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Investigation of

Aerodynamic Forces on Various Models

of Cars

Usama Qayyum

Syed Hashir Ali Shah Banuri

2019

Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences

Nilore, Islamabad, Pakistan

This page is intentionally left blank

Experimental and Numerical

Investigation of

Aerodynamic Forces on Various Models

of Cars

Usama Qayyum

Syed Hashir Ali Shah Banuri

2019

Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences

Nilore, Islamabad, Pakistan

Declaration of Originality

We hereby declare that the work contained in this thesis and the intellectual content of this

thesis are the product of our own work. This thesis has not been previously published in

any form nor does it contain any verbatim of the published resources which could be treated

as infringement of the international copyright law. We also declare that we do understand

the terms ‘copyright’ and ‘plagiarism,’ and that in case of any copyright violation or

plagiarism found in this work, we will be held fully responsible of the consequences of any

such violation.

(Usama Qayyum)

i

Certificate of Approval

This is to certify that the work contained in this thesis entitled Experimental and

Numerical Investigation of Aerodynamic Forces on Various Models of Cars

, was carried out by Usama Qayyum and Syed Hashir Ali Shah Banuri, and in my

opinion, it is fully adequate, in scope and quality, for the degree of BS. Furthermore, it is

hereby approved for submission for review and thesis defense.

Supervisor: _____________________

Name: Dr. Kamran Rasheed

Qureshi

Date:

Place: PIEAS, Islamabad.

Name: Dr. Kamran Rasheed Qureshi

Date:

Place: PIEAS, Islamabad.

ii

Dedications

iii

Acknowledgements

iv

Table of Contents

Certificate of Approval ................................................................................................... ii

Dedications .................................................................................................................... iii

Acknowledgements ........................................................................................................ iv

Table of Contents ............................................................................................................ v

List of Figures ................................................................................................................ vi

List of Tables ................................................................................................................ vii

Abstract ........................................................................................................................... 1

1. Introduction ................................................................................................................. 2

1.2 Motivation ........................................................................................................ 3

1.3 Objective ........................................................................................................... 3

1.4 Scope ................................................................................................................ 3

1.5 Thesis Layout ................................................................................................... 4

2. Literature Review........................................................................................................ 6

2.1.1 Boundary layers ............................................................................................. 8

2.1.2 Turbulence ..................................................................................................... 8

2.1.3 Flow separation: ............................................................................................. 9

2.2 Vehicle Aerodynamics ........................................................................................ 10

2.2.1 Drag force .................................................................................................... 11

2.2.2 Lift force ...................................................................................................... 12

2.3 Shape Development History ............................................................................... 13

References ..................................................................................................................... 22

v

List of Figures

Figure 2. Different forces on airfoil........................................................................................................... 7

Figure 3. Laminar and turbulent boundary layers[3] ................................................................................ 8

Figure 4. Boundary layer separation due to adverse pressure gradient [1]............................................... 9

Figure 5. (a) Laminar flow wake (b) Turbulent flow wake [1] ................................................................. 10

Figure 6. Aerodynamic forces acting on a car ......................................................................................... 11

Figure 7. Frontal area projection [3] ....................................................................................................... 12

Figure 8. Improvement in drag by Jaray's modifications......................................................................... 13

Figure 9. Comparison between optimized cars and conventional cars during 1930s .............................. 14

Figure 10. Shape development using basic body model along with drag comparison ............................. 14

vi

List of Tables

vii

viii

Abstract

1

1.Introduction

This chapter provides the background and the motivation behind this project. It also

explains the objectives of the project, and the approaches taken to accomplish those

objectives. The scope of the project has also been explained. The chapter concludes with

the thesis layout.

