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Experimental and Numerical

Investigation of
Aerodynamic Forces on Various Models
of Cars

Usama Qayyum
Syed Hashir Ali Shah Banuri

2019

Department of Mechanical Engineering


Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences
Nilore, Islamabad, Pakistan
This page is intentionally left blank
Experimental and Numerical
Investigation of
Aerodynamic Forces on Various Models
of Cars

Usama Qayyum
Syed Hashir Ali Shah Banuri

2019

Department of Mechanical Engineering


Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences
Nilore, Islamabad, Pakistan
Declaration of Originality

We hereby declare that the work contained in this thesis and the intellectual content of this
thesis are the product of our own work. This thesis has not been previously published in
any form nor does it contain any verbatim of the published resources which could be treated
as infringement of the international copyright law. We also declare that we do understand
the terms ‘copyright’ and ‘plagiarism,’ and that in case of any copyright violation or
plagiarism found in this work, we will be held fully responsible of the consequences of any
such violation.

(Usama Qayyum)

PIEAS, Nilore, Islamabad

(Syed Hashir Ali Shah Banuri)

PIEAS, Nilore, Islamabad

i
Certificate of Approval

This is to certify that the work contained in this thesis entitled Experimental and
Numerical Investigation of Aerodynamic Forces on Various Models of Cars
, was carried out by Usama Qayyum and Syed Hashir Ali Shah Banuri, and in my
opinion, it is fully adequate, in scope and quality, for the degree of BS. Furthermore, it is
hereby approved for submission for review and thesis defense.

Supervisor: _____________________
Name: Dr. Kamran Rasheed
Qureshi
Date:
Place: PIEAS, Islamabad.

Head, Department of Mechanical Engineering: ___________________


Name: Dr. Kamran Rasheed Qureshi
Date:
Place: PIEAS, Islamabad.

ii
Dedications

iii
Acknowledgements

iv
Table of Contents

Declaration of Originality ................................................................................................ i


Certificate of Approval ................................................................................................... ii
Dedications .................................................................................................................... iii
Acknowledgements ........................................................................................................ iv
Table of Contents ............................................................................................................ v
List of Figures ................................................................................................................ vi
List of Tables ................................................................................................................ vii
Abstract ........................................................................................................................... 1
1. Introduction ................................................................................................................. 2

1.1 Background ....................................................................................................... 2


1.2 Motivation ........................................................................................................ 3
1.3 Objective ........................................................................................................... 3
1.4 Scope ................................................................................................................ 3
1.5 Thesis Layout ................................................................................................... 4
2. Literature Review........................................................................................................ 6

2.1 Fundamentals of Aerodynamics ........................................................................... 6


2.1.1 Boundary layers ............................................................................................. 8
2.1.2 Turbulence ..................................................................................................... 8
2.1.3 Flow separation: ............................................................................................. 9
2.2 Vehicle Aerodynamics ........................................................................................ 10
2.2.1 Drag force .................................................................................................... 11
2.2.2 Lift force ...................................................................................................... 12
2.3 Shape Development History ............................................................................... 13
References ..................................................................................................................... 22

v
List of Figures

Figure 1. Flow around an airfoil [2] .......................................................................................................... 7


Figure 2. Different forces on airfoil........................................................................................................... 7
Figure 3. Laminar and turbulent boundary layers[3] ................................................................................ 8
Figure 4. Boundary layer separation due to adverse pressure gradient [1]............................................... 9
Figure 5. (a) Laminar flow wake (b) Turbulent flow wake [1] ................................................................. 10
Figure 6. Aerodynamic forces acting on a car ......................................................................................... 11
Figure 7. Frontal area projection [3] ....................................................................................................... 12
Figure 8. Improvement in drag by Jaray's modifications......................................................................... 13
Figure 9. Comparison between optimized cars and conventional cars during 1930s .............................. 14
Figure 10. Shape development using basic body model along with drag comparison ............................. 14

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List of Tables

No table of figures entries found.

vii
viii
Abstract

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1.Introduction

This chapter provides the background and the motivation behind this project. It also
explains the objectives of the project, and the approaches taken to accomplish those
objectives. The scope of the project has also been explained. The chapter concludes with
the thesis layout.

