Sie sind auf Seite 1von 28

  



 

 


  


CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS
Cambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town, Singapore, São Paulo
Cambridge University Press
The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge CB2 2RU, UK
www.cambridge.org
Information on this title: www.cambridge.org/9780521801713

© Cambridge University Press 2002

This book is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception


and to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements,
no reproduction of any part may take place without
the written permission of Cambridge University Press.

First published 2002


3rd printing 2005

Printed in the United Kingdom at the University Press, Cambridge

A catalogue record for this publication is available from the British Library

ISBN-13 978-0-521-80171-3 hardback


ISBN-10 0-521-80171-0 hardback
ISBN-13 978-0-521-80583-4 paperback
ISBN-10 0-521-80583-X paperback
 


 
    
    
  
    
  
     
     
  

 

   


 
 
    !"
  !
#
 
 

 !
!      ! " 
    !$
%
  
  !$
& 
   
!
  '
 # 
   


!   
   
  (
%  (


&  

  
 

 )
  
*
  

 !
 +    ,  
   $!
-  +
 
, 
* 
 
 $
- 
 !
%
  
  

  

 $
 # 
   


!      
 '
.
/
  
0+  '
  (
    ')
1
      (

 
  )!

*
*  

$ 

    
 
 


 )
2
   )
  
     
")
  !
  !(
.
   "
3
  +
 $
  
       
!    
 

 '
 
 
   '
 
* $'
  (
'       
! $   

 '"
20 *

 '"
4

  
 
 (
   

 
    (
   
  ((


  

    

 )!
  )'
(       
!  
% 

 )(
  56 )(
   

 !"$


*



  !"
  !!
)  
 

      !
&
     '
  !'
4



 !(
%
 !
  
    
 

What this book is about


%  

    &  
   &
*

* 

    
&   
  
 
& *
 
 
+

7 
*

  

  
     8
  
 
   
   
   7 
     
 

   
    *
 7 %
 &  
 &  
  *


 
 
  5 &    
  
 

 
 
 5   

 7 1
  &
+
*
&      *
   
  & 
 
 
7 -
& 

  +   



   
 
  5    *

 
7
   

  +  
 
& 


+


   
    7 1
 


  
 
  

   
 +  
  



7   + 


      

 
  
   
    
*


 


  *
 

 


7 

 8


     

  
 *
 
&    
+

 
7  9    


*
&      
+
 

  

  7
   

 

+ 



 +
 
& 

9  5 & +&  +  +

  
 
 
 
 
 0 

7 % 



 


 + +     *
 
   

  + 

 

/
+ 


 

   

 
  
9
7

    
& 
 !  
 


 
   
& 
   




  
 *
 
&   

 0

   
 + 

 

  
7

 $

 
*     
 
 

 7 
 & '  (
 + 5   


!   
 
 &





 & 
  
 
+& 0
*
+   

 


*  

  
 '  (
 


+   

  :
 
    


 
 7 
 )  
 
7
;

 &   +  + /
  


  , +     +   


 
  
9
 
       
7
  *
 + 

+   

 

   

   
&   
  
+ 


   
  +
 
  

  &
+ *


 

    7 <


 & 

+  

 

*
 
  
 =   
> 


 



 7 ;


  
 
 
  &

  

  
  
 & 
0

 
*  

   
   
7     
&   

      

 
&   
 
 

  
7 

9 
 

 


 



  
&  
  
   

*





*
 


 *
 * 
7  


 
     

 *
7 
  

  +    
 
0 
 &   /0
*
  / *
7 

     
 


  
  
 
& +    
 

 
  
*
7

9
  
  
  
 

  

*  *
 
 
+

7 1
&  +   0
 +  

  +  *
    
 
 
   
 0 

7   
 

 
=
7 7 + )')? !""">& 




+

   
 
       

  + 
  


 +    


7 4
&  
 
 


*
  


   +& 
  




*  
/
  
  

  +

 


*

 

  7 %
 &
 
   

*

  
 
*
+ 
 
7


   
 + *
 *
*
+  +   
  +  

  
 7    +

    
 
       

 

   
  7 

  

+    
 *
     
  
 7
 
    
  

What a corpus can do


  
 &    
      & 

 
   
 
 
7  
 +
&
+
*
&  
0
 
  
*  *
   

7 %   


& *
      &
 

@



  
& 

 +

0
 




    


 +  
 

7   
   
+  
 
&  
+

   
+ 

*
 
 7
< 
   * 
+

 
    
 

+, + 
/
& 
  &   7 5
 

+ 


 9
  
7

( ) 

+      

 
  
 
/
 
 7    

 +
  



  
 
/
 7 
7 + 
 $" +   
    
 
+  

 
  


 =   
&  
>
 + 
))( ;  5   =     )))>7
%  

&  +  




/
 

 + ? 

