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IJAL 1 (2) (2016)

International Journal of Active Learning

Effectiveness of Learning Based Problem Solving with Aspect

Ontology, Epistemology, Axiology to Increase Critical Thinking
Ability and Understanding Thermochemical Concept of Students

Afadil Afadill  Suyono Suyono2, Sri Poedjiastoeti3

Department of Chemistry Education, Faculty of Education, Tadulako University, Indonesia
Doctoral Science Education, State University of Surabaya, Surabaya, Indonesia
State University of Surabaya, Surabaya, Indonesia

Info Articles Abstract

___________________ ____________________________________________________________
History Articles: This study is part of a development of problem solving learning model with aspects of
Received 5 August 2016 ontology, epistemology, and axiology (Model PS-TRILOGI) to improve critical thinking
Approved 19 September 2016 skills and student understanding of Thermochemistry concepts. These objectives can be
Published 25 October 2016 achieved if the model PS-TRILOGI is valid, practical, and effective. The study design
___________________ followed the Research and Development. The effectiveness of the model PS-TRILOGI
Keywords: assessed by observers and implemented through the instrument test critical thinking skills
Model PS-TRILOGI, and understanding of Thermochemistry concepts at 33 students in Chemistry Education
Effectiveness, critical thinking, Studies of Tadulako University. The results obtained showed that the percentage of
understanding of the positive responses given by students is very high due sense of excitement, novelty,
Thermochemistry concept interest, and support learning media are respectively 94.95%; 90.91%; 90.91% and
_______________________ 96.97%. Indicators that measure critical thinking skills is the interpretation, analysis,
inference, and self-regulation. N-gain value for the indicator interpretation, analysis, and
self-regulation in middle category of 0.5; while indicators inference at the high category
of 0.7. Understanding of the Thermochemistry concept 13 students has a value n-gain of
0.8 to a high category. Based on the results obtained show that the model PS-TRILOGI
is effective.

How to Cite
Afadil, A., Suyono, S., & Poedjiastoeti, S. (2016). Effectiveness of Learning Based
Problem Solving with Aspect Ontology, Epistemology, Axiology to Increase Critical
Thinking Ability and Understanding Thermochemical Concept of Students. International
Journal of Active Learning, 1(2), 66-74 .

© 2016 Universitas Negeri Semarang

Address correspondence: p-ISSN 2528-505X
Jl. Soekarno Hatta KM. 9, Kota Palu, Sulawesi Tengah

Afadil et al. / International Journal of Active Learning 1 (2) (2016)

