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# Solved Example on Design of Slender

## Columns According to EC2

by Ubani Obinna Ranks on July 24, 2017 in Column, Eurocode 2, Reinforced Concrete Design

1.0 Introduction
Loads from slabs and beams are transferred to the foundations through the columns. In typical cases, columns
are usually rectangular or circular in shape. Normally, they are usually classified as short or slender depending
on their slenderness ratio, and this in turn influences their mode of failure.

condition. Eurocode 2 demands that we include the effects of imperfections in structural design of columns.
Column design is covered in section 5.8 of EC2.

## 2.0 Column Slenderness in EC2

Clause 5.8.2 of EN 1992-1-1 deals with members and structures in which the structural behaviour is
significantly influenced by second order effects (e.g. columns, walls, piles, arches and shells). Global second
order effects are more likely to occur in structures with a flexible bracing system.
Column design in EC2 generally involves determining the slenderness ratio (λ), of the member and checking if
it lies below or above a critical value λlim. If the column slenderness ratio lies below (λlim), it can simply be
designed to resist the axial action and moment obtained from an elastic analysis, but including the effect of
geometric imperfections. These are termed first order effects. However, when the column slenderness exceeds
the critical value, additional (second order) moments caused by structural deformations can occur and must
also be taken into account.
So in general, second order effects may be ignored if the slenderness λ is below a certain value λlim.

## λlim = (20.A.B.C)/√n ---------------- (1)

Where:
A = 1/(1 + 0.2ϕef) (if ϕef is not known, A = 0.7 may be used)
B = 1+ 2ω (if ω is not known, B = 1.1 may be used)
C = 1.7 - rm (if rm is not known, C = 0.7 may be used)
Where; ϕef = effective creep ratio (0.7 may be used)
ω = Asfyd / (Acfcd); mechanical reinforcement ratio;
As is the total area of longitudinal reinforcement
n = NEd / (Acfcd); relative normal force
rm = M01/M02; moment ratio
M01, M02 are the first order end moments, |M02| ≥ |M01|

If the end moments M01 and M02 give tension on the same side, rm should be taken positive (i.e. C ≤ 1.7),
otherwise negative (i.e. C > 1.7). For braced members in which the first order moments arise only from or
predominantly due to imperfections or transverse loading rm should be taken as 1.0 (i.e. C = 0.7).

Also, clause 5.8.3.1(2) says that for biaxial bending, the slenderness criterion may be checked separately for
each direction. Depending on the outcome of this check, second order effects (a) may be ignored in both
directions, (b) should be taken into account in one direction, or (c) should be taken into account in both
directions.
3.0 Solved Example
Let us consider the structure shown below. The effects of actions on column member BC is as shown below. It
is required to design the column using the following data;
fck = 25 N/mm2, fyk = 460 N/mm2, Concrete cover = 35mm

## Second moment of area of beam AB = (0.3 × 0.63)/12 = 0.0054 m4

Stiffness of beam AB (since E is constant) = 4I/L = (4 × 0.0054) / 6 = 0.0036
Second moment of area of column BC = (0.3 × 0.63)/12 = 0.0054 m4
Stiffness of column BC (since E is constant) = 4I/L = (4 × 0.0054)/7.5 = 0.00288

Remember that we will have to reduce the stiffness of the beams by half to account for cracking;

## Therefore, k1 = 0.00288/0.0018 = 1.6

Since the minimum value of k1 and k2 is 0.1, adopt k1 as 1.6. Let us take k2 as 1.0 for base designed to resist
moment.

## Radius of gyration i = h/√12 = 600/√12 = 173.205

Slenderness ratio λ = 6071/173.205 = 35.051

## Critical Slenderness for the x-direction</p>

λlim = (20.A.B.C)/√n
A = 0.7
B = 1.1
C = 1.7 - M01/M02 = 1.7 - (-210/371) = 2.266

## n = NEd / (Ac fcd)

NEd = 3500 × 103 N
Ac = 300 × 600= 180000 mm2
fcd = (αcc fck)/1.5 = (0.85 × 25)/1.5 = 14.167 N/mm2
n = (3500 × 103) / (180000 × 14.167) = 1.3725

## λlim = (20 × 0.7 × 1.1 × 2.266 )/√1.3725 = 29.786

Since 29.786 < 35.051, second order effects need to be considered in the design

Design Moments
MBot = 210 KNm, MTop = 371 KNm
ei is the geometric imperfection = (θi l0/2) = [(1/200) × (6071/2)] = 15.1775 mm
eiNEd = 15.1775 × 10-3 × 3500 = 53.121 KNm

## First order end moment

M01 = MBot + eiNEd = -210 + 53.121 = -156.879 KNm
M02 = MTop + eiNEd = 371 + 53.121 = 424.121 KNm

## Equivalent first order moment M0Ed

M0Ed = (0.6M02 + 0.4M01) ≥ 0.4M02 = 0.4 × 424.121 = 169.648 KNm
M0Ed= (0.6 × 424.121 - 0.4 × 156.879) = 191.721 KNm

## Nominal second order moment M2

Specified concrete cover = 35mm
Diameter of longitudinal steel = 32 mm
Diameter of links = 10 mm

## Thus, the effective depth (d) = h – Cnom - ϕ/2 - ϕlinks

d = 600 – 35 – 16 – 10 = 539 mm

1/r0 = εyd/(0.45 d)
εyd = fyd/Es = (460 /1.15) / (200 × 103) = 0.002
1/r0 = 0.002/(0.45 × 539) = 8.2457 × 10-6

## β = 0.35 + fck/200 - λ/150 (λ is the slenderness ratio)

β = 0.35 + (25/200) – (35.051/150) = 0.2413

## Kϕ = 1 + βϕef ≥ 1.0 (ϕef is the effective creep ratio, assume 0.87)

Kϕ = 1 + (0.2413 × 0.87) = 1.2099 ≥ 1.0
Assume Kr = 0.8
1/r = Kr.Kϕ. 1/r0 = 0.8 × 1.2099 × 8.2457 × 10-6 = 7.981 × 10-6

## Design Moment MEd

MEd = maximum of {M0Ed + M2; M02; M01 + 0.5M2}
MEd = maximum of {191.721 + 102.954 = 294.675 kNm; 424.121 kNm; -156.879 + (0.5 × -102.954) = -
208.356 kNm}

## Longitudinal Steel Area

d2 = Cnom + ϕ/2 + ϕlinks
d2 = 35 + 16 + 10 = 61 mm

## d2/h = 61/600 = 0.1016

Reading from chart No 2; d2/h = 0.10;
MEd/(fck bh2) = (424.121 × 106) / (25 × 300 × 6002) = 0.1571
NEd/(fck bh) = (3500 × 103) / (25 × 300 × 600) = 0.777

## From the chart, (AsFyk)/(bhfck) = 0.53

Area of longitudinal steel required (As) = (0.53 × 25 × 300 × 600)/460 = 5185 mm2

## Provide 6X32 + 2X20 (ASprov = 5452 mm2)

As,min = (0.1 NEd)/fyd = (0.1 × 3500 × 1000) / 400 = 875mm2, 0.002bh = 0.002 × 300 × 600 = 360 mm2
As,max = 0.04bh = 0.04 × 300 × 600 = 7200 mm2