& 
+   * * * *  
  

   
 
 7 
 
 + + 

 
 $" +   


 ;  5    

= 
 >7 

 +   

  
:
 

8
 
&
7 7   =>*   ='>*    =(> 
 
  =$">  
  

& 
 
 =!>* 

=!(>*   =!)>  

+
 =$">   7 




 +   

  

   
  7 1


     
  
  



 



& + 

 +   

 + 
+  
+

 
 = 3    < )), 'A''>&  
     
  *    
  
  
'
)   
    

  
 7 
 
   

  
  


*  
 +
   &
  
+
 +  
 

/
 7 1
 




  
 +   
   
  
 
  

  

 =(>  
   => 



   =!(>7 
  
 
 
+ 


  

&   ,
  ,       
   
  - - - 


   
   
 
 &





77  
/
   

B

  <
  

6 

 35 35 35


! 1. 1. 1.
 1 #2 1
 #2 %# #2
$  1 %#
 %#  
' 3 % 3
(  3% %
) % 6 
" % 3 
 .14 .14 .14
! % ;5 %
   3%
 1# 352 6
$ 35 45 1#
 %3 %3 ;5
'  % ;C
( C1- ;C 3%3
) ;5 1# 
!"   #1
! ;C  %#54#%1#
!! ;- 3%3 %3
! 3D5 .41< #
! 45 .%B-45 E-15
!$ 3% # 45
! .41< #1 .41<
!' 35C 3 545
!( 3% 545 61 %C
!) #1 # 5
" 32 355 ;-
 3 ;55# 5
! # 3D5 1- 2
 5 14 14
 #@ -4.5 %
$ 14 -52 <FF%#%
 %2  35%4
' 1#5 5#54BC 352
( 3545 5<654-45 
) %  1 32
" 35%4 % 3D5
 3%3 1#4 <145
! 35 1 ;4%%#
 545 .%5 2 35C
 
    
  $


7 =7>

B

  <
  

6 

  <6 5 355
$ ;55# <54% 35
 31 -445# ;555#
' 354 ;555# 3%
( 1- 2 5 541# -
) -6 315D54 3#
$" %. 64% 5 1% %F%1#

#
, % 
  +  

*
& G@  G6@ 
 
 
*&   

*   
  7 G6@  

  


  
+  7 G@    
G@  +  
&
  H@  
@7

 
*   

   & +


 




 


7 3+
*
&  
 
  +

 
&  


 
 
&   

  
+   


0 
7 1
 +  

+


   +  +  + &   * 


    


      

 +7
.
/
     

  
 




 
+

 
   
 
 
 


 7 
      

/
  *
 + &

 7 
7! + 

  


 *  *
 
   

  

 

;  5 ,      
 ;&  
  
  
+
&     
 ; 5 7
;




 
 

 I
&   
 
/

 +  

 &  
9 
  



   +  
*
7 .

& 

    
 
!   + 7 


 )&"" 

  
+
   & *  
/
 
    8 *
 "7

7!  

 
 +  & 
 

+  

7 

 
   

  

  



  & 

  + 


*


 & 
    
   7
  &  

  
 
/
   

 
  

 +& +  
 
 

*

 
7 

 
 
  
  +   

7  
 
  G @  
   &  


   
    
+  
 
7
   
 
 &





7!7 .
/

  &  &
 
   


  =
   + >

; 
  


 ( " 


  ) ' ("!
 "! ( $

 
 ( " $
 

 !$ !) 
  ) )

% 


 

&
 
  
 
 0
*
 

  8
*
  *
& 
  9 


%&  &
 &  &  .   7 3





   
,

% 
 +  %@ 
 
+   
   
 %  

      +   
7 =
 >

 
 + 
  

  
   
