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University Center

ETD Collection for AUC Robert W. Woodruff Library

5-1-1990

selected elementary school of the DeKalb County

school system

Alexander Russell Jr.

Clark Atlanta University

Part of the Educational Leadership Commons

Recommended Citation

Russell, Alexander Jr., "Factors affecting chronically tardy students in a selected elementary school of the DeKalb County school

system" (1990). ETD Collection for AUC Robert W. Woodruff Library. 2186.

http://digitalcommons.auctr.edu/dissertations/2186

This Thesis is brought to you for free and open access by DigitalCommons@Robert W. Woodruff Library, Atlanta University Center. It has been

accepted for inclusion in ETD Collection for AUC Robert W. Woodruff Library by an authorized editor of DigitalCommons@Robert W. Woodruff

Library, Atlanta University Center. For more information, please contact cwiseman@auctr.edu.

FACTORS AFFECTING CHRONICALLY TARDY STUDENTS IN A SELECTED

A THESIS

SPECIALIST IN EDUCATION

BY

ATLANTA, GEORGIA

MAY 1990

ABSTRACT

EDUCATIONAL LEADERSHIP

A SELECTED ELEMENTARY SCHOOL OF THE

The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which the following

factors may differ between chronically tardy and non-tardy students: Parental

attitudes, family structure, socioeconomic status, teacher attitudes, and schoolmates'

influence. The population of this study was the students at an elementary school in

the Dekalb County School System, Georgia. Thirty students participated in the

study. The ages of the participants ranged from 8 through 13.

The instrument used in this study is entitled The Home and School

halve significant differences as perceived by the two groups of students. The two

variables were: (1) Family structure in terms of the presence of the father in the

home, and (2) teacher attitude.

that the following initiatives be developed: (1) Parenting Workshops for the parents

of ^hose students identified as chronically tardy; (2) Schoolwide strategies that

encourage students to arrive at school on time; (3) A Big Brother program in which

male adult figures spend time with chronically tardy students; (4) A communication

system that will inform parents of tardies on a daily basis; (5) Workshops to enhance

positive teacher-student interactions that will improve students' perceptions of

teachers; and (6) rewards for students and praise parents for maintaining good

attendance records in school.

(C) 1990

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

experts in their own right. First of all, I would like to thank Dr. Trevor

Tu rner and Dr. Stanley Mims for their guidance throughout this work.

Secondly, I would like to thank Mrs. Pamela Brooks for typing this

document.

Sincere thanks are also extended to the friends and colleagues who

deeply appreciated.

i

11

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

Acknowledgements ii.

Abstract iii

Chapter

1. INTRODUCTION 1

B. Background Information 2

E. Research Questions 4

F. Limitations of study 5

G. Definition of Terms 6

2. REVIEW OF LITERATURE 7

A. Introduction 7

on Task 7

C Family Life 9

I

D. Parental Attitudes 11

E. Teacher Attitudes 13

F. Schoolmates' Influence 16

G. Summary 17

iv

3. METHODOLOGY AND DESIGN 19

B. Instrumentation 20

D. Data Analysis 22

OF DATA 23

A. Introduction 23

I. B. Results 23

j

IMPLICATIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS 40

| A. Summary of Findings 40

| B. Conclusions 40

C. Implications 40

D. Recommendations 40

6. BIBLIOGRAPHY 45

7. APPENDIX 48

LIST OF TABLES

Page

1. The Number of Boys and Girls Surveyed

by Category of Non-Tardy and Chronically

; Tardy 25

Chronically Tardy and Non-Tardy

; Students with Respect to Parental Attitudes 29

Chronically Tardy Students with Respect to

I the Number of Persons in the Household 31

Chronically Tardy Students with Respect to

the Number of Children in the Household 33

Chronically Tardy Students with Respect to

the Presence of an adult Male

Living in the Household 35

Chronically Tardy Students with Respect to

the Presence of an adult Female

Living in the Household 37

Chronically Tardy Students with Respect to

the Family Income Level 39

Chronically Tardy Students to Teacher

Attitudes 40

Chronically Tardy Students in Their

Perceptions of Schoolmates' Influence 42

VI

CHAPTER 1

Introduction

these concepts.

school day. The tardy student misses the opportunity of being exposed

i

historically viewed in a casual manner. Caldwell, Huitt, and Graeber

and teachers. Parents are normally the first teachers in a child's life,

challenge them in an effort to broaden their perceptions of the world.

each other.

