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39 Ansichten7 Seitenterm 3 math lesson - final lesson plan with changes

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39 Ansichten7 Seitenterm 3 math lesson - final lesson plan with changes

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Goals/Objectives:

Students will see numbers as composed of other numbers and can recognize patterns of

repeated addition and multiplication

Students will be made aware of the commutative property - a group of quantities

connected by operators gives the same result whatever the order of the quantities

involved, and will see flexibility and patterns in numbers

Students will understand the relationship between odd and even numbers, and

recognize the patterns with regards to adding and multiplying combinations of odd/even

numbers

Mathematical Practices:

MP1: Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them

o “Make conjectures about the form and meaning of the solution and plan a

solution pathway rather than simply jumping into a solution attempt”

Students will most likely have to use trial and error to check which

numbers between 10 and 20 can be made with 5 and 3.

MP3: Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others

“They make conjectures and build a logical progression of statements to

explore the truth of their conjectures.”

The task asks students to prove or disprove an argument and explain

their reasoning

Students may have discussions about how even and odd numbers add

together to make other numbers, and notice what patterns there are with

numbers they can find relationships between

MP8: Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning

“Mathematically proficient students notice if calculations are repeated,

and look both for general methods and for shortcuts.”

Students may begin to notice patterns in their work and extend this

reasoning to solving the problem

PA Core Standards

multi-digit arithmetic

CC.2.2.3.A.4: Solve problems involving the four operations, and identify and explain

patterns in arithmetic.

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.3.OA.D.9: Identify arithmetic patterns (including patterns in the

addition table or multiplication table), and explain them using properties of operations.

For example, observe that 4 times a number is always even, and explain why 4 times a

number can be decomposed into two equal addends.

Eligible Content

M03.A-T.1.1.2: Add two- and three-digit whole numbers (limit sums from 100 through

1,000) and/or subtract two- and three-digit numbers from three-digit whole numbers

M03.B-O.1.1.1: Interpret and/or describe products of whole numbers (up to and

including 10 × 10)

M03.B-O.3.1.5: Identify arithmetic patterns (including patterns in the addition table or

multiplication table) and/or explain them using properties of operations

The Task:

Miss Crystal/Miss Sophie is getting hungry, and decides to go to McDonalds for some Chicken

McNuggets. She sees on the menu she can only get nuggets in packs of 3 or 5, but she wants

more than that. Miss Crystal/Miss Sophie realizes she can get 6, 8, and 10 chicken nuggets if

she buys more than one pack.

She also says she can get any number of chicken nuggets between 10 and 20. Is she right or

wrong?

Extension: What other amounts of chicken nuggets can she get? Are there any numbers of

nuggets she can’t get if only buying them in packs of 3 and 5?

Miss Crystal/Miss Sophie dropped her calculator, and now she can only get four buttons to

work. The only buttons that work still are the 3, 5, + and = buttons. While playing around with it,

she decided she could still make the numbers 6, 8, and 10. Is she correct?

She also says she can make all the numbers between 10 and 20. Is she right or wrong?

Extension: What other numbers could she make?

This task is low floor, high ceiling and encourages different ways of thinking in approaching and

solving it. Students will build upon their prior knowledge of repeated addition, and hopefully

make connections to multiplicative reasoning to solve the problem more effectively. They may

also need to work through the frustration of only having limited tools (numbers and symbols) to

work with. This problem can encourage students to use their instrumental knowledge of addition

to help them build relational understanding of numbers. We hope they will begin to see that

numbers can all be built upon one another or decomposed, and have many similar properties.

The students in our classes have been focusing on learning multiplication since the beginning of

the school year, so for around three months. They initially learned how multiplication works by

exploring through repeated addition and skip counting in order to see the connections between

addition and multiplication and truly understand the process of multiplying numbers. This

problem is unique because in order tTo solve itthis task, students only really need basic addition

skills, however the task encourages students to find patterns and use multiplicative reasoning to

solve the problem more effectively and push their mathematical work to higher level thinking.