 


 
   
7 #  

  +

  
    
7 = >

; % + 


      +  
   +


& + 
@ 
  
& + 
& 
+
0 +
 7 =
  >


+  

 
 
  
*, 
+ 
& 
 &   &  &      
  9  
/
 

   


 

& 

 9


,


 
 *


  
0  +
 
 

  

*
  +  

7 



+
 &    
&  
 
  *
 
 +

 
7 =
  >

  
 +

 0


& 
     

 +
+ 

   


 
    
7 



 
 

*
  


 + 
   
 
 
&
 
  
 7 = >

%@   +





    7 7 7 +   I
  


@ +   7 7 7 5   


   
+ 

+
 7 5 %@ *
  
+ +  
 @7 =

>
 
    
  '

  



  

   

  
 

G 

@ +


 
  
  
*
  G*
@7  
 
+ 
  +
 
 


/
  
 5    +
7 
 *
  
'

     
+
 
 
  *
7  +
 

 +
   8
*
  *
&      +
 9 

   +   

    
&    *  
7
%    
 


 &     7   
 
 

  
     
 +
    
 8
*
  *
&   



,
& + !( 7 7 7 + 
8

  

  5*
&  
 0
 

 + 4  


+ !!&   
   
 


*
7 #  & 

   
  
 & 
 

 *
+ /.  
  0  H
 .
7 =
  >



+ 
  8  

 +

%     

     

&    & 

+   + 



 *  



 + 

*
+  

7 =
>

#+ *    


 *



   


*

*
  
  

  + 
  

  
    

   
 +  


 




  
 


 
 
7 =
 ,  

  *
 
/
>

    
   *
      

   



  
 5 &  


*
+&   


 
+  / 

7    




  



 
/
  
7



 


  
/
  
+  &
&   
 7 
7 + 

/

 =7
7 


  

 
   + >  



&
 
 
/
  


7

  +    

/
   &
   





 
   

/
 
 7 
 
 

   +
 


*
 

/
  


  
  

 



  
 
7  

  
9
  



*
   

  &  + 


   $ 


 =!7$ 
 
   + > +

 


  
   !)) 
 =7 
 
  
+ >7   
 

   +   
    
  $   0  &   =+
J> +
(   
 
 &





77 .
/

  & &   
 
 =
   + >

; 
  
 

 )(" $( !($ ((


+ $ !"( ' ("
  " )! )$
+
! !! ( $!


  


  


 
  
 

 
*
7    

/*
    
 


 +


+
 
& 

/
 9 
  

  
    +  


+  

 7


 & +
*
& 
*

 

 
  

  
  7 %  &   

/

 
 & 8    

/
  7 %  
 

 
/
 
 
+ 
*



,  *

 
   7    
     
/
 =!( 
>
  

/
    =  ( 
>&  
 

*

  9   

  7 % 


 & K  

  
 



 &
+

  

  
9 
 7K7 % 

& 
& 


   

  9 
 
+

  

  
  


  

G+@ 


G+@ 
&  

 +   


  

  
7  

   
+
 
  

 
 


   +
7
<

+  *

/

 
+




  

 

  ;
   
 
 =
7 7 ;

)((? ;

  ))(? ;

  )))? 

  <  !""" 


  !"">7 
 
+
+     + 
   

    
7 1


  

     
  

   

 
 

, G*
@& G9@& G
+@  G
@ =;


  ))), $>7 
 
  
 *
  

& 

 

 

/
    

7 % 

9 & 

 

& +  







 

7 % 

+ & 
9 
 
  
/ 7


9    


  

  3  @ =))>
     
;  5 & 

   

 

 
    
  )

    
/ 7  


   



 
 

9    

 
5    +
7 5 

   +   

 
&  *
 
9 
  
&   $",$"  

7 3+
*
& ;

  @ 9       + 


 3  @ 9 
7 % 
  

   



  

& 
 
   
 + 


  
 
 

 +  7  
9& 

& +  
9 
 +   

7  +


 
 !& +
*
&      

 

 *
7 3+  9 + 
G @  +
*
 

+    
  G5    +
@& +
*

/   
 + + 
     
:


5 7

0  
< 


         7
 

  

  
  
  + 

&  + 

  
*

 
  
 
 

 
*
+
 

+   
 

  

 
7 =     )'$ 


  
 
  

   

7> %     
&

&  
    
*
7
   
     + 
 
   


 &  + 

  +   
: 

7 1
 


  
+  
    

   
*

*
+  

  

  5  

/
  

 
 7 .

