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Alexandria University Second

Year 2017/2018
Facility of Engineering First
Semester
production Engineering Forming
Technology

Crankshaft
Manufacturing Process

This report created by :

Names Sections No .
Omar Amen Ahmed Mohamed 4 115
Habashy Shabaan Habashy 3 62
Ahmed samy Ali 1 18
Ahmed Ebrahem Bkhit 1 11
Mohamed Ashraf Kamel 5 142
Gheath Mostafa Kojan 5 123
Ahmed Mohamed Abdel-Ghany Al-Ashry 2 33

Dec. 2017
Table Of Contents
No. Content Page
No.
1. Introduction 1
2. Main parts of crankshaft 2
2.1 Web 2
2.2 Counter Weight 2
2.3 Crank journals 2
2.4 CRANK JOURNAL PIN 3
2.5 Flywheel 3

3. Types of crankshafts 4
3.1 Single Throw Crankshaft 4
3.2 Double Throw Crankshaft 4
3.3 Four Throw Crankshaft 4
3.4 Six Throw Crankshaft 4
4. Material Selection for crankshaft manufacturing 5
4.1 Aluminum 5
4.2 Copper 5
4.3 Steel 6
4.4 Mechanical properties requirement for crankshaft 7
4.5 Percentages of Alloying Elements in crankshaft 7
5.Sa Design of Malticylinder Crankshaft 8
6. Finite element analysis for crankshaft 10
6.1 STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF CRANKSHAFT EXISTING MODEL 10
6.2 THERMAL ANALYSIS OF CRANKSHAFT EXISTING MODEL 12
6.3 RESULTS AND GRAPHS 13
6.3.1 stress graph 13
6.3.2 thermal error 13
7. Crankshaft Manufacturing steps 14
8. field research for crankshaft manufacturing (Nallicheri, 1991). 17

8.1 Conditions of manufacturing 17

9. Cost Analysis 18

9.1 cost analysis for crankshaft weighing 32.6 lbs made of steel 18

10. Conclusion 19

11 References 20
Table Of Figures

Figure No. Description Page


No.

Fig.1 Crankshaft and piston 1

Fig.2 Mani parts of crankshaft 2

Fig.3 Crank journal pin 3

Fig.4 Crank flywheel 3

Fig.5 Single throw crankshaft 4

Fig.6 Double throw crankshaft 4

Fig.7 Four throw crankshaft 4

Fig.8 Six throw crankshaft 4

Fig.9 imported model 10

Fig.10 load applied 10

Fig.11 total deformation 11

Fig.12 shows stress 11

Fig.13 shows strain 11

Fig.14 Thermal analysis for crankshaft 12

Fig.15 Stress graph for crankshaft 13

Fig.16 Thermal error for crankshaft 13

Fig.17 Crankshaft Manufacturing steps 14


List Of Tables

Table Description Page


No.

Table 1 mechanical properties requirement of forged crankshaft 7

Table 2 Nominal Percentages of Alloying Elements in crankshaft 7

Table 3 Manufacturing assumptions for a forged steel crankshaft weighing 17


32.6 lbs (Nallicheri, 1991).

Table 4 Cost breakdown for a forged steel crankshaft weighing 32.6 lbs by 18
factor in the study by (Nallicheri, 1991)

Table 5 Cost breakdown for forged steel crankshaft weighing 32.6 lbs by 18
process in the study by (Nallicheri, 1991)
1.Introduction

The crankshaft is located in the engine of a vehicle and converts the force created
by the engine's pistons moving up and down into a force that moves the wheels in a
circular motion so the car can go forward. Located inside the car's engine, it is
connected to all the pistons in the engine and to the flywheel. To understand this
shaft, it is important to understand how the pistons and the flywheel work.

Fig.1 Crankshaft and piston


2.Main parts of crankshaft

Fig.2 Mani parts of crankshaft

2.1 Web

The portion of a crank between the crankpin and the shaft or between adjacent
crankpins called also crank arm, crank throw.

2.2 Counter Weight

Crankshaft counter weights are needed to statically and dynamically balance the
crankshaft. Without them, the vibrations caused will destroy it. If this is not done, the
engine will experience vibrations that will eventually tear up the main bearings and
cause damage.

