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AMR

BSSPAR2: Chapter 1
AMR

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AMR

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Module Objectives

• Describe the AMR codecs for FR and HR


• Explain the parameters for defining codec sets and codec selection
• Describe how link adaptation is done between codecs
• Explain Separate AMR UL/DL thresholds feature (S13)
• Explain Robust AMR signaling feature (S13)
• Explain codec changes that are possible during intra and internal handover
• Describe the thresholds available for handover and power control of AMR calls
• Explain the principle of packing/unpacking and related parameters
• Explain Radio link timeout parameters for AMR calls
• Explain parameters for AMR Progressive Power Control feature
• Explain the Wideband AMR feature (S14)
• Explain AMR Unpacking Optimization feature (S14)

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Speech & Channel Coding

• Channel gross bit-rate is 22.8 kbit/s in GSM FR/EFR:


– 13 kbit/s speech coding and
– 9.8 kbit/channel coding
– (HR channel gross bit rate 11.4 kbit/s)
• In the AMR case, codec mode can be changed and more error correction bits can be used
whenever channel requires

25 Base Station Cell Coverage


Channel coding
Channel bit-rate (kbit/s)

20 Speech coding Current Full Rate & AMR Full Rate


AMR Half Rate
15

10 HO 7.4
12.2 5.9
5 HO
5.15
7.95 4.75
0
FR FR FR FR 7.4 FR 6.7 FR 5.9 FR FR HR HR 7.4 HR 6.7 HR 5.9 HR HR 5.9 HO
12.2 10.2 7.95 5.15 4.75 7.95 5.15 4.75
4.75
AMR codec mode

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AMR Introduction

• AMR (Adaptive Multi Rate) consists of a family of codecs with different bit-rates
operating in GSM FR and HR
• The aim is to improve channel (FR/HR) quality by adapting the most appropriate
channel codec based on current radio condition
• Codec mode adaptation (link adaptation) is based on received channel quality in
both MS and BTS
• The basic AMR codec mode sets for MS and BTS are provided by BSC via layer 3
signalling
• MS shall support all speech codec modes, although only a set of up to 4 speech
codec modes are used during a call
• New GSM standard based voice coding in phone and network. Implementation in
radio network and phone is needed to realize the benefits.

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AMR Speech Codecs


AMR Full Rate performance compared to
Full Rate EFR in Clean Speech
AMR codecs: MOS (Mean Opinion Score)
5.0
8 for Full rate and 6 for Half Rate:
Voice quality 4.0
Full Rate Half rate
EFR 12.2 3.0
10.2
7.95 7.95 (*) 2.0 EFR
AMR FR
IS 136 7.4 7.4
1.0
6.7 6.7 No Errors 16 dB C/I 13 dB C/I 10 dB C/I 7 dB C/I 4 dB C/I
5.9 5.9
AMR Half Rate performance compared to
5.15 5.15 Full Rate in Clean Speech
4.75 4.75 MOS (Mean Opinion Score)
5.0

Speech bit rate 4.0


(*)Requires 16 kbit/s TRAU
Robustness Not supported by NSN BSS
3.0

2.0 FR
AMR HR
1.0
No Errors 19 dB C/I 16 dB C/I 13 dB C/I 10 dB C/I 7 dB C/I 4 dB C/I

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AMR FR codec mode adaptation example


C/I EFR operation AMR mode
C/I AMR
30 M d

25 12.2 kbit/s

20 7.95 kbit/s
[dB]

15
6.70 kbit/s

10 5.90 kbit/s

0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Time[s]

speech chan.
coding coding

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Abis Link Capacity

• When introducing AMR HR it is recommended to upgrade the TRXSIG from 16 kbps to 32


kbps
– With 6 FR TCH and 1 SDCCH/8, there are 18 radio channels which can be supported by 16kbps
signalling
– With HR activated, the number of radio channels can go upto 24. In this case with 16kbps, HR
configuration is recommended to be restricted
• BCCH TRX: BCCH + SDCCH/8 + 4 dual rate TCH + 2 FR TCH = 18 radio channels
• Non BCCH TRX: SDCCH/8 + 3 dual rate TCH + 4 FR TCH = 18 radio channels
– Beyond 18 radio channels, it is recommended to have 32 kbps signalling to support HR signalling. This
also allows the use of Dynamic SDCCH along with HR without exceeding the TRXSIG capacity
– We need to modify the channel type to TCHD (Dual Rate) so that each pair of bits corresponding to a
timeslot on the air interface is used dynamically for either one FR Traffic Channel (16kbps) or two HR
Traffic Channel (2 x 8kbps)

• Major part of TRXSIG load in BSC-BTS direction is caused by paging msgs


• Major part of TRXSIG load in BTS-BSC direction is caused by measurements results (when on a
TCH or SDCCH, MS sends a meas res (47 bytes) every SACCH frame period (480 msec)).

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2G AMR Parameters (S14) - Overview


CODEC INITIAL SELECTION LINK ADAPTATION BTS
BTS LOAD
LOAD
UL & DL
4.75 AHRU (BSC) or AFRU (BTS)
FRTx1 and HRTx1 FRH1 and HRH1 AHRL (BSC) or AFRL (BTS)
InitAMRchannelrate
1= any rate C/I threshold1 C/I hysteresis1
2= AMR FR only 5.9
FRTx2 and HRTx2 FRH2 and HRH2 PACK AND UNPACK POWER CONTROL
C/I threshold2 C/I hysteresis2
IHRF LDRF and LDRH
7.4 AMR HANDOVER PC Lower Threshold DL
SlowAMRLAEnabled (Intra cell HO-Channel Mode) RXQual AMR
FRTx3 and HRTx3 FRH3 and HRH3
N= 40 ms (ETSI)
C/I threshold3 C/I hysteresis3
Y= 480 ms (NSN)
12.2
IHRH LURF and LURH
AMR HANDOVER PC Lower Threshold UL
(Intra cell HO-Channel Mode) RXQual AMR
CODECModeSet
Codec x4 HO THRESHOLDS CODEC HO SETTINGS If Qual>IHRF
UDRF and UDRH
QDRF and QDRH AMRConflnhandovers then FR->HR (Packing)
PC Upper Threshold DL
Threshold DL RXQual 1= Current Multirate RXQual AMR
If IHRH<Qual
AMR Config Pref then HR->FR (Unpacking)
0= Target
InitCodecMode UURF and UURH
0= Second most robust PC Upper Threshold UL
1= Start mode QURF and QURH RXQual AMR
AMRsetgradeEnable UNPACKING OPTIMIZATION
Threshold UL RXQual Y= Downgrade & Upgrade intra HO low rx level limit AMR HR
AMR intra HO low rx level limit AMR HR AMR PPC Parameters
intra HO lower rx quality limit AMR
StartMode
= 1 of 4 codecs to start
GENERAL
CHANNEL TYPE FOR INTRA and INTERNAL HOs
WIDEBAND AMR ARLT= Radio Link
HRI=1=ACTUAL TRIH=0 AMR-WB Thresholds Timeout for AMR calls
TchRate InternalHO TCHRateIntra-cellHO
AMR-WB Hysteresis
AHRLT= Radio Link
Timeout for AMR HR calls

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Link Adaptation in AMR

Codec Mode Adaptation is the capability of AMR feature to vary the codec used
according to the link conditions
– Both network, for uplink, and MS, for downlink, measure the radio conditions in each
link and take decisions on which codec should be applied to each way  AMR codec
mode adaptation is done independently in UL and DL

There are two modes; the ETSI specified fast LA and the NSN proprietary slow
LA
– slowAmrLaEnabled (SLA): if it is set to "N" (default) it is used ETSI fast LA; if it is set
to "Y" it used NSN slow LA
– With slow LA, BTS allows in-band codec mode changes only on the SACCH frame
interval of 480 ms and this option give better flexibility with HO & PC algorithms

Two different types of link adaptation algorithms are defined:


– Codec Mode Adaptation
– Channel Mode Adaptation

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Procedure for Codec Mode (Link) Adaptation


4.-DL codec
used
DL LA
3.- Network decides
which codec to use
for DL 1.-Which DL Radio
Conditions?

