Simulation of Non-Darcy Flow in Porous Media Including Viscous, Inertial and

© All Rights Reserved

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

1 Aufrufe

Simulation of Non-Darcy Flow in Porous Media Including Viscous, Inertial and

© All Rights Reserved

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

- SPE-102200 Waterflooding Surveillance
- Engineering Design Guideline- Fluid Flow Rev 06
- Basin Modelling
- 2d valve
- Saurabh
- Bearing Cfd
- 3.16
- Spe 71590
- karvounis
- Finite Element Simulation of Dip Coating, I- Newtonian Fluids
- Materi Medflu
- New Microsoft Word Document (3)
- syllabus
- Basic Concepts of Fluid Mechanics
- 55262 nov2011
- Tutorial 7 - DMCF 2213 (Energy Equation)
- Jacketed Vessel Heat Transfer (Half Pipe Coil) – ChE Guide
- Hydraulics 1-2-3.docx
- Lecture 3 Basic Well Completion Concepts
- STEMA

Sie sind auf Seite 1von 7

Frictional Effects

H.A. Belhaj, SPE, K.R. Agha, S.D. Butt and M.R. Islam, SPE / Dalhousie University, Halifax, N.S., Canada

Introduction

This paper was prepared for presentation at the SPE International Improved Oil Recovery A number of physical and petrophysical properties are very

Conference in Asia Pacific held in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 20–21 October 2003.

crucial to determine the economic value of any oil or gas

This paper was selected for presentation by an SPE Program Committee following review of

information contained in an abstract submitted by the author(s). Contents of the paper, as

discovery. Among these properties, porosity, permeability and

presented, have not been reviewed by the Society of Petroleum Engineers and are subject to reservoir pressure are the most critical parameters.

correction by the author(s). The material, as presented, does not necessarily reflect any

position of the Society of Petroleum Engineers, its officers, or members. Papers presented at Consequently, a high degree of accuracy in estimating these

SPE meetings are subject to publication review by Editorial Committees of the Society of

Petroleum Engineers. Electronic reproduction, distribution, or storage of any part of this paper

parameters is required.

for commercial purposes without the written consent of the Society of Petroleum Engineers is

prohibited. Permission to reproduce in print is restricted to an abstract of not more than 300

words; illustrations may not be copied. The abstract must contain conspicuous The principle calculations of fluid flow in reservoirs is based

acknowledgment of where and by whom the paper was presented. Write Librarian, SPE, P.O.

Box 833836, Richardson, TX 75083-3836 U.S.A., fax 01-972-952-9435.

on the precise measurements and predictions of initial

reservoir pressure, current reservoir pressure and well bottom-

hole flowing pressure as they reflect the pattern of energy and

Abstract the potential of producing hydrocarbons from a certain

In this paper a new diffusivity flow equation has been derived reservoir. The transmissibility equation that is fundamentally

to describe fluid flow in porous media including both Darcian used in modern reservoir simulators to predict reservoir

and non-Darcian behaviors. This equation is based on the behavior depends mainly on pressure predictions at any point

fundamental Darcy’s equation, Forchheimer’s equation and of space and time during the life of the reservoir in addition to

Brinkman’s equation. The pressure gradient as predicted by the porosity and permeability of the pay zone. Properties of

the new diffusivity equation includes both viscous terms in reservoir fluids that are necessary for the calculations of

Darcy’s and Brinkman’s equations and the inertial forces term reserves, recovery factors and economic limits can be

in Forchheimer’s equation. Both Forchheimer’s inertial and determined with a great deal of accuracy once the reservoir

Brinkman’s viscous effects are expected to become significant has been discovered and fluid samples are obtained.

at high flow velocity due to the interactions between fluid

layers among themselves and with the media. A numerically The proposed method introduced herein is a new diffusivity

simulated model has been specifically developed based on the equation that not only considers Darcy’s1 equation but it

newly derived partial differential equation. The Crank- includes inertial and viscous forces terms of Forchheimer’s2

