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Organized by

Dept of Chemicals & Petrochemicals

Govt of India

Thank you Partners Conference on

Platinum Partner

Crystal Phosphates Ltd. February 10-11, 2011
Silver Partners Venue: Nehru Centre, Mumbai
R Theme: Opportunities, Challenges, Innovations
and Imperatives for Growth of Indian Agrochemical Industry

Cheminova India Ltd. Dhanuka Agritech Ltd. Hikal Ltd

Kit Partner

Supported by


For further details, please contact

Mr. R K Bhatia Ms. Ranjita C. Sood
Head-Chemicals Division Sr. Asst Director-Chemicals Division
Federation House, 1 Tansen Marg, New Delhi-110 001 Federation House, 1 Tansen Marg, New Delhi-110 001
Tel: +91-11-2331 6540 (Dir) Tel: +91-11-2335 7350 (Dir)
EPBX: +91-11-2373 8760-70 (Extn 395) EPBX: +91-11-2373 8760-70 (Extn 474)
Fax: +91-11-2332 0714/ 2372 1504 Fax: +91-11-2332 0714/ 2372 1504
Knowledge Partner
E- Mail: E- Mail:

Website: Website:

Conference on
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Farming solutions - the next frontier for

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breakthrough growth of Indian agrochemical companies

Introduction to Agrochemicals .
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Global market overview .

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Indian market overview

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IPM and newer methods of crop protection

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Profiles of key manufacturers.

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Jai Hiremath
Chairman, National Chemicals Committee, FICCI
Vice Chairman & Mg. Director, Hikal Ltd.

FICCI is jointly with Dept. of Chemicals & Petrochemicals, Ministry of Chemicals & Fertilizers, Govt. of
India is organizing "Conference on Agrochemicals-2011" on February 10-11, 2011 at Nehru Centre,
Mumbai. The theme of the conference is "Opportunities, Challenges, Innovations & Imperatives
for Growth of Indian Agrochemical Industry". The conference is supported by Crop Care Federation
of India, CropLife India & PMFAI.

The one and half days "Conference on Agrochemicals-2011" would provide a roadmap for the Indian
Agro industry in terms of globalization, the key issues involved in globalization, some of the
challenges faced by the industry in terms of improving the productivity and how the industry should
be more export oriented than it is today. Theme of the conference "Opportunities, Challenges,
Innovations & Imperatives for Growth of Indian Agrochemical industry" would indeed serve its
purpose by throughing light on Indian Agrochemicals Industry.

Recently Task Force on Chemicals was set up by Chemicals & Petrochemicals, Govt. of India, headed
by Shri Arun Maira, Member, Planning Commission, covering the entire chemical industry, divided
into various sub-sectors. I am heading the sub-sector Agrochemicals. Important Recommendations
on Agrochemicals will be mentioned in my "Theme Presentation" at the conference.

The global market of pesticides and agro industry is very huge ~$44 billion. Globally, due to higher
productivity, decline in the green movement, tight regulations and better crop management, the
pesticide industry is not growing very rapidly. In fact, it is stagnant or slightly declining. In India, the
agro industry has grown significantly over the last 30-40 years from a mere Rs.400 Cr. to over Rs.
8,000 Cr. today.

The Indian Agrochemical industry is the fourth largest in the world only after the US, Japan and
China and has undergone many changes over the years. Insecticides account for the largest share of
the Indian crop protection market - 55%. Fungicides - 20%, Herbicides - 20% and Bio-pesticides and
others - 5%. The consumption pattern is: paddy pesticides - 28%, cotton pesticides - 20% and others
52%. Exports account for over 47% of total Indian agrochemicals industry turnover.

In India 60%-70% of the population lives on agro income. Nearly, one-third of our GDP is agro-
based. We earn a very significant part of foreign exchange. The agrochemical industry can play a
very important and a very vital role. Our agro industry management is something we should debate

about, with over Rs.1,40,000 Cr. of food grains wasted in transportation after production. We can
always compare global numbers on the use of pesticides in India - about 600 grams per hectare
versus 7 kg. in USA and 13 kg in China, which shows lack of pesticide usage or technology in terms of
crop management. We need to address some of the issues of low productivity in our rural crop
management. The industry needs to take a step beyond selling the product to helping in better crop
management practices, which will in turn contribute to the growth of the domestic industry.

Continuous innovation has led to development of crop protection products with lower usage rates
and better degradability leading to lower environmental loading, improved human safety profile for
farmers, workers and consumers, high biological efficacy, selective control of target pests, increased
safety to specific beneficiaries, naturally occurring insects and organisms. India needs country-
specific research and investment opportunities, proper legislation on patent and data protection to
exploit our own intellectual skills.

There is tremendous opportunity for the Indian Pesticide Industry to manufacture and introduce off
patent products. However due to ambiguity in registration the progress of the industry has been on
hold. With our huge talent pool of qualified Indian scientists and technicians, we should look at
increasing investments and are well capable of introducing newer molecules. Ample opportunities
are available for growth. With better infrastructure and R&D programmes funded by Government,
the Indian agrochemical industry could look forward to a very robust 15%-20% growth in the future.

The comprehensive Report prepared by FICCI and Tata Strategic Management Group (TSMG)
would help potential foreign and domestic investors in understanding the vast investment
opportunities available in Indian Agrochemicals Industry. The report will also serve as a ready
reckoner for those connected with Agrochemical Industry.

This conference on agrochemicals is the most timely initiative and I am sure the participants would
benefit immensely from the event.

I wish the event all success.