&

 
 
 8
*
 

   
 
&  9 
   



 
    







 

7 ;
+ 
! 

  
+ 
  

 
 =


    
;  5 >7
%



 
  
 + 



 +
 7 4
 ; 7 %  



 + 0 
&    
*
&

C1    



   
&  
  & +

 %@ 



 
 

 


 

7 %@ 



   *
7 %@*
 
+  +
*
     



 

7


+ 
7 <14%<54, 
@*


 


    
*

 
     I
  


 /  
 
7
*
   6 + +
 



*
   +  

  &  
 
  




 
  



"   
 
 &




  

 A % + 


 
 
   
=
  >& 




  0&  
 & @
   
@ 


  
7 %



  
  & 







*
 


 +0

 
 
&   



 
 




  

  


 
 7 5*
 +
 *


 + 
 @@ C
& 
 


 * +  

 
     


  +    +

 



   



      0

 
+  3
 <
  



 
8
7  + % 
+ @ % 7 #  


7 %@ 


7@ 1L7 2  +  
+ @


7 %
 



? 
 +  

  *


 


 +  * 
7 
%


C
7 C
7 ; 

@  

  * 
 %
 
 7 #+   

 & ;7 3

@ 
  +


7@@ % 
 
 

 
    &

 
&  



 

  + 
B

3
 7 
& @ 

  

 
+   



7@@ 3
  *

 

  , 
 


   
7 %@  *
 

 
 

  


 
8
7   

      

 

 
   

 
45<& +@ 


*  
    

 
    
 
 
  .& 8  
 

 7 G#  
 @ 
 
7
%

  
  & 
 

 

 +
 
+  
/
& 
  

 
7 =


 0
!)>&   +   
 

    *
+7 

 
<
  
&  
 

 , G   ("&

4
 7 %  
 

 
7 
 
  +


8    *




 

 & 
  
   

+ & G<  *
 

 
7@ 
& 

%  A *



+ 
 
 


  

+ 

  
-

< , %@ 

  A  +&   
@
 
?  + 


  

+  < 


 
  
  

  

 +
&

  +
&  M
1 
7 @ *
 

 
7 % 
 @


 


 +  & *
+
 &
    




  
&  

 G

 




 @ 

  
/
7 ; &
 
  
 
 + 


 &  

 G 

  @7
 9

    
G  

  7 7 7@ 
G%@ 

  

7 7 7@ 
     


0


 G
  


@  G
  

 @ 
*
 
 =    




 ! 
 

      
 >7 
  +   

 & 


&   


   

 
  

 G

 


 
 @& G
 
    
  



  @& G+  

 @  G  

  

@&
+ 
& 
 & 


   


  
7
     
  L

 =))>     
     7 
    



 *

9  

 



 
+

 

+ & L


   
   7 3

      
/
 
 
    
  * 


* *  *
1
  ) &  +
 

*   * 
*
 
*    
& +

    

/
 
 
 *
   * *  * *    7 



 
*

  *
 9

 +
=)), "A"'>  


 
  
  

  
7 L

    
   
/

  



 
 &  G
 @7 
  /

 

      

01 0;

 = 1;>
 *
 G @ 
 =
7 7       
 


2  
    34  35   > +   


  

    *
 G
 @

 =
7 7      
   6  $  2
 

     .

   >7
6
       



 


7
;
+ 
 

  

$60  
  

;  5 & + 



 

 



7 =#
, 


 

+ &   

  
 
  
*
7 .

& $60 
  &  &  
 
  7>
  .