Nicholson approximation technique was successfully used to and Brinkman’s3 respectively. The proposed model is

model the newly derived diffusivity equation using suitable expected to represent fluid flow in reservoirs while both

boundary conditions. A wide range of fluid flow and porous Darcian and non-Darcian flow are taking place. The prime

media characteristics has been tested, and predictions of the target is addressing the matrix/fracture flow behavior in oil

numerical model showed very consistent results in all ranges. reservoirs while high flow rates in gas reservoirs are also

included. Keeping away from the elusion of modeling specific

An experimental laboratory program was designed to verify scheme of fractured porous medium system with imposed

the numerical model predictions. Comparison showed fractures frequency, orientation, spacing and aperture that do

excellent agreement between experimental data and the not reflect the real reservoir case, the proposed model is

numerical model predictions. The flow velocity versus general in its implementation and is applicable to all scenarios

pressure gradient profiles resulting from both the numerical that exist in oil and gas reservoirs.

and the experimental programs depicted a great deal of

compatibility. At the non-Darcy region “high velocity”, the It is understood, that the speed of flow (velocity) in porous

inertial forces tend to predict non-linear higher pressure drop media is the source of trouble to the currently used Darcy’s

than the Darcian linear prediction, while the frictional non model since its fundamental assumption is “limiting to low

linear effect holds the pressure gradient closer to the Darcian spatial velocity”4,5. Any variations of flow velocity in porous

trend. The effect of the shift upward from the Darcian linear media would be as a result of fluid properties, rock properties,

trend is much more significant than the shift downward caused pressure drop or any combinations of these factors change.

by the frictional effects. The findings of this study are Therefore, velocity has been used as an indicator of both fluid

expected to be applicable to both gas and oil reservoirs with and media characteristics variation.

no scale-up effort.

2 SPE 84879

Many experimental studies and field evidences show that Non- Substitute Equation (2) into Equation (5):

Darcy behavior would take place in both gas and liquid

reservoirs under practical conditions. It is no secret that the ρ ∂P µ ∂V ∂ρ ∂ 2 ρ ∂V ∂ρ ∂2 ρ

empirical Darcy law is no longer accepted to fully describe + V + ρβV 2 + +V 2 + = −φ (6)

µ ′ ∂X K ∂X ∂X ∂X ∂X ∂X ∂t∂X

fluid flow in porous media. This led the investigation of

modifying Darcy’s equation and deriving better alternative

governing equation that may represent fluid flow in Re-arrange:

porous media.

ρ ∂P ρµ ρ 2 β 2 ∂V ∂ρ ∂2 ρ

In this investigation, a practical and reliable model is + V+ V + +V +

presented to describe Darcian and non-Darcian fluid flow

µ ′ ∂X µ ′K µ′ ∂X ∂X ∂X 2

(7)

behavior in porous media. The model has been numerically ∂V ∂ρ ∂2 ρ

simulated and tested with very encouraging results. Although, = −φ

the model has been designed for single phase linear flow, ∂X ∂X ∂t∂X

modification of this model to cover multi-phase and both

radial and spherical flow is expected to be achieved with the ∂2ρ

Using chain rule for: we get:

same accuracy and less effort. ∂X 2

Governing Equation

∂2ρ ∂ ∂ρ ∂ ∂ρ ∂P

The pressure gradient in the suggested alternative form of = = =

equation is affected by the very well known viscous term in ∂X 2

∂X ∂X ∂X ∂P ∂X

Darcy’s equation, the inertial term in Forchheimer’s equation (8)