INTRODUCTION chemistry with the aspect of epistemology of

science can foster students' critical thinking skills
The chemistry is acquired and developed (Afadil, 2014).
generally based on experiments involving skills According to Effendy (2014), the
and reasoning for the answer to the question of fundamental problem in chemistry learning
what, how, and to what natural phenomena today are (1) obtaining an understanding of
associated with the properties of matter, the chemical by learners is not intact, and (2) are not
structure of a substance, a substance changes, optimal development of higher order thinking
laws, principles describe a substance changes, skills (higher order of thinking skills = HOTS).
concepts, and theories that explain the change of Learning is not fundamentally produces
substance. When viewed from the side of the incomplete understanding and less potential for
philosophy of science, the concepts in the developing students' higher level thinking skills
sciences (including chemistry) refers to the three (HOTS) learners. Further explained that in order
questions, namely questions relating to aspects to carry out the chemistry learning in
of ontology, epistemology, and axiology. This accordance with the demands of Curriculum
suggests that the high-level thinking skills 2013 is required: (1) understanding of chemical
including critical thinking skills have an materials fundamentally by teachers, (2) the
important role to understand the material ability of teachers to exploit the subject matter to
chemistry (Chandrasegaran, Treagust & improve the character and HOTS learners, and
Mocerino, 2007). (3) the ability of teachers making optimal use of
Critical thinking skills are necessary ICT in learning.
thinking skills of students in making decisions The fundamental essence of this learning
that are reliable and responsible, investigate model developed is a form of chemical problems
problems, asking questions, giving new answers, penyuguhan authentic and meaningful to the
find information, and draw conclusions students to be solved through fundamental
(Schafersman, 1991). The results of the study assessment cooperatively to help improve critical
conducted on students of the fifth semester at the thinking skills and student understanding of
University FKIP Tadulako (Afadil, 2013), concepts. PS-TRILOGI models is one model of
obtained a general description that the level of learning which is based on different stages of
critical thinking skills of students for all learning are identification difficulties, problem-
assessment criteria the highest was 80.8% (a solving plan, the implementation plan,
score of 42 out of a maximum score of 52) and communicate, checking back, and evaluation
the most low 48.1% (a score of 25 out of a with the aim to improve critical thinking skills
maximum score of 52) with the average of the and student understanding of chemical concepts.
overall sample was 64.6%. This indicates that Study concept in which students overcome
the level of critical thinking skills of students of difficulties to solve the problem referring to the
Chemical Education FKIP Tadulako against questions relating to aspects of ontology
Thermochemical material is still relatively low. (definitions, theory/law, for example, the
Nevertheless, according to Eggen & Kauchak existence of, and the similarities/differences),
(2012) that the students' critical thinking skills aspects of epistemology (the background,
can be improved through learning in the methods/procedures, relations and difficulties),
classroom. This is because learning is the result and aspects of axiology (the meaning and
of thinking. Their retention, understanding, and benefits).
active use of knowledge can be created through Characteristics of this model is formulated
the learning experience in which students learn based on the study of theory and analysis at the
to think about what and how to study it. Further preliminary stage and development. PS-
explained that through the application of TRILOGI models are developed based on the
problem solving steps in the learning of characteristics of a learning model according to

Afadil et al. / International Journal of Active Learning 1 (2) (2016)

Arends (1997), which gives an overview there Thermochemical concepts under the rubric of
are at least four (4) specific characteristics of a critical thinking skills, (c) calculating the values
learning model, namely: (1) rational logical obtained (N) by dividing the score of each
compiled theoretical designer, (2) the rationale student with a maximum score multiplied by
of the learning objectives to be achieved and 100.
how learners to achieve these objectives, (3) the Determine the categories of critical
activity of teachers and learners are required so thinking skills and understanding of the concept
the model is applied effectively, and (4) the of students in each concept by matching the
learning environment needed to achieve the value obtained every student with learning
learning objectives. The quality of the resulting achievement levels are set (an adaptation of
model design based on three criteria (Nieveen, Gronlund, 1996) as follows:
2007). The first is the validity, which include 85% ≤ N=Very High
relevance (content validity) and consistency 75% ≤ N < 85%=High
(construct validity). Second is the practicality, 60% ≤ N < 75%=Medium
the design study model developed can be applied 40 ≤ N < 60=Low
in real field. Third is the effectiveness, namely N < 40=Very Low
the implementation of learning model in the Category critical thinking skills and
field to deliver the result destination. student understanding of concepts expressed
either category if the level of every student
METHODS minimal medium and high. Changes in critical
thinking skills and student understanding of
The design used in this research is the concepts Thermochemical determined through
design of research and development. The calculation of the N-gain (gain normalized)
effectiveness of the model PS-TRILOGI is a obtained by the students before and after
measure of the quality of the learning model implementation of the model PS-TRILOGI
related to the objectives to be achieved in its (Hake, 2002).
development, namely improving critical thinking
skills and student understanding of concepts. PS- RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
TRILOGI model is said to be effective if it is
able to achieve these goals is measured through One of the requirements is to have quality
a sheet of response, critical thinking skills test, learning model effectiveness or capable of
and test understanding of Thermochemistry achieving its development objectives. Devices
concepts. used to assess the effectiveness of the model
Indicators of critical thinking skills are TPS-TRILOGI is a sheet questionnaire
assessed in this study is the interpretation, responses, critical thinking skills test instruments
analysis, inference, and self-regulation. Students' and test instruments student understanding of
understanding of the concept of Thermochemical concepts.
Thermochemical include the level of student
understanding of Thermochemical concepts Data Questionnaire Student Response to the
tested and apply them to the concrete situation. Implementation Model PS-TRILOGI
Ratings critical thinking skills and student Student response questionnaire prepared
understanding of concepts expressed in for the purpose of determining the response or
percentages. Steps of data analysis are as responses of students to learning activities.
follows: (a) to recapitulate the results of pretest Aspects of student response assessment consists
and posttest assessment of each student on the of four aspects, namely: (a) a sense of happy
Thermochemistry material, (b) calculate the feeling to the learning component, (b) student
scores obtained by each student in the critical opinion on the novelty of learning, (c) student
thinking skills and understanding of interest in participating in learning activities