Jai Hiremath

Farming solutions - the next frontier for breakthrough
growth of Indian agrochemical companies

India has a population of 1.18 billion which is expected to reach 1.45 billion by 2030. This rising
population will lead to increasing demand for food grains. On the other hand, per capita land
available for agriculture has been steadily decreasing. This coupled with rapid urbanization and non
availability of agricultural manpower has had a strong impact on farm production. Agricultural
produce has not been growing in tune with demand. Currently average crop yields in India are much
lower than global benchmarks. For example, average yield for rice is 3.2 tons/ha in India vis-à-vis 4.2
tons/ha globally. Similarly, yields for soybean and corn are 1.0 and 2.4 tons/ha domestically
compared to 2.5 and 5.0 tons/ha globally. The current price increases of food products reflect the
situation having reached alarming levels and we have to rely on imports to meet our domestic
consumption. This is only expected to worsen further if we do not take necessary steps to reverse it.
Improving crop yields has become very critical and will become imperative in the future.

India has the resources necessary to meet all its increasing needs and be left with a handsome
surplus if we can use our significantly large area under cultivation effectively. This would however
call for a holistic 'friend of the farmer' approach, offering locally relevant farming solutions, where
agrochemical companies could lead and benefit by improving yield and productivity. The Indian
agrochemical industry, which is Rs. 15,000 Cr today, could grow well beyond its aspirational target of
Rs. 50,000 Cr by 2020. The opportunity lies in developing and executing innovative farming solutions
that address the needs of the Indian farmer with very low landholding size, resources and knowhow
available to him. Farming solutions would require a collaborative approach together with seed
technology, IT, nutrients and other service providers. For the agrochemical companies it implies that
to achieve such growth, capacity additions of over 100,000 tons would be required with significant
capital investments of over Rs 3,000 Cr. In addition, substantial investment will be required for R&D
and farmer-awareness activities.

Besides effectively creating farming solutions with other partners, the Indian agrochemical industry
itself faces critical challenges which could hinder its growth if not addressed effectively. The industry
is predominantly generic in nature with very little investment in R&D. Lack of awareness amongst
farmers on usage of agrochemicals and best practices followed globally is a major roadblock for the
growth of the industry. Current per capita consumption of pesticides in India continues to be very
low at 0.6 kg/ha compared to 7 kg/ha in USA and 13 kg/ha in China. It is estimated that crop losses
in India due to non usage of agrochemicals amount to Rs. 90,000 Cr p.a. Relatively weak IP
protection regime is another area of concern. A huge parallel market for spurious and spiked

pesticides exists which leads to significant revenue loss for genuine manufacturers. In addition, long
lead times for new product registrations and non-availability of land and regulatory clearances are
hindrances to setting up new investments.

The Indian agricultural landscape is distinct from most other countries of the world and needs to be
well understood to arrive at relevant farming solutions. We have a largely fragmented land-holding
structure (refer fig.1) with subsistence farming in several regions. Farmers are typically not educated
or exposed to modern methods of farming. The fragmented and small landholdings translate to
lesser spending power by individual farmers for seeds, irrigation, fertilizer or agrochemicals. Deeper
understanding of the market by geography, perhaps even at a district level, becomes critical to
success. These differences need to be clearly understood and call for customized solutions to suit
India's diverse agro-climatic conditions.

Agrochemical companies can take the lead to look beyond the traditional offerings and adopt a

Fig. 1: Land ownership pattern by district - rural India

holistic approach to farm management to enable India to achieve its true potential in agriculture.
These companies have a strong farmer-connect and reach, with the potential to influence and
change the way farming is traditionally done in this country. If ever there was a burning platform
necessitating this, it is now!

The Indian market abounds with such examples where innovative and customized solutions have
grown the market and catapulted the first movers to market leaders. The automotive industry in
India received a strong fillip with India becoming a manufacturing hub for small cars. A call to
develop the low cost car meeting specific needs of the Indian customer who could not afford it
earlier, helped to create and proliferate the low end 'micro' segment. Similarly, the paint industry
experienced a huge growth with introduction of tinting machines which offer customized paint
solutions closer to point of sale, recognizing the Indian consumer's need for tailored shades and
'look and feel' before deciding. Castrol took the initiative to develop a completely new channel for
lubricant sales. This offset the disadvantage of not being able to utilize traditional sales channels,
which were controlled by PSUs, and created a robust distribution network for Indian motorists and
car owners through other points of sale.

Let us consider the benefits of adopting a holistic and innovative approach with the case of pulses. A
brief study indicated that India could more than double its current production of pulses if crop
nutrients, timely availability and usage of better seed varieties, requisite irrigation and proper
storage were available (refer fig.2). This would improve our yield to global levels and help us meet
our domestic demand. Arriving at the solutions innovatively recognizing the Indian context is critical.
However the real challenge lies in the execution. First movers will be able to reap the benefits and
enjoy sustainable growth.

Fig 2: Realizing India's potential for production of pulses

Agrochemical companies could adopt specific crops or geographies within their sphere of influence
and help farmers increase output. This may mean working with various stakeholders such as
microfinance companies, adopting contract farming, increasing farmer awareness through
demonstrations and extension services, propagating better farm practices, ensuring right usage of
crop protection chemicals, increasing usage of hybrids/ GM seeds and providing better storage
facilities to reduce post harvest losses. The power of IT can be effectively leveraged to provide
farmers with timely advice and guidance for improving productivity, addressing pest related issues
and optimizing the value chain.

Chapter 1

Introduction to Agrochemicals
With increasing population, demand for food grains is increasing at a faster pace as compared to its
production. Moreover, every year, significant amount of crop yield is lost due to non usage of crop
protection products.