∂ ∂P ∂2P

and the second viscous term in Brinkman’s equation that ρC = ρC

describes frictional forces among the layers of flowing fluid ∂X ∂X ∂X 2

and between fluid and the media. The new diffusivity equation

is derived from the simplest form of this equation for single

∂2ρ

phase and linear flow system. The pressure gradient in the X- As well for: we get:

direction can be expressed by the following equation: ∂t∂X

∂P µV ∂ 2V ∂2ρ ∂ ∂ρ ∂ ∂ρ ∂P

=− − ρβ V 2

+ µ′ (1) = = =

∂X K ∂X 2 ∂ t∂ X ∂t ∂X ∂t ∂P ∂X (9)

∂ ∂P ∂2P

Re-arrange: ρC = ρC

∂t ∂X ∂ t∂ X

∂ 2V 1 ∂P µ 2

= + V + ρβ V (2) ∂ρ

∂X 2 µ ′ ∂X K And for: we get:

∂X

We have: ∂ρ ∂ρ ∂P ∂P

= = ρC (10)

∂X ∂P ∂X ∂X

∂ (Vρ ) ∂ρ

= −φ (3)

∂X ∂t 1 ∂ρ

C= (11)

ρ ∂P

∂V ∂ρ ∂ρ

ρ +V = −φ (4)

∂X ∂X ∂t

∂2ρ ∂2ρ ∂ρ

Substitute for , and from Equations (8), (9)

Take the derivative of both sides of Equation (4) with respect ∂X 2

∂t∂X ∂X

to X: and (10) respectively into Equation (7):

∂ 2V ∂V ∂ρ ∂ 2 ρ ∂ρ ∂V ∂2ρ ρ ∂P ρµ ρ 2β 2 ∂V ∂P

ρ + +V + = −φ (5) + V + V + 2 ρC +

∂X 2 ∂X ∂X ∂X 2 ∂X ∂X ∂t∂X µ ′ ∂X µ ′K µ′ ∂X ∂X (12)

∂ P 2

∂ P 2

VρC = − φρ C

∂X 2

∂ t∂ X

SPE 84879 3

− + − V − V −

C µ ∂ X ∂ Y CK Cµ (19)

µ

µ′ = , substitute into Equation (12): V ∂2P ∂2P ∂ ∂P ∂P

φ + = +

φ ∂ X 2 ∂ Y 2 ∂t ∂X ∂Y

ρφ ∂ P ρφ ρ 2 βφ ∂V ∂P

+ V + V 2

+ 2 ρC + Numerical Modeling

µ ∂X K µ ∂X ∂X (13) The mathematical solution for the partial differential equation

∂2P ∂2P (Eq. 19) is very difficult to achieve. Solving this equation

VρC = − φρ C numerically is an obvious alternative. First, Equation (19) has

∂X 2 ∂ t∂ X to be put in a dimensionless form. It contains four partial

derivatives of pressure with respect to X and Y coordinates,

Divide both sides of Equation (13) by − φρ C : two of first order and two of second order. It also contains

another two second derivatives of pressure with respect to

1 ∂P 1 ρβ 2 2 ∂V ∂P both time and X and Y coordinates alternatively. Other

− − V− V − − parameters are considered constants at a particular set of

Cµ ∂X CK Cµ φ ∂X ∂X experiment scheme.

(14)

V ∂2P ∂2P

= The six mentioned partial derivatives have been transformed

φ ∂X 2 ∂t∂X to finite differences. The fully implicit numerical solution of

Carnck-Necoloson6,7 method has been employed to solve

∂V Equation 19 using suitable boundary and initial conditions as

Again, using chain rule for we get: shown in Figure 1. The solution is considered only for a

∂X

steady-state condition. A grid system of 11 x 14 has

∂V ∂V ∂P been used.