Afadil et al. / International Journal of Active Learning 1 (2) (2016)

with the same model, and (d) student response Students Data of Critical Thinking Skills
media support used. The results of the four Critical thinking skills that are measured
aspects are: in the subject matter Thermochemical through
pretest, posttest, and the results obtained at each
learning. The results of the determination of the
category of students' critical thinking skills are
presented in Table 1.

Table 1. Percentage of Each Student Critical

Thinking Skills Indicators After Implementation
Figure 1. Data Response Students Provide Model PS-TRILOGI
Answers To The Happy feeling, Novelty, Number of
N Categ Percentage (%)
Interests, and Media Support of Implementation Students
o ory
Very 0.0 0.0 51. 0.0
Based on Figure 1, the students gave a
1 0 0 17 0
High 0 0 52 0
positive response to the expressed sense of fun, 0.0 12. 48. 9.0
new, interest and media support related
2 High 0 4 16 3
0 12 48 9
components and activities implemented in Medi 96. 87. 0.0 90.
application of the model PS-TRILOGI are at
3 32 29 0 30
um 97 88 0 91
very high category, ie 94.95%; 90.91%; 90.91% 3.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
and 96.97%. The reason given by students
4 Low 1 0 0 0
3 0 0 0
include: (1) Thermochemical materials that were Very 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
easy to understand, not a lot of complex
5 0 0 0 0
Low 0 0 0 0
calculations, given the material studied in depth 100 100 100 100
so as to provide a good understanding, learning Total 33 33 33 33 .00 .00 .00 .00
material interesting because it is supported by Information:
the medium of learning, learning environment, A = interpretation C = inference
and the way professors teach well, (2) the B = analysis D=self-regulation
material contained in LKM is done through
learning software, which is varied and profound Based on the data in Table 1 it appears
question is that has never been found while in that in general increased to the category of
high school, (3) lesson activities help hone the medium, high and very high. The increase was
ability to remember and learn the concepts that achieved through improving the understanding
have been acquired during high school, increase and activities of students answer questions in
motivation in learning, and help improve critical LKM at every learning demanded reviewing
thinking skills, (4) the use of media in learning aspects of the concept by answering questions of
activities to help students improve their ontology, epistemology, and axiology. The
understanding of the material Thermochemistry. magnitude of changes in students' critical
Utilization of learning software is very thinking skills is one indicator of the
interesting in learning activities because it leads effectiveness of the model PS-TRILOGI is
to a serious student, focus, and timely in determined by calculating the N-gain (gain
resolving the problem. normalized). N-gain calculation value for
Thermochemical material presented in Figure 2.

Afadil et al. / International Journal of Active Learning 1 (2) (2016)

