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Lec. - Railway Engineering Assist. Lec.

Zaid Abdul Zahra Mahdi

4- Gradients The gradients of railways tracks are Roads are constructed normally
and Curves a er (normally not more than 1 in 100) with steeper gradients of up to 1
and curves are limited up to only 10° on in 30 and rela vely much
broad gauge sharper curves.

5- Flexibility of Due to the defined routes and facilities Road transports have much
movement required for the reception and dispatch more flexibility in movement
of trains, railways can be used only and can provide door-to-door
between fixed points. services.

6- Suitability Railways are best suited for carrying Road transport is best suited for
heavy goods and large numbers of carrying lighter goods and
passengers over long distances smaller numbers of passengers
Over shorter distances.
Lec. - Railway Engineering Assist. Lec. Zaid Abdul Zahra Mahdi

Railway Components

The main components of a railway:

1- Rails: it is a general form of the railway having parallel rods of steel bar or continuous line of
bars lay on the ground as one of a pair forming a railway track,

2- Sleepers: a set of plate's wooden or concrete beams parallel among them, creating what looks
like a stairs, in order to maintain the same distance between them In order to ensure stability
on the ground

3- Ties and fixers: the continuous bars of rails tied with together longitudinally by fish plates and
the rails are fixed by screws or metal screws vertically on sleepers with chairs and spikes.

4- Ballast: a concrete base or a bed of gravel which rails and sleepers sat on; it compressed on
the ground in order to avoid twisting the rail and carrying the weight of the train, it also
provides flexibility, and good drainage. Over time, increases stability rail under the weight of
locomotives passers-by.

Ballast Rails

5- Formation: a level of subgrade which the components of railway are raised from natural
ground on it; almost have soil improvement structure.
Lec. - Railway Engineering Assist. Lec. Zaid Abdul Zahra Mahdi

Railway Gauge

Gauge is defined as the minimum distance between two rails.

Various gauges have been adopted by different railways in the world due to historical and other
considera ons. In Bri sh Railways, a gauge of 1525 mm (5 feet) was initially adopted, but the wheel
flanges at that time were on the outside of the rails. Subsequently, in order to guide the wheels
better, the flanges were made inside the rails.

The gauge then became 1435 mm (4' 8.5"), as at that time the width of the rail at the top was 45
mm (1.75"). The 1435-mm gauge became the standard gauge in most European Railways. The
approximate proportions of various gauges on world railways are given in the table below:

Various gauges on world railways

Type of gauge Gauge Gauge (feet ) % of length total Countries

Standard gauge 1435 4' 8.5" 62 England, USA, Canada,
Turkey, Persia, and China
Broad gauge 1676 5' 6" 6 India, Pakistan, Ceylon, Brazil,
Broad gauge 1524 5' 0" 9 Russia, Finland
Cape gauge 1067 3' 6" 8 Africa, Japan, Java, Australia,
and New Zealand
Meter gauge 1000 3' 3.5" 9 India, France, Switzerland, and
23 various other Different Different 6 Various countries
gauges gauges gauges