1.1 Background
Aerodynamic properties greatly affect the performance parameters, stability, control and
comfort of an automobile. In order to ensure a better fuel economy, a minimum drag is a
decisive parameter. Depletion of fuel resources, ever increasing prices of fuels and strict
laws governing emissions control emphasize the importance of Drag-Fuel Economy
relationship. Not only this but many other parameters of vehicle aerodynamics directly
influences the quality of an automobile; noise reduction, stability of the vehicle, cooling of
the engine and other parts, air-conditioning of passenger section and many others. All these
parameters are dependent on the internal and external flow field around the vehicle.
Vehicle aerodynamics is based on empirical relations. Unlike the other disciplines
which are based on well-established theoretical and experimental procedures, no such
consonant procedures are yet available for vehicles. This is mainly because of very
complex and complicated flow regime around an automobile, which includes flow
separation. That’s why aerodynamicist mostly relies on prior work done regarding the
vehicle design and flow field around it.
Already existing designs of automobiles are the results of rigorous research &
development in vehicle aerodynamics discipline. But still there is some room for
improvements in vehicle design. No perfect vehicle exists and that’s why the quest for the
design of a perfect vehicle is never ending. Automobile manufacturers are spending
millions of dollars each year to obtain an optimized design with the least drag, best fuel
economy and aesthetically good looking.

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1.2 Motivation
The motivation behind this project is the study and analysis of locally available popular car
models in Pakistan and to look for minor improvements in cars designs which will optimize
the external flow around the cars and ultimately results in better fuel economy and least
drag on the cars. The prices of fuels and cars in Pakistan is relatively much higher than
other countries, so a customer wants a vehicle that is not only aesthetically best but also
provides luxury, comfort and has the lowest fuel consumption. So, the research will be
carried out on at least 2 popular car models belonging to different categories and the results
from CFD analysis and wind tunnel testing will be compared and analyzed.
Based on the work done, the proposed design changes for drag reduction in these
models will be done and its effect on fuel economy will be studied and presented. The
research done on these models will not only help us to apply our knowledge of engineering
effectively but it might be helpful for local car manufacturers to include in their future
designs to optimize the fuel economy ratio to maximum extent.

1.3 Objective
The objective of this project is the efficacious application of our engineering knowledge
for drag reduction in different domestic car models. The study and research will ultimately
help us to predict the design changes for obtaining maximum fuel economy in these cars
models which will also be helpful in car industry. The study will be limited to external flow
around the car body and will incorporate both numerical and experimental investigation.
This will lead to establishing what type of changes to the aerodynamic features of a car
model will result in least drag coefficient. Then the results obtained for both original car
models and modified car models (with proposed changes) will be compared. In the end the
effect of drag reduction on fuel saving will be presented.

1.4 Scope
The flow processes to which a moving vehicle is subjected fall into three categories:
• Flow of air around the vehicle.
• Flow of air through the body.
• Flow processes within the machinery.

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The external and internal flow are closely related to each other while the flow through
individual parts is very complicated. In our study of vehicle aerodynamics, we will be
considering only the external flow around the vehicle as the other flows are very complex
and require a lot of time and computational power which is costly. Only the external flow
will be studied and target parameter will be the reduction of the drag coefficient on the car.
Unlike Aircraft aerodynamics which is based on established theory followed by
experimental work on small scale models in wind tunnels, the aerodynamic development
work is quite different approach as it is done experimentally. A rough shape is designed
initially which is further tuned and styled gradually, ultimately resulting in final desired
shape of the car. Our study will be limited to external flow on already existing car models
and the effects changes in the stock models.