Agrochemicals are used to improve crop performance, yield or control pests, etc. Agrochemicals are
substances manufactured through chemical or biochemical processes containing the active
ingredient in a definite concentration along with other materials which improve its performance and
increase safety. For application, these are diluted with water in recommended doses and applied on
seeds, soil, irrigation water and crops to prevent the damages from pests.

There are broadly 5 categories of crop protection products:

1. Insecticides: Insecticides protect crops by killing insects or preventing their attack. Insecticides
may attack a particular type of insect or could be broad spectrum insecticides. Insecticides are
used to manage the pest population below the economic threshold level. E.g. Chlorpyrifos is
used to control insect pests in crops such as cotton, corn almonds, etc.

2. Fungicides: They are used to prevent the deterioration of crops due to fungi infestation.
Fungicides are classified as protectants or eradicants. Protectant fungicides prevent or inhibit
fungal growth and may have to be applied at regular intervals. Eradicant fungicides kill the pests
on application. E.g. Anilazine is used to control fungal attack on lawns and turfs, cereals, coffee
and various vegetables and other crops.

3. Herbicides: Herbicides or weedicides are used to prevent the growth of unwanted plants in a
crop field. Herbicides could be selective, which kill the unwanted plants without any harm to the
crop, or non-selective which kill all the plants. E.g. Glufosinate ammonium, a broad-spectrum
contact herbicide, is used to control weeds after the crop emerges or for total vegetation control
on land not used for cultivation.

4. Bio pesticides: These are derived from natural substances like plants, animals, bacteria and
certain minerals and control pests by nontoxic mechanisms. Bio-pesticides are considered eco-
friendly and easy to use. They could be classified as microbial pesticides, plant incorporated
protectants and biological pesticides. They are of low volume and high effect formulations and
require lesser dosages as compared to chemical pesticides. A growth area for bio-pesticides is in
the area of seed treatment and soil amendments. Example of bio-pesticides includes Bacillus
subtilis which is used as soil inoculant in horticulture and agriculture.
5. Others (Nematocides, Rodenticides etc): Fumigants and rodenticides are used to prevent the
attack of pests during storage of crops. Plant growth regulators control or modify the plant growth
process and are most commonly used in cotton, rice and fruits.

As per Govt. of India, crop losses due to non-usage of pesticides were 28% of the yield amounting to
~ Rs. 90,000 Cr per annum (2002 estimated). It is estimated that the present food grain production
can jump from 3 Trillion to 4 Trillion by using crop protection products.

Therefore, right usage of crop protection chemicals is essential in increasing agricultural production
by preventing crop losses before and after harvesting.

Losses caused by different pests (%)

& Others,



Source: Govt. of India estimates 26%

Chapter 2

Global market overview

Global market overview
The global crop protection industry has registered a growth of 6% p.a. from 2005 to reach USD 43.2
Bn in 2009. This market is expected to grow further owing to the increasing food and fuel needs and
is expected to grow at 4% p.a. to reach ~USD 54 Bn in 2015.

Global Market size (USD Bn)




2001 2005 2009

Source: Industry reports, Tata Strategic analysis

2.1 Geographical distribution

The crop protection chemicals market is mainly concentrated in the major developed countries such
as United States and Western European nations. Europe has the largest share in the agrochemical
market followed by Asia, Latin America and North America. There is an increased usage of products
in Europe due to high commodity prices and in order to boost yield and quality. Increased demand
for palm oil has led to increasing usage of herbicides in Japan, Malaysia and Indonesia. Strong rice
prices and other food grains are driving the agrochemical consumption in India. In Latin America,
increased production of soybean and sugarcane for animal feed as well as for bio-fuels is the driving
the growth of agrochemical consumption.

Global geographical share, 2009

ROW, 4%

23% Europe,

Asia, 25%
Source: GOI Task Force on Chemicals

It is believed that the crop protection chemicals market has reached its saturation in developed
regions such as North America and Western Europe whereas regions such as Asia Pacific, Middle East
and Latin America will offer high growth opportunities in the future.

2.2 Global market scenario

The global crop protection market is fairly consolidated with top nine companies accounting for over
80% of the market. Syngenta, Bayer and BASF are the market leaders in the global crop protection

Market share by Revenue, 2008 (%)

13.1% Syngenta
AG, 18.9%
Agan Group,

5.7% Bayer,

Dow, 8.8%
Source: Industry reports, Tata Strategic analysis

Global crop protection market is characterized by large number of mergers and acquisitions in the
recent years. Several large companies have consolidated their presence in the existing geographies
or ventured into newer areas through acquisitions of local companies. Some of the recent
acquisitions include Arysta LifeScience's acquisition of Volcano Agroscience Limited in 2005,
Nufarm's acquisition of Agripec (Brazil) in 2007. In 2010, Cheminova acquired insecticide business
from Isagro (Italy) to strengthen its presence in emerging markets of India and Italy.

Some recent acquisitions

Year Acquirer Target Company Highlights

Makhteshim Agan acquired 70% of Biomark Trading House Ltd.