2.-Request a
codec for DL

2.-Command a
UL LA codec for UL

1.-Which UL
radio
conditions?
3.-MS uses the
codec commanded
by the network for UL

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Codec Mode Adaptation


Parameter Introduction

When deploying AMR the following parameters are important for the Link
Adaptation:
• ACS (Active Codec Set) which defines the codecs that can be used in a
BTS during a call
• Thresholds: Defines the CIR value to change the codec from a less
robust codec to the immediate more robust one in the ACS. Separate
thresholds for UL and DL link adaptation
• Hysteresis: the values in dB to add to the thresholds in order to go from
a robust codec to the immediate less robust one in the ACS.

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Codec Mode Adaptation


Initial Channel rate
CODEC INITIAL SELECTION

InitAMRchannelrate
1= any rate
2= AMR FR only

Parameter Level MML Default Description


Name Value
SlowAMRLAEnabled
N= 40 ms (ETSI) Initial AMR channel BSC IAC 1 ”1” = Any rate. Channel type allocation
Y= 480 ms (NSN) rate for call setup and depends on further network
hand off parameters/settings.

”2” = AMR FR. AMR FR is preferred


CODECModeSet over AMR HR and allocated despite of
Codec x4 the values of the currently used
information for channel allocation.

IAC=2 overrides TCHRateIntHO (HRI)


InitCodecMode
0= Second most robust
1= Start mode

StartMode
= 1 of 4 codecs to start

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Codec Mode Adaptation


Active Codec Set
CODEC INITIAL SELECTION

InitAMRchannelrate
ACS (Active Codec Set) which defines the codecs that
1= any rate
2= AMR FR only
can be used in a BTS during a call
• amrConfigurationFr: codecModeSet (FRC)
• amrConfigurationHr: codecModeSet (HRC)
SlowAMRLAEnabled
N= 40 ms (ETSI)
Y= 480 ms (NSN) Codecs supported in different BTS models

BTS AMR FR AMR-HR


CODECModeSet Talk Family AFS 475, AFS590, AFS740, AFS122 AHS475, AHS 590, AHS 740
Codec x4 Flexi, Metro & Ultra All codecs All exepct AHS790

• Maximum of 4 codecs can be included in ACS, although it can


InitCodecMode
0= Second most robust be less (or even disabled)
1= Start mode

Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0


FR 12.2 10.2 7.95 7.4 6.7 5.9 5.15 4.75
StartMode
= 1 of 4 codecs to start HR 7.4 6.7 5.9 5.15 4.75

FR 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 = 149 (decimal)
HR 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 = 21 (decimal)

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Codec Mode Adaptation


Initial Codec Selection
CODEC INITIAL SELECTION

InitAMRchannelrate
• You can either allow the initial codec to be decided by a rule
1= any rate (see implicit rule below) or you can specify the exact codec to
2= AMR FR only
start with
• amrConfFrInitCodecMode (ICMI and FRI)
SlowAMRLAEnabled – Value 0: Initial codec mode is defined by the implicit rule provided in GSM
N= 40 ms (ETSI) (3GPP) 45.009.
Y= 480 ms (NSN)
– Value 1: Initial codec mode is defined by the Start Mode field (parameter
amrConfFrStartMode (FRS)). FRS range is 00, 01, 10, 11 ==> codec mode
1,2,3, 4
CODECModeSet
Codec x4
• Implicit rule (3GPP 45.009):
– If the codec mode set contains 1 mode, it is the Initial Codec mode
InitCodecMode
0= Second most robust
– If the codec mode set contains 2 or 3 modes, the Initial Codec
1= Start mode mode is the most robust mode of the set (lowest bit rate).
– If the codec mode set contains 4 modes, the Initial Codec mode is
the second most robust mode of the set (the second lowest bit
StartMode rate)
= 1 of 4 codecs to start

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Codec Mode Adaptation


Thresholds and Hysteresis
LINK ADAPTATION

FRTD1 and HRTD1 Example: AMR-FR on Downlink


FRTD1 and HRTD1 Codec
C/I threshold1
C/I threshold1 mode

FRTD2 and HRTD2


FRTD2 and HRTD2
C/I threshold2
C/I threshold2 FR12.2
(codec 4)
1dB
FRTD3 and HTRD3 FRH3
FRTD3 and HTRD3
C/I threshold3
C/I threshold3
FR7.4
(codec 3) 1dB
FRH1 and HRH1 FRH2
FRH1 and HRH1
C/I hysteresis1
C/I hysteresis1

FR5.9
FRH2 and HRH2 (codec 2)
FRH2 and HRH2 1dB
C/I hysteresis2 FRH1
C/I hysteresis2

FR4.75
FRH3 and HRH3 (codec 1) 4dB 5dB 7dB 8dB 11dB 12dB
FRH3 and HRH3
C/I hysteresis3 FRTD1 FRTD2 FRTD3
C/I hysteresis3

C/I estimation

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Codec Mode Adaptation


Thresholds for UL/DL

Before S13, each thresholds for FR and HR was defined the same for UL and DL by
one parameter

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Separate UL&DL Link Adaptation


Thresholds
Optimisation of link balance with AMR becomes easier when Uplink and
Downlink have their own threshold values for codec changes.
Separate AMR UL/DL Link Threshold allows the RF conditions and
effective optimisation techniques to determine the appropriate codec to
serve the call.
• AMR feature implementation before BSS13 utilizes a common set of codec
change thresholds for both Uplink and Downlink directions.
• The current implementation tends to prefer to assign codecs more
pessimistically (choosing the more robust codec) than the actual RF
conditions would dictate for a given link. Specifically, the most robust UL
codec is assigned more liberally across all UL RxQuality bands than is the
most robust DL codec with respect to DL RxQuality bands
• Link adaptation threshold parameter
– AMR FR DL threshold 1-3 (FRTD1….. FRTD3)
– AMR FR UL threshold 1-3 (FRTU1…FRTU3)
– AMR FR Hysteresis 1-3 (FRH1…FRH3)
– AMR HR DL threshold 1-3 (HRTD1…HRTD3)
– AMR HR UL threshold 1-3 (HRTU1…HRTU3)
– AMR HR Hysteresis 1-3 (HRH1…HRH3)
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Separate UL&DL Link Adaptation


Thresholds
C/I
DL CODEC
MODE 4
xTD3+xH3
UL CODEC
xTU3+xH3 MODE 4
xTD3

DL CODEC xTU3
MODE 3 xTD2+xH2

xTD2 xTU2+xH2 UL CODEC


MODE 3
xTU2
DL CODEC xTD1+xH1
MODE 2
xTU1+xH1
xTD1 UL CODEC
MODE 2
xTU1
DL CODEC
MODE 1
UL CODEC
MODE 1

Figure 1 illustrates the new usage of thresholds and hystereses in choosing the
appropriate codec mode. In this example the DL threshold values (xTD1 to xTD3, x =
FR or HR) define boundaries between DL codec modes 1 to 4, and UL thresholds
(xTU1 to xTU3) define boundaries between UL codec modes 1 to 4 respectively. The
hysteresis value set xH1 to xH3 is common for both directions, as before. There can be
up to 4 codecs in the active codec mode set.