1.1 Background

Aerodynamic properties greatly affect the performance parameters, stability, control and

comfort of an automobile. In order to ensure a better fuel economy, a minimum drag is a

decisive parameter. Depletion of fuel resources, ever increasing prices of fuels and strict

laws governing emissions control emphasize the importance of Drag-Fuel Economy

relationship. Not only this but many other parameters of vehicle aerodynamics directly

influences the quality of an automobile; noise reduction, stability of the vehicle, cooling of

the engine and other parts, air-conditioning of passenger section and many others. All these

parameters are dependent on the internal and external flow field around the vehicle.

Vehicle aerodynamics is based on empirical relations. Unlike the other disciplines

which are based on well-established theoretical and experimental procedures, no such

consonant procedures are yet available for vehicles. This is mainly because of very

complex and complicated flow regime around an automobile, which includes flow

separation. That’s why aerodynamicist mostly relies on prior work done regarding the

vehicle design and flow field around it.

Already existing designs of automobiles are the results of rigorous research &

development in vehicle aerodynamics discipline. But still there is some room for

improvements in vehicle design. No perfect vehicle exists and that’s why the quest for the

design of a perfect vehicle is never ending. Automobile manufacturers are spending

millions of dollars each year to obtain an optimized design with the least drag, best fuel

economy and aesthetically good looking.

2

1.2 Motivation

The motivation behind this project is the study and analysis of locally available popular car

models in Pakistan and to look for minor improvements in cars designs which will optimize

the external flow around the cars and ultimately results in better fuel economy and least

drag on the cars. The prices of fuels and cars in Pakistan is relatively much higher than

other countries, so a customer wants a vehicle that is not only aesthetically best but also

provides luxury, comfort and has the lowest fuel consumption. So, the research will be

carried out on at least 2 popular car models belonging to different categories and the results

from CFD analysis and wind tunnel testing will be compared and analyzed.

Based on the work done, the proposed design changes for drag reduction in these

models will be done and its effect on fuel economy will be studied and presented. The

research done on these models will not only help us to apply our knowledge of engineering

effectively but it might be helpful for local car manufacturers to include in their future

designs to optimize the fuel economy ratio to maximum extent.

1.3 Objective

The objective of this project is the efficacious application of our engineering knowledge

for drag reduction in different domestic car models. The study and research will ultimately

help us to predict the design changes for obtaining maximum fuel economy in these cars

models which will also be helpful in car industry. The study will be limited to external flow

around the car body and will incorporate both numerical and experimental investigation.

This will lead to establishing what type of changes to the aerodynamic features of a car

model will result in least drag coefficient. Then the results obtained for both original car

models and modified car models (with proposed changes) will be compared. In the end the

effect of drag reduction on fuel saving will be presented.

1.4 Scope

The flow processes to which a moving vehicle is subjected fall into three categories:

• Flow of air around the vehicle.

• Flow of air through the body.

• Flow processes within the machinery.

3

The external and internal flow are closely related to each other while the flow through

individual parts is very complicated. In our study of vehicle aerodynamics, we will be

considering only the external flow around the vehicle as the other flows are very complex

and require a lot of time and computational power which is costly. Only the external flow

will be studied and target parameter will be the reduction of the drag coefficient on the car.

Unlike Aircraft aerodynamics which is based on established theory followed by

experimental work on small scale models in wind tunnels, the aerodynamic development

work is quite different approach as it is done experimentally. A rough shape is designed

initially which is further tuned and styled gradually, ultimately resulting in final desired

shape of the car. Our study will be limited to external flow on already existing car models

and the effects changes in the stock models.

In this dissertation, the first few chapters focus on literature, theory and historical

information regarding the project. Chapter 1 focuses on motivation and the reasons behind

doing this project. Chapter 2 elaborates the theory of aerodynamics and ultimately narrows

the scope to vehicle aerodynamics. Effects of different components on the flow around the

car is explained in detail.

