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Introduction to Total Quality Management

Total quality management (TQM) is a set of opinions and ideas for improving the
quality of products or services, which widely called “management philosophy”.

 Its main aims are to satisfy customers and survive in the market . Without
doubt, quality experts (gurus) had the significant roles to expend and
transform the concept of quality from a mere technical system to a broader
body of knowledge known as total quality with management implications in
production .
 Historically, TQM was first emerged by the contributions of quality gurus, such
as Deming and Juran in Japan after Second World War.
 Then Crosby, Feigenbaum, Ishikawa, and others had developed this powerful
management technique for improving business quality within the
 During the period 1980s to 1990s, many national and international quality
awards (QAs) have been established to provide guidelines for implementing
TQM based on the suggestions and theories of TQM gurus

Who is a quality guru?

Guru means a “respected teacher”, “spiritual leader”, “good person”, a wise person
who in his field has not only made a great contribution and innovation, but also a
large-scale revolution. People who have established themselves and profiled
philosophical trends in quality, are the gurus of quality. The gurus extensively made
substantial contribution to quality management by their theories in improving
quality. TQM techniques and tools could be innovated by these theories. As
demonstrated in Table 1, each of these pioneers provided foundational building
blocks for a systematic method to focus on total quality management .

In this document we are focusing on W.E DEMING.

W. Edwards Deming: The Story of a Truly Remarkable Person

Deming was born in 1900 and died in 1993. Almost up to his death he was
unbelievably active in promoting quality. He never established an “institute” or
school like other quality gurus but, for the most part, was in the private consulting
business working out of Washington, D.C. He has probably had more influence on
American business than any other person except, perhaps, Fredric Taylor. Fortunately,
much of what Deming taught overturned the “unthinking worker” approach of Taylor.

His Most Famous Rule:

EARLY LIFE and Works

 Deming was a professor of statistics at New York University's graduate school
of business administration (1946–1993), and taught at Columbia University's
graduate school of business (1988–1993).
 He also was a consultant for private business. In 1927, Deming was introduced
to Walter A. Shewhart of the Bell Telephone Laboratories by C.H. Kunsman of
the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA).
 Deming found great inspiration in the work of Shewhart, the originator of the
concepts of statistical control of processes and the related technical tool of the
control chart, as Deming began to move toward the application of statistical
methods to industrial production and management. Shewhart's idea of
common and special causes of variation led directly to Deming's theory of
management. Deming saw that these ideas could be applied not only to
manufacturing processes, but also to the processes by which enterprises are
led and managed.
 This key insight made possible his enormous influence on the economics of
the industrialized world after 1950


In 1960, the Prime Minister of Japan (Nobusuke Kishi), acting on behalf of Emperor
Hirohito, awarded Deming Japan's Order of the Sacred Treasure, Second Class. The
citation on the medal recognizes Deming's contributions to Japan's industrial rebirth
and its worldwide success. The first section of the meritorious service record
describes his work in Japan:[17]

 1947, Rice Statistics Mission member

 1950, assistant to the Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers
 Instructor in sample survey methods in government statistics

The second half of the record lists his service to private enterprise through the
introduction of epochal ideas, such as quality control and market survey techniques.
Among his many honors, an exhibit memorializing Deming's contributions and his
famous Red Bead Experiment is on display outside the board room of the American
Society for Quality. He was inducted into the Automotive Hall of Fame in 1991.

Demings contributions:

These are Deming’s basic teachings:

• The chain reaction: quality, productivity, lower costs, capture the market

• Productivity viewed as a system

• The Fourteen Points for transformation of management

• The Seven Deadly Diseases

• The Plan, Do, Study, Act (PDSA) Cycle

• The Red Bead experiment

• The Funnel experiment and The system of profound knowledge

1.The chain reaction: quality, productivity, lower costs, capture the market.

This teaching is illustrated by the following Figure. With improved quality,

productivity increases and costs go down. Therefore, you are able to sell a better
product for less and capture more of the market. This means that you will stay in
business, grow, and be able to provide “job and more jobs.”

2,Productivity viewed as a system:

This idea of considering the supplier and customer as part of your productionsystem
was quite revolutionary at the time and, even, today, is not practiced as much as it
should be. Too often the supplier and customer are thought of as separate and even
“competing” entities from whom maximum advantage is to be obtained by hook or
by crook. Despite all the efforts to inculcate systems thinking into management
practices over the last thirty to forty years, too many managers still don’t think this

3. The Fourteen Points for transformation of management.

Deming believed deeply that “85 percent” of all quality problems is belonged to
management, “quality improvement” can just be happened by management action
to change the process. The rest is “15 percent” of the quality problems that can be
led to solve by the “workers on the floor or operator level” .

