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PRACTICAL SESSION (Day/time): Tuesday/1:30pm-3:30pm

NAME: Ngoc Phuong Van Nguyen
ID Student: 101874442

Experiment 3: Titration of Lemon Juice

Results Sheet

Actual concentration of NaOH solution: NaOH (~0.1 M) 0.100 M

Volume of standard flask used for juice dilution: 200cm3

Trial 1 2 3

Initial (cm3) 0 21.40 0 19.90

Final (cm3) 21.40 40.90 19.90 39.60

Titre (cm3) 21.40 19.50 19.90 19.70

Average titre of ~0.1 M NaOH = 19.70  0.2* cm3

* Note that the error recorded here is the maximum deviation (or spread) of the
individual titres and the average result. To find it, calculate the difference between
your average titre and whichever individual titre is furthest from the average
(excluding the value that you didn’t use). See page (4) of this practical manual for
more assistance if necessary.

When storing your pipette and burette in your lockers, which way should the tip
be facing?

For the burette, the tip with the petcock valve should be placed into the hole of burette
locker. Make sure that the burette have not been placed precariously, which is avoid to
slip out, fall on the floor and break.

If you’re not confident with your stoichiometry, take the time to discuss your
strategy with your practical demonstrator before you leave the lab.

PRACTICAL SESSION (Day/time): Tuesday/1:30pm-3:30pm

NAME: Ngoc Phuong Van Nguyen
ID Student: 101874442

Experiment 3: Titration of Lemon Juice

To determine the concentration of citric acid in filtered lemon juice by titration with standardised
NaOH solution
A sample of freshly squeezed and filtered lemon juice was quantitatively diluted. Aliquots of the
diluted lemon juice were then titrated against standardised NaOH solution to the
phenolphthalein endpoint.

Citric acid

Determination of the concentration of citric acid in the dilute lemon juice
Concentration of NaOH = 0.100 M
Average volume of NaOH used in the titration = 19.70 mL
Therefore, calculate the number of moles of NaOH consumed in the reaction:
19.70 mL = 0.0197L

nNaOH = cNaOH × VNaOH = 0.100 × 0.0197 = 19.7×10-4 mol

19.7×10-4 mol

Using your answer from the 1st step and the molar ratio for the chemical reaction (shown
above), calculate the number of moles of citric acid titrated by the NaOH:
𝑢𝑛𝑘𝑛𝑜𝑤𝑛 1
ncitric acid = nNaOH × 𝑘𝑛𝑜𝑤𝑛
= 19.7×10-4 × 3 = 6.57 ×10-4 mol
6.57 ×10-4 mol

Volume of dilute lemon juice analysed for each individual titration = 20 mL

Therefore, calculate the concentration of citric acid in the dilute lemon juice sample:
20 mL = 0.020L
6.57×10−4 𝑚𝑜𝑙
ccitric acid = = 3.28 × 10-2 mol/L = 3.28 × 10-2 M
0.020 𝐿

3.28 × 10-2 M

Determination of the concentration of citric acid in the original lemon juice

Now that you know the concentration of citric acid in the dilute lemon juice, use that to
calculate the concentration of citric acid in the original, undiluted lemon juice:
Dilution details:

Original concentration = ? M

Volume of original juice taken for dilution = 20 mL

Dilute concentration = 3.28 × 10-2 M (from previous calculation)

Final volume of dilute juice prepared = 200 mL

𝑐2 𝑉2 200𝑚𝐿 ×3.28 ×10−2 𝑀
𝑐1 = = = 0.328𝑀
𝑉1 20𝑚𝐿

0.328 M

The concentration above tells you the number of moles of citric acid per litre of lemon
juice. Use this to calculate the Percentage composition of lemon juice with respect to
citric acid (w/v).
Hint: %w/v means, how many grams of citric acid would you find in 100 mL of lemon juice?

100mL= 0.1L

Molar mass of citric acid: M=6×12.01+8×1.008+7×16.00=192.124 g/mol

100mL of lemon juice contains:

ncitric acid = cV = 0.1L × 0.328mol/L= 3.28×10-2 mol

mcitric acid = nM = 3.28×10-2 mol × 192.124g/mol =6.30 g
Assuming the density of lemon juice is:𝜌 = = 1.0 g/cm3 =1g/mL

mlemon juice= ρ × V= 1g/mL × 100mL=100g

𝑚 6.30
%w/v=𝑚 𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑟𝑖𝑐 𝑎𝑐𝑖𝑑 = × 100% = 6.30%
𝑙𝑒𝑚𝑜𝑛 𝑗𝑢𝑖𝑐𝑒 100

6.30 %
Before moving on to your discussion, check your calculated results with those on
blackboard. If they don’t match up (within a small margin), go back and look over your
work before you proceed.