Makhteshim -
2005 Biomark Inc Acquisition enabled increased service & activity for Makhteshim-
Agan Group
Agan in Hungarian market
Arysta Arysta acquired 50% stake in Callietha Investments, including
2005 Lifescience Volcano Agroscience to increase its presence in South Africa. It later
Corporation acuired the remaining 50% in 2008
Nufarm Limited acquired crop protection business business of Agrisol
2006 Nufarm Limited Agrosol SRL
SRL to strengthen its presence in Italy
Nufarm acquired 49.9% in Agripec in 2004. It acquired the remaining
2007 Nufarm Limitd Agripec (Brazil)
50.1% to develop its business in South America
Bayer CropScience acquired a biotechnology company, Athenix
2009 Athenix Corp. Corp. The deal helped Bayer to Strengthen its R&D presence in
North America
Cheminova acquired the insecticide business business of Isagro to
2010 Cheminova Isagro strengthen its presence in Italy & gain access to new markets such
as India
Source: Industry articles, Tata Strategic analysis

2.2.1 Distribution of global crop protection market - Product category

Herbicides are the most widely used agrochemical products globally, followed by insecticides and
fungicides. Fungicides is the highest growing segments as it helps increasing yield, improving quality
and in seed treatment. Individual sales of various categories however depend on climatic conditions
and crop variance.

Market distribution by product category, 2009 (%)

Others, 3%

26% Herbicides


Source: Phillips McDougall

Herbicides are used in most of the regions of the world. However, major markets for herbicides are
North America and Europe due to the favorable climatic conditions in these regions. Insecticides are
more prevalent in Asian countries. This is due to higher growth of cotton, cereal, fruits and
vegetables in these regions which have higher incidence of insect attacks. Increased usage of
genetically modified crops in North America has reduced the usage of insecticides. Fungicides are
used in almost all agriculture markets of the world due to favorable climatic conditions for the fungal

Product category Top molecules - Global

Herbicides Glyphosate, Triazines, Sulphonyl urea
Insecticides Pyrethroids, Organophosphates, Neonicotenoids
Fungicides Triazoles, Strobillurin, Dithiocarbamates

2.2.2 Distribution of global crop protection market - Crop-wise

Globally, fruits and vegetables and cereals account for the largest share of the crop protection

Market distribution by crops, 2008 (%)

18.30% Fruits &


Soybean, 18.10%
Source: Phillips McDougall

2.3 Global Trade of crop protection products

India, China, France, Germany and US are the largest exporters of crop protection products while
Brazil, Canada, Poland, Russia and Mexico are the major importers.

Leading agrochemicals exporting countries by sector, 2009 ($ Mn)

Insecticides Fungicides Herbicides
USA 609 Germany 951 USA 1165
France 545 France 917 France 1096
India 500 UK 578 Germany 1092
China 438 Spain 460 Belgium 943
Germany 423 Switzerland 341 China 758
Source: Phillips McDougall

2.4 Global Industry Challenges

1. Market saturation: The crop protection market is believed to have reached a saturation point in
most of the developed regions such as North America and Western Europe. Hence, there is
limited scope for growth in these markets.

Crop Protection Market forecast (USD Bn)

CAGR 3.4%

14.1 14.5

2010E 2015E
North America Europe
Source: Industry reports, Tata Strategic analysis

2. Evolution of biotechnology: Development of genetically modified crops in recent years,

especially for pest resistance would result in relatively lesser need for traditional crop protection
chemicals. However, this could lead to newer strains or pests driving need for other
agrochemicals. E.g. new sucking pests have emerged causing significant harm to the BT cotton.

3. Stringent regulations: Stringent environmental regulations across all countries increase the cost
of developing new products. These regulations are primarily affecting the older products while
at the same time resulting in delay in introduction of new products.

4. Mergers and Acquisitions effecting SMEs: Larger companies are acquiring/ entering into
strategic alliances with smaller companies to increase their market reach. This poses a threat to
local companies who are forced to reduce prices in order to compete, thereby leading to lower

5. Alternate methods for crop protection: Alternate methods such as natural products are being
increasingly used which would affect the chemicals market. For example, more and more
biological pesticides are being introduced.

Chapter 3

Indian market overview

Indian market overview
The crop protection chemicals accounts for ~2% of the total chemicals market in India. The domestic
crop protection market is estimated at ~USD 1.8 Bn and has grown at 5 % p.a. in the last five years.
However, owing to greater export opportunities and introduction of newer molecules the industry is
witnessing high growth rates in recent times. Currently, the exports of crop protection chemicals are
estimated at ~USD1.6 Bn.

Crop protection market, FY10E (USD Bn)

1.6 Domestic

Total ~ USD 3.4 Bn

Source: GOI Task Force on Chemicals

3.1 Industry structure

The crop protection industry in India is generic in nature with ~80% of the molecules being non
patented. Hence, strong distribution network and brand image act as competitive factors. Crop
protection chemicals are manufactured as technical grades and converted into formulations for
agricultural use. The crop protection industry consists of technical grade manufacturers, formulators
producing the end products, distributors and end use customers. According to Pesticide Monitoring
Unit, GOI, there were about 125 technical grade manufacturers, including about 10 multinationals,
more than 800 formulators and over 145,000 distributors in India in 2007. Over 60 technical grade
pesticides are being manufactured indigenously.

Technical grade End use
Formulators Distributors
manufacturers customers

Technical grade manufacturers sell high purity chemicals in bulk (generally in drums of 200-250 kgs.)
to formulators. Formulators, in turn, prepare formulations by adding inert carriers, solvents, surface
active agents, deodorants etc. These formulations are packed for retail sale and bought by the

3.2 Indian market scenario

India due to its inherent strength of low-cost manufacturing and qualified low-cost manpower is a
net exporter of pesticides to countries such as USA and some European and African countries.
Exports formed ~47% of total industry turnover in Fy10.

The industry suffers from high inventory (owing to seasonal and irregular demand on account of
monsoons) and long credit periods to farmers, thus making operations 'working capital' intensive.