Then chapter 3 explains the design methodology adopted to accomplish the desired

goal. The setup for numerical investigation and experimentation is described in detail. Then

chapter 4 further elaborates the approach used for the numerical analysis. From surface

modelling on CATIA v5 to CFD analysis on Ansys Fluent, the complete procedure adopted

for analysis is explained. Chapter 5 is based on experimental testing of car models prepared

using 3D printer in the wind tunnel. The complete setup for experimental studies is

mentioned. Chapter 6 is based on the comparison of results for different car models

obtained from both numerical and experimental investigation. The results are presented in

details. Chapter 7 concludes the project by highlighting the major outcomes and useful

knowledge gained through the project. Next few chapters are basically related to timeline

of the project, safety measures and resource requirements. All the references are mentioned

in the end.

4

Upon the completion of project, we will be able to assess the problem of the fuel economy

in modern road vehicles by using the engineering theory and practice in optimizing the

aerodynamic attributes of modern vehicles in an effective manner.

5

2.Literature Review

Aerodynamics is study of air motion, especially the interaction of air with solid

objects, such as an airplane wing or road vehicle. It is basically a sub category of Fluid

mechanics which evolved gradually in eighteenth century with the first observations of

drag. The discipline of aerodynamics is a blend of mathematical modelling, wind tunnel

testing, computer simulations and analysis to predict and visualize the air flow around

objects. Now a day’s major focus is on compressible flows, turbulence modelling,

boundary layer separation, vortices and computational methods for flow approximations.

Much like other disciplines of the science, aerodynamics is also governed by laws

of physics and the commonly used conservations laws are:

Momentum Newton 2nd Law (Navier Stokes equation)

Ideal gas law Equation of States

Energy 1st law of Thermodynamics

These physicals laws are applied to fluid problems and useful relations are derived

from these which are then solved (both theoretically and numerically[1]. There are two

different approaches used to specify the flow field, Eulerian and Lagrangian. The former

approach considers the specific locations in space through which the fluid flows while the

latter approach follows individual fluid particle as it moves through space and time.

6

Figure 1. Flow around an airfoil [2]

including speed of flow, compressibility and viscosity. External aerodynamics is based on

external flows around objects of variable shapes like flow around the body of car or

airplane wing. On the other hand, internal aerodynamics involves internal flows through

objects like ducts or car engine.

Based on the fluid speed, flow is categorized into following types:

Incompressible flows (subsonic flows)

Compressible flows (hypersonic, supersonic or transonic flows)

Another classification is derived from concept of viscosity. If viscosity effects are

negligible then flow is consider inviscid flow otherwise it is called viscous flow.

Depending on the type of a given problem, these assumptions not only minimize the

complexity but also the computing power and cost[2].

The major areas of interest in aerodynamics is proper comprehension of air flow

around a body which results in the evaluation of useful forces and moments acting on the

body. In majority of riddles, the forces of interest are lift, drag, thrust and downforce. These

will be discussed later in vehicle aerodynamics section for road vehicles. These forces are

represented in figure 2 [3].

7

However there are certain phenomena that are linked to compressible and

incompressible regimes, like laminar & turbulent boundary layers, shear stress and

turbulence. A brief description of each of these is mentioned below:

Boundary layer is one of the most important concept in fluid mechanics and

aerodynamics. It is the region close to bounding surface where effects of viscosity are

dominant. The thickness of boundary layer is the distance from bounding surface to the

point where velocity gradient becomes zero and viscous velocity approaches the free

stream velocity, it will be zero at surface (no slip condition) and will rapidly increase until

it reaches 99% of free stream velocity. The viscous forces results in negligible velocity at

surface and are responsible for skin friction drag.

thinner smooth laminar boundary layer. The laminar boundary layer develops first and as

we move along the length of the body, transition to turbulent boundary layer takes place.

Although laminar boundary layer produces less skin friction drag as compared to turbulent

boundary layer, it is less stable than the latter[5].