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Channel Mode Adaptation


Packing & Unpacking

• Channel Mode Adaptation is an HO algorithm that aims at select the correct


channel rate (FR or HR).
• The selection of the channel rate depends on 2 main factors: load and
quality

Load Good Quality

FR HR
packing
 Only if both AMR FR & HR
are active in the cell
FR HR
unpacking

Bad
Quality

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Channel mode adaptation


Based on the cell load

Example:
• amrSegLoadDepTchRateLower (AFRL) = 40%
BTS LOAD
• amrSegLoadDepTchRateUpper (AFRU) = 60%
• HR resources are allocated when free FR resources fall below 40% (and calls
meet a certain RxQual threshold), and stops when free FR resources above
AFRL and AFRU (BTS) 60%
• FR resources are allocated again when the free FR resources are above 60%
• Quality thresholds ensure that only calls with good quality are packed and a
call is unpacked when it hits poor quality
AHRL or AHRU (BSC)
Free FR TCHs

Upper limit (AFRU)

Lower Limit (AFRL)

Time
No packing of Packing of No packing of
AMR FR calls AMR FR calls AMR FR calls

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Channel Adaptation
Packing & Unpacking mechanism

PACK AND UNPACK • To trigger the packing of active Full Rate AMR calls to AMR Half Rate,
IHRF
traffic and quality thresholds must be set.
IHRF
AMR HANDOVER
AMRcell
(Intra HANDOVER
HO-Channel Mode)
• Spontaneous Packing of AMR FR to AMR HR calls is triggered when:
(Intra cell HO-Channel Mode)
– Free full rate resources reduces below the value of the parameter
IHRH
amrLoadDepTCHRateLower(AHRL)
IHRH
AMR HANDOVER
AMRcellHANDOVER
– At least 2 calls in which quality is above the amrHandoverFr(IHRF)
(Intra HO-Channel Mode)
(Intra cell HO-Channel Mode)
• Packing continues until the number of free full rate resources increases
above the value of the parameter amrLoadDepTCHRateUpper (AHRU).
If Qual<=IHRF
If Qual<=IHRF
then FR->HR (Packing) • Spontaneous unpacking of AMR HR calls to AMR FR calls is triggered
then FR->HR (Packing) when the quality of a AMR HR call degrades below the
amrHandoverHr(IHRH). Cell load does not have an effect.
If IHRH<=Qual
If IHRH<=Qual
then HR->FR (Unpacking) • AHRL and AHRU are set on BSC level but load evaluation is based on
then HR->FR (Unpacking)
individual BTS.
• amrSegLoadDepTchRateLower (AFRL) and
amrSegLoadDepTchRateUpper (AFRU) are BTS specific parameters.
They have priority over AHRL and AHRU
• Range for IHRF and IHRF is 0…7

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Channel Mode Adaptation


Packing Example

1. New channel allocation

2. BSC makes Intra-cell HO


Case 1. (Packing TS4&5 calls into HR calls TS7)
Free FR resources increased by one

1. New channel allocation

2. Packing TS4 FR call into HR call TS7


Case 2. Free FR resources increased by one

TCHF FR call
MBCCHC TCHD HR call

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Channel Mode Adaptation


Packing Example

1. New channel allocation

2. No packing
Case 3. (due to lack of TCHD resources)

• BSC performs HOs for FR AMR calls, whose quality is above the
amrHandoverFr (IHRF)
• tchRateIntraCellHo (TRIH) can be used to further control the
packing and unpacking procedures. If set to 3, no packing or
unpacking will occur

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Channel Mode Adaptation


Unpacking

1. Unpacking due to Rx qual


Case 4.

2. Packing due to load

• Unpacking of HR AMR calls to FR AMR calls is triggered when


the quality of a HR AMR call degrades below the
amrHandoverHr (IHRH).
• A call is unpacked just depending on the quality, regardless of
cell load

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AMR

HO settings – QDRF and QDRH

HO THRESHOLDS • Separate RxQual thresholds for FR and HR


QDRF and QDRH
QDRF and QDRH
Threshold DL RXQual
Threshold DL RXQual
AMR
AMR
• Separate RxQual thresholds for UL and DL direction
QURF and QURH
QURF and QURH
Threshold UL RXQual
Threshold UL RXQual
AMR DL
AMR amrHoFrThrDlRxQual (QDRF)

CODEC HO SETTINGS
HO Thresholds for FR
AMRConflnhandovers
AMRConflnhandovers
1= Current Multirate UL
1= Current Multirate
Config Pref amrHoFrThrUlRxQual (QURF)
Config Pref
0= Target
0= Target
AMRsetgradeEnable
AMRsetgradeEnable
Y= Downgrade &
Y= Downgrade & DL
Upgrade
Upgrade
amrHoHrThrDlRxQual (QDRH)
CHANNEL TYPE
FOR INTRA
and INTERNAL HOs
HO Thresholds for HR
UL
HRI=1=ACTUAL amrHoHrThrUlRxQual (QURH)
HRI=1=ACTUAL
TchRate InternalHO
TchRate InternalHO
TRIH=0
TRIH=0
TCHRateIntra-cellHO
TCHRateIntra-cellHO
NOTE:
• Range in all cases is 0…7 (Default = 4)
• MML managed object class: HOC, NetAct managed object class: BTS

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Handover and Unpacking - Example 1

HoThresholdsQualUL (quality HO) = amrHandoverHR (unpacking) -


PACK AND UNPACK > call will unpack if there is no suitable neighbor
IHRF
IHRF
AMR HANDOVER
AMR HANDOVER
(Intra cell HO-Channel Mode)
(Intra cell HO-Channel Mode)

IHRH
IHRH
AMR HANDOVER
AMR HANDOVER
(Intra cell HO-Channel Mode)
(Intra cell HO-Channel Mode)

If Qual>IHRF
If Qual>IHRF
then FR->HR (Packing)
then FR->HR (Packing)

If IHRH<Qual
If IHRH<Qual
then HR->FR (Unpacking)
then HR->FR (Unpacking)

HO THRESHOLDS
QDRF and QDRH
QDRF and QDRH
Threshold DL RXQual
Threshold DL RXQual
AMR
AMR

QURF and QURH


QURF and QURH
Threshold UL RXQual
Threshold UL RXQual
AMR
AMR When RXQUALITY reaches the If there is a suitable target cell
set QHO threshold and there is the call hands off
no target cell the call will and the rate is based on IAC
unpack to FR. and load.

