of the
• non-constant rate of ~ first; that is, if the change in the
change ; second is not simply propor-
set of data or table of values : tional to the change in the: first,
in which the amount of the ~ independent of the value of the
dependent variable does not I first variable.
change by a constant value as
the value of the independent I • non-overlapping regions
variable changes by a constant ~ regions that don't share interior
value. : points
I •
: • non-parametric test
• non~on~ex ~et hi h all I a number of statistical tests
a set 0 POInts In ~ c ~ot 0 ~ were devised, mostly over the
segments connectIng POInts
. I . th of. . perlO. d 1930-1960 , Wit . h the
the set lie entlre y In e set; .I spec!°fi!C 0 b'Jectlve . 0 f by-pass-
synonym: concave.
; ing assumptions about sam-
• non-euclidean geometries : pIing from populations with
hyperbolic geometry ~ data supposedly conforming
a geometry in which, through ; to theoretically modeled sta-
a point not on a line, there are : tistical distributions such as
infinitely many lines parallel ~ the normal distribution. Sev-
to the given line. ; eral of these tests were
• non-euclidean geometry : explictly concerned with ordi-
solid geometry ~ nal-scale data for which mod-
I eling based upon continuous
• non-included side ~ functions is clearly inappro-
the side of a triangle that is not : priate. These tests are implic-
included by 2 given angles ~ itly re-randomisation tests.

MIIthenumes======~ II
108 non-persp:edrtllwing I1UJrmtJl4ppyoximation II
• non-perspective drawing I ciable, the survey suffer from
a three-dimensional drawing I large nonresponse bias.
that doesn't use perspective I • nonresponse
• non-regular shape in surveys, it is rare that every-
a shape that does not have all lone who is "invited" to partici-
sides congruent and all angles I pate (everyone whose phone
. congruent. number is called, everyone who
is mailed a questionnaire, ev-
• nonresponse bias
I eryone an interviewer tries to
in a survey, those who re-
spond may differ from those I stop on the street . . . ) in fact
who do not, in ways that are responds. The difference be-
related to the effect one is try- I tween the "invited" sample
ing to measure. For example, I sought, and that obtained, is the
a telephone survey of how nonresponse.
many hours people work is • nonrigid transformation
likely to miss people who are I a transformation that does not
working late, and are there- preserve the size and shape of
fore not at home to answer the the original figure.
phone. When that happens, I
• nonvertex angles
the survey may suffer from I (of a kite) The two angles be-
nonresponse bias. I tween consecutive noncongru-
Nonresponse bias makes the ent sides of a kite.
result of a survey differ sys- I
tematically from the truth. • normal
I perpendicular
• nonresponse rate
the fraction of nonresponders ~ • normal approximation
in a survey: the number of I the normal approximation to
nonresponders divided by the : data is to approximate areas
number of people invited to ~ under the histogram of data,
participate (the number sent I transformed into standard
questionnaires, the number of ~ units, by the corresponding
interview attempts, etc.) If the : areas under the normal curve.
nonresponse rate is appre- ~ Many probability distribu-
tions can be approximated by

II =======MRthemtlBes
II nomudcurve I nomuddistributUm *=========1~O~9
a normal distribution, in the ~ The tool on this page illus-
sense that the area under the ; trates the normal approxima-
probability histogram is close : tion to the binomial probabil-
to the area under a corre- ~ ity histogram. Note that the
sponding part of the normal ; approximation gets worse
curve. To fmd the correspond- : when p gets close to 0 or 1,
ing part of the normal curve, ~ and that the approximation
the range must be converted ~ improves as n increases.
to standard units, by subtract-
I • normal curve
ing the expected value and di- : the normal curve is the famil-
viding by the standard error.
~ iar "bell curve:," illustrated on
For example, the area under
I this page. The mathematical
the binomial probability his-
~ expression for the normal
togram for n = 50 and p =
: curve is y = (2xpi)-V2E-x2/2,
30% between 9.5 and 17.5 is
~ where pi is the ratio of the cir-
74.~%. To use the normal ap- ; cumference of a circle to its
proximation, we transform : d·lameter. (3 14159265 . .. ) ,
the endpoints to standar d ~ and E is the base of the natu-
units, by subtracting the ex- ; rallogarithm (2.71828 ... ).
pected value (for the Bino- Th al .
.I d . bl : e norm curve IS symmet-
mla ran om vana e, n X p = .I nc ..
aroun t e pomt x -- 0 ,and
d h .
15 fior these vaIues 0 f nan· d .. c. al f
d di .di th ul b I pOSItiVe lor every v ue 0 x.
p ) an Vi ng e res t .y : The area under the normal
the ~tandard error (for a BI- ~ curve is unity, and the SD of
nOffilal, (n x p x (l-p)) 1/2 = ; the normal curve suitably de-
3.24 for these values of n an~ : fined, is also unit~ Many (but
p). The area normal approXI- ~ not most) histograms con-
mation is the area under the ; verte d Into . stan d ar d'units,
normaI curve b etween (9 .5: . I c. 11 th
15)/3.24 = -1.697 and (17.5 I approXimate y 10 ow e nor-
. ; mal curve.
15)/3 .24 =.77;
0 2 t h at area IS I
73.5%, slightly smaller than : • normal distribution
the corresponding area under I the normal distribution is a
the binomial histogram. See ; theoretical distribution appli-
also the continuity correction. : cable for continuous interval-

Msth_tUs========== II

scale data. It is related math- ~ • nth term .

ematically to the binomial and ; the number that a function rule
chi-square distributions and to : generates as output for a count-
several named sampling dis- ~ ing number n.
tributions (including I • nuisance parameters

Student's t, Fisher's. F, ~ parameters of a model that

Pearson's r); these samplmg : must be fit but that are not of
distributions are the chara~- ~ interest to the investigator. In
ten~t~c t~ols of ; morphometrics, the par~eters
statlsical mfernece to WhICh : for translation and rotation are
re-randomisation statistics ~ usually nuisance parameters.
are an alternative. ; th .
. • null hypo eslS
• normalise ; in order to test whether a sup-
to normalise a geo~etric ob- : posed interesting pattern exists
ject is to transform It so th~t ~ in a set of data, it is usual to
some function of its coordI- I propose a null hypothesis that

nates or other parameters has : the pattern does not exist. It is

a prespecified value. For ex- ~ the unexpectedness of the de-
ample, vectors are of~en ~ gree of departure of the ob-
normalised by transformation . served data, relative to the pat-
into unit vectors, which have ~ tern expected under the null
length one. ~ hypothesis, which is examined
• not, negation, logical ; by the measure alpha. Refer-
negation I ence to a null hypothesis is com-
the negation of a logical propo- mon between re-randomisation
sition p, NOT p, is a propo~i- ~ s~atistics and parametric statis-
tion that is the logical opposite ; tiCS.
of p. That is, if P is true, NOT : • null model
p is false, and if.p is false, NOT ~ .the simplest model under con-
p is true. Negation takes prece- I sideration. The null model for
dence over other logical opera- : shape is the distribution in
tions. ~ Kendall's shape space that
I arises from landmarks that are

II = = = = = = = = = - - M l J t h t m U l M
II null set I oblique triangle 111
distributed by independent cir- I
cular normal noise of the same I
variance in the original
digitising plane or space and I
drawn from a single, homoge- I
neous population. It is exactly
analogous to the usual assump-
tion of "independent identically I
distributed error terms" in con- I
ventionallinear models (regres- : - oblique
sion, ANOVA) . ~ at an angle that is not a mul-

- null set ; tiple of 90 degrees.

a set with nothing in it ; - oblique angle
- number line : an angle that is not 900
a line on which each point rep- : - oblique coordinates
resents a real number. I a coordinate system in which

I the axes are not perpendicular.

- number theory
the study of integers. f--------,p

- numerator
in the fraction x/y, x is called the
numerator and y is called the I

denominator. 5

• numerical analysis R
the study of methods for ap-
proximation of solutions of ~ - oblique line
various classes of mathematical ; a line that has a definite slope
problems including error analy- : not equal to zero
: - oblique prism or cylinder
- oblate spheroid ~ a non-right prism or cylinder
an ellipsoid produced by rotat- ~ - oblique triangle
ing an ellipse through 360 0 ; a triangle that is not a right tri-
about its minor axis. angle.

MR.thematics==================== II
• observational study I • odd number
c.f. controlled experiment. I an integer that is not diVisible
by 2.
• obtuse angle
an angle whose measure is • odds
greater than 90 but less than I the odds in favour of an event
180 degrees. I is the ratio of the probability

that the event occurs to the

• obtuse triangle
probability that the event does
a triangle that contains an ob-
I not occur. For example, sup-
tuse angle.
pose an experiment can result
• octagon in any of n possible outcomes,
an eight-sided polygon. I all equally likely, and that k of

• octahedron the outcomes result in a "win"

a polyhedron with 8 faces. and n-k result in a "loss."
I Then the chance of winning is
kin; the chance of not winning
is (n-k)/n; and the odds in
I favour of winning are (k/n)/

«n-k)/n) = k/(n-k), which is

the number of favourable out-
I comes divided by the number

I of unfavourable outcomes.
~--.- ..
Note that odds are not syn-
• octant onymous with probability, but
anyone of the 8 portions of ; the two can be converted back
space dtermined by the 3 coor- and forth. If the odds in
dinate planes. favour of an event are q, then
• odd function I the probability of the event is

a function f(x) is called an odd I q/(l +q). If the probability of

function if f(x) =-f( -x) for all x. an event is p, the odds in
• odd node I favour of the event are p/(l-

a node with an odd number of ~ p) and the odds against the

event are (l-p)/p.

II = = = = = = = M l l t h m u J n e s
II oddsmtio I orderofopemtions 113
- odds ratio ~ - open interval
an alternative characterisation ; an interval that does not include
of the parameter 'p' for a bi- : its two endpoints.
nomial process is the ratio of ~ "t C
. . f . - °PPOSI e laces
t h e InCIdences 0 the two al- I f: th l i ' all I I
ternatives : p/( I-p) ; this : aces at e m par e panes
I "
quantity is termed the odds . - opposIte rays
ratio; the value may range ; two rays with a common end-
from zero to infinity. This re- : point that form a line
lates to a possible view of a : _ opposite side
binomial process as the com - ~ (of an angle of a triangle) The
bined activity of two Poisson I side that is not a side of the

processes with a limit upon : angle.

total count for the two pro- I
cesses combined. : - OR disjunction, logical
~ disjunction
- one to one I an operation on two logical
a function f is said to be one to ~ propositions. If p and q are two
one if f(x) =f(y) implies that propositions, (p OR) q is a
x=y. ~ proposition that is true if p is
- one-dimensional ; true or if q is true (or both);
having length, but no width; : otherwise, it is false. That is, (p
examples: a line, a ray, a seg- ~ OR) is true unless both p and q
ment ; are false. C.f. exclusive disjunc-
: tion, XOR.
- one-point perspective I
a method of perspective draw- : - order
ing that uses one vanishing ~ to place numbers in order from
point. ; smallest to largest or largest to
: smallest.
-onto I
a function f is said to map A : - order of operations
onto B if for every b in B, ~ the rule for using operations on
there is some a in A such I numbers; first parentheses,
f(a) =b. : then exponents, then multipli-

MIIthem4.tics======= II
114 orderedpair lordinatiml II
cation and division, then addi- I • ordinal variable
tion and subtraction. a variable whose possible val-
ues have a natural order, such
• ordered pair
I as {short, medium, long},
the two numbers that (called
{cold, warm, hot}, or {O, 1,
coordinates) are used to iden- I
2, 3, ... }. In contrast, a vari-
tify a point in a plane; written I
able whose possible valufs are
(x, y)
I {straight, curly} or {Arizona,
• ordered pair rule California, Montana, New
a rule that uses ordered pairs York} would not naturally be
to describe a transformation. I ordinal. Arithmetic with the
For example, the ordered pair possible values of an ordinal
rule (x, y) ??(x + h, y + k) de- variable does not necessarily
scribes a translation horiwn- I make sense, but it does make
tally by h units and vertically by sense to say that one possible
k units. value is larger than another.
• ordered triple • ordinate
the three numbers (called coor- I the y-coordinate of a point in
dinates) that are used to iden- I the plane.
tify a point in space; written (x,
• ordination
y, z)
a representation of objects with
• ordinal scale I respect to one or more coordi-
a measurement type for which I nate axes. There are many kinds
the relative values of data are of ordinations depending upon
defined solely in terms of be- I the goals of the ordination and
ing lesser, equal-to or greater I criteria used. For example, plot-
as compared with other data ting objects according to their
on the ordinal scale. These scores on the first two princi-
characteristics may arise from I pal component axes provides
categorical rating scales, or the two-dimensional ordination
from converting interval scale best summarising the total vari-
data to become ranked data. I ability of the objects in the
original sample space. Biplots
combine an ordination of speci-

II = = = = = = = M s J t b m u J t i c s
II orientation I orthographic drawing .. ===========1~1~5

mens and an ordination ofvari- ~

• orthogonal
ables. I at right angles. In linear alge-
bra, being "at right angles" is
• orientation
I defined relative to a symmetric
in an image change, the direc-
I matrix P, such as the bending-
tion in which the points
energy matrix; two vectors x
named go (i.e., how Ns posi- I
tion relates to B's and B's re- and yare orthogonal with re-
I spect to P if xtpy=O. Principal
lates to C's); either clockwise
warps are orthogonal with re-
or counterclockwise for fig-
~ spect to bending energy, and
~ relative warps are orthogonal
• origin with respect to both bending
the point in a coordinate plane energy and the sample covari-
with coordinates (0,0). I ance matrix .

• orthic triangle I • orthogonal superimposi-

the triangle whose vertices are tion
the feet of the altitudes of a a superimposition using only
given triangle. I transformations that are all
• orthocenter I Euclidean similarities, i. e., in-
the point of concurrency of a volve only translation, rota-
triangle's three altitudes (or of I tion, scaling, and, possibly, re-
the lines containing the alti- I flection.
tudes). I • orthographic drawing
a drawing of the top, front, and
right side views of a solid that
I preserves their sizes and shapes.
Orthomeans "straight;" the
views of an orthographic draw-
I ing show the faces of a solid as
if you were viewing them
B c "head-on."