1.5 Thesis Layout


In this dissertation, the first few chapters focus on literature, theory and historical
information regarding the project. Chapter 1 focuses on motivation and the reasons behind
doing this project. Chapter 2 elaborates the theory of aerodynamics and ultimately narrows
the scope to vehicle aerodynamics. Effects of different components on the flow around the
car is explained in detail.
Then chapter 3 explains the design methodology adopted to accomplish the desired
goal. The setup for numerical investigation and experimentation is described in detail. Then
chapter 4 further elaborates the approach used for the numerical analysis. From surface
modelling on CATIA v5 to CFD analysis on Ansys Fluent, the complete procedure adopted
for analysis is explained. Chapter 5 is based on experimental testing of car models prepared
using 3D printer in the wind tunnel. The complete setup for experimental studies is
mentioned. Chapter 6 is based on the comparison of results for different car models
obtained from both numerical and experimental investigation. The results are presented in
details. Chapter 7 concludes the project by highlighting the major outcomes and useful
knowledge gained through the project. Next few chapters are basically related to timeline
of the project, safety measures and resource requirements. All the references are mentioned
in the end.

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Upon the completion of project, we will be able to assess the problem of the fuel economy
in modern road vehicles by using the engineering theory and practice in optimizing the
aerodynamic attributes of modern vehicles in an effective manner.

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2.Literature Review

2.1 Fundamentals of Aerodynamics


Aerodynamics is study of air motion, especially the interaction of air with solid
objects, such as an airplane wing or road vehicle. It is basically a sub category of Fluid
mechanics which evolved gradually in eighteenth century with the first observations of
drag. The discipline of aerodynamics is a blend of mathematical modelling, wind tunnel
testing, computer simulations and analysis to predict and visualize the air flow around
objects. Now a day’s major focus is on compressible flows, turbulence modelling,
boundary layer separation, vortices and computational methods for flow approximations.
Much like other disciplines of the science, aerodynamics is also governed by laws
of physics and the commonly used conservations laws are:

Mass Continuity Equation


Momentum Newton 2nd Law (Navier Stokes equation)
Ideal gas law Equation of States
Energy 1st law of Thermodynamics

These physicals laws are applied to fluid problems and useful relations are derived
from these which are then solved (both theoretically and numerically[1]. There are two
different approaches used to specify the flow field, Eulerian and Lagrangian. The former
approach considers the specific locations in space through which the fluid flows while the
latter approach follows individual fluid particle as it moves through space and time.

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Figure 1. Flow around an airfoil [2]

Aerodynamic problems are generally classified based on different parameters,


including speed of flow, compressibility and viscosity. External aerodynamics is based on
external flows around objects of variable shapes like flow around the body of car or
airplane wing. On the other hand, internal aerodynamics involves internal flows through
objects like ducts or car engine.
Based on the fluid speed, flow is categorized into following types:
 Incompressible flows (subsonic flows)
 Compressible flows (hypersonic, supersonic or transonic flows)
Another classification is derived from concept of viscosity. If viscosity effects are
negligible then flow is consider inviscid flow otherwise it is called viscous flow.
Depending on the type of a given problem, these assumptions not only minimize the
complexity but also the computing power and cost[2].
The major areas of interest in aerodynamics is proper comprehension of air flow
around a body which results in the evaluation of useful forces and moments acting on the
body. In majority of riddles, the forces of interest are lift, drag, thrust and downforce. These
will be discussed later in vehicle aerodynamics section for road vehicles. These forces are
represented in figure 2 [3].

Figure 2. Different forces on airfoil [3]

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However there are certain phenomena that are linked to compressible and
incompressible regimes, like laminar & turbulent boundary layers, shear stress and
turbulence. A brief description of each of these is mentioned below:

2.1.1 Boundary layers


Boundary layer is one of the most important concept in fluid mechanics and
aerodynamics. It is the region close to bounding surface where effects of viscosity are
dominant. The thickness of boundary layer is the distance from bounding surface to the
point where velocity gradient becomes zero and viscous velocity approaches the free
stream velocity, it will be zero at surface (no slip condition) and will rapidly increase until
it reaches 99% of free stream velocity. The viscous forces results in negligible velocity at
surface and are responsible for skin friction drag.