Background Information

several ways. Parents and children did not prepare clothing or lunches

the night prior to a school day. In addition, there were problems with a

lack of money from parents. Further, both students and parents talked

albout alarm clocks not working properly. Moreover, there were many

students stated that they had a late start which was due to a wide range

was the fact that breakfast was served late because "we waited for daddy

regarding the bus drivers' usual arrival and departure time. A final

explanation was that a student arrived late because of the father and

record reflects a high level of absences. Upon investigation of the

teachers, and students may be able to develop strategies that are desired

County School System. The purpose of this study was to examine the

Research Questions

attitudes?

2. How does family structure—in terms of the number of

students?

students?

students?

i

students?

attitudes?

Definition of Terms

month.

a student is tardy.

CHAPTER 2

Review of Literature

Introduction

additional days to every school year until the year 2000, extending the

8

areas than our American students, and one key element

seems to be that Asian students spend more minutes of

the day and more days of the year in the school setting (p.

54).

of that fact must spend more time in the classroom, there is a different

task:

through better classroom management and organization

of the school....Additional time should be found to meet

the needs of slow learners, the gifted, and others who

need more instructional diversity than can be

accommodated during a conventional school day or year

(p. 29).

light of that, Dr. Rogers began to use strategies to increase time spent in

the classroom. The decision by Dr. Rogers to extend the Georgia Public

school day to 200 days is supported by the findings of the researchers at

socioeconomic status.

Family Life

forth from one generation to another" (p. 5). Therefore, family history

10

implies that the family practices or habits may have a strong impact on

children who are frequently late to classes, for example those who

needs to be remedied" (p. 398). The authors stated that more children

this effect is greater for low income families. The authors stated that:

The effect is greatest for low income pupils. Five more

latenesses per year mean 2.9 months less growth to pupil

whose family income is $5,000 and 1.2 months less

achievement growth for a student whose family income is

$8,000 (p. 140).

students miss important skills, the student suffers, the family suffers.

11

children. The mother and father cannot keep up with the cost of living

and it is difficult for them to compete in the workforce. They may lack

stress for parents trying to help their family to meet their basic needs of

food, shelter, and clothing. This causes parents to expend great energy

will assist their family in meeting their basic needs and move to higher

Miskel, 1982).

Parental Attitudes

12

"I'll wake her up in the mornings when she gets to regular school"

addition, under spacing allows for more affection and less disciplinary

tactics. Kidwell (1981) agrees and states that under spacing of children

assures that there sill be less pressure on parents during the time of

smaller family. That means that the attention and support needed by

13

than by modeling.

Teacher Attitudes

suggests that parents look for these two good qualities in an effective

teacher: (1) Does this teacher care about my child? and (2) Is this person

14

beginning of the school year and periodically during the school year.

should stand at the door which enables them to observe students in the

the door. The gesture will send a message to students about arriving to

class on time.

home and school. This assessment may set the basis to establish a plan

15

questions to answer. The first set of questions was used to elicit their

public beliefs and the second set of questions was used to elicit their

more private beliefs. Teachers were asked later during the year if their

teachers tend to blame the parents and homelife rather than the

may differ from the parents perception of an at-risk student. The cases

school records were examined. The findings with this study revealed

16

judgement, and the size of the class may affect the development of

Schoolmates' Influence

Julius and Zelda Segal (1986) found that children tend to parallel

themselves closely with the value system of their parents. They also

found that peers, in most cases, will not relate to peers of the opposite

direction, and warmth are eager to be accepted by any peer group. Peers

peers. Newman and Newman (1976) gives supportive data and state

17

from within this group to conform to the norms of the group and to

indicates that children tend to parallel their value system with their

parents value system. Therefore, children with values systems that are

parallel with the value system of their parents may have a greater

children with value systems that resemble their peers value system

Summary

This chapter contains the purpose of the study and the related

18

and that means that tardiness in one child can appear in others.