3.2.1 Domestic consumption

Consumption of crop protection products in India is among the lowest in the world. Per capita
consumption of crop protection products in India is 0.6 kg/ ha compared to 13 kg/ ha in China and 7
kg/ ha in USA. Some of the reasons for low consumption in India are low purchasing power of
farmers, lack of awareness among farmers, limited reach and lower accessibility of products. This
presents an immense opportunity for the crop protection industry to grow in India

Per capita consumption: Fy09 (kg/ ha)



7 7
5 5


Taiwan China Japan USA Korea France UK India

Source: Industry Report, Tata Strategic Estimates

3.2.2 Distribution of domestic crop protection market - Product category
Insecticides form the largest segment of the domestic crop protection chemicals market accounting
for 55% of the total market. It is mostly dependent on rice and cotton crops. Herbicides are the
largest growing segment and currently account for 20% of the total crop protection chemicals
market. Sales are seasonal, owing to the fact that weeds flourish in damp, warm weather and die in
cold spells. Rice and wheat crops consume the major share of herbicides. Increasing cost of farm
labor will drive sales of herbicides going forward. Fungicides, accounting for 20% of the total crop
protection market, are used for fruits and vegetables and rice Farmers moving from cash crops to
fruits and vegetables and government support for exports are increasing the fungicides usage.
Biopestiocides include all biological materials organisms, which can be used to control pests.
Currently a small segment, bio-pesticides market is expected to grow in the future owing to
government support and increasing awareness about use of non-toxic, environment friendly

Segment Major Products Main Applications

Insecticides Acephate, Monocrotophos, Cypermethrin Cotton, Rice
Fungicides Mancozeb, Copper Oxychloride, Ziram Fruits, Vegetables, Rice
Herbicides Glyphosate, Isoproturan, 2,4-D Rice, Wheat
Bio-pesticides Spinosyns, neem based Rice, Maize, Tobacco
Others Zinc Phosphide, Aluminium Phosphide Stored produce

With increasing penetration of BT cotton, usage of insecticides has witnessed a decline in

the recent past. Its share in the total crop protection chemicals has reduced from 69% in
2004 to 55%

in 2009. On the other hand, share of herbicides and fungicides has increased from 17% and
13% respectively in 2004 to 20% each in 2009. This is due to increased focus on fruits and
vegetables and higher awareness levels among end users.

Market distribution by product Market distribution by product
category FY04 (% of total) category FY09 (% of total)

Biopesticides Biopesticides
Fungicides & Others, 1% & Others, 5%

Insecticides 20%

Source: Industry reports, Tata Strategic analysis Source: Industry reports, Tata Strategic analysis

3.2.3 Distribution of domestic crop protection market - Crop-wise

Paddy and cotton are the major consumers of crop protection chemicals accounting for 28% and
20% respectively of the total domestic crop protection chemicals market. Fruits and vegetables also
account for a significant share of the crop protection chemicals market.

Crop wise pesticides consumption, FY09 (% of total)

16% Paddy
6% Cotton
Source: Industry reports, Tata Strategic analysis

In recent years, consumption of insecticides has decreased due to the introduction of BT cotton,
which has lower risk of pest attacks. As a result, pesticides usage on cotton as % of total has
decreased from 33% in 2005 to 20% in 2009. On the contrary, pesticides usage in paddy has been
increasing mostly due to increased popularity of hybrid varieties of rice, which require higher
amount of pesticides. Share of paddy in the total crop protection chemicals has increased from 24%
in 2005 to 28% in 2009. Consumption of pesticides by fruits and vegetables has been relatively stable
in the recent years.

Crop wise pesticides consumption (% of total)

20 21 20

8 8
6 6

Cotton Paddy Fruits & Wheat Pulses & Others

vegetables oilseeds
2005 2009
Source: Industry reports, Tata Strategic analysis

3.2.4 Distribution of crop protection Market - State-wise

The top three states Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra and Punjab account for ~50% of the total
pesticide consumption in India. Andhra Pradesh is the largest consumer of pesticides with a share of

State-wise pesticides consumption Fy09 (% of total value)

Others AP
23% 24%

Haryana Maharashtra
5% 13%
Tamil Nadu
MP & Punjab
Chattisgarh 11%
8% Gujarat Karnataka
7% 7%

Source: Industry reports, Tata Strategic analysis

3.2.5 Competitive Landscape
The Indian crop protection chemicals market is highly fragmented in nature with over 800
formulators. The competition is fierce with large number of organized sector players and significant
share of spurious pesticides. The market has been witnessing mergers and acquisitions with large
players buying out small manufacturers.

Key market participants include United Phosphorus Ltd, Bayer Cropscience Ltd, Rallis India Ltd,
Gharda Chemicals Ltd, Syngenta India Ltd, BASF India Ltd, etc. Top ten companies control almost 80%
of the market share. The market share of large players depends primarily on product portfolio and
introduction of new molecules. Strategic alliances with competitors are common to reduce risks and
serve a wider customer base.

Presence of key industry participants across product segments

Company Insecticide Herbicide Fungicide Others

United Phosphorous
3 3 3Fumigants, Rodenticides

Gharda Chemicals Ltd. 3 3 3Plant growth regulator

Monsanto India Ltd. 3 --

Rallis India 3 3 3Rodenticides, seed treatment

India 3 3 3Seed treatment

Seed treatment, plant growth

Bayer CropscienceLtd
Ltd 3 3 3
BASF India 3 3Seed treatment

Source: Industry reports, Tata Strategic analysis

3.3 Distribution and Sales Channel

Maximum sales of crop protection chemicals are in rural areas. Hence for a wider reach, large
manufacturers with all India presence use a three-tier sales and distribution network comprising
distributors, wholesalers and retailers. Regional participants cater only to local markets.