He published a book entitled “Out of the Crisis” in 1986, that revealed his “14 points
of system at all levels” or steps to achieve quality.. The 14 points of Deming's
management principles help leading companies in obtaining quality improvement,
that are summarized as following 10 points .

1. “Create constancy of purpose for improvement of product and service”: this

point is considered sustainable promotion the product and service by long
term strategy.

2. “Adopt the new philosophy”: Adopting new methods and ways for improving

3. “Cease dependence on mass inspection to achieve quality”: The point is

emphasized on the maintenance and improvement quality than inspection only;

4. “End practice of awarding business on price tag alone”: It argues that basis of
bid awarding must be on quality, not price;

5. “Constantly and forever improve system of production and service”: The point
guides that it is duty of management to find and remove quality continually on
the system;

6. “Institute modern methods of training on the job”: The intention of point is to

upgrade every employee that could be equipped by enough knowledge and skills;

7. “Institute modern methods of supervision”: The responsibility of foremen

must be changed from numbers to quality;

8. “Drive out fear”: That staffs can have enough relaxation and motivation to do
their works effectively;

9. “Break down barriers between staff areas and departments”: The point is
intended for the importance of teamwork;

10. “Eliminate numerical goals for the workforce”: Removing slogans, posters
and exhortation for the workforce asking for new levels of productivity without
providing methods.
11. “Eliminate work standards, management by objective and numerical
quotes”: This point is purely emphasized on quality concept and its improvement
than techniques and standards;

12. “Remove barriers that stand between the hourly worker and his right to pride
of workmanship”: Eliminating defective materials, low level of equipments and
machinaris, inefficient techniques, and lack of management support, and etc.

13. “Institute vigorous programme of education and training”: The aim of this
point is to update the employees for being ready to improve quality continuously,

14. “Create a structure in top management that will push every day on above 13
points”: This point emphasizes on high responsibility of top management
commitment to lead others for quality

Deming believed his fourteen points of management principles is a good instruction

for the companies to improve quality and reduce theirexpenses, because low quality
makes rework, defects, and to loss the abilityof the company to compete in the
market. As mentioned Deming always emphasized to reinforcement of top
management and management members to overcome. That is why he noted many
times regarding “Seven Deadly Diseases” of management that can cause hug
challenges and problems for the company. Deming argued that “each disease was a
barrier to the effective implementation of his philosophy” . His “Seven Deadly
Diseases” can be described as follows :

1. Lack of constancy of purpose to plan product and service that will have a
market and keep the company in business, and provide jobs;

2. Emphasis on short-term profits;

3. Employing personal review systems, or evaluation of performance, merit rating,

annual review, etc. for people in management, the effects of which are

4. The mobility of management (Job-Hopping by managers);

5. Use of visible figures only for management, with little or no consideration of

figures that are unknown or unknowable;

6. Excessive medical costs, and;

7. Excessive costs of liability driven up by lawyers who work on contingency fees.

4 .The Plan, Do, Study, Act (PDSA) Cycle

.He believed that adoption of, and action on, the fourteen points was a signal that
management intended to stay in business. Deming also encouraged a systematic
approach to problem solving and promoted the widely known Plan, Do, Check, Act
(PDCA) cycle. The PDCA cycle is also known as the Deming cycle, although it was
developed by a colleague of Deming, Dr Shewhart.

It is a universal improvement methodology, the idea being to constantly improve, and

thereby reduce the difference between the requirements of the customers and the
performance of the process. The cycle is about learning and ongoing improvement,
learning what works and what does not in a systematic way; and the cycle repeats;
after one cycle is complete, another is started.

5. The system of profound knowledge.

The explication of this system seemed to be Deming’s swan song — something that
tied together all of his former teachings into a neat package that consisted of four

1. Appreciation for a system

2. Knowledge about variation,

3. Theory of knowledge, and

4. Psychology.
It is important to note that these four elements must be used together to truly affect
the transformation of management they are meant to affect.

The purpose of this document has been to provide a brief biography of Dr. W.
Edwards Deming. In doing so it has traced his activities through seven stages of his
long and prodigious productive life, briefly reviewed his main teachings, and
attempted to describe his personality by considering the roles he played as a student,
teacher/academician, consultant, friend, and person

 Austenfeld, R. B., Jr. (1996, March). Benchmarking. Papers of the Research

Society ofCommerce and Economics–Hiroshima Shudo University, pp. 197–
 Austenfeld, R. B., Jr. (2001, March). Deming’s System of Profound Knowledge.
Papers of the Research Society of Commerce and Economics–Hiroshima Shudo
 Barry, D. (1992). Dave Barry Does Japan. New York: Ballantine Books.
 Britannica home page (2000) ( under Deming, W.