& +



 
   
  


! 
 + 
 
 
  
7 4 , B @
 6

&     

&    
7 
  +
 
%


   7 %    
  
+
@ *

$ +
 7 6



    
   +  

 
  +


   
&  


' ;
 7 
  + 

   
      
(  
  
  
  
 
  
 
) 

& 

*& 
  
   *
 & 
"  +  

  
 

 A   


   +7 3

@ 

  *


  
8
7
! 
& %@  7@@ ; +
 
  

  & 
 


  
@ 
7 B* ;

 

  
7 3
+ 


  

7 1
+
*


 

 +
$ 

 A  
  @  
  

 A  G
  

 ;

& C
   

   


' 
   

  *


  

8
,
(      
 
  + 



 

* 

  
  
/
   +
 
!   
 
 &




= 
 & $& '& )& & !& (>7
 *& 
&  + 



$607 %  
& 



     
0
  
 
= 
 & (& )& & '>     

 9  
 
*
= 
 & !& & $& & '& "& $& >7
5*
 +
  

  
 
0

&   
& 
  
0
  
  G  
@  


*
 

,   
& ;

  
+ 
 
 +
    
7  
  
 9   &
  
*
  +
   
*

 

 

  





7




9

 + 
    
 


     7  + 


 

 

 ? 

  9
  
    



  +   07    
 
   *

+  
     *
  


& + 



 
  





  
 
  

 
 

  +  
 
*
7
.

&  
  
+    
, 
&   7&
  & & &  &
 & & & 
   7
1  +
   
 +     
+    ?  

 
    *
7 % 
  
 
G 
@  G *
@&
 



 
 


   
 
,
  
 89 
 G 
@&   
 ?
     
 G@ = 
 >  G
+ @ = 
0
 
>?
   
 G
@  G 
@&

 
   
 ?
       
 G
   

@?
   
 G 
+
 @?
   
     &   
 G
*
@?
     
  
 
   
 




 * 
?
 
 
 


   + 
 

*
7
    
 
 
&     N   &
 
 
+

 
 +   
/
 0

*
71 .

& 
+    
 +

  
,
 
  
+

 
 +    
 
/
  


G  @7
 
    
  

:/&
 
  ;;&  +    
    

  =     ?  


 
?  
   &


>?
 & % &       &  +    
 

  
?
 

  
,

*
   
&  &    ?
& 
 
         ?
 & 
 
   7/      &
;&"  
      & $;     
 &;/        ?
&         & 0   
     &
#//  
   &   6<  
 
  ?
&       &     0 76;=  
  ?
&         &            
    7

* 
  
   & 

 + 

 

+ 


  
& 
 
 

 
7

What corpora are used for


 +  *
 *


 
& + + 



   
 $& '  (&  





,
. .  

 &   *
  + 
 
+    


 *



&   



   

*
7 %
 & 

*

/
  

 

  
 0

7    <  =!""">& 

& 
   







 *
 5    
 

 
   7 

/ 
     "K
 





&  


  
*

  $K7
%          
 

 7
. %
 &  
  

 

  


 
  

*
 =

& 

& ; 
<5

7 !""">&  + 
  
*

  

  
 
+

  
7
.   

  


 0

  
/*
  +  
&  

   
 
 &




  

+ +   


 *


  
 

7  

 
 $ +& 

& 
5 
+ 
   
 
 
 
.
    
 &  

 +     
*
 
 7


 +
  5  


 
 
+ 
 


.
 


   
/*
   & 
+
      


  
.
 


& 

5  



 +  
7
. B

   


    
/
 

  +  *  
  


7  
   +         

 7
.  

   *
 
  




   
=
7 7  ))? 

 !""">   


  
 
 =
7 7 L ))?
 0   < )))? .   !""">7

Types of corpora
    +
 
    
&  


 +

   
7 3



  

 
,
. Specialised corpus7    
     
&  

+

 &
  
& 
 
  
  8
&

&  *
&
 +
 


7 %   



*
  *
 
 
7 %
 
 *
 
   
  
7 4




 
 
 + 
 
  
:
 
 
 

 +  *
 
7 

    



 
  * *
&  


 

   

  
  
7 .