= (15)

∂X ∂P ∂X Results and Discussions

The definition that has been adopted in this study is that any

Substitute in Equation (14): behavior that does not follow Darcy’s linear trend is defined as

non-Darcy regardless of the cause of that non-linearity. The

2

1 ∂P 1 ρβ 2 2 ∂V ∂P non-Darcian behavior as such can be caused by a single effect

− − V− V − − or a combination of effects. Forchheimer2 added to Darcy’s

Cµ ∂X CK Cµ φ ∂P ∂X viscous term an inertial term that he believed is responsible for

(16)

V ∂2P ∂2P the non-linearity behavior associated with fluid flow in porous

= media at high flow rates. Later, his model has been used in gas

φ ∂X 2 ∂t∂X reservoirs. Brinkman3 was no different, he depicted that

Darcy’s law is valid if another viscous term is added to it. In

2

∂P ∂P this study, the authors believe that all terms should be included

is a small quantity and is even smaller, therefore: since the effect of Darcy’s term is crucial at low spatial

∂X ∂X

velocity but, as flow velocity increases the effect of the other

2

∂P two terms become significant. As shown in Equation (1), the

≈ 0 , substitute in Equation (16): pressure drop is affected by the three terms of Darcy,

∂X

Forchheimer and Brinkman. Darcy’s and Forchheimer’s tend

to cause more pressure drop and Brinkman’s pushes to the

1 ∂P 1 ρβ 2 V ∂ 2 P ∂ 2 P opposite effect. Figure 2 shows the role of each of the three

− − V− V − = (17)

Cµ ∂X CK Cµ φ ∂X 2 ∂t∂X terms included in the proposed model.

Equation (17) is the diffusivity equation in the X-direction, for Figure 3 shows a comparison between the predictions of

the Y-direction we get: Darcy’s diffusivity equation model versus the suggested

model in Equation (19). It is very clear that at low velocity

both models prediction is almost identical, but as the flow

1 ∂P 1 ρβ 2 V ∂ 2 P ∂ 2 P

− − V− V − = (18) velocity increases the proposed model predicts higher pressure

Cµ ∂Y CK Cµ φ ∂Y 2 ∂t∂Y gradient than Darcy’s model. This fact suggests that the

proposed model would be favorable in representing flow

The summation of Equations (17) and (18) gives the behaviors in gas reservoirs, highly fractured reservoirs and in

diffusivity equation in two dimensions: the vicinity of the wellbores where high flow rates

are expected.

4 SPE 84879

Further verification of the proposed model can be inferred by direction of the other two terms (lower pressure gradient) and

comparing its predictions with another comprehensive model that this term expresses the frictions between fluid layers and

based on the Navier-Stokes equation that has been derived and fluid and media makes it very important when multi-phase flow

numerically modeled to represent fluid flow in porous is encountered. The authors believe that having more than one

media8,9. This model includes all of the terms mentioned in the fluid flowing in the reservoir simultaneously, which is the case

basic equation (Eq. 1) that our diffusivity equation (Eq. 19) in most reservoirs or during reservoir injection process, the

has been derived from in addition to another convective term frictional term (Brinkman’s term) role becomes more

drawn from the original Navier-Stokes equation. The significant. The authors also believe that the phenomenon of

comprehensive model predicts flow velocity in the X-direction viscous fingering and channelling that take place during

at any time using the following equation: miscible and immiscible displacement in oil reservoirs can be

explained and understood by implementation of the frictional

∂U µ ∂ 2U µφ viscous term of Brinkman.

= − U − βφ U 2

−

∂t ρ ∂Y 2

ρK (20) An experimental program has been run in the laboratory

1 ∂U ∂U φ ∂P specifically to compare its results with the proposed model

U +V − predictions. Real cut samples from two outcrops of prospective

φ ∂X ∂Y ρ ∂X

formations in the Windsor area, Nova Scotia, Canada have been

tested. Figures 5, 6, 7 and 8 show how the experimental results

In the Y-direction, the flow velocity at any time can be

compared with numerical model predictions in terms of flow

predicted by this model:

velocity versus pressure drop. It can be easily seen from these

plots that the numerical model proposed in this study matches

∂V µ ∂ 2V µφ fairly well with the experimental results suggesting serious

= − V − βφ V 2

−

∂t ρ ∂X 2

ρK (21) consideration of field implementation.