Crop protection distribution network

Technical Grade manufacturers In-house formulators

Formulators Retailers/ Dealers Distributors

Distributors Retailers

Retailers End users

Source: Tata Strategic analysis

Typically, a company with all India presence could have 400-1000 distributors catering to 25,000-
30,000 retailers. Companies keep their stocks in warehouses or depots from where it is supplied to
distributors. Multinationals, at times, enter into co-marketing and co-distribution arrangements with
Indian companies. For example, Syngenta entered into an agreement with Rallis for marketing of its
products in India. Mid size and small scale companies operate through direct marketing of their
products. Most companies also engage in extension services or field demonstrations to increase
farmer awareness and promote their products.

3.4 Import/ Exports

Indian exports of pesticides have been witnessing a strong growth in recent times. This is primarily
due to its competence in low-cost manufacturing and technically trained manpower. Seasonal
domestic demand, domestic overcapacity and better price realization in the overseas market have
also led to this trend. India has emerged as the thirteenth largest exporter of pesticides in the world.
However, most of the exports are off-patent products.

Currently, the total export value of crop protection chemicals amount to USD 1.6 Bn. America, Asia
(excluding Middle East) and Europe are the major exporting destinations. Key market drivers for
Indian crop protection market export are:

1. Excess capacity: India's production capacity is 146,000 MT against the production of 85,000 MT.
This excess capacity against domestic demand is a key growth driver for exports.

2. Low processing cost: Availability of cheap labor and low processing costs has made India a
manufacturing hub with several multinationals setting up their manufacturing facilities in India.

3. Availability of process technologies: India has a very strong presence in generic pesticide
manufacturing and has process technologies for more than 60 generic molecules.

However, complex registration procedures and decreasing market size for generic molecules in
United States and Europe pose a major challenge for the Indian crop protection chemicals export

3.5 Future Outlook

Since the Indian agricultural sector is highly dependent on monsoons, the market for agrochemicals
is expected to grow at a conservative growth rate of 8% p.a. to reach ~ USD 3.5 Bn by FY20. Exports
are expected to grow at a higher rate of 15% p.a. to reach ~ USD 7.3 Bn. by FY20.

Future growth Scenario - Domestic (USD Bn)

CAGR 3.5


2010 2020

Source: GOI Task Force on Chemicals

Key growth drivers include:
1. Increasing demand for food grains: India has 16% of the world's population and less than 2% of
the total landmass. Increasing population and high emphasis on achieving food grain self-
sufficiency as highlighted in the FY10 budget, is expected to drive growth.

2. Limited farmland availability: India has ~190 Mn hectares of gross cultivated area and the scope
for bringing new areas under cultivation is severely limited. Available arable land per capita has
been reducing globally and is expected to reduce further. The pressure is therefore to increase
yield per hectare which can be achieved through increased usage of agrochemicals.

World - Available arable land per capita (Ha)



1998 2015E

Source: Yara Fertilizer Handbook, PotashCorp

3. Low Productivity: India has low crop productivity as compared to other countries. Average
productivity in India stands at 2 MT/ha as compared to 6 MT/ha in USA and world average of 3
MT/ha. At the same time, India's pesticide consumption is also low at 0.60 kg/ha as compared to
the world average of 3 kg/ha. Hence, increased usage of pesticides could help the farmers to
improve crop productivity.

Average crop productivity and crop protection chemicals usage


3 3

USA China India World

Agrochemical usage (kg/ha) Productivity (MT/ha)

Source: Industry reports, Tata Strategic analysis

With ~35-40% of the total farmland under crop protection, there is a significant unserved market
to tap into. By educating farmers and conducting special training programmes regarding the
need to use agrochemicals, Indian companies can hope to increase pesticide consumption

Yield improvement potential (%)

30% further losses
Due to drought, 130%
42% actual losses heat, cold, salinity
Due to pests, weeds 100%
28% prevented & diseases
Due to pests, weeds 58%
& diseases

Yield without Actual yield Attainable yield Additional potential

protection with crop without pests without abiotic stress

Source: Bayer Cropscience research, Emkay research

4. Growth of horticulture and floriculture: Buoyed by 50% growth experienced by Indian

floriculture industry in last 3 years, Government of India has launched a national horticulture
mission to double production by 2012. Growing horticulture and floriculture industries will
result in increasing demand for agrochemicals, especially fungicides.

Horticultural Production, India (Mn tons)


2002 2007 2012E

Source: National Horticulture Mission

5. Increasing exports: Indian companies have successfully expanded into other geographies for
exports and this trend has been increasing in recent times.

6. Patent expiry: Between 2009 and 2014 many molecules are likely to go off patent throwing the
market open for generic players. The total viable opportunity through patent expiry is estimated
at over USD 3 Bn.

7. Availability of credit facilities: Govt. initiatives to provide credit facilities to farmers in the rural
areas will provide boost to the agriculture industry. Access to finance would encourage them to
use more pesticides in order to improve the crop yield. Govt. of India has set a target of Rs.
375,000 Cr for 2010-11. Loans are provided at lower interest rate of 6% with 2% rebate on timely

8. Rural Infrastructure and IT: Linking the production areas with the market would help in easy
distribution of pesticides. IT services would help create awareness among farmers and educate
them for optimum use of crop protection chemicals.

9. Increasing awareness: As per Government of India estimates, total value of crops lost due to
non-use of pesticides is around Rs. 90,000 Cr every year (2002 estimates). Companies are
increasingly training farmers regarding the right use of agrochemicals in terms of quantity to be
used, the right application methodology and appropriate chemicals to be used for identified pest
problems. With increasing awareness, the use of agrochemicals is expected to increase.