the needs of individual students. While Julius and Zelda Segal (1986)

stated that children usually imitate the value system of their parents,

usually relate themselves with any peer group that will accept them.

The next chapter will give the theoretical framework upon which this

study is based.

CHAPTER 3

which the following factors may differ between chronically tardy and

the fourth, fifth, sixth, and seventh grades from an enrollment of 480

following table gives the grade and number of males and females

19

20

Table 1

2 girls

2 girls 2 girls

2 girls 2 girls

2 girls 2 girls

n = 14 students n = 16 students

Instrumentation

leadership who are familiar with the Dekalb County School System as

21

the same household. Also, this instrument was designed to collect and

22

Data Analysis

One basic statistical tool was utilized: the t-Test was used to test

CHAPTER 4

Introduction

data.

black females, 1 white female, 1 eight year old, 5 ten year olds. 4 eleven

year olds, 12 twelve year olds, 3 thirteen year olds, and 3 fourteen year

students.

Results

attitudes?

23

24

Table 2

to Parental Attitudes

Categories Cases Score Deviation

Chronically Tardy

Students 14 47.9286 10.731

T-Value 0.95

2-Tail Probability 0.354

P>.05

Critical value of t = 2.074

students.

was performed. Table 2 shows that the degrees of freedom were set at

of t was .95 and the critical value of t was found to be t = 2.074. Since

25

attitudes.

students?

26

Table 3

Categories Cases Score Deviation

Chronically Tardy

Students 14 4.4286 1.785

T-Value -0.51

2-Tail Probability 0.617

P>.05

Critical value of t = 2.060

tardy students was 4.1250. The mean number of persons living in the

freedom were set at df = 25.14, and the level of significance was set at p

= .05. The calculated value of t was -0.51 and the critical value of t was

27

students.

students?

28

Table 4

Categories Cases of Children Deviation

Chronically Tardy

Students 14 3.0000 2.602

T-Value -0.76

2-Tail Probability 0.455

P>.05

Critical value of t = 2.074

a t-Test was performed. Table 4 shows that the degrees of freedom were

set at df = 22.27, and the level of significance was set at p = .05. The

29

calculated value of t was -0.76 and the critical value of t was found to be

t = 2.074. Since the calculated value of t is less than the critical value of

students?

30

Table 5

Categories Cases Score Deviation

Chronically Tardy

Students 14 1.6429 0.497

T-Value 3.28

2-Tail Probability 0.003

P>.05

Critical value of t = 2.074

guardian in the home of each of the groups investigated for this study.

students, 1.125.

31

tardy students, a t-Test was performed. Table 5 shows that the degrees

of freedom were set at df = 22.61 and the level of significance was set at

p = .05. The calculated value of t was 2.074. Since the calculated value

students?

32

Table 6

Categories Cases Score Deviation

Chronically Tardy

Students 14 1.1429 0.535

T-Value -1.00

2-Tail Probability 0.336

P>.05

Critical value of t = 2.160

guardian in the home of each of the groups investigated for this study.

no = 2, for absence. The mean score for the presence of a mother in the

33

shows that the degrees of freedom were set at df = 13 and the level of

significance was set at p = .05. The calculated value of t was -1.00 and

34

Table 7

Categories Cases Income Deviation

T-Value .474

2-Tail Probability 0.999

P>.05

Critical value of t = 2.048

28 and the level of significance was set at p = .05. The calculated value

of t was .474 and the critical value of t was found to be t = 2.048. Since

35

36

Table 8

Categories Cases Score Deviation

Chronically Tardy

Students 14 35.6429 6.924

T-Value 2.33

2-Tail Probability 0.029

P>.05

Critical value of t = 2.080

terms of teacher attitudes is 40.6875. The mean score for the perception

21.75 and the level of significance was set at p = .05. The calculated

value of t was 2.33 and the critical value of t was found to be t = 2.080.