&     



  

&   
     
&  
  
 &   *
   
  &
   *
 &   
+
 

  + 

5
 -7 
+
0+ 
 
  


$   + 


 #    2

 5  =#125> = 



  ; 5 > 

<    
 
 5  =<%5>
=
 

   - 
 
 >7
. General corpus7    
   
7 %   

+
  
  
&  &    


 
 
  7 %   
  



*

 
    
  $

    G+


@&  +  
 +
 
  

 
7 

      
  

 
7 %  

  





 
  

   &    
 
  
0

  + 

 
7 ;

 

      

 
 reference corpus7

0+

   

; # 
=""   + >  
;  5  =""   +  
H !"">&2   + 
 
 0
 

 
7 <
 


  +


1;
&   +
 ; 5 &  
;+
&   +
 
 5 &  


)"      + 
7
. Comparable corpora7 + = 
>   


 
 =
7 7 5   >   

 *

  
 
=
7 7 %  5     5 >7 
 


 
  


& 


 +  


  
+
 
& *
&  *
&
  7 
  *

  

 

 

 

*

7 
 


  
  

    

 

 


 
/*

 
  
7 
%5
 =%
   5 > 


    + 
  

 *

  5 7
. Parallel corpora7 + = 
>   

  
&

  
  *


  
 
 

 

 =
7 7  *
 5    

  

&  
    

  
 5 >
 
  *


  
 
   +  

 
 =
7 7 5
 - 
 & + 
 

  
9  
  
5->7 
  


   

  9 

/*




  
  *
 



 
+

  
7
. Learner corpus7  
  
 A
& 

A
 


    
7 

   
 
  + 



 
 
 
 
 
 
 *


&  +  

  *
0

 
  
/
7 


 
 


   
+ &  + 

 +  

! 
;  5   

 I
 
*
 
 
  
)("7

 
 
    +


 
!   + ? 
  

""   + 


7
   
 
 &




%
  

 5  =% 5>7     

    !"&""" + 
&
 


 +
 

  5       

  =.


& +
& B

>7 

  

 
 +
  *


  5 , 
*
  #*
5  5 = 1#5>7
. Pedagogic corpus7      
 



 



7 . 

& 
 
   

 
   7 %  

  


 



 
  
   &      


& 


 

  
&    

 
 *


 7 

 G
   @  
 27   =))>7 

     

 
 

  


 

   +  

 *

  



&  

  +

7 %    


+       5   

 


  
 


+  
   0
   
 7
. Historical or diachronic corpus7    
  



   
7 %  
 


*

  
  
 
*
 
7 6
 

0+   
5   
3
 & +   
  '"" 
'""  
 7$   + 7
. Monitor corpus7  
 
  
 
  
 
7     
  &   
*

 &     

  I
7 3+
*
& 
 

 
  
 
 &  
 
 =
  >  
  
+
*
 
7
%
  

   
  



 !7

Some key terms





  
 
  
   


  7 %  

 
   
+  




 

7 5  
 + 

 
,  &  & .&  &
 ' & &     7

, * ,   ,.


3+  +  


 
 +   =
 
  < 
 ))$, ">
 
    
  '




 
  *
6*   +
   /
 



 

 

      
7 <
+  
 *
  

   

*  +

   *
    
  + 

*

 



7 3* 


    +& 


   
 + 
   
 
 
 
  
+   7

% 


& 


( + 7  & 


( 
/

 


 

 
  7   
9 
 

+ 0    + 0


   *
7 % 

+ & 


( tokens7
3+
*
&   

+   
 
,
   

*
  

   

  ! 

   


 $ 

  ! 

   ! 

   

+   

  ! 


 



 
 &     

 + 


& *
    " 
7 - 

  & 



" types7 
+      


hapax
legomena  hapaxes7

 
 & 


& 
    (

  " 
&     
7 %  *
  

& 
  
  
   



 
  
 

7 %  
 & 

+ 

*
 


 
 
&  

 


   *  + 
 
 
 =;

  ))), $>7

,&   , ' 




  
   

   +

  +
G+ @   7 % 
   *
/
*
&


&   
 
 
  
 
  



G
+ @&   
   
    

7 

  & 
&  
  
 
+ word-forms 
  


lemma, <7 % 

+& & & 
&  
(   
 
 &




  
+ 0 
   

 /7 

 



  +

 + + 0 
  


 

 
  

 + 0 
 =

&  
 8
*



  
 

  
*
  
  



   >7   


 
 
  
*


&  +   

 


   +



   
 7 1
& 

&   
  

+ 
  +   8
*

  
  

 8
*

  7 %  & 
 
+

& + 0
 + 
  
  


    
 
 


+ 0 7 & )
& )
  )
  
  


 > :&  )
 +  
  
  



7

,* ,    , 





 

  

  

   0
  
+    7 
   


  =7
7   
    
>    =7
7 
  
 + + 

  >7  
      
  



& 

  
?        
*

 + 
&  

  



 
  


 
&  

  


73 

  

+  

 
  
      7


 tagging    
 

  
    


 +   &   
  

7 %  


     &     + 



 &
 

 
7 .      