10. Product portfolio expansion: Threats like genetically modified seeds, Integrated Pest
Management, organic farming etc. can be turned into opportunities if the industry re-orients
itself to better address the needs of its consumers and broadens its product offering to include a
range of agri-inputs instead of only agrochemicals.

3.6 Key Trends

3.6.1 Market Trends
Increasing focus on development and production of environmentally safe pesticides by the
industry as well as the Government.

Focus by larger companies on brand building by conducting awareness camps for farmers and
providing complete solutions.

Increase in strategic alliances among large players for greater market reach and acquisitions of
smaller companies globally to diversify product portfolio. For example: Rallis has a marketing
alliance for key products with FMC, DuPont, Syngenta, Bayer and Nihon Nohayaku. In addition,
UPL has had a series of small acquisitions globally to enter new geographies and gain product

Emphasis is on yield and quality output by the farmers. With increasing dispensable income,
farmers are willing to spend more to gain high yield and quality output. Preference for high
quality products is on the rise.

Usage of herbicides and fungicides is on the rise due to increased focus on fruits and vegetables
and increased awareness levels among end users.

3.6.2 Technology Trends

Increased R&D expected for development of new molecules and low dosage, high potency
molecules. New pesticides such as sulfonylurea and imidazolinone herbicides require less
volume of chemical per unit treated area in comparison to older chemicals.

Increasing focus on seed treatment chemicals. The advantage of these products is that they
require very small volume of the compound and are more effective than the normal crop
protection chemicals.

Focus on R&D in bio-pesticides segment with increasing preference for environmentally safe
products in the market.

With participation from leading corporate houses such as PepsiCo, Reliance Life Sciences, ITC
(agri-business division) and McDonalds and Govt. initiatives in policy changes, the trend of
contract farming is catching up in the Indian agriculture sector. This is leading to faster
technology transfer and adoption and has lead to greater market access (both domestic and
global). This in turn is leading to fast development of new chemistry products.

3.7 Key challenges

1. Low focus on R&D by domestic manufacturers due to high costs: R&D to develop a new
agrochemical molecule takes an average of 9 years and ~ USD 180 Mn. Indian companies
typically have not focused on developing newer molecules and will face challenges in building
these capabilities, while continuing to remain cost competitive.

2. Lack of education and awareness among farmers: The main point of contact between the
farmers and the manufacturers are the retailers who are generally not technically sound and are
not able to provide a proper understanding of the product to the farmers. Also, very often
farmers are not able to communicate their needs effectively to the manufacturers.

3. Need for efficient distribution systems: Since, the number of end users is large and widespread,
effective distribution via retailers is essential to ensure product availability. Lately, companies
have been directly dealing with retailers by cutting the distributor from the value chain thereby
reducing distribution costs, educating retailers on product usage and offering competitive prices
to farmers.
4. High post harvest losses: Post harvest losses of crops are estimated at Rs. 140,000 Cr every year.
Supply chain inefficiency and inadequate infrastructure are the major causes for such losses.

5. Spurious products: There is a significant share of spurious pesticides and spiked bio-pesticides.
According to pesticides industry body, Agrochemicals Policy Group (APG), spurious and
substandard pesticides worth ~Rs. 1200 Cr were sold in India in 2009. These products not only
fail to kill pests but also inflict damages on crops. APG pegs the crop losses due to these spurious
products at Rs. 7,000 Cr in 2009.

6. Support for Integrated Pest Management (IPM) and rising demand for organic farming:
Promotion of IPM, zero budget farming and usage of bio-pesticides by Indian Government and
NGOs is gaining momentum. With increasing demand for organic food, farmers in certain states
like Karnataka have reduced chemical usage and have adopted organic farming. Agrochemical
companies will have to tackle the rising environmental awareness and address concerns on
negative impact of pesticide usage.

7. Threat from Genetically Modified (GM) seeds: Genetically modified seeds possess self-
immunity towards natural adversaries which have the potential to negatively impact the
business of agrochemicals.

8. Longer period for registration of innovative products: In India, registration of new products
takes 3-5 years which discourages domestic manufacturers.

Chapter 4

IPM and newer methods

of crop protection
IPM and newer methods of crop protection
Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is a sustainable approach to pest management by combination
of biological, mechanical, physical and chemical methods. These methods are performed in three
stages: prevention, observation and intervention. It is an ecological approach and strives for
eliminating or significantly reducing the use of pesticides and at the same time controlling pest
growth at acceptable levels. There are six basic components of IPM which are employed to control
pest growth.

Apart from IPM, newer molecules with better efficacy are being developed. These molecules such as
sulfonylurea and imidazolinone require lesser volume of chemicals per nit treated area. Newer
products such as biological pesticides, seed treatment chemicals, and semiochemicals are being
introduced. Seed treatment chemicals require a very small volume of the chemical as compared to
normal crop protection chemicals.