37

38

Table 9

Categories Cases Score Deviation

Chronically Tardy

Students 14 16.5714 2.901

T-Value -0.15

2-Tail Probability 0.879

P>.05

Critical value of t = 2.056

freedom were set at df = 26.96 and the level of significance was set at p =

39

schoolmates.

CHAPTER 5

And Recommendations

Summary of Findings

two variables were: (1) Family structure in terms of the presence of the

score for non-tardy students was 1.1250 and the mean score for

(1) represented yes and (2) represented no. Based on this fact, non-tardy

in the home. The t-Test further documented the differences in the two

40

41

the section on teacher attitudes being 60. The t-Test documented the

being significant. The other variables tested in this study did not prove

groups of study.

Conclusions

42

that the father's absence from the home is a factor which may affect the

attitudes.

Implications

suggested:

during the first period of the morning. The negative attitude of the

43

tardiness.

Recommendations

44

45

BIBLIOGRAPHY

friendships as supportive relationships. Developmental

Psychology. 22. 640-648.

The National Assessment of Student Achievement. 46.

American Psychologist. 41, (10). 1069-1077.

learning. The Elementary School Tournal. 83, (2), 472-479.

Row, Canada.

Inc., California.

16 American Educational Research Association.

Tournal of Marriage and the Family. 49, 339.

family cohesion; The child's perspective and adjustment."

Tournal of Marriage and the Family 45: 53-159.

Elementary School Personnel, (1982), v. 1, 3211.

12. Davies, Mark and Kandel, Denise B (1981). Parental and Peer

Influences on Adolescents' Educational Plans: Some further

evidence. American Tournal of Sociology. 87, 2, 363.

46

relationships in kindergarten. Doctor of Education Praticum

Report, 54, Nova University.

administration: Theory, research, and practice. 2nd ed. New

York: Random House.

birth order: Their effects on perceived parent-adolescent

relationships." Tournal of Marriage and the Family. 43, 315-322.

Students, American Educational Research Association, 20.

17. Lead Teacher for Student Services, (1989), Tardy Records. Decatur,

Ga., Rainbow Elementary School.

and children's developmental performance. (The University of

Wisconsin Madison, Dissertation Abstracts International. 45, (5),

1366-A.

Social Worker and Educational Goals. 24, 1389-1410.

nation at risk: The imperative for education reform.

Washington, D.C.: U.S.P.G.O.

and its conflict: Group Identity vs. Alienation. Adolescence II:

261-274.

concept of self and others on ninth grade students at Christian

Brothers High School. Dissertation Abstracts International.

behavioral incidents in the nation's secondary schools, Clearing

House, 58,8,349-53.

47

A. C. (1986). Parent-Child Relationships in Early Adolescence:

Effects of Family Sturcture, Tournal of Marriage and the Family.

48,805.

school year. The Atlanta Tournal and Constitution. 107. 54.

assist educators in identifying children of neglect. Education,

103,395-398.

relationships. American Educator. 14-17.

in family life. Annual Convention of the American

Psychological Association, 54.

Psychology Today. 13,66-76.

48

APPENDIX

students as it relates to elementary school tardiness. Also, this

questionnaire is designed to obtain the various perceptions of students

as they relate to home environment, school environment, and

schoolmates' influence. The names of students will not be identifiable.

Students will not be required to place their names on the

questionnaire. School names are needed to match various sections of

information in the study. School names will not be identified. Please

respond to each item as honestly as possible and work independently of

others.