 

      



 ?   *
 
&
      7
  

  
  + 

7 

+
 *
 
 +    & 

&  +   

 

  
*
7  
  + 

 



 


 7 %  &  
  



      + 
7 .

& B

 4 =))(> 
*
 0*
 
 . 

   & G
@ 
 G+  

   
+

@7 

     
& +
*
7 3   


  
 

 
? 
   


&    




G

@7 


*
 
  G@ 
  
  7 .


&   
   
   
 +

 
  
 

      8
*
7
 
    
  )


  
0*


 




& 
  *
  *


 &  
+
 8& 
0
  7  

      
*



 


    
  
0
*


 7  


&   
  


  & *
&   &      +
&  
  
+

    +  

/
  
 
   *
   *
 

7 % 
<  

   

;  5 & 
*
 =;6:  )! 
 
  
+ &  
  $ 
7 % 

 & 
*

 &"" 
 
   + &   $'! 
7   
   
*
  

/
  
& 
 

*

 
/
  
 

    
< 


 7   
   
 =;6: 

 

 


  
 7 
  9
 
  
<  

 


*
&

   


 
  =7
7 
*
      
> 
   7 % 
 + &  
/
 
  
 =;6:
 
9 *
7 
 
/
 
  

+
0

&   
& 7 % 

 &
 9  
  
   =     *   
 >    7 
 
/
 
  
 =;6:
 G8@7 

  =;6: =>  
<  

  


  
  
    I
 

  

  

  &   

  + 

 
*
 

/
  
<  

 7
 parsing  
   
  
&  
 
  7  
  

  + 

 

  

 
   7
6  

 &  

    

 *
 
7   
*
 G @ 

 
&  &  
  

 
  


7 %  
&     


 
 

    
  
 
 =


 5
 ))'>7 6
  
*
  *




*



   
 
  
 -*
  &
  

  
+ 

&   
*
 
 
*
7 

   
/
& +
*
& 


+




  
 
 
 

 + 
   & 
   


=<5

 
))'>7
 
 

       annotation7
G@    



     
!"   
 
 &




 

  7  & 
 -*

   9
&
 
 



  
  B

  =
7
))'>7    



 
 
 7


  
, 
   
  
?   & + 
9
 

*


   


?    * 
  

0

 

     +
 
7    


  
 

  

   *

  
 
&   
  

 
  

  

  
7 =


   


   7>

Why corpora? Why not?


 

     
&   + 
  


 /
  +  
   
 &
    
 
 7  




  &  

*

    

 

 

*
  


  
   = )),
!>7 %   


     
 + 

   &     
 
  
A 

  

     
/

 A  


 7  =)))>   & 8       

 


  
  
&    
 

    + 

   *
 7

 
* 
  + 
 &  + 
   
 

 
 +7
 

  
  +  
 
&  

 
  *          




  

 *


  7    
*


 



 *
  
 
 


*
 

 &   





 
  
 =   

 !"">7 .


& *
0

  


 

 
 
+       



    
 

&  

/
 
 

G 8  


@   
  

7
%    
 
  
   
,
 & 
/
&    
  7 5
 

 


*
 
+7
Judgements about collocations7 
  

 
 = ?  & 

>& 
 

9 7 B

=))(>    
 *
  
+  
 8
*
7 

 G


    
 
    
  !

 &    & 


   & 
  
 &

 @
+

  5  
   
=))(, $">& 
 


 
+
   
    

+
 
7 H =)), >   
*
 

&        &  
  7
&   &     &     
& 
 
'
 
 & 
    & ) 7
 &
. 
  7
& .   
%& 
   7 
7
7
 7 %  9   
*


  
 


&  
 

& + 
*

7
Judgements about frequency7 %    
 
0
  

*

/
  + & 
  



  *


 
 =
  
     


/
 *
  
 
 &    9   
 +


    

/
>74 3   =)), >   
+

 

 *

  

/
 

=  

/
  & +  

/
   >&

 
 
  *
  

/
  0
 

&  
*
 
   

7
Semantic prosody and pragmatic meaning7 
=!"""> 


 *
     
    
 


 

  7 .