MMhemlJtics===================== II
116 ..orthommnal I operlapping triangles II
• orthonormal I fied, and the outlier is deter-
a set of vectors is orthonormal I mined to be spurious. Other-
if each has length unity and all wise, discarding outliers can
pairs are orthogonal with re- I cause one to underestimate
spect to some relevant matrix, I the true variability of the mea-
P, such as the identity matrix. A surement process.
matrix is orthogonal if its rows • overlapping angles prop-
(columns) are orthonormal as I
a set of vectors.
I the property that, if two

• outcome space angles have the same vertex

the outcome space is the set of ~ and overlap so that the
all possible outcomes of a given I nonoverlapping parts of the
random experiment. The out- angles are congruent, then the
come space is often denoted by angles are congruent.
the ~apital letter S. • overlapping segments
• outcome value property
the value of the test statistic the property that, if two line
for the data as initially ob- segments on the same line
served, before any re- I overlap so that the
randomisation .. I nonoverlapping parts are con-
gruent, then the line seg-
• outgoing angle
ments are congruent.
the angle formed between the
path of a rebounding object (a I • overlapping triangles
billiard ball, a light ray) and the I triangles that share a side or
surface it collides with (a cush- angle
ion, a mirror).
• outlier
an outlier is an observation I
that is many SD's from the
mean. It is sometimes tempt-
ing tQ discard outliers, but this I

is imprudent unless the cause

of the outlier can be identi-

II =======MRrh_tics
II palindrome I parameter 117
• palindrome ~ • parallel
a positive integer whose digits ; (lines, rays, or line segments),
read the same forward and : lying in the same plane and not
I . .
backwards. : mtersectmg.
• palindromic ~ • parallel lines
a positive integer is said to be ; two or more coplanar lines
palindromic with respect to a : that have no points in com-
base b if its representation in ~ mon or are identical (eg, the
base b reads the same from left I same line)
to right as from right to left.
I •parallel planes
• pandiagonal magic square ~ planes that have no points in
a magic square in which all the : common
broken diagonals as well as the
~ • parallelepiped
main diagonals add up to the
I a prism whose bases are
magic constant.
• pandigital
a decimal integer is called I
pandigital if it contains each of
the digits·from 0 to 9.
• paraboloid
a paraboloid of revolution is a I
surface of revolution produced by ; • parallelogram
rotating a parabola about its axis. : a quadrilateral in which both
~ pairs of opposite sides are par-
I aIle!.

I • parameter
: in general, a parameter is a
~ number (an integer, a deci-
I mal) indexing a function. For

: instance, the F-distribution

~ used to test decompositions
I of variance has two par am-

MRt'--nu======= II
118 parameter I partial warp srores !I
eters, both integers: the I • partial least squares
counts of the degrees of free- I partial Least Squares is a mul-
dom for the two variances tivariate statistical method for
whose ratio is being tested. In I assessing relationships among
morphometrics, there are I two or more sets of variables
four main kinds of param- measured on the same enti-
eters: nuisance parameters, ties. Partial Least Squares
which must be estimated to I analyses the covariances be-
account for differences not of ~ tween the sets of variables
particular scientific interest; rather than optimizing linear
the geometric parameters, I combinations of variables in
such as shape coordinates, in the various sets. Their compu-
which landmark shape is ex- tations usually do not involve
pressed; statistical param- I the inversion of .
eters, such as mean differ- I • partial warp scores
ences or correlations, by
partial warp scores are the
which biological interpreta- I
quantities that characterise
tion is confronted with that I the location of each specimen
data; and another set of geo- I in the space of the partial
metric parameters, such as
warps. They are a rotation of
partial warp scores or I the Procrustes residuals
Procrustes residuals, in which I around the Procrustes mean
the findings of the statistical configuration. For the nonuni-
analysis are expressed.
form partial .warps, the coef-
• parameter I ficients for the rotation are the

a numerical property of a popu- principal warps, applied first

lation, such as its mean. to the x-coordinates of the
I Procrustes residuals, then to
• parametric equations
two equations which express I the y-coordinates and, for
three-dimensional data, the z-
the coordinates of x and y as
I coordinates. Coefficients for
separate functions of a com-
mon variable, called the pa- I the uniform partial warps are
rameter that is usually time. produced by special.

II ====================MlJthmuJrics
II partial warps I pentomino 119
• partial warps ~ • patterns in fractals recur-
partial warps are an auxiliary ; sive rule
structure for the interpretation : a rule used to fmd terms in num-
of shape changes and shape ~ ber sequences using recursion.
variation in sets of landmarks. I ff '
. • payo matrIX
Geometrically, partial warps are
; a way of representing what each
an orthonormal basis for a
player in a game wins or loses,
space tangent to Kendall's shape I
as a function of his and his
space. Algebraically, the partial
~ opponent's strategies.
warps are eigenvectors of the
bending energy matrix that de- I • pedal triangle
scribes the net local informa- . the pedal triangle of a point P
tion in a deformation along with respect to a triangle ABC
each coordinate axis. Except for I is the triangle whose vertices

the very largest-scale partial are the feet of the perpendicu-

warp, the one for uniform lars dropped from P to the
shape change, they have an ap- I sides of triangle ABC.

proximate location and an ap- ~ • pell number

proximate scale. ; the nth term in the sequence 0,
• partition : 1, 2, S, 12, ... defmed by the re-
a partition of an event B is a ~ currence
collection of events {AI, A2, ; Po=O, P,=l, and Pn =2Pn . 1 +Pn .
A3, . . . } such that the events ; 2'
in the collection are disjoint, : • pentadecagon
and their union is B (they ex- ~ a IS-sided polygon
haust B). That is, AjAk = {}
unless j = k, and B = Al U A2 ~ • pentagon
U A3 U .. . . If the event B is ; a five-sided polygon.
not specified, it is assumed to ; • pentagonal number
be the entire outcome space S. : a number of the form n(3n-l)j
• Pascal's triangle ~ 2.
a triangular array of binomial ~ • pentomino
coefficients. ; a five-square polyomino.

MAthem4rics======= II
120 percentile Ipennutation II
• • perfect square

~ ....
,...... .
I an integer is a perfect square if
it is of the form m 2 where m is
an integer.
• • perimeter of a polygon
• the sum of the lengths of the
sides of the polygon
• percentile • periodic curve
the pth percentile of a list is the • a curve that repeats in a regu-
smallest number such that at • lar pattern.
least p% of the numbers in the
Closed (Periodic) Cubic S-5pline
list are no larger than it. The • A
pth percentile of a random vari - •
able is the smallest number
such that the chance that the •
random variable is no larger •
than it is at least p%. C.f.
• perfect cube
an integer is a perfect cube if it • • permutation
is of the form m 3 where m is an a permutation of a set is an ar-
integer. rangement of the elements of
• the set in some order. If the
• perfect number set has n things in 'it, there are
a positive integer that is equal I
nl different orderings of its
to the sum of its proper divi-
• elements. For the first ele-
sors. For example, 28 is per-
ment in an ordering, there are
fect because 28 = 1 + 2 + •
n possible choices, for the sec-
• ond, there remain n-1 pos-
• perfect power • sible choices, for the third,
an integer is a perfect power there are n-2, etc., and for the
if it is of the form mn where • nth element of the ordering,
m and n are integers and n> 1. • there is a single choice re-
mammg. By the fundamental

II = = = = = = = = = = M l l t b m u J t i & s
II perpendicular I Pitman permutation;==========~1~2~1
rule of counting, the total ~ • perspective
number of sequences is thus ; feeling of depth
nx(n-1)x(n-2)x .. . xl. ; • perspective drawing
Similarly, the number of : a technique of representing
orderings of length k one can
~ three-dimensional relation-
form from n> = k things is ; ships realistically in a draw-
nx(n-1)x(n-2)x . . . x(n-
: ing, by drawing objects
k+ 1) = n!j(n-k)1. This is de-
~ smaller as they recede into
noted np k' the number of per-
mutations of n things taken k
at a time. C.f. combinations.
• perpendicular
I the distance.

: written 7t the ratio C[D where
~ C is the circumference and D is
intersecting at right angles.
I the diameter of a circle;

• perpendicular bisector ~ 3.14159265359 ...

(of a line segment) A line that
~ • piecewise function
divides the line segment into
: a function consisting of two or
two congruent parts (bisects
~ more equations, defined for
it) and is also perpendicular to
; specified intervals of the inde-
: pendent variable.
• perpendicular lines : • Pitman permutation test
2 segments, rays, or lines that
~ named after the statistician
form a 90 degree angle
; E.J . Pitman who described
• perpendicular planes : this test, and the PITMAN
planes in which any two inter- ~ permutation test, in 1937;
secting lines, one in each plane, ; this is one of the earliest in-
form a right angle. : stances of an exact test. An
~ exact re-randomisation test in
Q I which the test statistic is the
: difference of means of two
~ samples of univariate inter-

I val-scale data.
• C

MIIthematics================== II
122 pixel I point ofaverages !I
• pixel I thickness and is therefore con-
small dot of color that makes I sidered two-dimensional.
up computer'and TV screens
• plane figure
• placebo effect a set bf pO'ints that are on a
the belief or knowledge that one I plane
is being treated can itself have I • plane geometry
an effect that confounds with
I the study of two-dimensional
the real effect of the treatment.
figures in a plane
Subjects given a placebo as a I
pain-killer report statistically • plane section
significant reductions in pain in I the intersection of a figure with
randomised experiments that I a plane
compare them with subjects I • point

who receive no treatment at all. an undefined term in most de-

This very real psychological ef- I ductive systems. It has no size,
fect of a placebo, which has no I only location and is therefore
direct biochemical effect, is considered zero-dimensional.
called the placebo effect. Ad- I You can think of geometric fig-
ministering a placebo to the I ures as sets of points. In a Car-
control group is thus important tesian coordinate system, a
in experiments with human point's location is represented
subjects; this is the essence of a I by a pair of numbers (xJ y).
blind experiment.
I • point of averages
• placebo in a scatterplot, the point
a "dummy" treatment that has whose coordinates are the
no pharmacological effect; e.g., I arithmetic means of the cor-
a sugar pill. I responding variables. For ex-
• plane ample, if the variable X is
an undefined term in most de- I plotted on the horizontal axis
ductive systems. A flat surfa~e I and the variable Y is plotted
that extends infinitely. A plane on the vertical axis, the point
has length and width but no of averages has coordinates
I (mean of X, mean of Y).

II =======Mnthmultics
II pointofconcurrency I polyhedron 123
• point of concurrency I improve any prediction of the
the point at which more than I position (time) of the next event
two concurrent lines, line seg- by reference to the detail of any
ments, or rays intersect. I number of preceding observa-
I tions. The corresponding distri-
• point of tangency
bution of intervals between
(of a circle) The single point I
events is an exponential distri-
where a tangent line touches a
I bution. The conventional ex-
ample of a Poisson processes is
• Poisson distribution concerned with occurence of
the Poisson distribution is a dis- I radioactive emissions in a sub-
crete probability distribution stantial sample of radioactive
that depends on one paranleter, with a half-life very much
m. If X is a random variable I longer than the total observa-
with the Poisson distribution tion period.
with parameter m, then the
• polarity of a variable
probability that X = k is E-m I
x mkjk!, k = 0, 1,2, ... , where the positivity or negativity of a
I variable; its direction
E is the base of the naruralloga-
ritlun and ! is the factorial func- I • polygon
tion. For all other values of k, I a closed planar geometric fig-
the probability is zero. The ex- ure consisting of line segments
pected value the Poisson distri- I (tlle sides), each of which inter-
bution with parameter m is 111, I sects exactly two others at end-
and the standard error of the points forming the polygon'S
Poisson distribution with pa- angles. Each point of intersec-
rameter m is m 1/2 . I tion is a vertex of the polygon.
• Poisson process I • polygonal region
a process whereby t;vents occur the union of a polygon and its
independently in some COI1- lntenor
tinuwn (in many applications, I • polyhedron

time), such that the overall den- I a solid whose surface consists
sity (rate) is statistically con- of polygons and tlleir interiors,
stant but that it is impossible to I each of which is a face. A line

Mathematics===================== I
124 P01,;,i1W I population stand4rd deviation II
segment where two faces inter- I of a box of numb.ered tickets
sect is an edge. A point of in- I is the mean of the list com-
tersection of three or more prised of all the numbers on
edges is a vertex. I all the tickets. The population
I mean is a parameter. C.f.
- polyomino :
sample mean.
a planar figure consisting 0 f I
congruent squares joined edge- : - population percentage
to-edge. the percentage of units in a
I population that possess a speci-

fied property. For example, the

percentage of a given collection
I of registered voters who are

registered as Republicans. If
each unit that possesses the
I property is labelled with "1,"

and each lmit that does not pos-

sess the property is labelled
- population I with "0," the population per-
a definable set of individual I centage is the same as the mean
units to which the findings of that list of zeros and ones;
from statistical examination of I that is, the population percent-
a sample subset are intended I age is the population mean for
to be applied. The population a population of zeros and ones.
will generally much outnum- The population percentage is a
ber the sample. In re- I parameter. c.f. sample percent-
randomisation statistics the age.
process of applying inferences
based upon the sample to the - population standard
population is essentially infor- deviation
I the standard deviation of the
values of a variable for a popu-
- population mean lation. This is a parameter, not
the mean of the numbers in a I a statistic. C.f. sample standard
numerical' population. For ex- deviation.
ample, the population mean

II = = = = = = = M J J t__#U
II populatum I preshape space 125
• population I provement of performance of
a collection of units being stud- I a statistical test.
ied. Units can be people, places,
I • practical number
objects, epochs, drugs, proce-
a practical number is a positive
dures, or many other things.
I integer m such that every natu-
Much of statistics is concerned
I ral munber n not exceeding m
with estimating numerical
is a sum of distinct divisors of
properties (parameters) of an I
entire population from a ran- m.
dom sample of units from the • precision
population. I the closeness of repeated mea-
surements to the same value.
• post hoc ergo propter hoc I

after this, therefore because of • preform space

this. A fallacy of logic known the space corresponding to cen-
since classical times: inferring I tered objects, i. e., differences
a causal relation from correla- in location have been removed.
tion. Don't do this at home! It is of k(P-I) dimensions.
• postulates • preimage
premises in a deductive system I the original object that is re-
accepted without proof. flected

• power I • premises
this is the probability that a (in a deductive sy~tem) State-
statistical test will detect a I ments (including undefined
defined pattern in data and I terms, definitions, properties of
declare the extent of the pat- I algebra and equality, postulates,
tern as showing statistical sig- and theorems) used to prove
nificance. power is related to I further conclusions.
type-2 error by the simple for- I • preshape space
mula: power = (I-beta) ; the the space corresponding to fig-
motive for this re-definition is I
ures that have been centered
so that an increase in value for I and scaled but not rotated to
power shall represent im- alignment. It is of k(P-l)-1 di-