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Handover and Unpacking - Example 2

HoThresholdsQualUL (quality HO) > amrHandoverHR (unpacking) -


> RXQUALITY weakens slowly -> the call will unpack
PACK AND UNPACK
IHRF
IHRF
AMR HANDOVER
AMR HANDOVER
(Intra cell HO-Channel Mode)
(Intra cell HO-Channel Mode)

IHRH
IHRH
AMR HANDOVER
AMR HANDOVER
(Intra cell HO-Channel Mode)
(Intra cell HO-Channel Mode)

If Qual>IHRF
If Qual>IHRF
then FR->HR (Packing)
then FR->HR (Packing)

If IHRH<Qual
If IHRH<Qual
then HR->FR (Unpacking)
then HR->FR (Unpacking)

HO THRESHOLDS
QDRF and QDRH
QDRF and QDRH
Threshold DL RXQual
Threshold DL RXQual
AMR
AMR

QURF and QURH


QURF and QURH
Threshold UL RXQual
Threshold UL RXQual
AMR
AMR RXQUALITY reaches the unpacking If there is a suitable target cell
threshold first and triggers unpacking. The the call hands off
call goes from HR to FR. Later, and the rate is based on IAC
RXQUALITY reaches QHO threshold and
QHO is initiated. and load. Otherwise it
remains in the old cell.
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HO settings – AMR Configuration in HO

HO THRESHOLDS
amrConfInHandovers (ACH) defines the preference between the
QDRF and QDRH
QDRF and QDRH
Threshold DL RXQual
Threshold DL RXQual
currently used multirate configuration (if it is suitable for target
AMR
AMR channel rate) or the one defined for the target BTS during internal
and external handovers.
QURF and QURH
QURF and QURH
Threshold UL RXQual
Threshold UL RXQual amrSetGradesEnabl (ASG) defines whether codec mode set
AMR
AMR downgrades during internal HOs and upgrades after internal HOs
are applied or not.
CODEC HO SETTINGS
Parameter Level MML Default Comments
AMRConflnhandovers Name Value
AMRConflnhandovers
1= Current Multirate
1= Current Multirate
Config Pref AMR configuration in BSC ACH 1 ”1” = the currently used multirate configuration is
Config Pref
0= Target handover preferred.
0= Target
AMRsetgradeEnable ”2” = the multirate configuration of target BTS is
AMRsetgradeEnable
Y= Downgrade & preferred
Y= Downgrade &
Upgrade
Upgrade
If multirate configuration of source and target BTS
CHANNEL TYPE are the same then ACH and ASG have no impact
FOR INTRA
AMR set grades BSC ASG No Y = downgrades and upgrades are applied
and INTERNAL HOs
enabled
HRI=1=ACTUAL N = downgrades and upgrades are not applied.
HRI=1=ACTUAL
TchRate InternalHO
TchRate InternalHO
TRIH=0 If multirate configuration of source and target BTS
TRIH=0
TCHRateIntra-cellHO are the same then ACH and ASG have no impact
TCHRateIntra-cellHO

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AMR

HO settings – tchRateInternalHO - HRI

HO THRESHOLDS
QDRF and QDRH Parameter Level Default Description
QDRF DL
Threshold andRXQual
QDRH Value
Threshold
AMR DL RXQual
AMR

TCH in BSC 1 • Defines the traffic channel allocation during BSS


QURF and QURH
QURF ULandRXQual
QURH
handover internal or external handovers.
Threshold
Threshold
AMR UL RXQual (HRI) • The parameter controls the target cell selection
AMR
and the TCH channel rate and speech codec
determination in traffic channel allocation.
CODEC HO SETTINGS
1 ... The call serving type of TCH has to be primarily
AMRConflnhandovers
AMRConflnhandovers allocated. The call serving type of speech codec inside the
1= Current Multirate Config
1= CurrentPref
Multirate Config call serving type of TCH can change.
Pref
0= Target 2 ... The call serving type of TCH and the call serving type of
0= Target
speech codec are preferred to be primarily allocated during
AMRsetgradeEnable the speech connection. The channel rate change is possible
AMRsetgradeEnable
Y= Downgrade &
Y=Upgrade
Downgrade & during data connection, if necessary, and if the radio
Upgrade interface data rate allows it.
3 ... The channel rate and speech codec changes are totally
CHANNEL TYPE denied.
FOR INTRA 4 ... The preferred channel rate of TCH and preferred speech
and INTERNAL HOs codec have to be primarily allocated.
5 ... TCH has to be primarily allocated from the best BTS of
HRI=1=ACTUAL the handover candidate list.
HRI=1=ACTUAL
TchRate InternalHO
TchRate InternalHO
TRIH=0
TRIH=0
TCHRateIntra-cellHO
TCHRateIntra-cellHO

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AMR

HO Settings - HRI issues

EFR EFR

HRI = 1

Non AMR AMR


BTS1 BTS2

HRI = 4
EFR AMR

Possible pool switching

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AMR

HO settings – tchrateIntraCellHo - TRIH

HO THRESHOLDS
Parameter Level Default Description
QDRF and QDRH Value
QDRF DL
Threshold andRXQual
QDRH
Threshold
AMR DL RXQual
AMR
TCH Rate BTS 0 • Controls the TCH channel rate determination in
Intra-Cell TCH allocation and the TCH speech codec to be
QURF and QURH Handover allocated during internal intra-cell handover.
QURF UL
Threshold andRXQual
QURH
Threshold
AMR UL RXQual (TRIH)
AMR
0 (No constraints - follow HRI settings)
1 (the call serving type of TCH and the call serving
CODEC HO SETTINGS type of speech codec are preferred to be primarily
AMRConflnhandovers allocated)
AMRConflnhandovers
1= Current Multirate Config
1= CurrentPref
Multirate Config
2 (the call serving type of TCH and the call serving
Pref
0= Target type of speech codec are preferred to be primarily
0= Target
allocated during the speech connection. The channel
AMRsetgradeEnable
AMRsetgradeEnable
rate change is possible during data connection when
Y= Downgrade &
Y=Upgrade
Downgrade & needed if the radio interface data rate allows it)
Upgrade
3 (the channel rate and speech codec changes are
totally denied. The call serving type of channel is the
CHANNEL TYPE
FOR INTRA only alternative in TCH allocation)
and INTERNAL HOs 4 (the preferred channel rate of TCH and preferred
speech codec have to be primarily allocated)
HRI=1=ACTUAL
HRI=1=ACTUAL
TchRate InternalHO
TchRate InternalHO
TRIH=0
TRIH=0
TCHRateIntra-cellHO
TCHRateIntra-cellHO

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AMR

AMR HO Optimization Feature (S14)

• Reduce the length of the ASSIGNMENT COMMAND


message.
• The weaker FACCH FR codec becomes the limiting factor
for coverage and capacity gains otherwise achievable with
the robust AMR FR speech codecs.
• More reliable handovers.
• AMR FR or AMR HR feature needs to be active before
activating the AMR HO Optimization.
• No New/Modified/Removed parameters.
• On/off license for the AMR HO Optimization feature.

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AMR

AMR HO Optimization Feature (S14)


L3 Assignment Command segmentation
 Consequently, the reduction of the message size of the ASSIGNMENT
COMMAND means a reduction of the number of LY2 messages and
corresponding acknowledgements.
 The success rate for transmission of ASS CMD messages to an MS has a
dependency to the number of Um layer 2 messages required for the
transmission.
1 LY2 frame to be
transmitted

3 LY2 frames to be
transmitted

► when call setup or intracell HO is to the hopping layer the ASS CMD is
segmented into 2 FACCH blocks.
► This requires the MS to correctly decode both FACCH blocks, which
may cause problems in bad radio link conditions.
34 © Nokia Siemens Networks CN20111EN14GLN0

Rys lewy:
When transmitting Handover Command Message via FACCH, if one of the
message in the group cannot go through, it has to retransmit all messages
again. This increase probability of drop

Rys prawy:
By minimizing the number of command messages (layer 2 message) that
have to be transmitted (there are less Layer 2 messages to be sent) and
probabilty for drop is reduced.