1 ∂V ∂V φ ∂P

U + V − Conclusions

φ ∂X ∂Y ρ ∂Y Lots of criticism has been reported against the use of Darcy’s

equation to represent all aspects of porous media flow. In this

If we drop the convective term ∂U ∂U and study rather than addressing particular case, a general solution

U +V

∂ X ∂Y has been introduced through the use of a single model capable

∂V ∂V from the comprehensive model expressed by of representing both Darcian and non-Darcian flow in porous

U +V

∂X ∂Y media. The proposed numerical model includes the

Equation (20) and Equation (21) respectively, then the resultant conventional Darcy’s viscous term in addition to

model should be equivalent and gives the same solution of the Forchheiemr’s inertial term and Brinkman’s frictional term.

diffusivity model introduced by Equation (19). Having done

that, Equations (20) and (21) become: The proposed model has been compared to Darcy’s model and

another comprehensive model based on Navier-Stokes

equations. Predictions of the proposed model match Darcy’s

∂U µ ∂ 2U µφ φ ∂P

= − U − βφ U 2

− (22) model predictions at low spatial velocity but in high flow

∂t ρ ∂Y 2

ρK ρ ∂X velocity it predicted higher pressure gradient than Darcy’s to

account for the non-Darcian flow effect. Meanwhile, almost

identical prediction has been noticed when compared with the

∂V µ ∂ 2V µφ φ ∂P comprehensive model. The proposed model has been tested

= − V − βφ V 2 − (23)

∂t ρ ∂X 2

ρK ρ ∂Y against experimental data and shows excellent agreement.

If we prove that both models are equivalent then we will have although it should be modified to suite multi-phase flow in

more faith in our model described by Equation (19).

reservoirs. It is believed that replacing Darcy’s model with the

suggested model in this study will enhance the flow behavior

Figure 4 shows a comparison between predictions of the predictions specially, when non-Darcy flow is expected.

proposed model (Eq. 19) and the remaining of the

comprehensive model represented by Equations (22) and (23).

Acknowledgment

A good agreement can be noticed clearly. This proves that the Financial support of this research is funded collectively by the

proposed comprehensive model introduced in this study (Eq.

Natural Science and Engineering Research Council of Canada,

19) is a better alternative to represent Darcian and non-Darcian the Atlantic Innovation Fund and the Killam Trustees.

flow in porous media including both matrix and fractures

contributions to flow simultaneously.

effect compared to other terms in the equation. But, the fact that

this term is driving pressure gradient prediction to the opposite

SPE 84879 5

P Pressure 198, 79.

x Space Coordinate in flow direction 6. Patankar, S.V.: Numerical Heat Transfer and Fluid

y Space Coordinate perpendicular to flow direction Flow, McGraw-Hill, (1980).

β Non-Darcy coefficient 7. Kobayashi, M.H. and Pereira, J.C.F.: “A Comparison

t Time of Second Order Convection Discretization Schemes

µ Viscosity of flowing fluid for Incompressible Fluid Flow,” Communication in

ρ Fluid density Numerical Methods, 12, (7), 395-411, July 1996.

U Volume-Averaged flow velocity in the x-direction 8. Belhaj, H.A., Agha, K.R., Butt, S.D. and Islam, M.R.:

V Volume-Averaged flow velocity in the y-direction “'A Comprehensive Numerical Simulation Model for

β Non-Darcy coefficient Non-Darcy Flow Including Viscous, Inertial and

µ ′ Effective viscosity of flowing fluid Convective Contributions',” paper SPE – I, proc.,

C Isothermal compressibility factor presented at the 27th Annual SPE International

Technical Conference and Exhibition, Abuja,

K Permeability of the porous system

Nigeria, August 4-6, 2003.