Mathematics===================== II
""12""6==========,,,,p"=·nu;aCie I p1-incipal components atlalysis I
• prima facie I its effect on a circle or sphere.
latin for "at tirst glance." "On I An affine transformation takes
the face of it." Prima facie evi- circles into ellipses. The princi-
dence for something is infor- I pal axes of the shape change are
mation that at first glance sup- I the directions of the diameters
ports the conclusion. On closer of the circle that are mapped
examination, that might not be into the major and minor axes
true; there could be another I of the ellipse. The principal
explanation for the evidence. strains of the change are the
ratios of the lengths of the axes
• prime I of the ellipse to the diameter of
a prime number is an integer
the circle. In the case of the tet-
larger than 1 whose only posi- I
rahedron, there are three prin-
tive divisors are 1 and itself.
I cipal axes, the axes of the ellip-
• prime factorisation soid into which a sphen: is de-
the unique set of factors of a formed. One has the greatest
number, all of which are prime I principal strain (ratio of axis
numbers. I length to diameter of sphere),
• primitive pythagorean one the least, and there is a third
triangle perpendicular to both, having
a right triangle whose sides are I an intermediate principal strain.
relatively prime integers. I • principal components
• primitive root of unity analysis
the complex number z is a the eigenanalysis of the
primitive nth root of unity if ~ sample covariance matrix.
Zll = 1 but Zk is not equal to 1 for ; Principal components (PC's)
any positive integer k less than can be defined as the set of
I vectors that are orthogonal
both with respect to the iden-
• principal axes and strains tity matrix and the sample
a change of one triangle into I covariance matrix. They can
another, or of one tetrahedron also be defined sequentially:
into another, can be modelled the first is the linear combi-
as an affine transformation I nation with the largest vari-
which can be parameterised by

II ====================MiJthemllhcs
II principal wa1'"Ps I prism.. 12 7

ance of all those with coeffi- I set of p 2D landm~irks (p-4 for

cients summing in square to I 3D data) they form a finite se-
I; the second has the largest ries . Together with the uniform
variance (when normalised I terms, the partial warps, which
that way) of all that are , are projections (shadows) of the
uncorrelated with the first principal warps, supply an or-
one; etc. One way to compute thonormal basis for a space that
principal components is to use I is tangent to Kendall's shape
a singular value decomposi- space in the vicinity of a mean
tion. Relative warps are prin- form.
cipal components of partial I
• prism
warp scores. There is a lot to
I a polyhedron with two congru-
be said about PC's; see any of
ent polygons in parallel planes
the colored books.
as bases. Line segments (lateral
• principal warps I edges) connect the correspond-
principal warps are ing bases to form lateral faces,
eigenfunctions of the bending- which are parallelograms. An
energy matrix interpreted as I altitude is a line segment be-
actual warped surfaces (thin- I tween, and perpendicular to, the
plate splines) over the picture planes of the bases. The height
of the original landmark con- I is the length of an altitude. If
figuration. Principal warps are I the lateral edges are perpen-
like the harmonics in a Fourier dicular to the bases, the prism
analysis (for circular shape) or is a right prism; otherwise it is
Legendre polynomials (for lin- I oblique.
ear shape) in that together they
decompose the relation of any
sample shape to the sample av- ,
erage shape as a unique swu-
mation of multiples of
eigenfunctions of bending en- ,
ergy. They differ from these
more familiar analogues in that
there are only p-3 of them for a I

MRthemilties=================== II
""12,,,,8========== .probability I probabilitydistrilmtilm "

• probability I have probability density func-

the probability of an event is a I nons.

number between zero and I • probability distribution
100%. The meaning (interpre- the probability distribution of
tation) of probability is the sub- I a random variable specifies
ject of theories of probability,
I the chance that the variable
which differ in their interpreta-
takes a value in any subset of
tions. However, any rule for I
the real numbers . (The sub-
assigning probabilities to events
sets have to satisfy some tech-
has to satisfy the axioms of ~ nical conditions that are not
probability. important for this course.)
• probability density func- I The probability distribution of

tion a random variable is com-

the chance that a continuous pletely characterised by the
random variable is in any I cumulative probability distri-
range of values can be calcu- bution function; the terms
lated as the area under a curve sometimes are used synony-
over that range of values. The I mously. The probability distri-
curve is the probability den- I bution of a discrete random
sity function of the random variable can be characterised
variable. That is, if X is a con- I by the chance that the random
tinuous random variable, I variable takes each of its pos-
there is a function f(x) such sible values. For example, the
that for every pair of numbers probability distribution of the
a<=b, P(a<= X <=b) = I total number of spots S show-
(area under f between a and ing on the roll of two fair dice
b); f is the probability density can be written as a table:
function of X. For example, I s P(S=s)
the probability density func- 2 1/36
tion of a random variable with 3 2/36
a standard normal distribu- I 4 3/36
tion is the normal curve. Only 5 4/36
continuous random variables 6 5/36
I 7 6/36

II = = ; ; ; ; ; ; = = = = = = = M a t " - t i c s
II probability wmts I probability} th~0""if==========1""2,,,,9
8 5/36 ~ • probability sarr.ple
9 4/36 I a sample drawn from a popula-
10 3/36 : tion using a random mecha-
11 2/36 ~ nism so that every element of
12 1/36 ; the population has a known
The probability distribution of : chance of ending up in the
a continuous random variable ~ sample.
can be characterised by its prob-
~ • probability, theories of
ability density ftillction.
I a theory of probability is a way
• probability events : of assigning meaning to prob-
the set of all possible outcomes ~ ability statements such as "the
of an experiment is the sample I chance that a thumbtack lands

space; any subset of the sample ~ point-up is 2/3." That is, a

space IS an event. theory of probability connects
• probability histogram I the ma-thematics of probabil-

a probability histogram for a I ity, which is the set of conse-

ran d om varia bl e is ana Iogous q uences of the axioms of

~ probability, with the real
to a histogram of data, but in-
stead of plotting the area of ; world of observation and ex-
the bins proportional to the ~ periment. There are several
relative frequency of observa- . common theories of probabil-
tions in the class interval, one I ity. According to the fre-
plots the area of the bins pro- ; quency theory of probability;
portional to the probability the probability of an event is
that the random variable is in I the limit of the percentage of

the class interval. times that the event occurs in

repeated, independent trials
0 .45 ~ under essentially the same cir-
!1 0.3
0 .4

; cumstances. According to the
: subjective theory of probabil~­

f ~ ity; a probability is a number

0 .05
; that measures how strongly
o : we believe an event will occur.
_oI-.go,x ~ The number is on a scale of

Mslt'-tics======= "
=13=0========'1'== ;ocrusteidistance Iprocrustes methods 11
0% to 100%, with 0% indicat- I most subsequent morphomet-
ing that we are completely I ric analyses .
sure it won't occur, and 100%
I • procrustes methods
indicating that we are com-
a term for least-squares meth-
pletely sure that it will occur. I
ods for estimating nuisance
According to the theory of :
parameters of the Euclidean
equally likely outcomes, if an ~ similarity transformations.
experiment has n possible out- I
The adjective "Procrustes"
comes, ana (for example, by
I refers to the Greek giant who
symmetry) there is no reason
would stretch or shorten vic-
that any of the n possible out- I
tims to fit a bed and was first
comes should occur preferen-
I used in the context of super-
tially to any of the others, then
imposition methods by Hudey
the chance of each outcome is I
and Cattell, 1962, The
100%jn. Each of these theo-
I Procrustes program: produc-
ries has its limitations, its pro-
ing a direct rotation to test an
ponents, and its detractors. hypothesised factor structure,
• procrustes distance I Behav. Sci. 7:258-262. Mod-

approximately ,the square root I ern workers have often cited ·

of the sum of squared differ- : Mosier (1939), a psychome-
ences benveen the positions of ~ trician, as the earliest known
the landmarks in two optimally; developer of these methods.
(by least-squares) superim- However, Cole (1996) reports
posed configurations at centroid that Franz Boas in 1905 sug-
size. This is the distance that I gested the "method of least
defines the metric for Kendall's differences" (ordinary
shape space. Procrustes analysis) as a
I means of comparing homolo-
• procrustes mean
the shape that has the least I gous points to address obvi-
ous problems with the stan-
summed squared Procrustes
distance to all the configurations I dard point-line registrations
of a sample; the best choice of ~ (Boas, 1905). Cole further
points out that one of Boas'
consensus configuration for ; students extended the method

11 = - - - = = = = = = M i J t h m u l r i e s
II procrustes residttals I proportional 131
to the construction of mean I • procrustes superimposi-
configurations from the super- tion
imposition of multiple speci- the construction of a two-form
mens using either the stan- I superimpOSitIOn by least
dard registrations of Boas' I squares using orthogonal or af-
method (Phelps, 1932). The fine transformations.
latter being essentially a Gen-
• pronic number
eralized Procrustes Analysis. I
a number of the form n(n+ 1) .
• procrustes residuals
the set of vectors connecting the • proof
I a sequence of justified conclu-
landmarks of a specimen to cor-
sions used to prove the validity
responding landmarks in the I
of an if-then statement
consensus configuration after a
Procrustes fit. The sum of • proper divisor
squared lengths of these vectors I the integer d is a proper divisor
is approximately the squared of the integer n if O<d<n and
Procrustes distance between the d is a divisor of n.
specimen and the consensus in I • proper subset

Kendall's shape space. The par- I a subset that doesn't include

tial warp scores are an orthogo- everything in its parent set.
nal rotation of the full set of I

these residuals. • properties of equality

reflexive property (a = a),
• procrustes scatter I symmetric property (if a = b,
a collection of forms all super- then b = a), and transitive
imposed by ordinary orthogo- property (if a = band b = c,
nal Procrustes fit over one I then a = c).
single consensus configura-
tion that is their Procrustes • proportion
mean; a scatter of all the I a statement of equality between
Procrustes residuals each cen- two ratios.
tered at the corresponding • proportional
landmark of the Procrustes lone of four numbers that form
mean shape. I a true proportion

MRthem4tics=================== II
132 proportWnality Ip-palue II
• proportionality I process. Successive pseudo-ran-
a relationship described by a I dom data are produced by a
constant ratio. fLxed calculation process acting
upon preceding data from the
• proposition, logical
I pseudo-random sequence. To
start the sequence it is necessary
a logical proposition is a state- I
ment that can be either true or to decide arbitrarily upon a first
I datum, which is termed the
false. For example, "the sun is
seed value ..
shining in Berkeley right now" I

is a proposition. • p-value
suppose we have a family of
• protractor I hypothesis tests of a null hy-
a tool used to measure the size
pothesis that let us test the hy-
of an angle if'. degrees.
pothesis at any significance level
I p between 0 and 100% we
choose. The P value of the null
hypothesis given the data is the
I smallest significance level p for
I which any of the tests would
have rejected the null hypoth-
esis. For example, let X be a test
I statistic, and for p between 0
and 100%, let xp be the small-
est number such that, under the
• prove I null hypothesis, P( X < = x )
use logical arguments, defini- > = p. Then for any p between
tions, theorems, and properties o and 100%, the rule reject the
to show that a relationship is I null hypothesis if X < xp tests
true for all numbers or specific the null hypothesis at signifi-
set of figures. cance level p. If we observed X
I = x, the P-value of the null hy-
• pseudo-random pothesis given the data would
a source of data which is effec- I
be the smallest p such that x <
tively unpredictable although I
generated by a determinate

II ==========MRth_ties
II pyramid I qef 133
• pyramid I squares of the lengths of the

a polyhedron with a polygon ; legs equals the square of the

base and line segments con- : length of the hypotenuse.
necting the vertices of the : • pythagorean triangle
base with a single point (the
~ a right triangle whose sides are
vertex of the pyramid) that is
I integers.
not coplanar with the base.
The altitude is the line seg- ; • pythagorean triple
ment from the vertex ending : three positive integers with
at and perpendicular to the : the property that the sum of
plane of the base. The height I the squares of two of the in-

is the length of the altitude. : tegers equals the square of the

If the line segment connecting third. If the three integers
the vertex to the center of the I have no common integer fac-

base is perpendicular to the I tors, then the triple is primi-

base, then the pyramid is : tive. If the three integers have

right; otherwise it is oblique. I a common factor, then the
; triple is a multiple.
; • qed
: ((quod erat demonstrandum))
~ (Latin) This stems from medi-
; eval translators' habitual ten-
: dency of translating the Greek
~ for "this was to be demon-
; strated" to the Latin phrase
• pythagorean fractal similar : above. This appeared originally
figures ~ at the end of many of Euclid's
figures that have the same I propositions, signifying that he
shape but not necessarily the ~ had proved what he set out to
same size. Their corresponding : prove.
sides are proportional. I
: .qef
• pythagorean theorem I ((quod erat faciendum)) is the
the theorem that says that, in a ~ latin for "which was to be
right triangle, the sum of the : done" It appears in Latin

MAthmuJti&s======= II
134 .. qw:ulrangle I quantitative l1ariable 1/

translations of Euclid's works I • quadrature

signifying that he had demon- I the quadrature of a geometric
strated what he had set out to figure is the determination of
demonstrated. I its area.
• quadrangle I • quadric curve
a closed broken line in the plane I the graph of a second degree
consisting of 4 line segments. equation in two variables.
• quadrangular prism • quadric surface
a prism whose base is a quadri- the graph of a second degree
lateral. I equation in three variables.
• quadrangular pyramid I • quadrilateral
a pyranlid whose base is a quad- a four-sided polygon ..
rilateral. • quadrinomial
• quadrant : an algebraic expression consist-
anyone of the four portions of I ing of 4 terms.
the plane into wruch the plane :I • qualitative variable
is divided by the coordinate a qualitative variable is one
axes. whose values are adjectives,
• quadratfrie I such as colours, genders, na-
square free tionalities, etc. C.f. quantitative
variable .and categorical vari-
• quadratic equation I able.
an equation of the form f(x) =0
where f(x) is a second degree I • quantitative variable
polynomial. That IS, I a variable that takes numerical
ax2 +bx+c=0. values for which arithmetic
I makes sense, for example,
• quadratic term of an
I counts, temperatures, weights,
amounts of money, etc. For
the term AX2 in a quadratic I
some variables that take nu-
I merical values, arithmetic with
those values does not make
sense; such variables are not

II = = = = = = = M 1 I t__ries
IllJUllrtic polynomial I radical axis 135
quantitative. For example, add- ~ est integer that is at least as
ing and subtracting social secu- ; big as the number of entries
rity numbers does not make : in the list divided by two. Call
sense. Quantitative variables ~ that integer 1. The lth element
typically have units of measure- ; of the sorted list is the me-
ment, such as inches, people, or : dian. Find the smallest integer
pounds. ~ that is at least as large as the
1 number of entries in the list
- quartic polynomial
~ times 3/4. Call that integer m.
a polynomial of degree 4.
: The mth element of the sorted
- quartiles 1 list is the upper quartile.
there are three quartiles. The ~ Quota Sampling.
first or lower quartile (LQ) of : .. I 'al
. IS
a hst . a number (not neces- 1
- qUlnnc po .
sarily a number in the list) ~ a polynoffilal of degree 5.
such that at least 1/4 of the : - quotient
numbers in the list are no 1 the result of a division.
larger than it, and at least 3/4 ;_R
of the numbers in the list are · rotation
no smaller than it. The second
quartile is the median. The ;- r
third or upper quartile (UQ) : radius
is a number such that at least ~ _ radian
3/4 of the entries in the list are 1 a unit of angular measurement
no larger than it, and at least such that there are 2 pi radians
1/4 of the numbers in the list in a complete circle. One radian
are no smaller than it. To find ~ = ISOjpi degrees. One radian
the quartiles, first sort the list ; is approximately 57.30.
into increasing order. Find the
smallest integer that is at least ; - radical axis
as big as the number of entries : the locus of points of equal
1 • h
in the list divided by four. Call : power Wit respect to two
that integer k. The kth ele- 1 circle.

ment of the sorted list is the

lower quartile. Find the small-

.MR.thmulties=================== II
136 radical center I random sample II

- A '--"--',\.
- I

each time a measurement is
made, and behaves like a num-
ber drawn with replacement

0 \0'" I from a box of numbered tick-

---- f B
I ets whose average is zero.
. '\.