RN20111EN14GLN0 34
AMR

AMR HO Optimization Feature (S14)


Message flow for call setup
MS PAGING REQUEST BTS PAGING COMMAND BSC PAGING MSC
CHANNEL REQUEST CHANNEL REQUIRED
CHANNEL ACTIVATION
CHANNEL ACTIVATION ACK
IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT IMMEDIATE ASSIG COMMAND

AGCH
SABM ESTABLISH INDICATION PAGING RESPONSE
FACCH on SDCCH
UA

AUTHENTICATION and CIPHERING

SETUP SETUP SETUP

CALL PROCEEDING CALL PROCEEDING CALL PROCEEDING


PHYSICAL CONTEXT REQUEST ASSIGNMENT REQUEST
PHYSICAL CONTEXT CONFIRM T10 start

CHANNEL ACTIVATION
CHANNEL ACTIVATION ACK
I(ASSIGNMENT COMMAND) ASSIGNMENT COMMAND
SABM T200 start T3107 start

FACCH on TCH ESTABLISH INDICATION


UA
I(ASSIGNMENT COMPLETE) ASSIGNMENT COMPLETE ASSIGNMENT COMPLETE
T3107 stop
35 © Nokia Siemens Networks CN20111EN14GLN0 T10 stop

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AMR

AMR HO Optimization Feature (S14)


Message flow for intracell HO
MS BTS BSC MSC
CALL IN PROGRESS
INTRACELL HCI (packing)

PHYSICAL CONTEXT REQUEST

PHYSICAL CONTEXT T10 start


CONFIRMATION
CHANNEL ACTIVATION
CHANNEL ACTIVATION ACK
RLT start
ASSIGNMENT COMMAND
T3107 start
I(ASSIGNMENT COMMAND)
T200 start
FACCH on TCH

SABM
FACCH on TCH
ESTABLISH INDICATION
UA
FACCH on TCH

I(ASSIGNMENT COMPLETE) ASSIGNMENT COMPLETE


FACCH on TCH T3107 stop
T10 stop

36 © Nokia Siemens Networks CN20111EN14GLN0


ASSIGNMENT COMPLETE

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AMR

AMR Power Control

POWER CONTROL
LDRF and LDRH
• Power Control for AMR done based on quality
PC Lower Threshold DL
RXQual AMR • Separate RxQual thresholds for FR and HR
• Separate RxQual thresholds for UL and DL direction
LURF and LURH DL
PC Lower Threshold UL amrPocFrPcLThrDlRxQual (LDRF)
RXQual AMR

POC Thresholds for FR


UDRF and UDRH UL
PC Upper Threshold DL amrPocFrPcLThrUlRxQual (LURF)
RXQual AMR

UURF and UURH DL


PC Upper Threshold UL amrPocHrPcLThrDlRxQual (LDRH)
RXQual AMR

POC Thresholds for HR


UL
amrPocHrPcLThrUlRxQual (LURH)

NOTE:
• Range in all cases is 0…7 (Default = 4)
• MML managed object class: HOC, NetAct managed object class: BTS

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AMR

Power Control & Handover coordination


AMR FR for DL (Example of settings)
RxQual

AMR PC Upper Quality,


UDRF = 0 (Px/Nx = 32/32)
0
AMR packing
IHRF=0, Px/Nx = 4/6

No action

AMR PC Lower Quality, (PxNx: 3/4)


LDRF = 3 3

AMR unpacking IHRH= 4 4


(PxNx: 4/6)

AMR HO Qual, QDRF = 4


(PxNx: 1/1)

(PxNx:1/1)
(PxNx:1/1)
(PxNx: 4/6)

7
RxLevel
L, ,
-110 5 lD DL -47
(AMR) Qual HO -9 ve el
DR Le Lev
HYS -6dB l ,L er r
ve w pe
Le Lo -85 U p - 70
C C
HO P D R P D R
L U

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AMR

AMR Progressive Power Control (AMR PPC)

• An enhancement to the existing Power Control (PC) algorithm running in the


BSC and controlling the transmitting power of the MS and BTS.

• AMR PPC is application software since S13 and it contains two separate
functionalities which can be separately controlled
– AMR PPC for MS power controlling
– AMR PPC for BTS power controlling

• AMR PPC algorithm will be used only for AMR calls. When the AMR PPC
algorithm is disabled, the normal PC algorithm is used also for AMR calls

• AMR PPC favours increase of power with low power levels and avoids
increase of power with higher power levels
 Better power distribution introducing less interference to the network
 Better quality distribution yielding to better speech codec distribution

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AMR

AMR Power Control without PPC

• In normal Power Control algorithm the quality thresholds for quality


based PC are not changing according to actual transmitting power.

Example:
Quality
Rxqual BER %
0 <0.2

1 0.2 - 0.4

2 0.4 - 0.8

3 0.8 - 1.6

4 1.6 - 3.2

5 3.2 - 6.4

6 6.4 - 12.8

7 >12.8

Power
15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Power level
30 28 26 24 22 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 Attenuation dB

pc upper threshold dl Rx qual AMR FR (UDRF)


pc lower threshold dl Rx qual AMR FR (LDRF)
Optimum quality, No need to change transmitting power

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AMR

AMR Power Control with PPC


• The algorithm internally changes the thresholds for quality based PC according to AMR
PPC parameters and actual transmitting power
• Offsets applied to current RxQual threshold values (Fixed offsets of -2, -1, 0, +1, +2)
depending on the current power level
• Offsets applied at a certain transmit power level as defined by the parameters (4 power
level points)

Example: Rxqual BER %


Quality

0 <0.2

1 0.2 - 0.4 -2
2 0.4 - 0.8 -1
3 0.8 - 1.6 -2
4 1.6 - 3.2 -1 +1
5 3.2 - 6.4 +2
6 6.4 - 12.8 +1
7 >12.8 +2
X1 X2 X3 X4 Output Power
15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Power level
30 28 26 24 22 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 Attenuation dB

pc upper threshold dl Rx qual AMR FR (UDRF)


pc lower threshold dl Rx qual AMR FR (LDRF)
Optimum quality, No need to change transmitting power
X1 PPC Downlink FR Lower Threshold 1 (= 26 dB)
X2 PPC Downlink FR Lower Threshold 2 (= 22 dB
X3 PPC Downlink FR Lower Threshold 3 (= 8 dB)
X4 PPC Downlink FR Lower Threshold 4 (= 4 dB)

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AMR

AMR PPC Parameters


Example

AMR PPC DL FR Lower Threshold 1 = 26 dB


AMR PPC DL FR Lower Threshold 2 = 22 dB
AMR PPC DL FR Lower Threshold 3 = 8 dB
AMR PPC DL FR Lower Threshold 4 = 4 dB
amrPocFrPcLThrDlRxQual (LDRF) = 4

Rx Quality
0
1
Standard power
2 control threshold
3 (LDRF)