Chapter 5

Profiles of key manufacturers

Profiles of key manufacturers

Bayer CropScience India

Company overview Bayer CropScience is one of the world's leading cropscience

companies in the world with presence in 122 countries
Product segments/ Crop Protection
Verticals Environmental Science


Crop Protection Chemicals

Products Insecticides



Seed treatment chemicals


Plant growth regulators


Sales Revenue in FY2010 Rs. 1724 Cr (includes revenue from other product segments),
88% of revenue through domestic sales
Manufacturing locations Three manufacturing locations at Thane, Himmatnagar &
Total production capacity of 5770 MT of active ingredients and
formulation capacity of 10,025 KL & 3650 Mt for liquids & solids
Distribution structure Has own distribution network & is also in co-distribution
alliances with several other companies in India
R&D Apart from crop protection, major areas of research include
seeds & plant traits
Bayer CropScience accounted for 24% of the Bayer Group's
entire R&D expenditure
Key Mergers/ Acquisitions l
Merger with Aventis Cropscience Limited worldwide, 2002
Acquisition of Biotech company Athenix Corp., 2009

Rallis India

Company overview Rallis is one of the leading Indian agrochemical company


Product segments/ Agri business domestic: Five segments: Pesticides, seeds,

Verticals fertilizers, household products & seed treatment chemicals
Institutional business: Formulations & technical bulk sales to
leading companies like Bayer, Syngenta, UPL, etc
International business

Contract services: Partnering with leading companies for

contract manufacture of technical grades/ formulations &
Crop Protection Chemicals
Products Insecticides




Seed treatment chemicals


Sales Revenue in FY2010 Rs. 934 Cr (includes revenue from other product segments) with
22% from outside India
Manufacturing locations Five manufacturing plants at Turbhe, Akola, Ankleshwar, Lote &
Total installed capacity of pesticides is 16,720 MT for solids
&12,500 MT for liquids
Distribution structure Distribution network covers 80% districts of India, with more
than 1500 dealers & 40,000 retailers
Four regional & zonal offices each, 33 area sales offices, 23
depots present all over India
International business is done through own registrations &
agents & distributors
Institutional sales are direct

R&D R&D is involved in developing new formulations, providing

better delivery and sustainable solutions to the farmers
The New Millennium Indian Technology Leadership Initiative
(NMITLI) is being pursued to find new molecules
Involved with regulatory studies & registration process

Key Mergers/ Acquisitions l

Acquired majority stake in Bangalore based Metahelix Life, 2010
Co-marketing alliances with several companies such as DuPont,
Syngenta, Bayer, FMC, Makhteshim Chemical works, Ghrada
Chemicals, etc

United Phosphorous Limited

Company overview Established in 1969 and has its presence in all value-added
agricultural inputs ranging from seeds to crop protection & post
harvest activity
Has its own subsidiary offices worldwide

Global player with customer base in 86 countries


Product segments/ Verticals l

Specialty chemicals

Industrial chemicals

Crop Protection Chemicals

Products Insecticides





Sales Revenue in Fy2010 Rs. 2740 Cr (includes revenue from other product segments)

Manufacturing locations 21 manufacturing location across the globe with 9 in India


Production capacity of 98,264 MT of pesticides & 42,631 MT of

pesticides intermediates
Distribution structure Products are sold through distributors spread across the country

R&D R&D activities in product development & registration


Key Mergers/ Acquisitions l

Product acquisitions from DuPont and Bayer
Company acquisitions of Metahelix Life, Evofarms, AG, Cequisa

Syngenta India Limited

Company overview 84% subsidiary of Syngenta Global


Formed by merging agri-businesses of Novartis & Astra


Product segments/ Verticals Seeds


Crop protection chemicals


Crop Protection Chemicals

Products Insecticides



Sales Revenue in Fy2009 Rs. 1400 Cr. (includes revenue from other product
Manufacturing locations Manufacturing plant at Santa Monica, Goa

Distribution structure Products are sold through distributors and co marketing

alliances with leading Indian companies
R&D Research & Technology centre at Goa, involved in product
research of organic chemical synthesis and analytical
chemistry research
Key Mergers/ Acquisitions Co-marketing alliance with Rallis India

Crop protection technology exchange with DuPont,

partnership on improving crop quality with Embrapa - the
Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation, R&D agreement
with Dow AgroScience
Product license from Sumitomo

Gharda Chemicals Limited

Company overview Established in 1967


A major player in domestic and export market in India


Product segments/ Verticals Agrochemicals




Veterinary drugs

High performance polymers


Contract services

Crop Protection Chemicals

Products Insecticides



Plant growth regulators


Sales Revenue in Fy2010 Sales revenue of Rs. 895 Cr with exports of Rs. 432.5 Cr

Manufacturing locations 5 manufacturing locations at Dombivli, Ankleshwar, Lote,

Jammu & Panoli
Distribution structure Products are sold through distributors

R&D R&D activities include product research & process

improvement for backward integration
Key Mergers/ Acquisitions Set up Gujarat Insecticides Ltd. In joint venture with Gujarat
Agro Industries Corporation Ltd. In 1980
In 1996, Gharda Chemicals purchased the entire holdings of
Gujarat Agro Industries Corporation Ltd and Gujarat
Insecticides Ltd. Became the subsidiary of Gharda

1. IndiaChem2010 Handbook on Indian Chemical Industry, Tata Strategic & Roland Berger

2. Crop Protection market in India 2008, Frost & Sullivan

3. Global crop protection chemicals markets 2009, Frost & Sullivan

4. Phillips McDougall report on agrochemicals

5. Crop protection Business in the New Decade, 2010 presentation, Cheminova

6. KRC Research weekender on Agrochemicals 2009

7. Thirty-seventh report of Standing Committee on Petroleum & chemicals on "Production and

availability of pesticides", 2002

8. Croplife India report on agrochemicals

9. Company websites and Annual Reports FY10: Bayer Crop Science, Rallis India, United
Phosphorous Limited, Syngenta India Limited, Gharda Chemicals Limited

10. Primary interactions with industry leaders and Govt. of India

11. Business Press

12. Chemical Weekly

13. Yara Fertilizer handbook

14. National Horticulture Mission

This report has been authored by:

Pratik Kadakia (, Jeffry Jacob ( and

Mandeep Singh Sandhu (

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