'\ random experiment
I •
J \
, \ an experiment or trial whose
\. outcome is not perfectly pre-
I dictable, but for which the long-
• radical center run relative frequency of out-
the radical center of three circles I comes of different types in re-
is the common point of; peated trials is predictable. Note
interesection of the radical axes that "random" is different from
of each pair of circles. "haphazard," which does not
I necessarily imply long-term
• radii
plural form of radius regularity.

• radius • random sample

the segment whose endpoints a random sample is a sample
are any point on a circle or I whose members are chosen at
sphere and its center; the length I random from a given popula-
of that segment tion in such a way that the
I chance of obtaining any par-
• radix point I ticular sample can be com-
the generalisation of decimal puted. The number of units in
point to bases of numeration I
the sample is called the sample
other than base 10. I size, often denoted n. The
• random error number of units in the popu-
all measurements are subject to lation often is denoted N.
error, which can often be bro- I Random samples can be
ken down into two components: drawn with or without replac-
a bias or systematic error, which ing objects between draws;
affects all measurements the I that is, drawing all n objects
same way; and a random error, in the sample at once (a ran-
which is in general different dom sample without replace-

II ===================MJJt__ncs
111 llndomVilriable I mndomislltiunset . .

ment), or drawing the objects ~ 1 to the outcome {T, T, H}, the

one at a time, replacing them ; number to to the outcome {T:
in the population between : H, H}, and the number 3 to the
draws (a random sample with ~ outcome {H, H, H}.
replacement). In a random ~ _ randomisation
sample with replacement, any ; the process of arranging for
given member of the popula- : data-collection, in accordance
tion can occur in the sample ~ with the experimental design,
more than once. In a random I such that there should be no
sample without replacement, : foreseeable possibilty of any
any given member of the ~ systematic relationship be-
population can be in the
~ tween the data and any
sample at most once. A ran-
; measureable characteristic of
dom sample without replace- : the procedure by which the
ment in which. every. hsubset of I d ata wasisamp
d e . t h"IS IS usu-
not f h e N umts m t e popu- : 11 d bOO
1anon IS equa11y 11ke1y IS a1so I a Y. arrange Y asslgnmg ex-

0 0 0

11 d O l d : penmenta umts to groups,

ca e 1 a slm p e random ~ and repeated measures to ex-
samp e. Th e term ran om· l' I
1 h i d I pen menta umts, on a stnct y
0 0

samp e WIt rep acement e-: random basis.

notes a random sample drawn I
in such a way that every n- : - randomisation distribu-
tuple of units in the popula- ~ tion
tion is equally likely. ; a collection of values of the test
: statistic obtained by undertak-
- random variable ~ ing a number of re-
a random variable is an assign-
I randomisations of the actual
ment of numbers to possible
~ data within the randomisation
outcomes of a random experi-
: set.
ment. For example, consider
tossing three coins. The num- :I - rand "
olDlsabon set
ber of heads showing when the ~ the collection of possible re-
coins land is a random variable: ; randomisations of data within
it assigns the number 0 to the : the constraints of the experi-
outcome {T, T, T}, the number ~ mental design

MIIth_tics================== /I
",1""3,,,,8===========;ndmnisation test I ratio ofsimilitude II
• randomisation test I signed to treatment, and the
the rationale of a randomisation I rest to control. Randomising
test involves exploring re- the assignment tends to de-
randomisations of the actual I crease confoimding of the treat-
data to form the randomisation I ment effect with other factors,
distribution of values of the test by making the treatment and
statistic. the outcome value control groups roughly compa-
value of the test statistic is I rable in all respects but the
judged in terms of its relative treatment.
position within the re-
randomisation distribution. if I
• range
the range of a set of num bers is
the outcome value is near to one I the largest value in the set mi-
extreme of the re- nus the smallest value in the set.
randomisation distribution then I
Note that as a statistical term,
it may be judged that it is in the I the range is a single number,
extreme tail of the distribution, not a range of numbers.
with reference to a nominal al- I

pha criterion value, and thus I • ranked data

judged to show statistical sig- this refers to the practice of tak-
nificance. I ing a set of N data, to be re-
I garded as ordinal-scale, and re-
• randomised controlled placing each datum by its rank
experiment I (1 .. N) within the set.
an experiment in which chance
is deliberately introduced in as- • rate
signing subjects to the treat- I a ratio where the quantities are .
ment and control groups. For of different kinds; example: 60
example, we could write an miles per hour
identifying number for each I
• ratio
subject on a slip of paper, stir I the quotient of two numbers.
up the slips of paper, and draw
slips without replacement until I • ratio of similitude
we have drawn half of them. the simplest form ratio of the
The subjects identified on the measures of corresponding
slips drawn could then be as- I parts of similar figures.

II = = = = = = = M R . t h e m 4 t i c s
II ratio scale I recursiveform 139
- ratio scale ~ - real part
this is a type of measurement ; the real number x is called ther
scale for which it is meaning- : eal part of the complex number
ful to reason in terms of dif- ~ x+iy where x and y are real and
ferences in scores and also in ; i=sqrt( -1).
terms of ratios of scores. Such
; - real variable
a scale will have a zero point : a variable whose value ranges
which is meaningful in the ~ over the real numbers.
sense that it indicates complete
I • I
absence of the property which : - reclproca
the scale measures. The ratio I the reciprocal of the number x

scale may be either unipolar : is the number l/x.

(negative values not meaning- ; - recompose
ful) or bipolar (both positive : put addends or factors of a
and negative values meaning- I given number back together in
ful), and either continuous or a way different from the origi-
discrete. nal arrangement or decompo-
- rational number I sition.

a rational number is a number ~ - rectangle

that is the ratio of two integers. ; a quadrilateral with 4 right.
All other real numbers are said : angles.
to be irrational. I
: - rectangular solid
- ray I the union of a box and its inte-
all points on a line that lie on I nor
one side of a specified point, the
ray's endpoint. A ray is referred ; - recursion
to by giving the names of two : the process of generating a se-
points, first the endpoint and ~ quence (or pattern) by speci-
then any point on the ray. ; fying a first term and then ap-
: plying a rule to obtain any suc-
- real axis ~ ceeding term from the previ-
the x-axis of an Argand diagram. I ous term.
- real numbers ; - recursive form
rational and irrational numbers. a formula for the next term of
""l40==========~eforencellngle I rejlectionalsymmetry II
a sequence given the term be- I part of the analysis, the bend-
fore it. I ing energy that goes with
• reference angle them is computed using the
the angle of less than 360 de- I geometry of the grand mean
grees that corresponds to an I
shape, and the orthogonality
angle of over 360 degrees; In I
that characterises the partial
order to get the reference angle, warps is with respect to this
you must subtract 360 degrees I particular formula for bend-
from the given angle until there I
ing energy. There has been
is less than 360 degrees left. some controversery regarding
I the choice of reference .
• reference configuration
I • refine
in the context of superimpo-
sition methods, this is the con- I to change a conjecture slightly
figuration to which data are so that it is true
fit. It may be another speci- • reflection
men in the sample but usually I an isometry under which every
it will be the average (consen- point and its image are on op-
sus) configuration for a posite sides of a fL\:ed line (the
sample. The construction of ~ line of reflection, or mirror
two-point shape coordinates; line) and are the same distance
does not involve a reference from the line.
specimen, though the intelli- I
• reflection image of a figure
gent choice of baseline for the I the set of all of the reflection
construction usually does. The . fi
I images of pomts in the Igure
reference configuration corre-
sponds to the point of tan- I • reflection notation
gency of the linear tangent rm(ABC), \vhich stands for the
space used to approximate reflection over line m of figure
Kendall's shape space. The I ABC
mean configuration is usually I • reflectional symmetry
used as the reference in order the property of a figure that it
to mInImise distortions I coincides with its image under
caused by this approximation. I at least one reflection. Also
When splines and warps are

II ===================MRther_#&s
II rejlectWn-symmetricM'tre I regres~oward the mmn, regression effict 141

called line symmetry or mirror ~ • regression fallacy

symmetry. ; the regression fallacy is to at-
: tribute the regression effect to
• reflection-symmetric I
figure . an external cause.
a figure that shows reflection I • regression toward the
symmetry mean, regression effect
suppose one measures two vari-
• reflex angle I
: abIes for each member of a
an angle between 1800 and
I group of individuals, and that
~ the correlation coefficient of the
• reflex polygon : variables is positive (negative).
a polygon for which 2 or more I If the value of the first variable
of its sides intersect each other for that individual is above av-
• reflexive property of erage, the value of the second
congruence I variable for that individual is
the property of every geomet- I likely to be above (below) av-
ric object that it is congruent to erage, but by fewer standard
itself. I deviations than the first variable
I is. That is, the second observa-
• region tion is likely to be closer to the
the tullOn of a figure and its in- I mean in standard units. For ex-
terior I ample, suppose one measures
• regression the heights of fathers and sons.
a model for predicting one vari- Each individual is a (father, son)
able from another. Due to I pair; the two variables mea-
Francis Galton, the word comes sured are the height of the fa-
from the faG: that when mea- ther and the height of the son.
surements of offspring, ~ These two variables will tend to
whether peas or people, were I have a positive correlation co-
plotted against the same mea- : efficient: fathers who are taller
surements of their parents, the ~ than average tend to have sons
offspring measurements "went ; who are taller than average.
back" or regressed towards the : Consider a (father, son) pair
mean. ~ chosen at random from this

MRth_tics======= II
142 regres;, linearngnssWn I regularpyramid II
group . Suppose the father's I zontal axis, the regression line
height is 3SD above the aver- I passes through the point of av-
age of all the fathers' heights. erages, and has slope equal to
(The SD is the standard devia- I the correlation coefficient times
tion of the fathers' heights.) I the SD ofY divided by the SD
Then the son's height is also of X.
~kely to be above the average
• regular hexagon
of the sons' heights, but by I
a six-sided figure whose sides
fewer than 3SD (here the SD is
I are of equal length and whose
the standard deviation of the
angles are of equal measure.
sons' heights). In an hypothesis I
test using a test statistic, the I • regular polygon
rejection region is the set of : a convex polygon whose angles
values of the test statistic for I and sides are all congruent
which we reject the null hypoth·· I • regular polyhedron
eSlS. a polyhedron whose faces are
• regression, linear regres- enclosed by congruent, regular
sion I polygons that meet at all verti-

linear regression fits a line to a I ces in exactly the same way.

scatterplot in such a way as to
minimise the sum of the I
squares of the residuals. The I
resulting regression line, to-
gether with the standard devia-
tions of the two variables or I
their correlation coefficient, can
be a reasonable summary of a
scatterplot if the scatterplot is I
roughly football-shaped. In
other cases, it is a poor sum- • regular pyramid
mary. If we are regressing the I a pyramid whose base is a regu-
" variable Y on the variable X, and lar polygon and whose vertex
if Y is plotted on the vertical forms a segment with the cen-
axis and X is plotted on the hori - I

II =========i;;;;;;;;;;;;=========MR.thcmancs
II reguJartessellatWn I repeated-meaJ1t~ ==========14~3
ter of the polygon perpendicu- ~ differences. Relative warps can
lar to its plane ; be computed from Procrustes
_ regular tessellation : residuals or from partial warps.
an edge-to-edge tessellation in : - remote interior angles
which tiles are congruent regu- ~ (of the exterior angle of a tri-
lar polygons. ; angle), the two interior angles
: that do not share a vertex with
- relative power ~ the e:A'terior angle.
a comparison of two or more
statistical tests, for the same ~ - rep digit
experimental design, sample I an integer all of whose digits
size, and nominal alpha crite- : are the same.
rion value, in terms of the re- : _ repeated median
spective values of power. ~ a median of medians. Repeated
_ relative warps I medians are used to estimate
relative warps are principal com- ~ some superimposition param-
ponents of a distribution of : eters in the resistant-fit meth-
shapes in a space tangent to ~ ods. For example, the resistant-
Kendall's shape space. Theyare ; fit rotation estimate is the me-
the axes of the "ellipsoid" oc- : dian of the estimates obtained
cupied by the sample of shapes ~ for each landmark, which is, in
in a geometry in which spheres ; tmn, the median of angular dif-
are defined by Procrustes dis- : ferences between the reference
rance. Each relative warp, as a ~ configuration and the configu-
direction of shape change about ; ration being fit of the line seg-
the mean form, can be inter- : ments defined using that land.:
preted as specifying multiples of ~ mark and the other n-l land-
one single transformation, a I marks. Repeated medians are
transformation that can often : insensitive to larger subsets of
be usefully drawn out as a thin- ~ extremely deviant values than
plate spline. In a relative warps I simple medians.
analysis, the parameter can be .I _ repeated-measures
used to weight shape variation ~ this is a feature of an experi-
By the geometric scale of shape : mental design whereby sev-

MJJthematU:s======= II
144 replications I resitlfuU II
eral observations measured ~ • repunit
on a common scale refer to ; an integer consisting onlyofl's.
the same sampling unit. Iden-
tification of the relation of the I • re-randomisation
individual observations to the I the process of generating al-
. ternative arrangements of
expenmental design is crucial I given data which would be
to this definition. Examples :
the measurement of water I consistent "\vith the experi-
mental design.
Ievel at a particular site on
several systematically-defined : • re-randomisation statistics
occasions; measurement of I also known as permutation or
reaction-time of an individual : randomisation statistics. These
using right hand and left hand are the specific area of concern
separatel. I of this present glossary.