Training Concept Category

Concept (%)
Changes in
enthalpy of 73 15 9 3 0
Figure 2. Values of N-Gain Critical Thinking
Calorimeter 78 13 6 2 1
Skills Students on Thermochemistry Materials
enthalpy 64 21 15 0 0
Based on Figure 2 shows that the value of
N-gain critical thinking skills of students in
Hess Law 62 21 14 2 2
Thermochemical material is in the range of 0.5
to 0.7. These results suggest that the ability of The formation
interpretation, analysis, and self-regulation of enthalpy change 76 8 12 2 3
students in middle category, inference abilities of Standard
students at the high category. That is, the Energy
application of the model PS-TRILOGI led to a Association 84 5 4 4 3
good increase of the students' ability to interpret, Average
analyze, self-regulation, and led to an increase in
very well to the ability of students do inverensi. Based on data from Table 2 shows that, in
general category student understanding of
Results Test Data Concept Training Student concepts in materials Thermochemical increased
Understanding the concept of student after implementation of the model PS-
Thermochemical measured by administering the TRILOGI. Analysis of changes in student
test before and after the application of learning understanding of concepts Thermochemical can
models. Percentage category Thermochemistry be determined by calculating the N-gain (gain
student understanding of the concept after normalized) obtained by the students before and
implementation of the model PS-TRILOGI after implementation of the model. The result of
presented in Table 2. the calculation of the value of n-gain every
concept is presented in Figure 3.
Table 2. Percentage Category Concept Training
Thermochemical Students After Implementation
Training Concept Category
Concept (%)
System 73 9 12 6 0
Heat 79 6 12 0 3 Figure 3 shows that the general
Changes in understanding of the concept of student
75 15 5 4 1
enthalpy Thermochemical increased after application of
Thermochemist learning models. This is evidenced from the 13
76 15 7 2 0
ry Reaction concepts tested obtaining the average value of
Work 73 15 9 3 0 the N-gain in the high category. That is, the
Energy Changes application of the model PS-TRILOGI led to
76 15 5 5 0 excellent improvement of the understanding of
Combustion the students Thermochemical concept.
enthalpy 80 14 5 2 0

Afadil et al. / International Journal of Active Learning 1 (2) (2016)

Discussion he responses given by the students

One of the requirements of quality depending on student interest in learning to
learning model is as effective or capable of follow. Comments given by students associated
achieving its development objectives (Nieveen, with interest following the lecture by using the
2007). According to Jakobsen, Eggen, & model PS-TRILOGI shows serious attention to
Kauchak (2009) that effective learning can occur learn something new. According to Syah (1999)
when learners are actively involved in there are two factors that affect the interest of
organizing and finding relationships through the learners following study, namely: (1) The
provision of information provided feedback. The intrinsic factor; things and circumstances that
results of these activities not only enhance the come from within his own self-learners who can
students understanding of the learning material push action learning, please include the feeling
but also involves thinking skills. of the material and the need for such material,
(2) extrinsic factors; things and circumstances
Students Response that come from outside the individual learners
Response was defined as a form of are also encouraged her to do learning activities,
readiness in determining a positive or negative includes praise, reward, learning environment,
attitude towards the object or situation that is and how to teach.
shown through the perception and participation The positive response given by the
(Gie, 1998). Student response with arguments students associated with the support of the
against the components and learning activities media in helping students perform a concept
written in the questionnaire. The results study with aspects of ontology, epistemology,
obtained on the implementation of the study and axiology and improve critical thinking skills
showed that in general the students give positive in accordance with the indicators specified in
response to the application of the model PS- resolving the problem. This is illustrated by the
TRILOGi in Thermochemistry learning. results shown by the students through activities
Positive responses given by students of the during the learning process. Activities
components and the learning activity indicates undertaken by the student is not in spite of the
that students have a high interest in learning. high interest, passion and motivation in
According to Gie (1998) that facilitate the learning. Student Activities LKM working in
achievement of the concentration of interest in earnest show their intrinsic motivation. Intrinsic
one's mind and concentration on an object. motivation is the behavior exhibited by a person
Interest causes someone did attempt to driven internally by interest and curiosity alone
approach, know, own, control, or associated or for pleasure gained from an experience
with the object. Good feelings shown by (Arends, 2008).
students towards learning component is
inseparable from the lecturer's ability to motivate The Critical Thinking Skills of Students
students by building a fun learning environment. Critical thinking skills is an ability that is
his is in accordance opinions Arends (2008), not innate (Schafersman, 1991). Critical thinking
which explains that the attributes associated skills, including the ability to be taught so that
with motivation emphasized the importance of these skills can be learned (Halpern, 1999;
building a learning environment that is fun, Garratt, Overton, Tomlinson, and Clow, 2000;
harmless and safe, which at a certain level Robbins, 2005). Based on the above opinion, the
learners have self-determination and learners should be given meaningful experiences
responsibility for their own learning. Attitude for learning in order to me¬ngembangkan
and orientation of teachers in certain learning critical thinking skills. That is, teachers are
situations have a considerable influence on the obliged to condition pembelajar¬an so that
response of students to a variety of learning learners are able to develop intelligence and
situations. critical thinking skills. Indicators of critical