Using the OGAP Framework, the problem starts at the additive strategy of repeated addition,

but can easily be heightened to become early transitional, with students realizing they can build

up the numbers to make larger numbers. According to Chapin and Johnson, repeated addition

is the way most students are introduced to multiplication, and this method is most often used for

equal grouping problems (Chapin and Johnson 2006). This is why it is important for students to

develop multiplicative reasoning, because not all multiplication math tasks they encounter will

involve equal grouping. StudentsThey should be able to solve the first part of the problem

easily, and use what they’ve discovered to complete the rest of the problem.

We are hoping that students see the relationship between addition and multiplication, but they

may have some difficulty due to the fact that they may think only in terms of addition because of

the way in which the problem is stated. They also have yet to learn about factors and multiples,

which could help them conceptualize the problem more effectively. They might also have the

misconception that they can only make even numbers, because the first addition equations they

can make (3+3, 5+3 and 5+5) all equal even numbers.

Initially, we had decided to use the context of a calculator for this problem. This idea posed

questions about whether or not students would be familiar with how to use a calculator, and

whether or not we would have to introduce what a calculator was before starting the problem.

Overall, we thought this would take away from the ultimate goal of the mathematical task, which

is to utilize multiplicative reasoning within a context where additive reasoning is highlighted. This

led to our decision to keep the numbers in our problem the same, but switch the context to

purchasing chicken nuggets.

The students in our classes have not used calculators during math or any other subject

throughout the school year so far and after conferring with our classroom teachers we found out

that the students may not be familiar with calculators and how to use them, which could make

the problem much more difficult for students to grasp if they don’t understand the context. Even

though they won’t actually need to use a calculator as a tool for solving the problem, the

problem still requires them to understand how a calculator works. However, the context is not

integral to the problem, and if necessary we can still explain the problem in a different way and

students should still be able to solve it.

Anticipated strategies: Representation:

8: 3 + 5

10: 5 + 5

11: 3 + 3 + 5

12: 3 + 3 + 3 + 3

13: 3 + 5 + 5

14: 3 + 3 + 3 + 5

15: 5 + 5 + 5

16: 3 + 3 + 5 + 5

17: 3 + 3 + 3 + 3 + 5

18: 3 + 5 + 5 + 5

19: 3 + 3 + 3 + 5 + 5

20: 5 + 5 + 5 + 5

Early transitional strategy: Using addition and building up/seeing 6: 3 + 3

patterns in the addition (ex. Doubling, adding groups of 10) 8: 3 + 5

10: 5 + 5

11: 3 + 5 = 8

→ 8 + 3 = 11

12: 3 + 3 = 6

→ 6 + 6(3 + 3) =

6 + 6 = 12

13: (5 + 5) = 10

→ 10 + 3 = 13

And so on...

understanding of known or derived facts, commutative property, 8: 3 + 5

doubling and halving, and powers of 10 10: 5 + 5

11: (3 x 2) + 5

12: (3 + 3 = 6) x 2

13: 3 + (5 x 2)

14: (3 x 3) + 5

15: 3 x 5

And so on...

Materials:

Written copies of the problem for each student

Paper and pencils (multiple pieces of paper per student to encourage showing all their

work)

White board and whiteboard markers and eraser

Calculator to show students to make sure they understand the problem context, but not

for students to use in aiding them in solving the problem

Preparation:

Select 4 or 5 students

Print out task and gather materials

Make sure students write their names on each paper

Students will be working in an area directly outside of the classroom, most likely utilizing

two tables so two kids can sit at each table

We will read the problem out loud to students, clarify what the problem is asking if

students have any questions, and then hand out a printed copy of the problem along

with pencils

We will set up norms before sending students off to work individually, making sure the

expectations for behavior are clear

1. Before (Launch)

Establishing norms:

Voices should be silent or low when speaking with others

Come to teacher if you have a question or need help but try to solve on your own first

Students should work individually

o Explain that this is not an assessment, and we want to understand student

thinking and that we want to see the different ways students might think about

the problem

Introducing the task:

Begin by explaining what the students will be doing

o A mathematical task that will cause them to think outside of the box and use

different strategies to solve

o Work individually on it at first, but then come together as a group to discuss the

different strategies for solving it

Read the problem out loud

Ask a student to explain what the problem is asking them in their words

Scaffold if students do not understand the context of the problem

o Discuss how McDonalds only sells chicken nuggets in packs of a certain number

and customers can’t buy any amount of nuggets they want

As a group complete the first part of the problem (“Miss Crystal/Miss Sophie realizes she

can get 6, 8, and 10 chicken nuggets”)

o Ask students first – how is this possible?

o If students are unsure, eExplain how she could buy two packs of three to have 6

nuggets, a pack of five and pack of three to have 8 nuggets, and two packs of

five to have 10 nuggets

Give students a piece of paper with the problem on it

Then let them explore!

o We don’t want to frontload much math talk because we want students to explore

on their own, instead we want to scaffold students as they are working by walking

around and pushing their thinking (asking prompting questions, drawing their

attention to patterns, etc)

2. During (Explore) - there should be adequate time for students to work on the task;

students might work in small groups, pairs, or independently

Students will work independently on the problem and show their thinking,

We will circulate and ask:

o What patterns are you noticing?

o Could you represent that in a different way? (ex. 5 + 5 + 5 + 5 = 5 x 4)

o How could you solve this problem more efficiently?

We will pay attention to whether students are using additive, early transitional, or

multiplicative strategies for solving to aide in facilitating the discussion and take

notes as we observe them working to know how to strategically call on students

during the discussion

The problem itself lends to differentiation with the types of strategies students

can use, but if they solve the problem quickly we have an extension, and can

also ask students to create their own “packs of nuggets” problem

o If students are struggling we can first make sure they understand what the

problem is asking, and then assist them in solving and seeing connections

between numbers

3. After (Discuss and wrap-up) - end with a whole group sharing of strategies and

discussions of important mathematical ideas

Have students pair up to share what answers they got and their strategies with each

other first

Then bring them together as a whole group and ask them what each student did and

how their strategy was similar or different to their partners

We will have a whiteboard for recording student strategies to show other students and

draw connections between different strategies (in particular strategies showing the

connection between repeated addition and multiplication if students come up with

multiplication strategies)

If no students think about the problem in terms of multiplication, we will attempt to move

the conversation toward discussing the connection between addition and multiplication

by asking questions such as:

o How would the problem change if we could use multiplication?

o Can we create the same numbers by adding packs of nuggets that we could by

multiplying them?

Extend the discussion by asking students which numbers of nuggets are

impossible to make? Try and get them to realize that it is possible to make every

number past 7, and if they understand that ask if they can explain why

Discussion moves:

o Revoicing and recording student strategies

o Ask students to restate someone else’s reasoning

o Ask students to apply their own reasoning to someone else’s reasoning

o Prompt students to add on to other students’ thinking

If it comes up or there is extra time, discuss odd and even numbers and how they

are related to the problem

We will end the discussion by mentioning how many different strategies there are

that all lead to the same answer, and how we can use what we’ve already

learned to build onto our further thinking (use OGAP progression to try and move

students toward higher level strategies)

To close, ask students what they learned and whether they might solve the

problem differently if they were to do it again in order to solve it more effectively

Videotape students working

Have students write down all their work, regardless of whether it’s right or wrong

Look for students to see patterns in numbers and draw connections between repeated

addition and multiplication

Accommodations

Too challenging: reword the problem or do the first part(s) with them, provide prompts or

hints to move them forward

Too easy: have them complete the extension and come up with their own version of the

problem