• replications I • resampling stats

this is a feature of an experi- this is the name of an educa-

mental design whereby obser- tional initiative involving the
vations on an experimental I use of a programming lan-
unit are repeated under the I guage, in the form of an inter-
same conditions. Identifica- preter, allowing the user to
tion of the position of a .par- I specify monte-carloresampling
ticular observation within the I of a set of data and accumula-
sequence of replications is ir- tion of the randomisation dis-
relevant. I tribution of a defmed test sta-
I tistic .
• representative
patterns in a sample of units I • residual
may reasonably be attributed the deviations of an observed
to the population from which : value or vector of values from
the sample is drawn, only if I some expectation, e.g., the dif-
the sample is representative. ~ ferences between a shape and
in practical terms, to ensure its prediction by an allometric
that a sample is representative I regression expressed in any set
almost always means ensuring of shape coordinates.
that it is a random sample.

II =======Msthem4ries
II residualplot I resultant'flC&tor' 145
• residual plot ~ mean is not resistant; the me-
a residual plot for a regression ; dian is.
is a plot of the residuals from i • resistant-fit superimposi-
the regression against the ex- tion
planatory variable. ~ superimposition methods that
• residual ; use medianand repeated-me-
the difference between a datum : dian-based estimates of fitting
and the value predicted for it by ~ parameters rather than least-
a model. In linear regression of I squares estimates. Resistant-fit
a variable plotted on the verti- : procedures are less sensitive to
cal axis onto a variable plotted ~ subsets of extreme values than
on the horizontal axis, a re- I those of comparable least-
sidual is the "vertical" distance ~ squares methods. As such, their
from a datum to the line. Re- : results may provide a simple
siduals can be positive (if the ~ description of differences in
datum is above the line) or ; shape that are due to changes
negative (if the datum is below : in the positions of just a few
the line). Plots of residuals can ~ landmarks. However, resistant-
reveal computational errors in i fit methods lack the well-devel-
linear regression, as well as con- : oped distributional theory asso-
ditions under which linear re- ~ ciated with the least-squares fit-
gression is inappropriate, such I ting methods.
as non-linearity and; • resolution
heteroscedasticity. If linear re- : the smallest scale distinguish-
gression is performed properly, ~ able by a digitising, imaging, or
the sum of the residuals from
~ display device.
the regression line must be
zero; otherwise, there is a com- I • resultant vector
putational error somewhere. ~ the result of combining two vec-
: tors. To fmd the resultant vec-
• resistant I tor, slide the original vectors so
a statistic is said to be resistant
~ that their tails intersect. The
if corrupting a datum cannot
: resultant vector's tail is the com-
change the statistic much. The
~ mon tail. Its head is the image
of the head of one of the vec- ~ • right cylinder
tors after you translate it along; a cylinder whose direction of
the other vector. Also known as sliding is perpendicular to the
a vector sum. I plane of the base
I • right prism
I a prism whose direction of slid-
ing is perpendicular to the plane
of the base

Light Ray

• review mandala
a circular design arranged in I
concentric arcs.
• rhombus
a parallelogram with four equi-
lateral sides • right triangle
I a triangle with a right angle.
• ridge curve
ridge curves are curves on a sur- The side opposite the right
face along which the curvature ~ angle is the hypotenuse. The
perpendicular to the curve is a I other two sides are the legs.
local maximum. For instance on I • rigid motion
a skull, the line of the jaw or a motion that preserves shape
the rim of an orbit. and size.
• right angle • rigid rotation
an angle whose measure is 90 I an orthogonal transformation
degrees of a real vector space with re-
spect to the Euclidean distance
• right cone
a cone whose axis is perpen- I metric. Such transformations
dicular to the plane containing I
leave distances between points
its base and angles between vectors un-
I changed. A principal compo-
II rmserrorofregression I rutatWn 147
nents analysis represents a rigid ~ of the elements in the list. It is
rotation to new orthogonal ; a measure of the average "size"
axes. A canonical variates : of the elements of the list. To
analysis does not. ~ compute the rms of a list, you
; square all the entries, average
: the numbers you get, and take
: the square-root of that average.
: - Root-Mean-Square Error
: the RMSE of an an estimator
- rms error of regression ~ of a parameter is the square-
the rms error of regression is ~ root of the mean squared error
the rms of the vertical residu- ; (MSE) of the estimator. In sym-
als from the regression line. : boIs, if X is an estimator of the
For regressing Y on X, the ~ parameter t, then RMSE(X) =
nns error of regression is ; (E( (X-t)2 ) ) !f2. The RMSE of
equal to (I r2)!f2xSDY, where : an estimator is a measure of the
r is the correlation coefficient ~ expected error of the estimator.
between X and Y and SDY is ; The units of RMSE are the
the standard deviation of the : same as the units of the estima-
values of Y. ~ tor.
- RNG ~ - rotation
acronym for Random Number ; in effect, a rotation is a turning
Generator. This is a process : of the plane about a point (the
which uses a arithmetic algo- ~ center of rotation) by an angle
rithm to generate seyuences of I (the angle of rotation). For-
pseudo-random numbers. : mally, a rotation is an isometry
~ that is the composition of re-
- root of unity I flections through two lines that
a solution of the equation xn = I,
~ intersect at the center of the
where n is a positive integer.
: rotation. The angle of rotation
- root-mean-square (rms) ~ has twice the measure of the
the rms of a list is the square- ; smaller angle formed by the
root of the mean of the squares : lines.

Mnth_tics======== II
=l48==~==~====;tUnudsymmetry I samplepercentage II
• rotational symmetry ~ • sample mean
a figure has rotational symme- the arithmetic mean of a ran-
try if it can be rotated (turned) dom sample from a popula-
less than 360 degrees about a I tion. It is a statistic commonly
point so that it appears the same used to estimate the popula-
as the original figure. tion mean. Suppose there are
n data, {xl, x2, ... ,xn}. The
• ruled surface sample mean is (xl + x2 + ..
a surface formed by mqving a
straight line (called the genera- I
. + xn)jn. The expected value
tor). of the sample mean is the
population mean. For sam-
• rusty compass pling with replacement, the
a pair of compasses that are SE of the sample mean is the
fixed open in a given position. population standard devia-
tion, divided by the square-
• sa root of the sample size. For
surface area
sampling without replace-
• sample ment, the SE of the sample
a set of individual units, drawn mean is the finite-population
from some definable popula- correction ((N-n)j(N-l»V2
tion of units, and generally a times the SE of the sample
small proportion of the popu- mean for sampling with re-
lation, to be used for a statis- I
placement, with N the size of
tical examination of which the the population and !1 the size
findings are intended to be of the sample.
applied to the population. it is I
essential for such inference I • sample percentage
that the sample should be rep- the percentage of a random
resentative. in re- I sample with a certain prop-
randomisation statistics the I erry, such as the percentage of
process of applying inferences voters registered as Demo-
based upon the sample to the I crats in a simple random
population is essentially infor- I sample of voters. The sample
rna.I I
mean is a statistic commonly
used to estimate the popula-

II ===================Msthematies
II samplesize I sample sum .. 149

tion percentage. The expected ~ • sample standard deviation

value of the sample percent- ~ the sample standard deviation
age from a simple random : S is an estimator of the stan-
sample or a random sample ~ dard deviation of a population
with replacement is the popu- I based on a random sample
lation percentage. The SE of : from the population. The
the sample percentage for ~ sample standard deviation is a
sampling with replacement is I statistic that measures how
(p(l-p)/n )V2, where p is the : "spread out" the sample is
population percentage and n ~ around the sample mean. It is
is the sample size. The SE of I quite similar to the standard
the sample percentage for ~ deviation of the sample, but in-
sampling without replacement : stead of averaging the squared
is the finite-population cor- ~ deviations (to get the rms of the
rection ((N-n)/(N-I»V2 times ~ deviations of the data from the
the SE of the sample percent- : sample mean) it divides the
age for saQlpling with replace- ~ sum of the squared deviations
ment, with N the size of the ~ by (number of data 1) before
population and n the size of : taking the square-root. Suppose
the sample. The SE of the ~ there are n data, {xl, x2, ... ,
sample percentage is often es- ; xn}, with mean M = (xl + x2
timated by the bootstrap. :
+ ... + xn)/n. Then s = ( ((xl
• sample size : M)2 + (x2 M)2 + ... + (xn
I M)2)/(n-l) )lh The square of
the number of experimental
~ the sample standard deviation,
units on which observations are
considered. this may be less than : S2 (the sample variance) is an
I unbiased estimator of the
the number of observations in
a data-set, due to the possible ; square of the SD of the popula-
multiplying effects of multiple : tion (the variance of the popu-
~ lation).
variables and/or repeated mea-
sures within the experimental ~• sample sum
design. ; the sum of a random sample
: from a population. The ex-
~ pected value of the sample

MnthfR'llBtW======== II
150 .. samplesuwey I samplingerror II
sum is the sample size times I the sampling distribution of an
the population mean. For sam- I estimator is the probability dis-
pIing with replacement, the tribution of the estimator when
SE of the sample sum is the ~ it is applied to random samples.
population standard devia- ; The tool on this page allows you
tion, times the square-root of : to explore empirically the sam-
the sample size. For sampling ~ pling distribution of the sample
without replacement, the SE I mean and the sample percent-
of the sample sum is the fi- age of random draws with or
nite-population correction ~ without replacement draws
«N-n)j(N-l))V2 times the SE I from a box of numbered tick-
of the sample sum for sam- ~ ets.
pIing with replacement, with : _ lin
N h . f th I· I samp g error
t e Slze .0 e popu atl~n : in estimating from a random
and n the Slze of the samp e. I sample, the difference be-
- sample survey tween the estimator and the
a survey based on the responses parameter can be written as
of a sample of individuals, I the sum of two components:
rather than the entire popula- I bias and sampling error. The
tion. bias is the average error of the
I estimator over all pos,sible'
- sample variance
I samples. The bias is not ran-
the sample variance is the
dom. Sampling error is the
square of the sample standard I
component of error that var-
deviation S. It is an unbiased
I ies from sample to sample.
estimator of the square of the
: The sampling error is ran-
population standard deviation,
which is also called the variance
~ dom: it comes from "the luck
I of the draw" in which units
of the population.
happen to be in the sample. It
- sample is the chance variation of the
a sample is a collection of units I estimator. The average of the
from a population. sampling error over all pos-
- sampling distribution sible samples (the expected
I value of the sampling error)
II sampling unit I s c o r e . . 151

is zero. The standard error of I weight against height, the x-

the estimator is a measure of I coordinate of each point would
the typical size of the sampling be height of one person, the
error. I y-coordinate of that point
I would be the weight of the
• sampling unit
same person . In a scatterplot
a sample from a population I
of height against weight, the
can be drawn one unit at a
I x-coordinates would be the
time, or more than one unit
weights and the y-coordinates
at a time (one can sample clus- I
would be the heights .
ters of units). The fundamen-
tal unit of the sample is called • scientific notation
the sampling unit. It need not I a notation for expressing very
be a unit of the population. large and very small numbers
as a product of a decimal
• scale factor
I number greater than or equal
the ratio of corresponding
to one and less than ten and a
lengths in similar figures .
power of ten.
• scalene triangle
• score
a triangle with three sides of
I a linear combination of an ob-
different lengths.
I served set of measured vari-
• scatterplot ables. The coefficients for the
a scatterplot is a way to I linear combination are usually
visualise bivariate data. A I determined by some matrix
scatterplot is a plot of pairs of computation. Multivariate
measurements on a collection I statistical findings in the form
of "individuals" (which need I of coefficient vectors can usu-
not be people). For example, ally be more easily inter-
suppose we record the heights preted if scores are also shown
and weights of a group of 100 I case by case, their scatters,
people. The scatterplot of their loadings (correlations
those data would be 100 with the original variables),
points. Each point represents I etc.
one person's height and
weight. In a scatterplot of

MRthematics======= II
152 sd line I selection bias II
• sd line I • secular trend
for a scatterplot, a line that I a linear association (trend)
goes through the point of av- with time.
erages, with slope equal to the I
ratio of the standard devia- • segment
I aka line segment; the set of
tions of the two plotted vari- I points consisting of two dis-
ables. If the variable plotted tinct points and all inbetween
on the horizontal axis is called I
X and the variable plotted on
the vertical axis is called Y, the • segment of a circle
slope of the SD line is the SD I the region between a chord
of Y, divided by the SD of X. and the included arc.
• se(sample mean)
= n -V2xSD(box,where
SD(box) is the standard devia- I

tion of the list of the numbers

on all the tickets in the box (in-
cluding repeated values).
• se(sample sum)
= nl/2 x SD(box),and the stan- I
dard error of the sample mean
of n random draws with re- I

placement from a box of tick- I

• selection bias
a systematic tendency for a
ets is
I sampling procedure to include
• secant and/or exclude units of a cer-
a line that intersects a circle tain type. For example, in a
in two points. I quota sample, unconscious
• section
prejudices or predilections on
(of a solid) An intersection the part of the interviewer can
with a plane. I result in selection bias. Selec-
tion bias is a potential prob-
• sector of a circle lem whenever a human has
the region between a central I latitude in selecting individual
angle and the arc it intercepts.