φ Porosity

9. Belhaj, H.A., Agha, K.R., Nouri, A.M., Butt, S.D.,

Vaziri, H.F. and Islam, M.R.: “Numerical Modeling

References of Forchheimer’s Equation to Describe Darcy and

1. H.P.G. Darcy,: “Les Fontaines Publiques de villle de Non-Darcy Flow in Porous Media,” paper SPE

Dijon, Exposition et Application des Pricipes a 80440, proc., presented at the SPE Asia Pacific Oil

Suivre et des Furmules a Emplyer dans les Questions and Gas Conference and Exhibition, Jakarta,

de Distribution d’Eau,” Victor Dalmont, Paris, 1856. Indonesia, April 15-17, 2003.

2. Forchheimer, P.: “Wasserbewegung durch Boden,”

ZVDI, 45, pp. 1781, 1901. SI Metric Conversion Factors

3. Brinkman, H.C.: “A calculation of the viscous force To Convert from To Multiply by

exerted by a flowing fluid on a dense swarm of Ft m 0.3048

particles,” Appl. Sci. Res. A, 1, pp. 27-34, 1947. md m2 9.869E-16

4. Vafai, K. and Tien, C.L.: “Boundary and inertia psi kPa 6.894757

effects on flow and heat transfer in porous media,” lbm/ft3 kg/m3 16.01845

Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 24, pp. 195-203, 1981. lbm/ft-sec kg/m-sec 1.488163

5. Bruce, G.H., Peacceman, D.W., Rachford, H.H. and

Rice, J.D.: “Calculations of Unsteady-State Gas Flow

Y

∂P

=0

Y=H ∂Y

1,m ∆Y n,m

∆X

∆

P = Pi 1,j+1 ∆ P = Po

1,j i,j

1,j -1

1,2 X

1,1 2,1 ∂P i-1,1 i,1 i+1,1 n,1 X=L

=0

∂Y

(The numerical grid used in this study: n =11 and m= 14)

6 SPE 84879

1.E+06

Darcy's viscous term

9.E+05

Forchheimer's inertial term

7.E+05

Brinkman's frictional term

5.E+05

3.E+05

1.E+05

-1.E+05

0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400

V, cm/sec

60000

ρ = 1 gr/cc

µ = 0.01 gr/cm sec

k = 100 md

φ = 0.236

Pressure Gradient, MPa/M

20000

0

0 50 100

V, cm/Sec

Fig. 3 Comparison between the predictions of Darcy’s model against the proposed model

1.E+07

r = 1 gr/cc

Pressure Gradient, MPa/m

k = 100 md

8.E+06

f = 0.236

6.E+06 b = 485747.85 m-1

4.E+06

2.E+06

0.E+00

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70

V, cm/sec

Fig. 4 Comparison between the proposed model and the model represented by Eqs. 22 & 23

SPE 84879 7

1.E+04 12000

Sample 1 Sample 2

9.E+03

10000

8.E+03

Pressure Gradient, kPa/m

7.E+03

8000

6.E+03

5.E+03 6000

4.E+03

4000

3.E+03

2.E+03

2000

1.E+03

0.E+00 0

0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000

V, cm/sec V, cm/sec

Fig. 5 Numerical predictions versus experimental Fig. 6 Numerical predictions versus experimental

results, Sample # 1. results, Sample # 2.

18000 8000

Sam ple 3 Sample 4

16000 7000

14000

Pressure Gradient, kPa/m

6000

Pressure Gradient, kPa/m

12000

5000

10000

4000

8000

3000

6000

4000 2000

2000 1000

0 0

0 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350

V, cm/sec

V, cm/sec

Fig. 7 Numerical predictions versus experimental Fig. 8 Numerical predictions versus experimental

results, Sample # 3. results, Sample # 4.