Look at the feedback sheet that has been returned to you from your first practical
submission. Consider your strengths and weaknesses from your first report and tell us
how that will influence your approach to completing this report.

The feedback provided by the teachers is an issue that students need to improve to
make the report better. One of the strengths of the first report was the limited use of

first-person subject such as I, we, my. This is also a point that needs to be maintained for

subsequent reports. However, there are still some places that use non-scientific words and

this is the problem that should be tried in this report.

In addition, the result is also the losing marks part in the previous report. This shows that it

is necessary to be more careful during the experiment to get the accuracy as high as



When completing the dilution in this experiment, why did we use a bulb pipette and why
did we use a standard flask?

Titration is an analyzing method. In this method, the aim is to determine the

concentration of one solution by using a known concentration of another solution. In
order to get the best precision, it is desirable to use instruments capable of delivering
known volumes with high accuracy. A reaction partner is added to the flask with a
pipette. The other reactant is delivered into the flask using a burette until its end point is
The standard flask is used for the purpose of creating an apparatus that contains a high
accuracy volume in basic experiments as well as complex experiments. With the
structure of a sphere below and tapered upwards, the standard flask ensures that the
volume or the solution is within the permissible range. The dividing line on the standard
flask defines the limits for the user to determine the volume of the interior with coloured
solutions and colourless solutions.

 discussion of the molarity of the lemon juice from the class result (average
concentration, standard deviation) and comparison to your own results
 How does your result compare to the expected range of 4.5 – 6.0% w/v?
 potential causes of error in your result

Applying the above formula to the results of the class, the lemon juice molarity can be
calculated to be 0.331 mol / L. It can be seen that there is no great difference between
individual and collective results, with standard deviation is ± 0.002.

In this experiment, a solution of NaOH of known molarity is used to titrate a

lemon juice to determine the molarity and m/v% of citric acid, or more specifically, the
percentage in grams per 100 mL. The indicator of choice is phenolphthalein, which is
colorless in acidic solution and pink in basic solution. The citric acid percentages could
range from as low as 4.5% to as much as 6.0% (grams per 100 mL). Thus, the value of
6.3% is slightly exceeded; it is most likely the experimental value that is greater than the
actual value. However,
𝑒𝑥𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑣𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒−𝑎𝑐𝑐𝑒𝑝𝑡𝑒𝑑 𝑣𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒 6.3−6
the %error= × 100% = × 100% = 5%, which is smaller
𝑎𝑐𝑐𝑒𝑝𝑡𝑒𝑑 𝑣𝑎𝑘𝑢𝑒 6

than 10%, is generally considered acceptable.

One of the reasons for the error is using an incorrect quantity of a chemical. During
practice, the volume of NaOH can be poured more than the volume required. This is
evidenced by the shade of pink obtained by the group was different from what is
desired. More specifically, the larger the volume of NaOH solution, the color of the
solution becomes pinker. Difference in the pinkness of the titrated solution can affect the
percent yield of the acid. This can make the molarity of the sample fruit juices bigger,
thus making the percent larger. Besides, the lack of experience in reading values from
the measuring instrument is also causes significant slight differences. It is
recommended to wash all apparatuses to be used with distilled water to ensure the
purity of the experiment. It is also recommended that teachers provide a basis for the
light pink term for consensus and generalization.

CONCLUSIONS (answer your aim, include numerical result)

In conclusion, the objective of producing a standardized NaOH solution, calculating the

molarity of citric acid in each sample. It can be clearly seen that the lemon juice was
analyzed successfully through titration. The lemon juice was found to contain 6.3% citric
acid in grams per 100mL. This value represents an error of 5%, assuming that the
range value between 4.5-6%. It shows that there is too much base NaOH in solution.
Overall, reasonably accurate results were found, and the variety of juice was found to
have a much citric acid.

Experiment 3 – Feedback Sheet

Concordance of titres
> ± 0.30 mL < ± 0.30 mL < ± 0.10 mL < ± 0.05 mL
0 1 2 3
Calculation of citric acid in dilute lemon juice
0 1 2 3
Calculation of citric acid in original lemon juice
0 1 2
% composition calculation
0 1 2
Consideration of feedback
0 1 2
Questions regarding choice of glassware
0 1 2
Discussion: Includes potential sources of error, comparison with class
results, discussion of standard deviation, precision and expected results
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4
Conclusion quantitatively answers aim
0 1 2