II = = = = = = = M 4 t h e m 4 t k s
II self-seIeaitm I set 153
units for the sample; it tends ~ - semicircle
to be eliminated by probabil- i an arc of a circle whose end-
ity sampling schemes in which : points are the endpoints of a
the interviewer is told exactly ~ diamete~ -
whom to contact (with no
~ - semi-magic square
room for individual choice).
i a square array of n numbers
- self-selection : such that sum of the n numbers
self-selection occurs when in- ~ in any row or column is a con-
dividuals decide for them- I stant (known as the magic
selves whether they are in the ~ sum).
control group or the treat- . ".. _ semtre 'gu1ar t esse11a0'on
ment" group" " " " a esse 11 a t"lon conS1S
Self-selectIon IS I t " t'lllg 0 f
qUlte common III studles of i l l all f h
human behaviour. For ex- : reg~ ar PI? ygons hOw" ose
" f h ffi f I vertIces le on ot er vertIces,
amp1e, stud les 0 tee ect "0 : an d"tn W h"lC h every vertex IS "
ki h h alth
smo ng on ~an "e " . tn- I surrounded by the same ar-

volve self-selectIon: tndlVldu- : t f' I ( t'

J: h 1 I range men 0 po ygons 0
a Is choose lor t emse ves : one or more k'In d s )"III t h e
whether or not to smoke.
~ same order. Also called a 1-
Self-selection precludes an ex- i uniform tiling.
periment; it results in an ob-
servational study. When there i- septagon
is self-selection, one must be : a seven-sided polygon
wary of possible confounding : - sequence
from factors that influence ~ a collection of numbers in a pre-
individuals' decisions to be- ; scribed order: a ~, ~, a , •••
p 4
long to the treatment group.
- self-similarity : the sum of a fmite or infinite
the property of a figure that it :I sequence
is similar to, or approximately
similar to, a part of itself. ~ - set
i a set is a collection of things,
:I without regard to their order.
154 set ofdam ptlints I shape lIariable II
• set of data points I • shape coordinates
data collected and placed into I in the past, any system of dis-
ordered pairs for the purpose tance-ratios and perpendicu-
of graphing. I lar projections permitting the
I exact reconstrUction of a sys-
• seven bridges of konisberg
network tem of landmarks by a rigid
trusswork. Now, more gener-
a collection of designated points
I ally, coordinates with respect
connected by paths.
to any basis for the tangent
• shape space to Kendall's shape space
the geometric properties of a I
configuration of points that
are . .
mvanant h
to c anges m .
translation, rotation, and I
I. in the vicinity of a mean form.
shape space
a space in which the shape of
scale. In morphometries, we a figure is represented by a
represent the shape of an ob- I single point. It is of 2p-4 di-
. mens ions for 2-dimensional
ject by a point in a space of ~
shape variables, which are' coordinate data and 3p-7 di-
~ mens ions for 3-dimensional
measurements of a geometric
object that are unchanged un- ; coordinate data.
der similarity transforma- ; • shape variable
tions. For data that are con- : any measure of the geometry of
figurations of landmarks, I a biological form, or the image
there is also a representation I of a form, that does not change
of shapes per se, without any : under similarity transforma-
nuisance parameters (posi- ~ tions: translations, rotations,
tion, rotation, scale), as single I and changes of geometric scale
points in a space, Kendall's (enlargements or reductions).
shape space, with a geometry Useful shape variables include
given by Procrustes distance. I angles, ratios of distances, and
Other sorts of shapes (e.g., I any of the sets of shape coordi-
those of outlines, surfaces, or : nates that arise in geometric
functions) correspond to quite I morphometrics.
different statistical spaces.
II shesrlsimilarpolygons 155
• shear ~ nents" of an allometric analysis
in two-dimensional problems, ; of distances to be uncorrelated
shape aspects of any affine : with within-group size .
transformation can be dia- ~ • side
grammed as a pure shear, a map ~ (of a polygon) A line segment
taking a square to a parallelo- ; connecting consecutive vertices
gram of unchanged base seg- : of a polygon.
ment and height. This is a trans- I
formation that leaves one Car- : • side of a polygon
tesian coordinate, y, invariant ~ a single segment from the union
and alters the other by a trans- I that forms a polygon

lation that is a multiple ofy: for I • sides

instance, what happens when : (of an angle) The two rays, hav-
you slide the top of a square ~ ing a common endpoint, that
sideways without altering its ~ form an angle.
vertical position or the length
of the horizontal edges. The I • Sierpinski triangle

score for such a translation, to- ~ a type of fractal.

gether with a separate score for : .• significance
change in the horizontal/verti- ~ also known as , significance
cal ratio, supplies one orthonor- I level, statistiCal significance.
mal basis for the subspace of : The significance level of an hy-
uniform shape changes of two- ~ pothesis test is the chance that
dimensional data. Without the ~ the test erroneously rejects the
adjective "pure," geometric ; null hypothesis when the null
morphometricians usually use : hypothesis is true.
the word "shear" as an infor- I
mal synonym for "affme trans- : • similar figures
formation," since any 2D uni- ~ two geometric figures are simi-
form transformation can be ; lar if their sides are in propor-
drawn as one if you wish. In ~ tion and all their angles are the
multivariate morphometries, a . same.
somewhat different use of pure ~ • similar polygons
shear is in a transformation of ; polygons whose corresponding
the "shape principal compo- : angles are congruent and whose

MJr.themtlties======~ II
!!!!:1!!!!!56~~~~~~~~~~:laritytransjimJmtiun lsimulatiun II
corresponding sides are propor- I • simple random sample
tional. I a simple random sample of n
units from a population is a ran-
I dom sample drawn by a proce-
I dure that is equally likely to

4 give every collection of n units

from the population; that is, the
r I probability that the sample will
consist of any given subset of n
of the N units in the population
I is Iren. Simple random sam-
pling is sampling at random
without replacement (without
• similarity transformation I replacing the units between
a change of Cartesian coordi- draws). A simple random
nate system that leaves all ra- sample of size n from a popu-
tios of distances unchanged. I lation of N > = n units can be
The term proper or special simi- I constructed by assigning a ran-
larity group of similarities is dom number between zero and
sometimes used when the trans- one to each unit in the popula-
formations do not involve re- I tion, then taking those units
flection. Similarities are arbi- that were assigned the n larg-
trary combinations of transla- : est random numbers to be the
tions, rotations, and changes of I sample.
scale. :
I • Simpson's paradox

• simple events what is true for the parts is not

a single activity in a probability necessarily true for the whole.
experiment such as flipping a :I • Slm • ul .
com. ~ ·an experiment that has the
• simple polygons ; same number of outcomes as a
convex, closed shapes bounded given situation but is easier or
by line segments joined end to I more practical to carry out than
end. the given situation.
Ii sine I slide rule 157

- sine ~ measures of dimension one,

(ofcin acute angle) The ratio of i areas are size measures of di-
the. length of the opposite side : mension two, etc.
to the length of the hypotenuse •
: - skeleton division
in any right triangle containing ~ a long division in which most
the angle. i or all of the digits have been
- singular value decomposi- : replaced by asterisks to form a
tion :• cryptan.
·thm .
any mxn matrix X may be de-
·• _skew
composed into three matrices
U, D, V (with dimensions
i two lines are skew if they do not
~ intersect and are noncoplanar.
mxm, mxn, and nxn, respec-
tively) in the form: X= UDVt, : - skew lines
where the columns of U are ~ non-coplanar lines that don't
. orthogonal, D is a diagonal • intersect
matrix of singular values, and
the columns of V are orthogo-
nal. The singular value decom- •
position of a variance-covari-
ance matrix S is written as
S=ELEt, where L is the di- • o
agonal matrix of eigenvalues
and E the matrix of eigenvec-
tors. ~ - skewed distribution
; a distribution that is not sym-
- size change factor : metrical.
size change magnitude •
.: - slant height
- size measure ~ the height of each triangular
in general, some measure of a
~ lateral face of a pyramid.
form (i. e., an invariant under
the group of isometries) that • - slide rule
scales as a positive power of the : a calculating device consisting
geometric scale of the form. ~ of two sliding logarithmic
Interlandmark lengths are size • scales.

Mathematics=================== II
158 slope I sptUe II
• slope I • slope-intercept form
the ratio of the increase in the I the form of a linear equation y
y-values to the increase in the = fiX + b where m represents
x-values between any two or- I the slope and b represents the
dered pairs. I y-intercept.
• slope of a line I • small circle
in a coordinate plane, the the circle formed by the inter-
amount of vertical change : sectiCJn of a sphere and a plane
(change in y) for each unit of I that doesn't contain the center
horizontal change (change inx). ; • solid
The slope of a vertical line is the union of the surface and the
undefined. You can calculate the I
region of space enclosed by a 3-
slope m of a line (or line seg- I D figure; examples: conic solid,
ment) through points with co- cylindric solid, rectangular solid
ordinates (xl,yl) and (x2,y2) I
using the formula m = • solid geometry
(Y2 - Yl) the study of figures in three-di-
I mensional space

( ~ - Xl) I • solid of revolution

• slope triangle a solid formed by rotating a
a right triangle used to help two-dimensional figure about a
fmd the slope of a line or line I line.
segment through two points, I • solidus
which are used as the end- the slanted line in a fraction such
points of the hypotenuse. The as a/b dividing the numerator
length of the triangle's verti- I from the denominator.
cal leg is the "rise." The
length of the horizontal leg is • space
the "run." Signs are attached I in statistics, a collection of ob-
to each quantity depending on : jects or measurements of ob-
the direction of travel along ~ jects, treated as if they were
the legs between the points. ; points in a plane, a volume, on
the surface of a sphere, or on
any higher-dimensional

II ====================Mathematics
II sphere IsttuuJ,srd units 159
generalisation of these intuitive ~ of deviations between each ele-
strUctur~s. Examples are: Eu- ; ment of the set and the mean
clidean spaces, sample spaces, : of the set.
shape spaces, linear vector : • standard error
spaces, etc. ~ the Standard Error of a random
• sphere ; variable is a measure of how far
the locus of pointsin three-space : it is likely to be from its ex-
that are a fIXed distance froma ~ pected value; that is, its scatter
given point (called the center). I in repeated experiments. The
:I SE of a random variable X is
.sphericru oigonometty
the branch of mathematics deal- : defmed to be SE(X) = [E( (X
I E(X))2 )] V2. That is, the stan-
ing with measurements on the
~ dard error is the square-root of
: the expected squared difference
• square I between the random variable
a quadrilateral with 4 equal ; and its expected value. The SE
sides and 4 right angles. : of a random variable is analo-
~ gous to the SD of a list.
• square free
an integer is said to be square ~ • standard form
free if it is not divisible by a ; the form of a number expressed
perfect square, n2, for n> 1. : as a sum of products involving
• square number ~ powers of ten.
a number of the form n2 • ~ • standard units
• square-root law ; a variable (a set of data) is said
the Square-Root Law says that: to be in standard units if its
the standard error (SE) of the ~ me~n .is z.ero and its standard
sample sum of n random draws ~ dCV1anon IS ~ne. You transfor.m
with replacement from a box of ; a set of dat~ mto standard uruts
tickets with numbers on them : by subtracnng the mean from
IS I each element of the list, and di-
~ viding the results by the stan-
• standard deviation : dard deviation. A random vari-
the standard deviation of a set ~ able is said to be in standard
of numbers is the rms of the set

Mathcmatics======= II
160 . standa1"1lise I stmtifted II
units if its expected value is zero I scale versus interval scale ver-
and its standard error is one. I sus ratio scale.
You transform a random vari-
I • straight angle
able to standard units by sub- an angle whose measure is 180
tracting its expected value then I
degrees, forming a line with its
dividing by its standard error.
I sides
• standardise
to transform into standard I • straightedge
a tool used to construct straight
• statistic : • straightedge, unmarked
a number that can be computed I just how it sounds, an un-
from data, involving no un- : marked tool used to draw
known parameters. As a func- I straight lines
tion of a random sample, a sta-
tistic is a random variable. Sta- • stratified
tistics are used to estimate pa- I this is a feature of an experi-
rameters, and to test hypoth- mental design whereby a
eses. scheme of observations is re-
I peated entirely using further
• stem and leaf plots sets (strata) of experimental
a method of displaying data I units, with each such further
where the leading digit (s) are I set distinguished by a level of
the stem and the ending single a categorical variable which is
dio1ts are arranged in ascend- I
0- distinct from any categorical
ing order to the side represent- I variables used to define the
ing the leaves.
I experimnad design within a

• Stevens' typology single set (stratum). The data

this is widely-observed scheme : from the various strata are re-
of distinctions between types of I garded as distinct. This situa-
measurement scales according : tion occurs when attempting
to the meaningfulness of arith- to make inferences based
metic which may be performed I upon the results of several
upon data values. The types are similar independent experi-
: nominal scale versus ordinal ments.
II stmriftetlsmnple I stulimt'stcurPe .. 161

• stratified. sample ~ vary enormously with location.

in a stratified sample, subsets ; We might divide the country
of sampling units are selected : into states, then divide each
separately from different strata, ~ state into urban,. suburban, and
rather than from the frame as ; rural areas; then draw random
a whole. : samples separately from each
~ such division.
• stratified. sampling
the act of drawing a stratified ~ • studentised score
sample. ; the observed value or
a statis-
:" tic, minus the expected value of
• stratum
in random sampling, some-
~ the statistic, divided by the es-
I timated standard error of the
times the sample is drawn sepa-
rately from different disjoint ; statistic.
subsets of the population. Each ~ • student's t curve
such subset is called a stratum. : student's t curve is a family of
(The plural of stratum is ~ curves indexed by a parameter
strata.) Samples drawn in such ; called the degrees of freedom,
a way are called stratified : which can take the values 1,
samples. Estimators based on ~ 2, ... Student's t curve is used
stratified random samples can ; to approximate some prob-
have smaller sampling errors : ability histograms. Consider a
than estimators computed from ~ population of numbers that
simple random samples of the ; are nearly normally distrib-
same size, if the average vari- : uted and have population
ability of the variable of inter- ~ mean is J.L. Consider drawing
est within strata is smaller than I a random sample of size n with
it is across the entire popula- : replacement from the popula-
tion; that is, if stratum mem- ~ tion, and computing the
bership is associated with the ~ sample mean M and the
variable. For example, to deter- ; sample standard deviation S.
mine average home prices in : Define the random variable T
the India., it would be advanta- ~ = (M J.L)/(S/nV2). If the
geous to stratify on geography, ; sample size n is large, the
because average home prices : probability histogram ofT can