4
5
6 Increase BTS Power
7
30 28 26 24 22 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 Attenuation (dB)
LDF1 LDF2 LDF3 LDF4

BTS has more scope of increasing power BTS has less scope of increasing power

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AMR

AMR PPC – Threshold Parameters

• AMR PPC introduces 32 new BSC level parameters (Range 0-15 power levels)
UUF1
UDF1
UUF2
UDF2
UUF3
UDF3
UUF4
UDF4

LUF1
LDF1
LUF2
LDF2
LUF3
LUF3
LUF4
LDF4

UUH1
UDH1
UUH2
UDH2
UUH3
UDH3
UUH4
UDH4

LUH1
LDH1
LUH2
LDH2
LUH3
LDH3
LUH4
LDH4

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AMR

AMR Radio Link Timeout


• Supported in Flexi, Metro and Ultra BTS
• Not in Talk Family BTS (only RLT supported)
• Separate parameters for non-AMR, AMR and AMR-HR

MO Abbreviated Range And Description Default BSC -


GENERAL Class Name Step value MML
Name
ARLT= Radio Link
Timeout for AMR calls BTS radioLinkTim 4...64 Defines the maximum value of 20 RLT
eout blocks, step the radio link counter expressed blocks
4 blocks in SACCH blocks for non-AMR
AHRLT= Radio Link connections.
Timeout for AMR HR
BTS radioLinkTim 4...64 Defines the maximum value of 20 ARLT
eoutAmr blocks, step the radio link counter expressed blocks
4 blocks in SACCH blocks for AMR
connections.
BTS radioLinkTim 4...64 Defines the maximum value of 20 AHRLT
eoutAmrHr blocks, step the radio link counter expressed blocks
4 blocks in SACCH blocks for AMR HR
connections.

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AMR

AMR and DADL/B


• DADL/B can be used to handover AMR calls during call setup to co-located BTSs
that support AMR
• Useful for networks with 2nd generation BTS (no AMR support)
•Talk family supports AMR
• Adjacency parameter amrDadlbTargetCell (DADLA)(Y,N) defines whether the
direct access to desired layer/band handover is applied to the adjacent cell in case
of AMR call establishment and whether AMR target cells are prioritised in handover
• For handovers this indicates whether AMR is enabled in the target cell
• Adjacent AMR cells with load below btsLoadThreshold (BLT) are prioritized

1) DADL/B used to direct AMR


mobiles to AMR capable BTS

SDCCH 2) Prioritization of AMR capable


cells in handovers
TalkFamily BTS

UltraSite (co-located) TCH

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AMR

Internal handover to external (IHTA)

• BSC can change internal handover to an external one in order to enable an


unidirectional connection.

MO Abbreviated Range And Step Description Default BSC - MML


Class Name value Name

BSC internalHoToExt • Not allowed (0) Defines whether it is allowed to change Not allowed IHTA
ernal • Allowed for AMR internal handover, where speech codec or (0)
(1) channel rate is changed, to MSC controlled in
• Allowed for other order to avoid downlink muting.
internal handovers NOTE: If MSC does not support unidirectional
than AMR (2) connection or conference bridge connection
• Allowed for all downlink muting cannot be avoided by
internal handovers changing handover to external; it is advisable
(3) to leave the parameter to default value.

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AMR

A-Interface Load Control

• If there is already a high load on the A-interface, it is not reasonable


to increase the load by changing internal handovers to external in
order to avoid DL muting.
• The BSC keeps a record of the incoming external TCH handovers
and TCH assignments
• The load is evaluated in a BSC as an incoming TCH transaction rate
using these parameters:
 TCH transaction count (TTRC)
 Maximum transaction rate (MTTR)

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AMR

A-Interface Load Control


TCH transaction rate

Internal table: Incoming external TCH HO or assignment

Timestamp t10 16:20:22.25 Internal HO req for which


decision to change it to
external is to be made
Timestamp t9 16:20:22.23 Incoming external TCH HO
or assignment
---
ΔT = 0.15 s
Tch trasaction count (TTRC) = 10 ---

Timestamp t2 16:15:22.19 Incoming external TCH HO


or assignment
Timestamp t1 16:15:22.10 Incoming external TCH HO
or assignment
Timestamp t0 16:15:22.10 Incoming external TCH HO
or assignment

TCH Transaction rate = TCH Trascation count / ΔT


= 10 / 0.15
= 66.66
If TCH Trasaction rate > Maximum Transaction rate (MTTR), the internal HO
request is NOT changed to an external HO
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AMR

A-Interface Load Control


Parameters

MO Abbreviated Range And Step Description Default BSC - MML


Class Name value Name

BSC tchTransactionC 0...100, step 1 This parameter defines how many 10 TTRC
ount incoming TCH transactions (incoming MSC
controlled TCH handover or assignment)
are taken into account when calculating
average TCH transaction rate.

BSC maxTchTransac 0...1000, step 1 This parameter defines the maximum 50 MTTR
tionRate 0 – change of incoming (from MSC to BSC) TCH
internal to external transaction rate (transactions per second)
HO is always that is acceptable for changing internal
denied handover to external. In this context TCH
transaction means MSC controlled TCH
handover or TCH assignment.

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AMR

Robust AMR Signalling (FACCH / SACCH)


Capex savings by increased coverage. Increased end user experience by
reducing Dropped Call Rate (DCR). In addition, the proprietary FACCH power
control adds 10% more gain. Improves associated control channel robustness
and increases gain (from 1.5 dB to 4 db).

100,00%

BSS13 feature “Robust AMR Signalling”


consists of four separate features

AMR FR 1. FACCH and SACCH repetition for “repeated


10,00%
7.0
ACCH” capable mobiles on AMR TCH
2. FACCH repetition for legacy mobiles on AMR
TCH FER %

AMR FR
5.9 AMR FR 12.2
FR
3. FACCH repetition for legacy mobiles on AMR
HR
AMR FR 4.75 FACCH 4. FACCH Power Increment
1,00%
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
C/I (dB) (TU3, iFH)

AMR has robust codecs (e.g. AMR 4.75) which potentially allow the network to operate
in very low C/I conditions. For acceptable connection quality the signalling needs to be
at least as robust as the most robust speech codec used. The introduction of AMR
codecs has caused an imbalance, where the signalling channels may be the limiting
factor.
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AMR

Robust AMR Signalling (FACCH / SACCH)

1) Repeated AMR SACCH and FACCH in 3GPP Release 6


• With 3GPP Release 6 and onwards, the Mobiles and BTSs can ask for SACCH
frames to be repeated exactly on transmit, so that the original frame and its repeat
can be decoded together using Incremental Redundancy (soft combining) type
decoding, similar to the IR defined for EDGE data. Similarly transmit repeat and
Incremental Redundancy on decode can also be used with downlink FACCH
frames.
• This gives about a 4 dB improvement in the C/I needed to decode the SACCH and
FACCH, so that these channels are as robust as the lowest rate AMR codecs.