- SPE-102200 Waterflooding SurveillanceHochgeladen vonjangolova
- Engineering Design Guideline- Fluid Flow Rev 06Hochgeladen vonKishore Sakhile
- Basin ModellingHochgeladen vonMartin Oviedo
- 2d valveHochgeladen vonmoplki
- SaurabhHochgeladen vonAfsal Pulikkathodi
- Bearing CfdHochgeladen vonJesus Jaramillo
- 3.16Hochgeladen vonDennys Rojas Gomez
- Spe 71590Hochgeladen vonRosa K Chang H
- karvounisHochgeladen vonLuca Guglielmetti
- Finite Element Simulation of Dip Coating, I- Newtonian FluidsHochgeladen vonLindsay Schneider
- Materi MedfluHochgeladen vonAhmad_Hasinur
- New Microsoft Word Document (3)Hochgeladen vonAAMIR
- syllabusHochgeladen vonNiraj Panthi
- Basic Concepts of Fluid MechanicsHochgeladen vonUr Friend
- 55262 nov2011Hochgeladen vonRaghul T
- Tutorial 7 - DMCF 2213 (Energy Equation)Hochgeladen vonmege1105
- Jacketed Vessel Heat Transfer (Half Pipe Coil) – ChE GuideHochgeladen vonahmed nawaz
- Hydraulics 1-2-3.docxHochgeladen vonveeveegarcia_
- Lecture 3 Basic Well Completion ConceptsHochgeladen vonAlimko
- STEMAHochgeladen vonbenahmed lamia
- 4ME05+June+2015.pdfHochgeladen vonKiran HS
- NFT_829_2016 Guidelines for Conducting Production TestsHochgeladen vonMahmoud Gaber
- Artículo SPE SOBRE YACIMIENTOS DE TIGHT GASHochgeladen vonMiguel Ortega
- 37104700Hochgeladen vonalex
- OpenFOAM Surge ConverterHochgeladen vondev burman
- Flow in Rotating CavityHochgeladen vonAttique Javaid
- 140043529 Distillation ColumnHochgeladen vonAsad Khan
- Fluid flow visualization for hydraulic fracture experimentsHochgeladen vonore
- NavierStokes IOP WatermarkHochgeladen vonSalman Boghani
- jurnal 1Hochgeladen vonSpica Z Fadly

- Application of Artificial Intelligence to Characterize Naturally Fractured ReservoirsHochgeladen vonmohamadi42
- Determination of Metals in Stack EmissionsHochgeladen vonmohamadi42
- Evaluation of CO2 Based Vapex Process for the Recovery of BitumenHochgeladen vonmohamadi42
- An Innovative System for Complete Cleanup of a Drill-In Fluid Filter CakeHochgeladen vonmohamadi42
- An Innovative System for Complete Cleanup of a Drill-In Fluid Filter CakeHochgeladen vonmohamadi42
- Laboratory Investigation and Field Use of a Novel Sand Cleanout Fluid System ForHochgeladen vonmohamadi42
- Using Geological Knowledge Gained Through Special Seismic StudiesHochgeladen vonmohamadi42
- Estimation of Surface Tension for Two Immiscible Fluids Using Lattice-Gas AutomataHochgeladen vonmohamadi42
- Radical Approach to Water Injection Scheme for BartonHochgeladen vonmohamadi42
- Insulation and RefractoriesHochgeladen vonmohamadi42
- ESIA – More Than a Tick in the BoxHochgeladen vonmohamadi42
- One Step Beyond Managing Areas of High Biodiversity ValueHochgeladen vonmohamadi42
- One Step Beyond Managing Areas of High Biodiversity ValueHochgeladen vonmohamadi42
- Management of Oil & Gas Exploration and Production in Sensitive SocialHochgeladen vonmohamadi42
- Characterizing Partially Fractured Reservoirs by Tracer InjectionHochgeladen vonmohamadi42
- Characterizing Partially Fractured Reservoirs by Tracer Injection.pdfHochgeladen vonmohamadi42
- Further Evaluation of Microbial Treatment Technology for Improved Oil Production InHochgeladen vonmohamadi42
- Further Evaluation of Microbial Treatment Technology for Improved Oil Production in.pdfHochgeladen vonmohamadi42
- Hybrid Testing Technique Results in Successful Well Test and Completion of LowHochgeladen vonmohamadi42
- Integrating Organisational Safety and Human FactorsHochgeladen vonmohamadi42
- Safety Assessment of Alarm Systems on Offshore Oil and Gas Production InstallationsHochgeladen vonmohamadi42
- Inherently Safer Design; Changing Attitudes and RelationshipsHochgeladen vonmohamadi42
- Results From a Four Year Regulatory Campaign to Reduce Offshore HydrocarbonHochgeladen vonmohamadi42
- Improved Safety of Rig Automation With Remote Monitoring and DiagnosticsHochgeladen vonmohamadi42
- Optimizing Fire Protection of Pressurized Process EquipmentHochgeladen vonmohamadi42
- CO2 Capture Project Initial ResultsHochgeladen vonmohamadi42
- Integrating Greenhouse Gas Emissions Management Into Capital Projects PlanningHochgeladen vonmohamadi42