Figure 3. Laminar and turbulent boundary layers[4]

Turbulent boundary layer is marked by eddies or swirls as compared to much


thinner smooth laminar boundary layer. The laminar boundary layer develops first and as
we move along the length of the body, transition to turbulent boundary layer takes place.
Although laminar boundary layer produces less skin friction drag as compared to turbulent
boundary layer, it is less stable than the latter[5].

2.1.2 Turbulence
Turbulence or turbulent flow is basically fluid motion characterized by abrupt
changes in velocity and pressure. It is exact opposite to laminar flow regime which is
marked by smooth parallel layers with no abrupt behavior. Turbulence occurs at high
Reynold numbers and is influenced by inertial forces which are responsible for eddies,

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vortices and other instabilities. Turbulence is dominated by large kinetic energy in fluid
flow, sufficient to overwhelm the viscosity. It is therefore characterized by:
 Chaotic and abrupt fluctuations
 Excessive momentum, mass and heat mixing
 Vorticity variations in three dimensions
Sometimes turbulence is avoided to reduce drag to maximum extent like in case of
air plane wing. However, sometimes turbulence effect is exploited by certain devices like
automotive spoilers to reduce lift and increase downforce. Turbulence is one of the most
complex problem of classical physics[6].

2.1.3 Flow separation:


Flow separation occurs when the boundary layer detaches from the surface and
takes the forms of wakes, vortices and eddies. This happens due to adverse pressure
gradients causing the backflow and ultimately the separation of boundary layer from the
surface. This is illustrated in figure below.

Figure 4. Boundary layer separation due to adverse pressure gradient [1]

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The flow separation results in increased pressure drag and vortices shedding,
known as Karman Vortex Street. Due to flow separation, wake is formed behind the object
which is characterized by low pressure. Pressure at the front of the body is usually high so
pressure differential will result in pressure drag which will oppose the motion of the body,
an undesirable phenomena in road vehicles. On the other hand, vortex shedding results in
vibrations in structures which sometimes approaches resonance and results are disastrous.
Turbulent boundary layer is less prone to flow separation and can withstand against
much adverse pressure gradients without separation as compared to laminar boundary
layer. This is because the turbulent regime involves intensive mixing and momentum flow
which resists the flow separation to greater extent. In case of blunt bodies like cylinder, it
can be seen that the separation for turbulent flow occur at a later stage as compared to
laminar flow which is more vulnerable to adverse pressure gradients. This effect is widely
incorporated in golf and road vehicles where turbulence is achieved at much lower Reynold
number by tripping the boundary layer. This reduces the overall drag[6].

Figure 5. (a) Laminar flow wake (b) Turbulent flow wake [1]

2.2 Vehicle Aerodynamics


Vehicle aerodynamics is defined by the forces that act on a vehicle as it moves
through the air. This is important because it hinders the ability of the vehicle to use all of
the power during its motion. The air influences the body more and more as it moves at
higher speeds, as the equations will define the motion later on. Along with optimizing the
body for top speed, car companies are focusing on the fuel economy of their vehicles, this
has become a major concern in the recent years due to the ever-increasing fuel prices. The
forces that act on a car during its motion are shown below.

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Figure 6. Aerodynamic forces acting on a car

There are three forces acting on the car and 3 moments because of these forces.
These forces act on the center of pressure and not on the center of gravity. FS represents
the lift force, FD represents the drag force, FS represents the side-force and TYM, TPM, and
TRM are the yawing, pitching and rolling moments. In our study to improve the efficiency
of the cars, we will be investigating the drag and lift forces only. Side force can be ignored
because it does not hinder the motion of the car.