2.1.2 Turbulence

Turbulence or turbulent flow is basically fluid motion characterized by abrupt

changes in velocity and pressure. It is exact opposite to laminar flow regime which is

marked by smooth parallel layers with no abrupt behavior. Turbulence occurs at high

Reynold numbers and is influenced by inertial forces which are responsible for eddies,

8

vortices and other instabilities. Turbulence is dominated by large kinetic energy in fluid

flow, sufficient to overwhelm the viscosity. It is therefore characterized by:

Chaotic and abrupt fluctuations

Excessive momentum, mass and heat mixing

Vorticity variations in three dimensions

Sometimes turbulence is avoided to reduce drag to maximum extent like in case of

air plane wing. However, sometimes turbulence effect is exploited by certain devices like

automotive spoilers to reduce lift and increase downforce. Turbulence is one of the most

complex problem of classical physics[6].

Flow separation occurs when the boundary layer detaches from the surface and

takes the forms of wakes, vortices and eddies. This happens due to adverse pressure

gradients causing the backflow and ultimately the separation of boundary layer from the

surface. This is illustrated in figure below.

9

The flow separation results in increased pressure drag and vortices shedding,

known as Karman Vortex Street. Due to flow separation, wake is formed behind the object

which is characterized by low pressure. Pressure at the front of the body is usually high so

pressure differential will result in pressure drag which will oppose the motion of the body,

an undesirable phenomena in road vehicles. On the other hand, vortex shedding results in

vibrations in structures which sometimes approaches resonance and results are disastrous.

Turbulent boundary layer is less prone to flow separation and can withstand against

much adverse pressure gradients without separation as compared to laminar boundary

layer. This is because the turbulent regime involves intensive mixing and momentum flow

which resists the flow separation to greater extent. In case of blunt bodies like cylinder, it

can be seen that the separation for turbulent flow occur at a later stage as compared to

laminar flow which is more vulnerable to adverse pressure gradients. This effect is widely

incorporated in golf and road vehicles where turbulence is achieved at much lower Reynold

number by tripping the boundary layer. This reduces the overall drag[6].

Figure 5. (a) Laminar flow wake (b) Turbulent flow wake [1]

Vehicle aerodynamics is defined by the forces that act on a vehicle as it moves

through the air. This is important because it hinders the ability of the vehicle to use all of

the power during its motion. The air influences the body more and more as it moves at

higher speeds, as the equations will define the motion later on. Along with optimizing the

body for top speed, car companies are focusing on the fuel economy of their vehicles, this

has become a major concern in the recent years due to the ever-increasing fuel prices. The

forces that act on a car during its motion are shown below.

10

Figure 6. Aerodynamic forces acting on a car

There are three forces acting on the car and 3 moments because of these forces.

These forces act on the center of pressure and not on the center of gravity. FS represents

the lift force, FD represents the drag force, FS represents the side-force and TYM, TPM, and

TRM are the yawing, pitching and rolling moments. In our study to improve the efficiency

of the cars, we will be investigating the drag and lift forces only. Side force can be ignored

because it does not hinder the motion of the car.

Drag force is caused by the difference of pressures between the front end and

backend of the car. The pressure difference is due to the resistance offered by the body to

the airflow. This causes a stagnation point at the front where there is the most resistance.

This type of drag is known as the form drag. The other type of the drag is known as the

skin drag or skin friction this due to the shear stresses in the boundary layer. The boundary

layer theory will be discussed in the following sections. Both these drags contribute to the

overall drag of the car. The greater the resistance offered by the car the greater would be

the stagnation of the flow hence leading to a greater pressure drag. In order to compare the

drag of the car at different parameters a dimensionless number CD is developed which is

known as the coefficient of drag and can be represented by the equation:

(CD AρU 2 )

FD =

2

where, FD: Drag force CD: Coefficient of drag

U: Velocity of the vehicle A: Frontal area

ρ: Density at testing conditions

11

The frontal area of the body is said to be the projected two-dimensional area causing

the main resistance to the airflow. In the case of cars, it is taken to be the width and the

height of the car.