Afadil et al. / International Journal of Active Learning 1 (2) (2016)

thinking skills achieved in this research is the the model PS-TRILOGI able to foster critical
ability of students interpretation, analysis, thinking skills of students, especially the ability
inference, and self-regulation. of inference in resolving the problem.
Interpretation of the result of thinking is Self-regulation is the awareness that is
based on a particular view as a starting point owned in the control of a person's cognitive
(Facione, 2013). The results obtained by the activities, which resulted in deductions,
student in accordance with the description given particularly in applying the skills to analyze for
by Fisher (2009), which explains that critical consideration by way of questioning, to make
thinking requires the ability of interpretation and sure, validate or correct the reasoning of others
evaluation of observation, communication, and (Facione, 2013). The results obtained by the
sources of other information, but it also requires student in accordance with the explanation put
skills in thinking of assumptions, in the filed forward by Kheng (2008) that self-regulation is
relevant questions, and in drawing implications. defined as the ability to identify and analyze for
According Facione (2013), the analysis is consideration by way of questioning, to make
the ability to identify relationships things are sure, validate or correct the reasoning of others.
expected with tangible evidence, eg statements, Based on the above it can be concluded that the
questions, concepts, description, evidence, activities of student conduct studies with aspects
experience, information, and opinions. Ability of the concept of ontology, epistemology, and
gained students in accordance with the opinion axiology on the application of the model PS-
expressed by Kheng (2008) that analyzes as one trilogy slowly able to foster critical thinking
indicator of the ability of critical thinking is the skills of students, especially the ability of self-
ability to determine the parts making up a regulation to solve the problem.
statement, question, concepts, description or
other purposes to disclose the information and Thermochemistry Concept Training of
make a further explanation in deciding and Students
implementing appropriate actions destination. Comprehension involves many processes
Therefore, it can be concluded that the activities that requires thinking, as explained, finding
of student conduct studies with aspects of the evidence, justifying thoughts, give additional
concept of ontology, epistemology, and axiology examples, generalization, and connecting the
on the application of the model PS-TRILOGI is parts to the whole (Brasford in Jacobsen, Eggen,
able to enhance the critical thinking skills of & Kauchak 2009). The ability of understanding
students especially analytical skills in problem of the concept in this study was measured
solving. through students' ability to use the concepts,
According Facione (2013), the inference is principles, theories, and laws Thermochemistry
a process to interpret and summarize in solving the problem indicated by the test
information in order to achieve the goal. The scores of students understanding of the
ability demonstrated by the student in Thermochemistry concept.
accordance with the opinion expressed by Students are encouraged to understand
Kheng (2008) that the inference is the ability to the basic applications Thermochemical materials
identify and ensure the elements required to in everyday life, requires students to have the
describe the reasons in making inferences, skills of analysis, and measure the energy
forming predictions and / or hypotheses, adjust generated by the reaction as heat by the
tactics and strategy taking into account the condition (Atkins, 1999). This is consistent with
information in the form of data, statement, the explanation put forward by Gagne that the
principles and concepts. herefore, it can be ability to distinguish a prerequisite for studying
concluded that the activities of the students the concept. The concept may contain
review the concepts with aspects of ontology, information which is significant in related or
epistemology, and axiology on the application of have a relationship with another concept

Afadil et al. / International Journal of Active Learning 1 (2) (2016)

(Ibrahim, 2012). That is, every concept does not Kemampuan Berpikir Kritis Mahasiswa.
stand alone, but related to other concepts, so as Prosiding Seminar Nasional Kimia &
to be able to learn the concept of each person Pendidikan Kimia UNG. Gorontalo: UNG
Pres (Anggota IKAPI).
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representation to describe and explain
conduct studies concepts with aspects of
chemical reactions. School Sciences
ontology, epistemology, and axiology described
in LKM is helping students improve Effendy, (2014). Pembelajaran Kimia Secara
understanding of concepts to solve problems Mendasar untuk Menjawab Tantangan dan
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