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AMR

Robust AMR Signalling (FACCH / SACCH)

2) and 3) Repeated AMR FACCH for Existing Mobiles for AMR HR and AMR FR
• For mobiles designed according to ‘old’ 3GPP releases (i.e. releases up to and
including release 5) 3GPP have enhanced the radio interface protocol so that the
downlink FACCH can be repeated, to give the mobile two chances to decode the
FACCH before each link timeout and retry of the protocol.
• This gives about a 2 dB improvement in the C/I needed to decode the FACCH, so
that this channel is more robust and the dropped call rate in handovers is reduced.
• The 2 dB improvement in C/I is not enough for reliable operation with the very
lowest rate AMR/FR codecs, so the solution also offers the FACCH Power
Increment feature for existing mobiles.
• FACCH repetition is enabled separately for AMR HR and AMR FR.

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AMR

Robust AMR Signalling (FACCH / SACCH)

4) FACCH Power Increment for Existing Mobiles


•With this feature, for 3GPP Release 5 and earlier mobiles the BTS Tx power for
(downlink) AMR FACCH bursts can be increased by 2 dB, up to the maximum Tx
power Pmax (BCCH power level).
•This will give improved C/I for the FACCH, so that dropped call rate in handovers is
reduced, but without adding significant interference to other ongoing calls.
•Combining this feature and the Repeated AMR FACCH for existing mobiles, there
is up to 4 dB improvement in C/I for FACCH decode, and corresponding reduction
in Handover dropped call rate.
•Power increment only applies when the Tx power used for the call is less than the
maximum power capability of the TRX (TRXmax).
– BCCH TRX: Since the BCCH carrier power level must remain constant, the power
increment applies only to FACCH bursts sent on non-BCCH carriers.
– Non-BCCH TRX: If the BCCH power level is less than TRXmax, then the FACCHs
may be sent at a power level that is 2 dB higher than the BCCH power level.

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AMR

Robust AMR Signalling (FACCH / SACCH)


Requirements

BSC
• Licence – On/Off

BTS Support
• Ultrasite CX6.0 (with EDGE capable TRXs)
• Metrosite CXM6.0 (with EDGE capable TRXs)
• Flexi EDGE EP2.0

MS Support
• Rel6 compliant MS is required for SACCH repetition
• MS indicates its repeated ACCH capability in MS Classmark 3 info on SDCCH

AMR Settings
• AMR FR/HR or both must be enabled
• Codec 4.75 must be the lowest codec in AMR HR codec set
• Either 4.75, 5.15 or 5.9 should be the lowest codec in AMR FR codec set

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AMR

FACCH/SACCH repetition and power increment


Triggering conditions

• FACCH repetition and FACCH power increment for legacy MS


– FACCH repetition and/or power increment is triggered if the MS requests the lowest downlink codec
(indication of poor DL quality)

– The retransmission of the PHYSICAL INFORMATION message, following the expiry of the timer
T3105, is also a trigger.

• FACCH repetition for Rel. 6 compliant MS


– If the MS requests the lowest downlink codec. For AMR HR calls, the expiry of the timer T200 for the
frame is also required.

– The retransmission of the PHYSICAL INFORMATION message, following the expiry of the timer
T3105, is also a trigger.

• SACCH repetition for Rel. 6 compliant MS


– DL Direction: If a Rel.6 compliant MS requests for SACCH frames to be repeated.

– UL Direction: Depends on the number of uplink SACCH single decode block errors and the value of
the SACCH Repeat Window (SRW) parameter.

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AMR

FACCH/SACCH repetition and power increment


Triggering conditions

This parameter defines when the BTS commands an MS to repeat the


SACCH block.

MO Abbreviated Range And Step Description Default BSC -


Class Name value MML
Name
BSC sacchRepeatWi 1...15 Frames, step • When value = 1, decoding failure of the latest SACCH block 4 Frames SRW
ndow 1 Frames triggers the repeat for the next SACCH block.
• When value N = {2, 3, 4 .. 15}, decoding failure of 2 SACCH blocks
out of N preceding SACCH blocks triggers the repeat. Repeat is
used as long as the decoding of 2 SACCH blocks out of N preceding
blocks has failed.

Example:
If the value is 3 and the BTS fails to decode two of the
preceding three blocks, it commands the MS to repeat a
SACCH block.

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AMR

Wideband AMR and AMR TFO


-Introduction
WIDEBAND AMR
AMR-WB Thresholds
AMR-WB Hysteresis

• Wideband AMR Wideband


AMR
– NB-AMR uses sampling rate of 8 kHz which
provides 300-3400 Hz audio bandwidth
50-7000 Hz
– WB-AMR uses sampling rate of 16 kHz which
provides 50-7000 Hz audio bandwidth
Landline
phone NB-AMR
– 3 new WB-AMR circuit pools

– Constant codec mode set 300 -


of 6.6, 8.85 and 12.65 kbit/s 3400 Hz

– Codec mode adaptation based


on radio conditions as in AMR

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AMR

Wideband AMR and AMR TFO


–Solution Architecture (Traditional AMR call)
• Compressed AMR speech is transcoded to G.711 in local
transcoder and again back to compressed AMR speech in
distant transcoder
-> quality degradation and delays
Transcoding

MS A BTS_L BSC_L TC_L MSC_L MSC_D TC_D BSC_D BTS_D MS B

AMR G.711 AMR

64kbit/s
12.2 kbit/s 12.2 kbit/s

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AMR

Wideband AMR and AMR TFO


–Solution Architecture (AMR call & AMR TFO)
Transcoding

Available codecs Available codecs


Inband negotiation between TCs

MS A BTS_L BSC_L TC_L MSC_L MSC_D TC_D BSC_D BTS_D MS B

AMR G.71 AMR


1
+
AMR

Optimal codec Optimal codec

64kbit/s
12.2 kbit/s 12.2 kbit/s

• TFO frames occupy part of G.711 64kbit/s channel for TFO signalling and
compressed AMR speech
• TFO frames transcoded, AMR speech bypassed w/o transcoding

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AMR

Wideband AMR and AMR TFO


–Solution Architecture (WB-AMR call & AMR TFO)
• NSN-North MSC Rel-99 does not support WB-AMR -> MGW needed

MSS_L MSS_D
Transcoding

MS A BTS_L BSC_L TC_L MGW_L MGW_D TC_D BSC_D BTS_D MS B

WB-AMR G.711 WB-AMR


+
WB-AMR

64kbit/s

12.65 kbit/s 12.65 kbit/s

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Wideband AMR and AMR TFO


–Solution Architecture (WB-AMR call & AMR TFO)
• Transcoding is possible also in NSN-North MGW without TCSM3i
(Ater b/w BSC and MGW is NSN proprietary feature)

MSS_L MSS_D

Transcoding

MS A BTS_L BSC_L MGW_L MGW_D RNC_D NodeB_D UE B

WB-AMR G.711 WB-AMR


+
WB-AMR

64kbit/s

12.65 kbit/s 12.65 kbit/s

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AMR

Wideband AMR and AMR TFO


–Solution Architecture (Payload Optimization)
• NSN-North MGW Proprietary feature Payload Optimization can save
transmission capacity when IP/ATM backbone is used

MSS_L MSS_D

Transcoding

BSC_L TC_L MGW_L MGW_D TC_D BSC_D


WB-AMR G.711 IP/ G.711 WB-AMR
+ ATM +
WB-AMR WB-AMR

64kbit/s 64kbit/s
12.65 kbit/s 12.65 12.65 kbit/s
kbit/s

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Wideband AMR and AMR TFO


–Solution Architecture (NSN-North BSS support)
WB-AMR and AMR TFO support in NSN-North BSS