2.2.1 Drag force


Drag force is caused by the difference of pressures between the front end and
backend of the car. The pressure difference is due to the resistance offered by the body to
the airflow. This causes a stagnation point at the front where there is the most resistance.
This type of drag is known as the form drag. The other type of the drag is known as the
skin drag or skin friction this due to the shear stresses in the boundary layer. The boundary
layer theory will be discussed in the following sections. Both these drags contribute to the
overall drag of the car. The greater the resistance offered by the car the greater would be
the stagnation of the flow hence leading to a greater pressure drag. In order to compare the
drag of the car at different parameters a dimensionless number CD is developed which is
known as the coefficient of drag and can be represented by the equation:
(CD AρU 2 )
FD =
2
where, FD: Drag force CD: Coefficient of drag
U: Velocity of the vehicle A: Frontal area
ρ: Density at testing conditions

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The frontal area of the body is said to be the projected two-dimensional area causing
the main resistance to the airflow. In the case of cars, it is taken to be the width and the
height of the car.

Figure 7. Frontal area projection [4]

2.2.2 Lift force


This force can be defined best by the mass balance and momentum balance
conditions. Consider an airfoil as we change its angle of attack provides lift or downforce
depending on the position. What really happens is that more flow is redirected towards a
certain side of the airfoil to produce a mass deficit and a pressure difference. In order to
balance the mass flow rate the air goes with greater speed on one side and slowly on the
other, this creates a change in momentum, which in turn develops a force. Now similarly
take a car the flow coming the underside of the car is at a different speed as compared to
the flow coming from the top of the car this will cause either a downforce or a lift force. In
the case of the car, it is necessary to reduce the lift by increasing the downforce. The
downforce allows more traction of the car; traction refers to the contact of the car with the
road, the more the traction the greater the power efficiency and fuel economy. For the sake
of comparison, the lift force just like the drag force can be compared with a dimensionless
number, CL, known as the coefficient of lift. Lift force is shown by the equation:
(CL AρU 2 )
FL =
2
where, FL: Lift force CL: Coefficient of lift
A: Frontal area ρ: Density at testing conditions
U: velocity of the vehicle

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2.3 Shape Development History
Even though car bodies nowadays appears to be streamlined but the fact is that they
are very much bluff bodies and undergo flow separation as all bluff bodies do at the leading
edge. The flow separation increases wake formation, which leads to a higher form drag or
pressure drag. The cars we see today have been developed greatly to counter this effect
however; still a lot of work needs to be done.
The first cars developed in 1890s had a drag coefficient of 0.7 to 0.8 and this lead
to a very bad fuel economy and overall inefficient cars. To reduce the drag there were two
ways; one was to reduce the frontal area and the other was to eliminate flow separation. In
order to address these two problems scientists by the name of Klemperer, Jaray and Lay
started to work with different combinations of airfoils during 1920s to reduce drag. They
concluded that in order to optimize the shape they must make the tail long slender instead
of being blunt. They also started making renditions of different long tail cars in 1930s and
subsequently reducing drag. This process was very time consuming and was a hit and trial
procedure rather than being a methodic procedure. The problem with this procedure was
that it provide inadequate space for the people in the car and it always resulted in a low
frontal area.

Figure 8. Improvement in drag by Jaray's modifications [4]

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Figure 9. Comparison between optimized cars and conventional cars during 1930s [4]

Another approach was taken by the car manufacturers later was to develop a basic
streamlined low drag body and work from there to develop a usable car body. This process
was much more channeled as it allowed identifying each flaw that led to increase of drag
experienced by the cars. This approach led to an optimization between frontal area and the
streamlining of the body.

Figure 10. Shape development using basic body model along with drag comparison [4]

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Due to lack of technology, the process to obtain drag was done in two dimensions
and later moved on to three dimensions. The two dimensional analysis always yielded a
lower drag due to the lack of frontal area.