& 

  


      
    
  


/
  
&    
* 

*
 
*
7 #*



  5  
 
 + 
   
  

 
  9  
*

   &
     
7 1
&  & 

  


  A G 
@ 
& +  @ %   


@7
Details of phraseology7    *


  
 
 0

  
     &   

 

   



9 7 1


 

 
1+
 =))>7 1+
 
  
;  5   

*


  )
7  +
  *
09*

 
&
*
     &   (  .
 
)
   & 

 +  1+
@ *
0

 7
  
   
   
 *
 

7   
6/> 6/      
;  5 &   

/
 & 
 
  +       *

+  
9 
 &  

 *
   7 




 

  

    )
     

 % &    &""" 


  
;  5 ?   "&""" 
7
!!   
 
 &





  *
 
+ 

 )
   =     "!>7
 1+
@  

  

*

 
&
  
   
    7 =



'  

     
7>
    *
0

   

&  +


   
    7 %

&   


  
  

   
  
9    7 

 


  =))(>7   
;  5  


 
*
   ;<&  
   
+ 
  +
 
 +

 
*
 +  =



9  >&      
*
 +   

+ G9 @ 
 A  9
&  
+

 =
7 7  
     > A +

 
 + 
 +
 


+    

  
 =
7 7     
 
 >7  *
 
 
 




+

 

+     =       > + 7


3*  
 


9    
    
&
   +
 
   
   7 

 


  +,

   +  *
  +

 
 

 &   +

   
/
  7 2
 
5  
* +   
  
 
+    +
0

 =  )), '? ;


 ))(, >&  /
  

A G %   @ A  


 
+

7  *
 
9

&  
*
 /@06/

+ 

 &     + "/  =
7 7 
 
   
  > 
;  5  +   /@06/  

, $ 
   &$) 
  /@06/ ="7K>& 
+
"/ & +  $&!$) 
   ($&$ 
  "/ =K>7 %
   
  + /@06/   =! 
>7 .
0

&  
$ 
  /@06/ & 


8
& 0
75
   
 &   
    +
 

/
   +

 /@06/   

5 7 #*
0


    +
  /
7
!    +  
  + 
7   
  =89 >    



*
&  
  +

$ 

  0
 
   
*
+   9   *
 

* , A 
 
  
   *    * 
         

 .

   
* 
  
        


  -
 
    
  !



     
 
 7  
0

 
*

     

   &
  
 
 

  + 
   
7
     
+    *
 




&   7
    

*

  *
7 .


& + 
 

 
   
 


&    
    
 %   

 

 G +
@,  
    
    
7 0
 ;#/   
    
 + ;#/    

 
;  5  9    


& 
  8
*
   &    
  


 
    

 
    
 7  
& +
*
& 


 
  
   

 
 
    
  
 

7 

  
 



 
 

?    


 
7
 6
  
    

  
  

7 
+  L
  *

+
 =L
  *

+
 ))? L
 ))>& 

&

    





  *   
 =& 


 & 

    
+   
  


  + 
+  
>7   =  


  
*
>  + 7 5/   9  


 
 &     
*
 



& 
 =G   
@>&  
   


 
7 5*
  

 * 
 

   
&  
 
  
 
 


  

    


 

&  + 

 
   7


  + 


    

 
  
    
7

Conclusion
 
   

 
 
  

 +
     
 7 
 



   *




&   +  0

  

 
   
 +   

+  +  
 +  

  +  

7 
 
   
*
  

 

7


 


 +   

 

 

      *
  7
!   
 
 &




Note on sources of examples


-
 
+
 
& 


&  

 
     
 
;  5 
7 
 
 

  

 
 
&     *





 




7 5
  
  
,
54   
5O4
  
54  
 

5O4
 
 

5.14 



 
 
5<1!4 


 
 !
5<1P4 
9





    
=G @> 


*
 0


+   

 
    

7