2.3 Crank journals

In a reciprocating engine, the crankpins, also known as crank journals are the
journals of the big end bearings, at the ends of the connecting rods opposite to the
piston.
2.4 CRANK JOURNAL PIN

The oil passes through the ammonium crank with holes and passes the oil inside the
tube into the column to the spike and the connecting column. The oil reaches the
crankshaft through a pump located inside the oil filter

Fig.3 Crank journal pin

2.5 Flywheel
Flywheel is bolted and fixed connected to crankshaft. And we cannot differentiate on
macroscopic time scale the power stroke or suction stroke or in which stroke the flywheel
is storing the excessive energy. Flywheel just stores the excessive energy in form of kinetic
energy and immediately after power stroke crankshaft uses it in other power deficient
strokes. Flywheel rotates with same speed as crankshaft

Fig.4 Crank flywheel


3. Types of crankshafts
3.1 Single Throw Crankshaft

Fig.5 Single throw crankshaft

3.2 Double Throw Crankshaft

Fig.6 Double throw crankshaft

3.3 Four Throw Crankshaft

Fig.7 Four throw crankshaft

3.4 Six Throw Crankshaft

Fig.8 Six throw crankshaft


4. Material Selection for crankshaft manufacturing
Based on the stress imposed on the component during the operation, and operating
temperature, the material to be selected for this component should has the following
characteristics:
• The material should be strong in bending
• It must have excellent fatigue resistance.
• It must have less coefficient of thermal expansion so that the component can retain
its original dimension at varying temperatures.
• The material should be easily machinable so that it can take complex shape (as
required for the geometry of crankshaft) easily.

After carrying out an extensive research of materials, following materials were listed
for crankshaft:
(Aluminum, Copper, and Steel)

4.1 Aluminum
• Aluminum is an excellent machinable metal. It can take complex shapes
easily. Moreover, it can absorb vibration very efficiently. However, the metal
has lower modulus of elasticity and higher coefficient of thermal expansion.
Therefore, it will be subjected to larger strains at higher stresses and high
temperatures. Moreover, it does not has good resistance to fatigue and
corrosion.

4.2 Copper

It is easily machinable and has high strength. Moreover, it has good surface finish
which reduce friction. However, the biggest disadvantage of copper is that it is no
corrosion resistant. Corrosion rate is higher at higher temperature.
4.3 Steel

• Steel is another option to be used as a material for crankshaft. Steel is a better


choice because, it possess excellent mechanical characteristics which make it
better for crankshaft. It has the highest modulus of elasticity. It is tough,
strong, easily available, cheap and it has very less coefficient of thermal
expansion which makes it best suited for high temperature operation.
• An option for crankshaft material is carbon steel. However, these steels
require additional heat treatments to acquire required level of strength.

• Iron crankshaft is also an option. However, iron cannot take higher loads
therefore, iron crankshafts are suitable for low output engines where stresses
are lower. They have the advantage of being low cost.

• In fact, the most widely used material for crankshaft worldwide is Micro alloyed
steel. It has following advantages:

• Micro alloyed steel can be air cooled after reaching high strength without
further heat treatment.

• Low alloy content also makes the material cheaper than high alloy steels.
4.4 Mechanical properties requirement for crankshaft

Table 1 mechanical properties requirement of forged crankshaft

Item Tensile(N/mm²) Yield(N/mm²) Enlogation(%) Reduction area(%) oK(N.m/cm²)


Value 550 275 32 14 24.5

4.5 Percentages of Alloying Elements in crankshaft

Table 2. Nominal Percentages of Alloying Elements in crankshaft

Material C Mn Cr Ni Mo Si V
4340 0.40 0.75 0.82 1.85 0.25
EN-30B 0.30 0.55 1.20 4.15 0.30 0.22
4330-M 0.30 0.85 0.90 1.80 0.45 0.30 0.07
32-CrMoV- 0.34 0.55 3.00 <0.30 0.90 0.25 0.28
13
300-M 0.43 0.75 0.82 1.85 0.40 1.70 0.07

Key: C = Carbon Mn = Manganese Cr = Chromium Ni = Nickel


Mo = Molybdenum Si = Silicon V = Vanadium
5. DESIGN OF MULTI CYLINDER ENGINE CRANK SHAFT
Number of cylinders=4
Bore diameter (D) = 85 mm
Stroke length (l) = 96mm
Maximum combustion pressure=2.5 N/mm2
We know that force on the piston i,e: gas load

n order to find the thrust in connecting rod we should find out angle of inclination of connecting rod with
ine of stroke.