Msth_ti&s======= \I
162 ~ ~tslmbjea I superimposifitm II
~~~~~~~~. .
be approximated accurately ~ ment of the subset must be-
by the normal curve. How- ; long to the original set, but
ever, for small and intermedi- not every element of the origi-
ate values of n, Student's t 1 nal set need' be in a subset
curve with n I degrees of free- I (otherwise, a subset would
dom gives a better approxima- always be identical to the set
tion. That is, P(a < T < b) is it came from).
approximately the area under I . ••
Student's T curve with n I : - successlve apprOXimatiOn
1 a sequence of approximations,
degrees of freedom, from a to· h cl th
b. Student's t curve can be ; eac one oser to e desired
: value,
used to test hypotheses about
the population mean and con- ~ - sufficient condition
struct confidence intervals for 1 a version of a conditional that
the population mean, when tells you when you can use the
the population distribution is term defined, where the term
known to be nearly normally 1 is in the consequent; a condition
distributed. This page con- 1 that implies a preset conclusion.
tains a tool that shows _ superimposition
Student's t curve and lets you ~ the transformation of one or
find the area under parts of the 1 more figures to achieve some
curve. I geometric relationship to an-
_ subject, experimental other figure. The transforma-
subject I tions are usually affine trans-

a member of the control group I formations or similarities.

or the treattnent group. : They can be computed by
~ matching two or three land-
- subroutine 1 marks, by least-squares opti-
a previously known algorithm: mization of squared residuals
used in another algorithm ~ at all landmarks, or in other
_ subset ~ ways. Sometimes informally
a subset of a given set is a col- ; referred to as a "fit" or "fit-
lection of things that belong: ring," e.g., a resistant fit.
to the original set. Every ele- I
II supplmuntllry 1.systemRtJ& error 163

• supplementary ~ gram will be symmetrical about

two angels are supplementary ; a vertical line drawn at x=a.
of they add up to 18()<>. ; • symmetric property of
• supplementary angles congruence
2 angles whose measures, when ~ the property of congruent fig-
added together, equal 180 de- ; ures that, if one geometric fig-
grees : ure is congruent to a second fig-
~ ure, then the second figure is
• surface
~ congruent to the first.
the boundary of a 3-D figure
I • symmetry diagonal
• surface area
: the diagonal that perpendicu-
(of a solid), the sum of the ar-
eas of all the surfaces. ~ larly bisects, the other and is a
~ symmetry line for the kite
• symmedian
reflection of a median of a tri-
angle about the corresponding I
angle bisector.
• symmetric distribution
the probability distribution of a
random variable X is symmet- I

ric if there is a number a such

that the chance that X> =a + b
is the same as the chance that I
X < =a-b for every value ofb. A I • symmetry line
list of numbers has a symmet- ~ the line of reflection in a reflec-
ric distribution if there is a num- : tion-symmetric figure
ber a such that the fraction of I
numbers in the list that are : • system of equations
greater than or equal to a + b is ~ a set of two or more equations.
the same as the fraction of num- ~ • systematic error
bers in the list that are less than ; an error that affects all the
or equal to a-b, for every value : measurements similarly. For
of b. In either case, the histo- ~ example, if a ruler is too short,
gram or the probability his to-

MnthemRncs============ II
164 systematic random sample I tl-tm II
everything measured with it I they were random, if the or-
will appear to be longer than I der in which the units appears
it really is (ignoring random in the list is haphazard. Sys-
error) . If your watch runs I tematic samples are a special
fast, every time interval you I case of cluster samples.
measure with it will appear to I • t test
be longer than it really is an hypothesis test based on ap-
(again, ignoring random er- I
proximating the probability his-
ror). Systematic errors do not
I togram of the test statistic by
tend to average out. Student's t curve. t tests usually
• systematic random sample are used to test
a systematic sample starting I about the mean of a population
at a random point in the list- when the sample size is inter-
ing of units in the of frame, mediate and the distribution of
instead of starting at the first I the population is known to be
unit. Svstematic random sam- nearly normal.
pIing is better than systematic • t2 statistic
sampling, but typically not as I a multivariate generalisation of
good as simple random sam- I the univariate t 2 statistic. It is
piing. I t he square 0 f t h e ratIo
. 0 f th e
• systematic sample group mean difference to the
a systematic sample from a I standard error of that differ-
frame of units is one drawn by I ence. Used in the 'P-test.
listing the units and selecting I • t 2 -test
every kth element of the list. a test due to Hotelling for com-
For example, if there are N I
paring an observed mean vec-
units ifi the frame, and we I tor to a parametric mean; or
want a sample of size N/I0, comparing the difference be-
we would take every tenth I tween two mean vectors to a
unit: the first unit, the eJev- I parametric difference (usually
enth unit, the 21st unit, eLc. the zero vector). If the obser-
Systematic samples are not I
vations are independently mul-
random samples, but they of- I tivariate normal, then the 'P-
ten behave essentially as if :

II = = = = = = = M R . t h e m R . t i c s
II :able ojJlalues I tangent space \
I 165
test may be used to test null I actual outcome as part of the
hypotheses using the F-distribu- I tail.
tion. T2 is also closely related I • tangent
to Mahalanobis D2.
(of an acute angle) The ratio of
• table of values I the length of the opposite side

a table of two colLUnns, the first I to the length of the adjacent side
representing values of the inde- in any right triangle containing
pendent variable, the second the angle.
representing the values of the I • 1
: . tangent clr~ es
dependent variable. I circles that are tangent to the

• tail : same line at the san1e point.

an area at the extreme of a ~ They can be internally tangent
randomisation distribution, I or externally tangent.
where the degree of extremity
is sufficient to be notable
judged against some nominal I
alpha criterion value.
• tail definition policy
this is a defined method for di-
viding a discrete distribution
: • tangent line
into a tail area and a body area.
~ a line that lies in the plane of a
the scope for differing policies
; circle and that intersects the
arises due to the non-
: circle at exactly one point (the
infinitesmal amount of prob-
~ point of tangency).
ability measure which may be
associated with the actual ~ • tangent segment
outome value. The conventional ; a line segment that lies on a tan-
policy, based upon consider- : gent line to a circle, with one
ations of simplicity and of con- ~ endpoint at the point of tan-
servatism in terms of alpha, is I gency.

to include the whole of the I • tangent space

weight of outcomes equal to the : informally, if S is a curving space
~ and P a point in it, the tangent

MRth_ties================== II
166 tangmtitU veIoeity I tensor II
space to S at P is a linear space I it left the circle along a tangent
T having points with the same I line.
"names" as the points in S and
I • tautology
in which the metric on S "in the a sentence that is true because
vicinity of P" is very nearly the I of its logical structure.
ordinary Euclidean metric on T.
One can visualise T as the pro- I • tensor
jection of S onto a "tangent an example of a tensor in
plane" "touching" at P just like morphometrics is the represen-
a map is a projection of the sur- tation of a uniform component
face of the earth onto flat pa- I of shape change as a transfor-
per. In geometric I mation matrix. The transforma-
morphometrics, the most rel- tion matrix assigns to each vec-
evant tangent space is a linear I tor in a starting (or average)
vector space that is tangent to form a vector in a second form.
Kendall's shape space at a point A rigorous, general definition
corresponding to the shape of ~ of a tensor would be beyond
a reference configuration (usu- . the scope of this glossary, but a
ally taken as the mean of a reasonably intUltIve
sample of shapes). If variation I characterisation comes from
in shape is small then Euclid- I Misner, Thorne, and Wheeler,
ean distances in the tangent Gravitation (Freeman, 1973): a
space can be used to approxi- I tensor is a "geometric machine"
mate Procrustes distances in I that is fed one or more vectors
Kendall's shape space. Since the in an arbitrary Cartesian coor-
tangent space is linear, it is pos- dinate system and that produces
sible to apply conventional sta- I scalar values (ordinary decimal
tistical methods to study varia- numbers) that are independent
tion in shape. of that coordinate system. In
I morphometrics, these "num"-
• tangential velocity bers" will be ordinary geomet-
(0f an object moving in a circle) I
ric entities like lengths, areas,
The speed of the moving object I
in the direction it would take if : or angles: anything that doesn't
I change when the coordinate sys-
tem changes. For the represen-

II terminal side I tetrahedron 167
tation of a uniform component ~. - tessellation
as a transformation matrix, the I an arrangement of shapes
"scalars" of the Misner.:rhorne- : (called tiles) that completely
Wheeler metaphor arc the ~ LOvers a plane without overlaps
lengths of the resulting vectors I or gaps.
and the angles among them. A
different tensor representing
the same uniform transforma- I
tion is the relative metric tensor,
which you probably know as the
ellipse of principal axes and I
principal strains. This tensor
produces the necessary numeri-
cal invariants (distances in the ~
second form as a function of ; . .
. - test statistic
coordmates on the first form) : . . d h th
directly. Other tensors include ~ a sta~ch use hto . test ypo ~
the metric tensor of a curving ; eses. dYPOb t des1s'dt~st can
, di . constructe y eCl 109 to re-
sun.ace Which expresses stance·. th ull h h' h th
on the surface as a function of ~ Ject e n ypot eSls.w. e~ . e
the parameters 10 . wh'1Ch sunc.ace I. value of the test statistic. IS 10
. d d h some range or collection of
pomts are expresse an t e T . h
cUrPature tensor of the same sur- I ran~es. J.~ ~et a test WIt a
lace Which expresses teh way·10 I speCified slgmficance level, the .
· h the surlace
w h1C C.
lauS awa y"
"C._II chance
. when the null hvpothes1s
-. .
fi' I I IS true that the test statistic falls
r~m itS tangent p ane at any ~ in the range where the hvpoth-
pomt. . wo uld be rqecte
: eS1S . dmust ' be
- terminal side ~ at most the specified signifi-
the side that the measurement ; cance level. The Z statistic is a
of an angle ends at : common test statistic.
- tesselate : - tetrahedron
the ability of a regIOn to ~ a polyhedron with four faces.
tessalate ; The regular tetrahedron is one
: of the Platonic solids.

MR.,hmuJhu======= II

• tetromino I that elastic energy stretches

a four-square polyomino. and shrinks in the plane of the
original plate can be ne-
I glected.) One particular ver-
I sion of this problem an infi-
nite, uniform plate con-
strained only by displacements
I at a set of discrete points-can
be solved algebraically by a
simple matrix inversion. In
I that form, the technique is a
convenient general approach
• the five platonic solids to the problem of surface in-
the five regular polyhedrons:
I terpolation for computer
regular tetrahedron, regular
graphics and computer-aided
icosahedron, regular octahe- I
design. In morphometrics,
dron, regular hexahedron, and
I the same interpolation (ap-
regular dodecahedron.
I plied once for each Cartesian
• theorem coordinate) provides a unique
important mathematical I solution to the construction of
statements which can be I D'Arcy Thompson-type defor-
proven by postulates, defini- mation grids for data in the
tions, and/or previously form of two landmark con-
proved theorems. I figurations.
• thin-plate spline I • three types of proofs
in continuum mechanics, a direct proof
thin-plate spline models the a proof in which you state pre-
form taken by a metal plate I mises, then use valid forms of
that is constrained at some reasoning to arrive directly at a
combination of points and conclusion.
lines and otherwise free to I
• three-dimensional
adopt the form that minimises
I having length, width, and thick-
bending energy. (The extent
ness (i.e., space)
of bending is taken as so small I

II =======MRthmulriu
II tied rilniu I trlUlitiolUJl mM1 • =========1=6=9

- tied ranks ~ what happens when you kick

in a non parametric test involv- ; the pinball machine too hard.
ing ranked data, if two data have
; - Toeplitz matrix
tied values then they will de- a matrix in which all the ele-
serve to receive the same rank
~ ments are the same along any
value. it is generally agreed that ; diagonal that slopes from north-
this should be the average of the : west to southeast.
ranks which would have been I

assigned if the values had been all a l2 an

discernably unequal. Thus, the !lIZa]1 a]Z
ranks assigned to a set of 6 data, I a l3 a lZ all
with ties present might emerge
as sets such as : 1,3,3,3,5,6 or al3

1,2,3.5,3.5,5,6. The possibility I

of tied ranks leads to elabora- aJ3 a l2 all
tions in the otherwise-standard
tasks of computing or tabulat- ; - torus
a 3-D figure formed by rolling
ing randomisation distributions I a rectangle into a cylirtder and
where data are replaced by
I bending the cylinder until its
bases meet; a "doughnut".
_ tied values
where data are represented by : - traee
~ the trace of a matrix is the sum
ranks, tied values lead to tied
; of the terms along the princi-
ranks. whether or not data are : pal diagonal.
rep [resnted by ranks, for any I
: - traditional morphometries
test statistic the occurrence of
~ application of multivariate
tied values will increase the ex-
tent to which a randomisation I statistical methods to arbi-

distribution will be a discrete: trary collections of size or

distribution rather than a con-~ shape variables such as · dis-
tinuous distribution. I tances and angles. "Tradi-

~ tional morphometries" differs

- tilt : from the geometric
the measure of an angle as
~ morphometries discussed here
compared to a horizontal line;

MRtm-#Cs==================== II
=17=O=========~talnumber I transformation II
in that even though the dis- I formations are used to put
tances or measurements are I variables in standard units . In
defined to record biologically that case, you subtract the
meaningful aspects of the or- I mean and divide the results by
ganism, but the geometrical I the SD. This is equivalent to
relationships between these multiplying by the reciprocal
measurements are not taken of the SD and adding the
into account. Traditional I negative of the mean, divided
morphometrics makes no ref- by the SD, so it is an affine
erence to Procrustes distance transformation. Affine trans-
or any other aspect of ~ formations with positive mul-
Kendall's shape space. . tiplicative constants have a
• transcendental number simple effect on the mean,
I median, mode, quartiles, and
a number that is not algebraic.
other percentiles: the new
• transformation value of any of these is the old
transformations turn lists into lone, transformed using ex-
other lists, or variables into I acdy the same formula. When
other variables. For example, the multiplicative constant is
to transform a list of tem- I negative, the mean, median,
peratures in degrees Celsius I mode, are still transformed by
into the corresponding list of : the same rule, but quartiles
temperatures in degrees Fahr- ~ and percentiles are reversed:
enheit, you multiply each ele- I the qth quantile of the trans-
ment by 9/5, and add 32 to formed distribution is the
each product. This is an ex- transformed value of the 1-
ample of an affine transforma- I qth quantile of the original
tion: multiply by something distribution (ignoring the ef-
and add something (y = ax + fect of data spacing). The ef-
b is the general affine trans- I feet of an affine transforma-
formation of X; it's the famil-tion on the SD, range, and
iar equation of a straight line). IQR, is to make the new value
In a linear transformation, I the old value times the abso-
you only multiply by some- I lute value of the number you
thing (y = ax). Affine trans- multiplied the first list by:
II tmnsformationnotation I treatment~==========17=1
~ of the translation), and have the
; same length (the distance of the
: translation) .
: - translation vector
~ see translation

~ - transversal
; a line that intersects 2 others
; - transversible
-2 a network in which all arcs can
what you added does not affect be traced without going over
them. lone more than once

- transformation notation I - trapezium

t(P), which stands for the trans- : a quadrilateral in which no sides

formation of P; also Sk where : are parallel.
the transformation S that maps :I - trapeZOl'd
(x, y) onto (kx, ky) and k is the I a quadrilateral with exactly one
magnitude of that transforma- ~ pair of parallel sides. The par-
tion : allel sides are called bases. A
- transitive property of ~ pair of angles that have a base
congruence ; as a common side are called a