This force can be defined best by the mass balance and momentum balance

conditions. Consider an airfoil as we change its angle of attack provides lift or downforce

depending on the position. What really happens is that more flow is redirected towards a

certain side of the airfoil to produce a mass deficit and a pressure difference. In order to

balance the mass flow rate the air goes with greater speed on one side and slowly on the

other, this creates a change in momentum, which in turn develops a force. Now similarly

take a car the flow coming the underside of the car is at a different speed as compared to

the flow coming from the top of the car this will cause either a downforce or a lift force. In

the case of the car, it is necessary to reduce the lift by increasing the downforce. The

downforce allows more traction of the car; traction refers to the contact of the car with the

road, the more the traction the greater the power efficiency and fuel economy. For the sake

of comparison, the lift force just like the drag force can be compared with a dimensionless

number, CL, known as the coefficient of lift. Lift force is shown by the equation:

(CL AρU 2 )

FL =

2

where, FL: Lift force CL: Coefficient of lift

A: Frontal area ρ: Density at testing conditions

U: velocity of the vehicle

12

2.3 Shape Development History

Even though car bodies nowadays appears to be streamlined but the fact is that they

are very much bluff bodies and undergo flow separation as all bluff bodies do at the leading

edge. The flow separation increases wake formation, which leads to a higher form drag or

pressure drag. The cars we see today have been developed greatly to counter this effect

however; still a lot of work needs to be done.

The first cars developed in 1890s had a drag coefficient of 0.7 to 0.8 and this lead

to a very bad fuel economy and overall inefficient cars. To reduce the drag there were two

ways; one was to reduce the frontal area and the other was to eliminate flow separation. In

order to address these two problems scientists by the name of Klemperer, Jaray and Lay

started to work with different combinations of airfoils during 1920s to reduce drag. They

concluded that in order to optimize the shape they must make the tail long slender instead

of being blunt. They also started making renditions of different long tail cars in 1930s and

subsequently reducing drag. This process was very time consuming and was a hit and trial

procedure rather than being a methodic procedure. The problem with this procedure was

that it provide inadequate space for the people in the car and it always resulted in a low

frontal area.

13

Figure 9. Comparison between optimized cars and conventional cars during 1930s [4]

Another approach was taken by the car manufacturers later was to develop a basic

streamlined low drag body and work from there to develop a usable car body. This process

was much more channeled as it allowed identifying each flaw that led to increase of drag

experienced by the cars. This approach led to an optimization between frontal area and the

streamlining of the body.

Figure 10. Shape development using basic body model along with drag comparison [4]

14

Due to lack of technology, the process to obtain drag was done in two dimensions

and later moved on to three dimensions. The two dimensional analysis always yielded a

lower drag due to the lack of frontal area.

There are two ways to solve the fluid dynamics problems:

Experimentally, through prototype testing in wind tunnel

Numerically, by simulating the problem on computers

Since experimentation involves the manufacturing and testing of the prototype, it

is quite expensive process and time consuming. Therefore, before experimentation a given

problem is modelled and simulated through computers to visualize the actual flow in

reality. This approach of solving fluid problems numerically through high end computers

is called computational fluid dynamics.

differential equations of fluid mechanics take place. There are different approaches to solve

complex problems on computers effectively. But the most popular and advanced

approaches are:

15

Finite difference methods

Finite volume methods

Higher order methods

These three approaches either replaces the higher order derivatives by finite

differences or directly solving the triple or double integral over a finite volume. The latter

one is quite fast in regard of volume mesh generation and the quality of the mesh

surrounding the complicated geometries[8].

One important puzzle in the computational fluid mechanics is the modelling of

viscosity. Laminar and turbulent flows incorporates viscosity effects but the turbulence is

very complicated and complex concept in engineering. So the users of CFD adopt different

ways to model their problem, but making the accurate choice is what aerodynamicist finds

challenging. Laminar flow problems are comparatively less difficult to solve as compared

to turbulence flow due to less complexity. Therefore majority of focus is on turbulent flows

which is one of the most important concept in fluid mechanics. Different turbulent models

are available to solve the given problems but the choice of picking up the right model is

challenging. A flow cart of different turbulent modelling approaches is given below.