2.4 Computational Fluid Dynamics


There are two ways to solve the fluid dynamics problems:
 Experimentally, through prototype testing in wind tunnel
 Numerically, by simulating the problem on computers
Since experimentation involves the manufacturing and testing of the prototype, it
is quite expensive process and time consuming. Therefore, before experimentation a given
problem is modelled and simulated through computers to visualize the actual flow in
reality. This approach of solving fluid problems numerically through high end computers
is called computational fluid dynamics.

Figure 11. CFD simulation of flow over a golf ball [7]

In computational fluid dynamics, direct numerical solutions of governing partial


differential equations of fluid mechanics take place. There are different approaches to solve
complex problems on computers effectively. But the most popular and advanced
approaches are:

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 Finite difference methods
 Finite volume methods
 Higher order methods
These three approaches either replaces the higher order derivatives by finite
differences or directly solving the triple or double integral over a finite volume. The latter
one is quite fast in regard of volume mesh generation and the quality of the mesh
surrounding the complicated geometries[8].

2.4.1 Turbulence Models


One important puzzle in the computational fluid mechanics is the modelling of
viscosity. Laminar and turbulent flows incorporates viscosity effects but the turbulence is
very complicated and complex concept in engineering. So the users of CFD adopt different
ways to model their problem, but making the accurate choice is what aerodynamicist finds
challenging. Laminar flow problems are comparatively less difficult to solve as compared
to turbulence flow due to less complexity. Therefore majority of focus is on turbulent flows
which is one of the most important concept in fluid mechanics. Different turbulent models
are available to solve the given problems but the choice of picking up the right model is
challenging. A flow cart of different turbulent modelling approaches is given below.

Figure 12. Different turbulent models[9]

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Out of these, RANS models are widely used to solve turbulent problems due to
resources and time limitations. LES and DNS can almost solve every problem but they
require very high grid resolutions and are still yet not readily applicable. Out of the RANS
models, the two equations models are widely used to solve fluid mechanics problems.
These models effectively solve the 3D problems without compromising the accuracy of
solution[9].

2.4.2 Grid Resolution & Parameters


Most of the fluid mechanics analysis effort is partially flowfield and partially
geometry. Aerodynamicists spend most of their time in using advance algorithms to define
geometry and grid creation which are used by flowfield solver. That’s why the grid creation
about complex geometries is very important part of computational fluid dynamics as it
effects the accuracy of results to great extent. Two types of grid is commonly used:
 Structured grid
 Unstructured grid/Mesh
The structured grid is basically a set of regular pattern of points. However it is
difficult to generate structured grid around complex geometries, that’s why another
approach is used to generate grid around very complicated geometries. This approach uses
irregular patterns of different types of grid cells that generates the grind around the
geometry. This is called unstructured grid. In general, unstructured grids are often referred
as a mesh. It has become increasingly popular now a days because it can easily be created
around complex geometries in relatively shorter time. Different types of mesh cells are
below:
 Tetrahedron
 Prism
 Pyramid
 Hexahedron

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Figure 13. Types of Mesh cells[10]

Figure 14. An unstructured mesh over an F-16XL aircraft [11]

Now the parameters of grid that will affect solution accuracy will be discussed. One
of the important parameter is location of outer boundary of grid. The location of outer
boundary of grid greatly affect the solution accuracy. Therefore the outer boundaries
should be placed such that these don’t affect the results adversely. A rule of thumb is
usually employed while placing the outer boundaries, the outer boundary must be 10 chords
away from surface of object in three directions; front, top and below. The outer boundary
must be at 20 chords distance behind the object for wake to propagate. However, this is not
a hard and fast rule, so the outer boundary must be determined by user for the problem at
hand.