Assume that the distance (b) between the bearings 1 and 2 is equal to twice the piston diameter (D).
b = 2D = 2 × 85 =170mm

Due to this piston gas load (FP) acting horizontally, there will be two horizontal reactions H1and H2 at
bearings 1 and 2 respectively, such that
b1 = b2= 85mm
Assume that the length of the main bearings to be equal, i.e.,
1 = c2 = c / 2.
We know that due to the weight of the flywheel acting downwards, there will be two vertical reactions V2
nd V3 at Bearings 2 and 3 respectively, such that
6. Finite element analysis for crankshaft
6.1 STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF CRANKSHAFT EXISTING MODEL
MATERIAL: CARBON STEEL

Fig.9 imported model

Fig.10 load applied


Fig.11 total deformation

Fig.12 shows stress

Fig.13 shows strain


6.2 THERMAL ANALYSIS OF CRANKSHAFT EXISTING MODEL

Fig.14 Thermal analysis for crankshaft


6.4 RESULTS AND GRAPHS
6.3.1 stress graph

Fig.15 Stress graph for crankshaft


6.3.2 thermal error

Fig.16 Thermal error for crankshaft


7. Crankshaft Manufacturing steps

Fig.17 Crankshaft Manufacturing steps


The main manufacturing process of the forged crankshaft is hot forging and
machining and this is shown in a flowchart.

Each step of this flowchart is described below.

1. The row material samples of the AISI 1045 are inspected for chemical
composition.

2. The material is shaped and cut to the rough dimensions of the crankshaft.

3. The shaped material is heated in the furnace to the temperature of 900ºC to


1100ºC.

Note: AISI 1045 carbon steel has melting temperature 2660 ºC

4. The forging process starts with the pre-forming dies, where the material is
pressed between two forging dies to get a rough shape of the crankshaft.

5. The forging process continues with the forging of the pre-formed crankshaft to its
first definite forged shape.

6. Trimming process cuts the flash which is produced and appears as flat unformed
metal around the edge of the component.

7. Twisting for 2nd and 4th Main journals

8. The exact shape of the forged crankshaft is obtained in the coining process where
the final blows of the hammer force the stock to completely fill every part of the
finishing impression.

9. Inspection for all dimensions

10. The machining process starts with the facing and Centering process. The facing process
is a machining operation that is a form of turning in which the work piece rotation to produce
flat surface. Centering refers to the component according to the final dimensions
11. CAM turning is the process used to produce cylindrical components, typically on a lathe.
A cylindrical piece of stock is rotated and a cutting tool is traversed along axes of motion to
produce precise diameters and depths.
12. In the drilling operation, all inner diameters are drilled in the crankshaft geometry.
The drilling mainly consists of oil holes.
13. The final grinding of diameters sets the cylinder diameters to their final acceptable
tolerance. This is followed by grinding of other sections such as grooves using CAM.
14. The final step in grinding is face grinding, where the dimensions of the crankshaft will be
finalized.
15. The last step in the machining process is balancing the crankshaft. In this process the
crankshaft is mounted on two bearings in a device, and the dynamic balance of the
component is checked. Mass and location of material removal is specified. Drilling holes in
the counter weights will balance the crankshaft dynamically. The balance of the
crankshaft is checked once more on the device
16. Final washing of the component and preparation for final inspection.
17. The final inspection consists of checking diameter of cylinders, radius of crankshaft
and distance of faces
18. Heat treatment is the next step to obtain the desired mechanical properties for the
material.
8. field research for crankshaft manufacturing
(Nallicheri, 1991).

8.1 Conditions of manufacturing

Table 3. Manufacturing assumptions for a forged steel crankshaft weighing 32.6 lbs (Nallicheri, 1991).
9. Cost Analysis
9.1 cost analysis for crankshaft weighing 32.6 lbs made of steel

Table 4. Cost breakdown for a forged steel crankshaft weighing 32.6 lbs by factor in the study by (Nallicheri, 1991).

Table 5. Cost breakdown for forged steel crankshaft weighing 32.6 lbs by process in the study by (Nallicheri, 1991).
10. Conclusion

• Crankshaft is one of the key components of automobile engine, the performance good
or bad will directly affect the service life of the car. Crankshaft is working under
heavy load and continuous

• The crankshaft is an important part in automobile engine, it will cooperate with


connecting rod and change gas pressure rolled in the piston into the rotation of the
power, to the transmission mechanism of underpin, drive distribution agencies and
other auxiliary devices
11. References

• ASM Handbook, Volume 14A - Metalworking Bulk Forming

• ASM HandBook Volume 14 - Forming and Forging, 9th Edition ,1998

• Stress Analysis and Optimization of Crankshafts Subject to Dynamic Loading,


Project report, Farzin H. Montazersadgh and Ali Fatemi , The University of Toledo ,
August 2007