16

Out of these, RANS models are widely used to solve turbulent problems due to

resources and time limitations. LES and DNS can almost solve every problem but they

require very high grid resolutions and are still yet not readily applicable. Out of the RANS

models, the two equations models are widely used to solve fluid mechanics problems.

These models effectively solve the 3D problems without compromising the accuracy of

solution[9].

Most of the fluid mechanics analysis effort is partially flowfield and partially

geometry. Aerodynamicists spend most of their time in using advance algorithms to define

geometry and grid creation which are used by flowfield solver. That’s why the grid creation

about complex geometries is very important part of computational fluid dynamics as it

effects the accuracy of results to great extent. Two types of grid is commonly used:

Structured grid

Unstructured grid/Mesh

The structured grid is basically a set of regular pattern of points. However it is

difficult to generate structured grid around complex geometries, that’s why another

approach is used to generate grid around very complicated geometries. This approach uses

irregular patterns of different types of grid cells that generates the grind around the

geometry. This is called unstructured grid. In general, unstructured grids are often referred

as a mesh. It has become increasingly popular now a days because it can easily be created

around complex geometries in relatively shorter time. Different types of mesh cells are

below:

Tetrahedron

Prism

Pyramid

Hexahedron

17

Figure 13. Types of Mesh cells[10]

Now the parameters of grid that will affect solution accuracy will be discussed. One

of the important parameter is location of outer boundary of grid. The location of outer

boundary of grid greatly affect the solution accuracy. Therefore the outer boundaries

should be placed such that these don’t affect the results adversely. A rule of thumb is

usually employed while placing the outer boundaries, the outer boundary must be 10 chords

away from surface of object in three directions; front, top and below. The outer boundary

must be at 20 chords distance behind the object for wake to propagate. However, this is not

a hard and fast rule, so the outer boundary must be determined by user for the problem at

hand.

18

Cell skewness, rotation angle and aspect ratio also greatly affect the solution.

Highly skewed cells usually induce errors due to transformations related inaccuracies. A

rectangular cell has the least transformation errors. Aspect ratio must also be of the order

of one to avoid inaccuracies. However in case of boundary layers, aspect ratio is usually

very high due to very small grid resolution in a perpendicular direction to wall. But as long

as cells are normal to object surface, these inaccuracies are reduced. Also cell are often

aligned parallel to surface wall boundary for accurate solutions. That’s why often

structured grids are used near the surface.

Cell stretching must also be in reasonable range to avoid inaccuracies. A rule of

thumb for cell stretching is that cells that are adjacent to each other must not be differ by

more than 20 percent in lengths. Mathematically[9],

0.8 ≤ δ1 / δ2 ≤ 1.2

Turbulence boundary layer consist of two regions, outer region and inner region.

The inner region has three sublayers[12].

Viscous sublayer

Log layer/Transitional layer

Fully turbulent layer

19

Therefore for good CFD solution, each of these regions and their sublayers must

have points/cells in order to allow for the turbulence model to work effectively (wall layers

models are exception to this). As a rule of thumb there must be more than two or three

cells/points in each layer. The viscous sublayer is very small and most difficult to grid. It

usually starts at the wall and end at y+=10. Therefore for a good way to properly model the

turbulent layer, initial grid point is placed at y+≈1. Then follow the rule of cell stretching

to have a good quality viscous grid[9]. The placement of first grid cell/point away from

wall can be found from following relations:

𝟏.𝟑𝟎𝟏𝟔𝒚+

𝒂𝒗𝒆

Laminar: 𝜟𝒍𝒂𝒎 = 𝑳

𝑹𝒆𝟎.𝟕𝟓

𝑳

𝟎.𝟖𝟕𝟓

(𝟏𝟑.𝟏𝟒𝟔𝟑𝒚+

𝒂𝒗𝒆 )