Part A - Directions

each item. Write in the name of your school in the space provided

below. There are no right and wrong answers to these questions.

When completed, stop and raise your hand. Further directions will be

given for Part B.

SCHOOL NAME:

1. Sex:

A. Male [ ]

B. Female [ ]

2. Ethnic group:

A. Black [ ]

B. White [ ]

C Hispanic [ ]

D. Asian [ ]

E. Other [ 1

49

A. 9

B. 10

C 11

D. 12

E. 13

F. 14

4. Grade:

A. 4th

B. 5th

C. 6th

D. 7th

A. Sisters [ ]

B. Brothers [ ]

B. Below 12th grade [ ]

C High School Graduate [ ]

E. College Graduate [ ]

F. Attends Graduate School [ ]

G. Completed Professional/Graduate Degree [ ]

A. Yes [ ]

B. No [ ]

50

female guardian?

B. Below 12th grade [ ]

C. High School Graduate [ ]

D. Two years College [ ]

E. College Graduate [ ]

F. Attends Graduate School [ ]

G. Completed Professional/Graduate Degree [ ]

A. Yes [ ]

B. No [ ]

51

Part B - Directions

Place only one check for each set of brackets. Look over the sample

below.

Parental Attitudes

11. Do you prepare yourself for school each morning without the

help of a parent?

the time

12. Did your parents train you how to dress for school?

the time

13. Do your parents check the way you dress for school in the

morning?

the time

14. Do your parents insist that you leave home on time to get to

school?

the time

the time

52

the time

the time

the time

the time

the time

the time

22. Do your parents keep others from interfering you with your

homework?

the time

53

Teacher Attitudes

the time

the time

25. Does your teacher make you feel good about yourself?

the time

the time

the time

the time

the time

54

the time

the time

the time

the time

the time

Schoolmates' Influence

the time

the time

APPENDIX

students as it relates to elementary school tardiness. Also, this

questionnaire is designed to obtain the various perceptions of students

as they relate to home environment, school environment, and

schoolmates' influence. The names of students will not be identifiable.

Students will not be required to place their names on the

questionnaire. School names are needed to match various sections of

information in the study. School names will not be identified. Please

respond to each item as honestly as possible and work independently of

others.

Part A — Directions

each item. Write in the name of your school in the space provided

below. There are no right and wrong answers to these questions.

When completed, stop and raise your hand. Further directions will be

given for Part B.

SCHOOL NAME:

1. Sex:

A. Male [ ]

B. Female [ ]

2. Ethnic group:

A. Black [ ]

B. White [ ]

C. Hispanic [ ]

D. Asian [ ]

E. Other [ ]

3. Age at last birthday:

A. 9

B. 10

C 11

D. 12

E. 13

F. 14

4. Grade:

A. 4th

B. 5th

C 6th

D. 7th

A. Sisters [ ]

B. Brothers [ ]

B. Below 12th grade [ ]

C. High School Graduate [ ]

E. College Graduate [ ]

F. Attends Graduate School [ ]

G. Completed Professional/Graduate Degree [ ]

A. Yes [ ]

B. No [ ]

9. What is the highest formal education of your mother or

female guardian?

B. Below 12th grade [ ]

C. High School Graduate [ ]

D. Two years College [ ]

E. College Graduate [ ]

F. Attends Graduate School [ ]

G. Completed Professional/Graduate Degree [ ]

A. Yes [ ]

B. No [ ]

Part B - Directions

Place only one check for each set of brackets. Look over the sample

below.

Parental Attitudes

11. Do you prepare yourself for school each morning without the

help of a parent?

the time

12. Did your parents train you how to dress for school?

the time

13. Do your parents check the way you dress for school in the

morning?

the time

i

14. Do your parents insist that you leave home on time to get to

school?

the time

the time

16. Do your parents make you feel good?

the time

the time

the time

the time

the time

the time

22. Do your parents keep others from interfering you with your

homework?

the time