the property that, if one geo- I pair of base angles.
metric object is congruent to a
second object, which in turn is ,
congruent to a third, then the
first and third objects are con-
gruent to each other.
- translation
: - treatment effect
an isometry under which the I the effect of the treatment on
vectors (any of which is a trans- ~ the variable of interest. Estab-
lation vector) between each : lishing whether the treatment
point and its image are all par- ,
allel (determining the direction
172 matmmtgroup I trinomud II
has an effect is the point of an I is less than the sum of the
experiment. lengths of the other two sides.
• treatment group I • triangular numbers
the individuals who receive the numbers of dots that can be put
treatment, as opposed to those I into triangular arrangements;
in the control group, who do I equivalently, sums of consecu-
not. tive positive integers beginning
with 1.
• treatment
the substance or procedure • triangulate
studied in an experiment or I to divide a polygon into tri-
observational study. At issue is angles
whether the treatment has an
• tridecagon
effect on the outcome or vari- I
a 13-sided polygon
able of interest.
• trigon
• tree I a three-sided polygon.
a tree is a graph with the prop-
erty that there is a unique path I • trigonometric ratios and
from any vertex to any other the unit circle unit circle
vertex traveling along the a circle on the coordinate plane
edges. I with center (0, 0) and radius 1
unit. periodic curve A curve that
• tree diagram . repeats in a regular pattern.
a concept map in the form of ; period The horizontal distance
tl1e branches of a tree. You can :
between corresponding points
use it to show the relationships ~
on adjacent cycles of a periodic
among members of a family of ; curve.
• trigonometry
• triangle I the study of the relationships
a polygon with three sides. between the measures of sides
• triangle inequality I and angles of triangles.
the property that states that the I • trinomial
length of any side of a triangle I an algebraic expression consist-
ing of 3 terms.

II =======MlJtbem.ries
II tromino I two-sided hypothesis test 173
- tromino ~ _ two-point shape coordi-
a three-square polyomino. nates
a conveniel1t system of shape
'. truncated pyramid
coordinates, originally Francis
part of a pyramid remaining
I Galton's, rediscovered by
after truncating the vertex
Bookstein, consisting (for two-
with a plane parallel to the
~ dimensional data) of the coor-
I dinates of landmarks 3, 4, ...
- twin primes : after forms are rescaled and
I ..
two prime numbers that differ : repositloned so that landmark
by 2. For example, 11 and 13 I 1 is fixed at (0,0) and landmark
are twin primes. ~ 2 is fixed at (1, 0) in a Cartesian
_ two-column proof : coordinate system. Also re-
~ ferred to as Bookstein coordi-
a form of proof in which each
statement in the argument is ; nates or Bookstein's shape co-
written in the left column, and : ordinates.
the reason for each statement : - two-sided hypothesis test
is written directly across from ~ c.f. one-sided test. An hypoth-
it in the right column. ; esis test of the null hypothesis
_ two-column proof : that the value of a parameter,
a form of proof in which each ~ /-L, is equal to a null value, /-LO,
I designed to have power against
statement in the argument is
written in the left column, and : the alternative hypothesis that
the reason for each statement ~ either /-L < /-LO or /-L > /-LO (the
I alternative hypothesis contains
is written directly across from
it in the right column. ~ values on both sides of the null
: value). For example, a signifI-
- two-dimensional I cance level 5%, two-sided z test
having both width and length, ~ of the null hypothesis that the
but no thickness : mean of a population equals
- two-point perspective ~ zero against the alternative that
a method of perspective draw- ; it is greater than zero would
ing that uses two vanishing : reject the null hypothesis for
points. ~ values of

~ true. A 1YPe 2 error occurs if
(sample mean) I ; the null hypothesis is not re-
Izl=------ : jected when it is in fact false.
> 1.96.SE(sample mean)
• type 2 landmark
I a mathematical point whose
• two-way table I claimed homology from case to
a representation of suitable data case is supported only by geo-
in a table organised as rows and metric, not histological, evi-
columns, such that the rows rep- I dence: for instance, the sharp-
resent one scheme of alterna- est curvature of a tooth.
tives covering the whole of the
• type 3 landmark
the data represented, the col- I
a landmark having at least one
umns represent a further
I deficient coordinate, for in-
scheme of alternatives covering
stance, either end of a longest
the whole of the data repre- I
diameter, or the bottom of a
sented, and the entries in the I
concavity. Type 3 landmarks
two-way table are the counts of :
characterise more than one re-
numbers of observations con- I
gion of the form. The multi-
forming to the respective cells I variate machinery of geometric
of the two-way classification.
I morphometries permits them

• type 1 landmark to be treated as landmark

a mathematical point whose I points in some analyses, but the
claimed homology from case to I deficiency they embody must
case is supported by the stron- be kept in mind in the course
gest evidence, such as a local of any geometric or biological
pattern of juxtaposition of tis- I interpretation.
sue types or a small patch of :
some unusual histology. ~ •anunbiased estimator
estimator, , that has as its
• type land type 2 errors expected value the parametric
these refer to hypothesis test- I value, q, it is intended to esti-
ing. A Type 1 error occurs when mate: ..
the null hypothesis is rejected
erroneously when it is in fact I • unbiased
not biased; having zero bias.
II uncontrolled experiment I uniformS;""cmn='-P""onetJ=""t======",,1~7~5
_ uncontrolled experiment ~ - undefined term
an experiment in which there is ; in a deductive system, terms
no control group; i.e., in which : that are assumed, and assigned
the method of comparison is not ~ no properties, "and whose mean-
used: the experimenter decides ; ing is derived only from the
who gets the treatment, but the : postulates or axioms that use
outcome of the treated group ~ them. In our (Euclidean) sys-
is not compared with the out- I tern, the undefined terms are

come of a control group that ~ point, line, plane, and space.

does not receive treatment.
: - uniform shape component
_ uncorrelated ~ that part of the difference in
a set of bivariate data is I shape between a set of con-

uncorrelated if its correlation ~ figurations that can be mod-

coefficient is zero. 1\:vo random: eled by an affine transforma-
variables are uncorrelated if the~ tion. Once a metric is supplied
expected value of their product ; for shape space one can ascer-
equals the product of their ex- : tain which such transforma-
pected values. If two random ~ tion takes a reference form
variables are independent, they ; closest to a particular target
are uncorrelated. (The converse : form. For the Procrustes met-
is not true in general.) ~ ric (the geometry of Kendall's
_ uncountable ; shape space), that uniform
a set is uncountable if it is not transformation is computed
countable. ~ by a formula based in
I Procrustes residuals or by an-
_undecagon ~ other based in two-point
an eleven-sided polygon. : shape coordinates. Together
~ with the partial warps, the uni-
; form component defined in
: this way supplies an orthonor-
~ mal basis for all of shape space
; in the vicinity of a mean form.
: In this setting, the uniform
~ shape component may also be

MIIthmuJtics========== II
""1,,,,76===========* unilateralsuiftue I unitarydi'Pisor \I

interpreted as the projection ~. - union

of a shape difference (be- I the union of two or more sets
tween two group means, or is the set of objects contained
between a mean and a particu- I by at least one of the sets. The
lar specimen) into the plane I union of the events A and B is
(or hyperplane for data of di- denoted "A&plus;B", "A or B",
mension greater than two) and '1\.UB". C.f. intersection.
through that mean form and I _ unit analysis
all nearby forms related to it I the process of using conversion
by affine transformations. For factors to change from one
descriptive purposes, the uni- I measure or rate to another.
form component is
parameterised not by a vector, - unit circle
like the partial warps, but by I a unit circle is a circle with ra-
a representation as a tensor, I dius 1.
in terms of sets of shears and - unit cube
dilations with respect to a I a cube with edge length 1.
fixed, orthogonal set of Car- I
tesian axes. - unit fraction
I with one as a numerator and a
- unilateral surface natural number as a denomina-
a surface with only one S1"de, I tor.
such as a Moebius strip.
_ unit of attribute
_ unimodal I
the unit chosen depends upon
a finite sequence is unimodal if : the attribute being measured
it first increases and then de- ~ (e.g., for the attribute "length",
creases. I a tmit might be "meters")"

_ unimodular
- unit square
a square matrix is unimodular I a unit square is a square of side
if its determinant is 1. length 1.
_ union of two sets a and b _ unitary divisor
the set of elements in A, B, or I a divisor d of c is called unitary
both; written AUB I if gcd(d,c/d) = 1.

II ===================MJJth_tics

- unity ~ _ variable
one i a numerical value or a charac-
: teristic that can differ from in-
- univariate
~ dividual to individual. Variance,
having or having to do with a
; population variance The vari-
single variable. Some univariate
: ance of a list is the square of the
techniques and statistics include
~ standard deviation of the list,
the histogram, IQR, mean,
; that is, the average of the
median, percentiles, quantiles,
: squares of the deviations of the
and SD. C.f. bivariate.
~ numbers in the list from their
_ universal statement I mean. The variance of a random
a conditional that uses the words ~ variable X, Var(X), is the ex-
'all' or 'everything' : pected value of the squared dif-
_ universe I ference between the variable

in a Venn diagram, everything ; and its expected value: Var(X)

that is outside the sets : = E( (X E(X) )2). The variance
~ of a random variable is the
- upper bound ; square of the standard error
any number above which a func- : (SE) of the variable.
tion value may approach but not I
pass. : - vector
~ a quantity that has both magni-
- valid reasoning ; tude and direction, usually rep-
an argument that reaches its : resented by an arrow with a
conclusion through accepted ~ head and tail. The vector's di-
forms of reasoning. I rection is indicated from the tail
_ vanishing line : to the head. The vector's mag-
the horiwn; in a drawing it is ~ nitude is the length of the line
at the height of viewer's eye ~ segment.
_ vanishing point I - velocity
a point toward which lines in a ~ the rate of change of position.
perspective drawing converge if : _ Venn diagram
they represent parallel lines that ~ a pictorial way of showing the
recede from the foreground to I relations among sets or
the background. :

events. The universal set or I • vertex arrangement

outcome space is usually I a notation that uses positive
drawn as a rectangle; sets are integers and other symbols to
regions within the rectangle. I describe the arrangement of
The overlap of the regions I regular polygons about verti-
corresponds to the intersec- ces of a semiregular tessella-
tion of the sets. If the regions tion. Also called the numeri-
do not overlap, the sets are I cal name.
disjoint. The part of the rect- I • vertex of a conic solid
angle included in one or more the point that marks the thin-
of the regions corresponds to I nest part of a conic solid
the union of the sets. This
page contains a tool that illus- • vertex of a polygon
trates Venn diagrams; the tool ~ an endpoint of a segment in a
represents the probability of ; polygon
an event by the area of the • vertex of an angle
event. the common endpoint of the
I two rays

I • vertical angles
non-adjacent angles formed by
the intersection of two lines .
• vertical line
I a line that goes straight up
and down, and whose slope is
defined as infinite or unde-
• vertex I fined .
(of a polygon) The point of in- I • vertices
tersection of three or more I plural form of vertex; the point
edges. of intersection of the rays of an
• vertex angles I angle, "corner" point of any
(of a kite) The angles between I
geometric figure bounded by
the pairs of congruent sides. lines, planes, or lines and

II =======M#them4ties
11l'iew I WU~ test 179

• view ~ • whole number

a drawing of a side of an object ; a natural number.
• vigesimal ; • Wilcoxon test
related to intervals of 20. : named after the statistician F,
• vinculum ~ Wilcoxon . This test applies to
the horizontal bar in a fraction I an experimental design involv-
separating the numerator from ~ ing ~o repeated measure ob-
the denominator. : servanons on a common set of
I experimental units, which need
• volume ~ be only ordinal-scale. the pur-
the amount of space a 3-D ob- : pose is to measure shift in scale
ject can hold. I location between the two levels

• vulgar fraction ~ of the repeated measure distinc-

a common fraction. : tion. the test statistic is derived
~ from the set of differences be-
• weak inequality ; tween the two levels of the re-
an inequality that permits the : peated measure distinction one
equality case. For example, a is ~ difference score for each obser-
less than or equal to b. ; vational unit. the procedure is
• weight matrix : somewhat variable between
w matrix :fhe matrix of partial ~ authors, although the variants
warp scores, together with the I each correspond to valid well-
uniform component, for a : sized exact tests. Wilcoxon's
sample of shapes. The weight ~ original procedure commences
~atrix is com~uted as a ~ota- I by discarding entirely the obser-
non of the Procrustes-resIdual ~ vations from any experimental
shape coordinates; like them, : units for which the data values
they are a set of shape coordi- ~ are equal at each level of the
nates for which the sum of ; repeated measure comparison.
squared differences is the : thus or otherwise, the next step
squared Procrustes distance be- ~ is ranking the differences, pro-
tween any two specimens. ; viding a rank for each retained
wff : experimental unit; the ranks are
• ~. according to the absolute values
a well-formed formula.

Mtldlmufriu======;;;;;;;;;;; II
180 wintling number I x-pentoltlitllJ II
of the differences. The ranks are I proceeds to fmd additional fac-

summed separately into two or ; tors to fit to the residuals, and

three categories: negative dif- : so on until the data is ad-
ferences; zero differences (if ~ equately fit.
any); positive differences. the ;• x
test statistic is the smaller of the
I roman numeral for 10.
outer categories, plus an adjust-
ment for the middle (zero-dif- I • x-axis
ference) category. the horiwntal axis in the plane.
• winding number • x-intercept
the number of times a closed the point at which a line crosses
curve in the plane passes around I the x-axis.
a given point in the counter- I • XOR, exclusive disjunc-
clockwise direction. tion
• witch of agnesi XOR is an operation on two
a curve whose equation IS I logical propositions. If p and q
xl y=4a 2 (2a-y). are two propositions, (p XOR
q) is a proposition that is true
• work I if either p is true or if q is true,
the result of force applied over but not both. (pXOR q) is logi-
some distance, given by the for- I
cally equivalent to «p OR q)
mula w = fd, where w = work, I AND NOT (pANDq».
f = force, and d = distance.
I • x-pentomino
• Wright factor analysis a pentomino in the shape of the
a version of factor analysis, due I
letter X.
to Sewall Wright, in which a I
path model is used to describe
the relation between the mea-, ~
sured variables and the factors I
of interest. It is usually explor-
atory, in that one fits a simple
one factor model iteratively to I
maximally explain the correla-
tions among variables, and then
• yard ~ nal)jSE(original).
a measure of length equal to 3 ~ • zero
feet. ;0
• y-axis ; • zero angle
the vertical axis in the plane. : an angle whose measure is O.
• year ~ In a zero angle, both the initial
a measure of time equal to the ; and terminal sides are the same.
period of one revolution of the ; • zero divisors
earth about the sun. Approxi- : nonzero elements of a ring
mately equal to 365 days.
~ whose product is O.
• y-intercept ~ • zero element
the point at which a line crosses ; the element 0 is a zero element
the y-axis. : ofagroupifa+O=aandO+a=a
: for all elements a.
.• zero-di menSlona
. I
~ having no dimension; a point

I • z-intercept
~ the point at which a line crosses
: the z-axis.
: • zone
~ the portion of a sphere between
• z statistic ; two parallel planes.
a Z statistic is a test statistic whose ; • z-score
distribution under the null hy- : the observed value of the Z sta-
pothesis has expected value zero I risric.
and can be approximated well by
the normal curve. Usually, Z sta- I • z-test
tistics are constructed by ; an hypothesis test based on ap-
standardising some other statis- : proximating the probability his-
tic. The Z statistic is related to ~ togram of the Z statistic under
the original statistic by Z = ; the null hypothesis by the nor-
(original expected value of origi- : mal curve.