- Japan.pdfHochgeladen vonraghuveer11
- Bearing CapacityHochgeladen vonSana Ullah
- Ozgur Cagri 201112 PhdHochgeladen vonpraveen
- Circular Sight GlassHochgeladen vonFitra Vertikal
- Soil Investigation Using SondirHochgeladen vonachsanamj
- Design CalculationsHochgeladen vonTharmalingam Vijay
- diesel_engine_systems (1).docHochgeladen vonNitin Gangwar
- Design of Doubly Reinforced BeamHochgeladen vonAmrutha Sivaraman
- Ischebeck - Lizzi Lecture - Design of Direct Drilled and Continuous Flush Grouted Micropiles TITANHochgeladen vonptopic10
- sxlkrep6vz2o3l8dlkga.pdfHochgeladen vonHitesh
- Rib Boom Drilling a380Hochgeladen vongygjhkjnl
- M&E Topic3b (Mechanical Ventilation)Hochgeladen vonIzzat Adib
- Project Report BusroofturbineHochgeladen vonRavichandran Srinivasan
- 920937_9350 Maintenance DCE90-180 y DCD70E5Hochgeladen vonsesoto
- single arm robot.docxHochgeladen vonKarthi Keyan
- STHochgeladen vonNur Eizzati
- Massey Ferguson 5600 - Tehničke Karakteristike EngHochgeladen vonmilancebre
- CE2306 DESIGN OF RC ELEMENTS V SEMESTER E.docxHochgeladen vonAnonymous faybPdFy
- Griswold CE SupplementHochgeladen vonBenicio Joaquín Ferrero Brebes
- Banlaw Sales Brochures > LubeCentral4Hochgeladen vonapi-3752216
- PA-28-181-POHHochgeladen vonAnonymous d8N4gq
- c90bd314237dda6f7fd8d5a91aa05b4f750d513b214b6fcf70e3d0b951db0355-00018Hochgeladen vondexter
- MR448FLUENCE2.pdfHochgeladen vonValentin Cristea
- norbro 40rHochgeladen vonVijay Hanchinal
- Wartsila Tribo PackHochgeladen vonsuper_seeker
- Introduction to Advanced High Strength SteelsHochgeladen vonlennad1
- PARTS MANUAL TL943Hochgeladen vonVinicius Foly
- Proton Exora Service MenuHochgeladen vonadigreddy
- 4. Free Convection on a Refrigerator’s CondenserHochgeladen vonRavinder Singh
- 0863413560-Woodpole Overhead Lines-2008 184Hochgeladen vonask1400

## Viel mehr als nur Dokumente.

Entdecken, was Scribd alles zu bieten hat, inklusive Bücher und Hörbücher von großen Verlagen.

Jederzeit kündbar.