BSS Core AMR TFO support WB-AMR support


Network
BTS+BSC+TCSM3i MSC (Rel-99) YES NO

BTS+BSC+TCSM3i MSS/MGW YES YES


(NSN-North)
BTS+BSC+TCSM3i MSS/MGW YES YES
(other vendor)
BTS+BSC MSS/MGW YES YES
(NSN-North)
BTS+BSC MSS/MGW Configuration not possible (Ater b/w BSC
(other vendor) and MGW is NSN proprietary)

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Wideband AMR and AMR TFO


–Solution Implementation (New circuit pools)
Circuit pool number Supported channels and speech coding algorithms
37 FR speech version 3 AMR FR
FR speech version 5 WB-AMR FR
HR speech version 3 AMR HR
38 FR speech version 1 FR
FR speech version 2 EFR
FR speech version 3 AMR FR
FR speech version 5 WB-AMR FR
HR speech version 3 AMR HR
40 FR speech version 1 FR
FR speech version 2 EFR
FR speech version 3 AMR FR
FR speech version 5 WB-AMR FR
HR speech version 1 HR
HR speech version 3 AMR HR

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Wideband AMR and AMR TFO


New parameters (S14)
• Initial AMR Codec Type (IACT)
– With this BSC parameter you define the preference order between
WB-AMR and AMR in channel allocation. Third choise is to obey
MSS given codec list.
– Range: 0…2 (0 = AMR, 1 = WB-AMR, 2 = Obey MSS list)
– Default: 0
– BSC MML commands: EEM, EEO

• AMR-WB FR Threshold 1 (AFRT1)


– With this BTS parameter you define the threshold for switching from
codec mode 2 (second lowest bit rate) to codec mode 1 (lowest bit
rate).
– Range: 0…31.5 dB, step 0.5 dB
– Default: 4 dB
– BSC MML commands: EQY, EQO
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Wideband AMR and AMR TFO


New parameters (S14)
• AMR-WB FR Threshold 2 (AFRT2)
– With this BTS parameter you define the threshold for switching from
codec mode 3 (highest bit rate) to codec mode 2 (second lowest bit
rate).
– Range: 0…31.5 dB, step 0.5 dB
– Default: 7 dB
– BSC MML commands: EQY, EQO

• AMR-WB FR Hysteresis 1 (AFRH1)


– With this BTS parameter, together with AMR-WB FR Threshold 1,
you define the threshold for switching from codec mode 1 (lowest bit
rate) to codec mode 2 (second lowest bit rate).
– Range: 0…7.5 dB, step 0.5 dB
– Default: 2 dB
– BSC MML commands: EQY, EQO
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Wideband AMR and AMR TFO


New parameters (S14)
• AMR-WB FR Hysteresis 2 (AFRH2)
– With this BTS parameter, together with AMR-WB FR Threshold 2,
you define the threshold for switching from codec mode 2 (second
lowest bit rate) to codec mode 3 (highest bit rate).
– Range: 0…7.5 dB, step 0.5 dB
– Default: 2 dB
– BSC MML commands: EQY, EQO

• AMR-WB Codec Mode Set (ACMS)


– With this BTS parameter you define is AMR-WB Codec Mode Set
Enabled or Disabled
– Range: Disabled/Enabled
– Default: Disabled
– BSC MML commands: EQY, EQO

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Wideband AMR and AMR TFO


Modified parameters (S14)
• BSC parameters (AMR-WB optionality checking added)
– Lower Limit for FR TCH Resources (HRL)
– Upper Limit for FR TCH Resources (HRU)
– C/I Target AMR FR (CIAF)
– Soft Blocking C/I AMR FR (SBAF)
– Soft Blocking C/N AMR FR (SBCNAF)
– TCH In Handover (HRI)
– Initial AMR Channel Rate (IAC)

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Wideband AMR and AMR TFO


Modified parameters (S14)
• SEG parameters (AMR-WB optionality checking added)
– Lower Limit for FR TCH Resources (FRL)
– Upper Limit for FR TCH Resources (FRU)
– TCH Rate Intra-Cell Handover (TRIH)
– AMR Radio Link Timeout (ARLT)

• TCSM parameters
– PCM Type (Circuit pool numbers 37, 38 and 40 added)

• Other parameters
– BSC Options (New value 133 AMR-WB added)

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Wideband AMR
Hardware Requirements
• AMR-WB is supported by the following network entities:
– BTS: Flexi Edge (SW EP3.0), MetroSite Edge (SW CXM7.0) and UltraSite Edge
(EDGE base band unit BB2E or BB2F and GMSK-only RF units, SW CX7.0)
– TRAU: TCSM3i and MGW (U4.1)
– BSC: all BSC types with SW level 14
– MSS: SW level M14
• The above listed network entities support TFO – otherwise application of
the AMR-WB feature would not bring any benefits
• In-path equipment must be transparent for TFO
• Restriction:
– North Rel’99 MSC does not support AMR-WB => AMR-WB fully supported by
the North MGW/TRAU Rel-4 solution

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AMR Unpacking Optimization


Feature details
UNPACKING OPTIMIZATION
intra HO low rx level limit AMR HR
intra HO low rx level limit AMR HR
intra HO lower rx quality limit AMR

• In BSS 14 the last step of AMR unpacking optimization is introduced. From the
functional point of view HO mechanism itself is not changed.
• The UTPFIL parameters (ID: 7E, 80 and 81) are replaced with new HOC
parameters: intra HO upper rx level limit AMR HR, intra HO lower rx level
limit AMR HR and intra HO lower rx quality limit AMR.
• These new HOC parameters are taken into account in case of AMR unpacking
and interference based intra cell handover decisions. The only modification is
that from BSS14 on unpacking is not allowed if RxQual is above the
threshold (previously it was equal or greater than the threshold).
• If averaged uplink or downlink quality is equal or greater than the threshold
intra HO lower rx quality limit AMR, intra-cell handover to switch an AMR HR
call to an AMR FR and interference based intra cell handover is not allowed.
• Moreover RxLev is also limiting factor for unpacking in the following way:
– If UL or DL level is below intra HO lower rx level limit AMR HR, intra-cell handover
to switch an AMR HR call to an AMR FR is not allowed.
– If UL or DL level is above intra HO upper rx level limit AMR HR, intra-cell handover
to switch an AMR HR call to an AMR FR is not allowed.

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AMR Unpacking Optimization


Feature details

• Until BSS 11.5 intracell handover from HR to FR was triggered if RxQual


was above intra HO threshold Rx qual AMR HR (on the picture it is
named as IHRH). This was standard unpacking procedure.
• In BSS 11.5 with the new UTPFIL parameter (from BSS 14.0 on called
intra HO lower rx quality limit AMR) unpacking procedure was
enhanced. Now it is only allowed if RxQual is between intra HO
threshold Rx qual AMR HR and intra HO lower rx quality limit AMR
(on the picture it is called respectively: IHRH and RxQualLimit).

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AMR Unpacking Optimization


Parameters
• New parameters (S14)
– intra HO lower rx level limit AMR HR (intraHoLoRxLevLimAmrHr)
– intra HO upper rx level limit AMR HR(intraHoUpRxLevLimAmrHr)
– intra HO lower rx quality limit AMR(intraHoLoRxQualLimAmr)

• Modified parameters (S14)


– BSC - bscOptions (BSC Options)

• On/off license for the AMR Unpacking feature.

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