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Cell skewness, rotation angle and aspect ratio also greatly affect the solution.
Highly skewed cells usually induce errors due to transformations related inaccuracies. A
rectangular cell has the least transformation errors. Aspect ratio must also be of the order
of one to avoid inaccuracies. However in case of boundary layers, aspect ratio is usually
very high due to very small grid resolution in a perpendicular direction to wall. But as long
as cells are normal to object surface, these inaccuracies are reduced. Also cell are often
aligned parallel to surface wall boundary for accurate solutions. That’s why often
structured grids are used near the surface.
Cell stretching must also be in reasonable range to avoid inaccuracies. A rule of
thumb for cell stretching is that cells that are adjacent to each other must not be differ by
more than 20 percent in lengths. Mathematically[9],

0.8 ≤ δ1 / δ2 ≤ 1.2

Turbulence boundary layer consist of two regions, outer region and inner region.
The inner region has three sublayers[12].
 Viscous sublayer
 Log layer/Transitional layer
 Fully turbulent layer

Figure 15. Turbulent boundary layer sublayers[12]

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Therefore for good CFD solution, each of these regions and their sublayers must
have points/cells in order to allow for the turbulence model to work effectively (wall layers
models are exception to this). As a rule of thumb there must be more than two or three
cells/points in each layer. The viscous sublayer is very small and most difficult to grid. It
usually starts at the wall and end at y+=10. Therefore for a good way to properly model the
turbulent layer, initial grid point is placed at y+≈1. Then follow the rule of cell stretching
to have a good quality viscous grid[9]. The placement of first grid cell/point away from
wall can be found from following relations:

𝟏.𝟑𝟎𝟏𝟔𝒚+
𝒂𝒗𝒆
Laminar: 𝜟𝒍𝒂𝒎 = 𝑳
𝑹𝒆𝟎.𝟕𝟓
𝑳

𝟎.𝟖𝟕𝟓
(𝟏𝟑.𝟏𝟒𝟔𝟑𝒚+
𝒂𝒗𝒆 )
Turbulent: 𝜟𝒕𝒖𝒓𝒃 = 𝑳
𝑹𝒆𝟎.𝟗𝟎
𝑳

Grid sensitivity is also one of the most important parameter to consider in CFD
analysis. There is still some probability of numerical inaccuracies even if we follow all rule
of thumbs. This is where grid sensitivity comes into scenario. One must keep increasing
the points/cells until the result is no longer affected by further change. The essential point
is grid must be resolving the feature of interests in flow in best possible way[9].

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3. Design Methodology

For our investigation, both the experimental testing and CFD analysis are necessary. In
order to run CFD analysis we needed to make models of commercially available cars. For
design modelling we chose Catia V5 software. This software was chosen because of its
robust surface modelling features. Catia V5 is used widely in industry due to its superior
modelling capabilities. Catia V5 offers the ability to trace curves and surfaces in three
dimensions.
For our investigation three models were selected Toyota Corolla (2014), Toyota Land
Cruiser 200 (2015) and Suzuki Swift (2012). These models were chosen because they fall
into the three major car categories of Sedan, Sports Utility Vehicle (SUV) and the
Hatchback respectively. Another major reason for selecting these models was that these
are the most commonly found cars in their respective categories in Pakistan. However, due
to similarity in the literature of SUV and Hatchback we decided to pursue first, the SUV
and the Sedan.
Firstly the models were prepared in two dimensions and then the model of SUV was
developed in three dimensions. However, for verification of two dimension model results
the models were extruded and analyzed using CFD analysis.
In ANSYS 16.1 the geometry was imported using SpaceClaim Design Modeler (SCDM).
SCDM was due to its intuitive tools and commands and overall a smooth geometry editing
experience. The next stage was the meshing and the meshing for two dimensional parts
was done using the all triangle mesh method along with inflation boundary layer with a
growth rate of 1.2. For three dimensional bodies, the all triangle method was selected again.
After meshing, the case was setup for two dimensional bodies using k-ε method with
enhanced wall treatment. For three dimensional simulations, standard wall function k-ε
method was used. The simulation was hybrid initialized and run for 200 iterations at a time
the value of scaled residuals were set to 0.01 for the first run. The plots for C¬D and CL
were plotted.

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References

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Aerodynamics,” CFD Lett., vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 54–65, 2009.
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[12] ANSYS, “Turbulence Modeling Introduction to ANSYS Fluent,” 2014.

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