Turbulent: 𝜟𝒕𝒖𝒓𝒃 = 𝑳

𝑹𝒆𝟎.𝟗𝟎

𝑳

Grid sensitivity is also one of the most important parameter to consider in CFD

analysis. There is still some probability of numerical inaccuracies even if we follow all rule

of thumbs. This is where grid sensitivity comes into scenario. One must keep increasing

the points/cells until the result is no longer affected by further change. The essential point

is grid must be resolving the feature of interests in flow in best possible way[9].

20

3. Design Methodology

For our investigation, both the experimental testing and CFD analysis are necessary. In

order to run CFD analysis we needed to make models of commercially available cars. For

design modelling we chose Catia V5 software. This software was chosen because of its

robust surface modelling features. Catia V5 is used widely in industry due to its superior

modelling capabilities. Catia V5 offers the ability to trace curves and surfaces in three

dimensions.

For our investigation three models were selected Toyota Corolla (2014), Toyota Land

Cruiser 200 (2015) and Suzuki Swift (2012). These models were chosen because they fall

into the three major car categories of Sedan, Sports Utility Vehicle (SUV) and the

Hatchback respectively. Another major reason for selecting these models was that these

are the most commonly found cars in their respective categories in Pakistan. However, due

to similarity in the literature of SUV and Hatchback we decided to pursue first, the SUV

and the Sedan.

Firstly the models were prepared in two dimensions and then the model of SUV was

developed in three dimensions. However, for verification of two dimension model results

the models were extruded and analyzed using CFD analysis.

In ANSYS 16.1 the geometry was imported using SpaceClaim Design Modeler (SCDM).

SCDM was due to its intuitive tools and commands and overall a smooth geometry editing

experience. The next stage was the meshing and the meshing for two dimensional parts

was done using the all triangle mesh method along with inflation boundary layer with a

growth rate of 1.2. For three dimensional bodies, the all triangle method was selected again.

After meshing, the case was setup for two dimensional bodies using k-ε method with

enhanced wall treatment. For three dimensional simulations, standard wall function k-ε

method was used. The simulation was hybrid initialized and run for 200 iterations at a time

the value of scaled residuals were set to 0.01 for the first run. The plots for C¬D and CL

were plotted.

21

References

[2] J. D. Anderson Jr, Fundamentals of Aerodynamics. 1985.

[3] W. Contributors, “Aerodynamics,” Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia., 2018.

[Online]. Available:

https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Aerodynamics&oldid=871208903.

[4] I. Hucho, Aerodynamics of Road Vehicles, vol. 25, no. 1. 1993.

[5] A. D. Young, Boundary Layers. American Institute of Aeronautics and

Astronautics, 1989.

[6] H. Tennekes and J. L. Lumley, A First Course In Turbulence. 1972.

[7] F. Alam et al., “A study of golf ball aerodynamic drag,” in Procedia Engineering,

2011.

[8] H. Lomax, T. Pulliam, D. Zingg, and T. Kowalewski, “Fundamentals of

Computational Fluid Dynamics,” Appl. Mech. Rev., 2002.

[9] R. M. (Russell M. Cummings, S. A. Morton, W. H. (William H. Mason, and D. R.

McDaniel, Applied computational aerodynamics : a modern engineering

approach. .

[10] N. E. Ahmad, Abo-Serie, and Gaylard, “Mesh optimization for ground vehicle

Aerodynamics,” CFD Lett., vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 54–65, 2009.

[11] C. J. Obara and J. E. Lamar, “Overview of the Cranked-Arrow Wing

Aerodynamics Project International,” J. Aircr., vol. 46, no. 2, pp. 355–368, 2009.

[12] ANSYS, “Turbulence Modeling Introduction to ANSYS Fluent,” 2014.

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