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# TEORÍA ELECTROMAGNÉTICA Y ONDAS

Step 5

CARLA FLOREZ

Tutor
EDUARDO GUZMAN

CURSO: 203058_40

## ESCUELA DE CIENCIAS BASICAS, TECNOLOGIA E INGENIERIA

PASTO NARIÑO

DICIEMBRE DE 2018
INTRODUCCTION

This work covers the 3 units which are based on plane and guided waves,
transmission lines and phenomena such as reflection and refraction.
The development focused on the conceptual and mathematical bases
necessary to understand basic topics in courses such as antennas and
microwaves.
Activities to develop

In this activity, the group will have to solve some practical problems using as
a reference the following image.

development/wireless-communication/understanding-wireless-sensor-network

## Taking into account the image, solve the following problems:

1. If the signal frequency used to send the sensed parameters from the
water monitoring system to the reception point is 5.2 MHz. how deep
could the wireless transmitter be placed? How does the water
behave at this frequency? Find Υ, 𝑎, 𝛽, 𝜆 and 𝑣𝑝 . Explain how these
values could be used in the practice.

𝐶 = 3 ∗ 108 𝑚/𝑠
1
𝐸𝑜 = ∗ 10−9 𝐹/𝑚
36𝜋
𝑈𝑜 = 4𝜋 ∗ 10−7 𝐻/𝑚
𝑁𝑜 = 120𝑝𝑖 𝑜 377𝑜ℎ𝑚

## First, the following contasts are considered:

𝜇0 = 4𝜋 ∗ 10−7 𝐻/𝑚
𝜇𝑟 = 1
1
𝜖0 = ∗ 10−9 𝐹/𝑚
36𝜋
𝜖𝑟 = 81
𝜎 = 10−3
The phase velocity 𝑣𝑝 is found in the following way:
1
𝑣𝑝 =
√𝜇0 𝜇𝑟 𝜖0 𝜖𝑟
1
𝑣𝑝 =
√(4𝜋 ∗ 10−7 ) ∗ (1) ∗ ( 1 ∗ 10−9 ) ∗ (81)
36𝜋

𝑣𝑝 = 33333333,3 𝑚/𝑠

𝜔
𝑘=
𝑣𝑝

2𝜋 ∗ 5.2 ∗ 106
𝑘=
33333333,3
𝑘 = 0.979680
2𝜋
𝜆=
𝑘
2𝜋
𝜆=
0.979680
𝜆 = 6,41𝑚
PROBLEM2

## 2. IF DE MEDIUM HAS THE FOLLOWING ELECTROMAGNETIC CHARACTERISTICS:

  103Sm / m , r  1 , r  1

## Exercise 2. Corresponds to the theme of unit 1

r*o

 1*8,854*1012C
2
/ Nm2

 8,854*1012C
2
/ Nm2

  0 *  r

  1, 256*106 N / A *1
2

  1, 256*106 N / A
2

Tangente de pérdidas

 
Tan( )  
w w

1*103Sm / m
Tan( ) 
(2 * 5, 2 *106 ) * (8,854 *1012C
2
/ Nm2
)

1*103Sm / m
Tan( ) 
(2 *5, 2 *106 ) * (8,854 *10 pF / m )

1*103Sm / m
Tan( ) 
(3, 26 *107 ) * (8,854 *1012 F / m )

1*103Sm/ m
Tan( ) 
290 *106 F / m

## Se define dieléctricos con pérdidas

 jw (  jw )
  j (2 * 5, 2 *106 )(1, 256 *106 )(1*103  j (2 * 5, 2 *106 )(8,854 *1012 )

  j (3, 26 *107 )(1, 256 *106 )(1*103  j (3, 26 *107 )(8,854 *1012 )

##   j (41)(1*103  j (290 *106 )

  0,1240  0,165i

  0, 20653, 050

jw

  jw

## j (2 * 5, 2 *106 )(1, 256 *106 )


1*103  j (2 * 5, 2 *106 )(8,854 *1012 )

j (41)
 3
(1*10  j (290 *106 )

  (158, 65  119,18i)

## En notación polar: 198, 43(36,91 ` )

  Re( )

  0,1240(0,1240  0,165i)

  0, 0153  0, 020i

## % perdidas  1  e2 x x =1m

% perdidas  1  e2(0,0153) x

% perdidas  3%

## Es decir que en este medio se pierde 3% por cada metro recorrido.

Atenuación en decibeles:

 dB / m  8, 68
 dB / m  8, 68(0, 0153) =-0,132

##  dB / m  8, 68(0, 0153)  0,132dB / m

Equivalente a:  dB / m  132dB / km

Para tener una atenuación de -3dB, la señal debe recorrer una distancia de:

 dB / mX  3dB
3dB
X   22, 7m
0,132dB / m

## 3. In the buildings have an intrinsic impedance of 𝜂2 = 300Ω and the

signal has a power of 100𝑚𝑊/𝑚2 . Fin the reflected and transmitted
power to the buildings.
Air impedance 𝑁1 = 120𝜋
Intrinsic impedance 𝑁2 = 300Ω

𝑁 −𝑁 300−120𝜋
Reflection coefficient r = 𝑁2 +𝑁1 = = −0.114 < 1800
2 1 300+120𝜋

## Transmitted power |𝑃1 + | = 98.71% ∗ 100𝑚𝑊/𝑚2 = 98.71𝑚𝑊/𝑚2

Γ= Coeficiente de reflexiòn
N1 = 120  Impedancia del aire
N2 = 300 Impedancia intrinsica
P= 100.00 mW/m2 Potencia
R= Reflactancia
T= Transmitancia
| P1- | = Potencia reflejada
| P1+ | = Potencia transmitida

N2 - N1 -76.99
Γ= =
N2 + N1 676.99

## Γ= -0.114 < 180.00 °

R= | Γ |2 = 0.0129
R= 1.29% %

T= 1- R = 98.71%

## | P1+ | = 98.71% * 100.00 mW/m2 = 98.71 mW/m2

4. A near monitoring station has put 75Ω coaxial transmission line with a
length of 20m and is terminated with an antenna of 35 + 𝑗78Ω. If the
relative permittivity of the line is 2.56 and the frequency is 3GHz, find
the input impedance to the line, the reflection coefficient at the load, the
reflection coefficient at the input, and the SWR on the line.
Solution.
First, we calculate the reflection coefficient of the load.
𝑍𝑙 − 𝑍𝑜 35 + 78𝑗 − 75 421 2925
ℾ= = = + 𝑗
𝑍𝑙 + 𝑍𝑜 35 + 75𝑗 + 75 4546 4546

ℾ = 0.09260 + 0.6434𝑗

ℾ = 0.6500 /81.810°

1 + |ℾ| 1 + 0.65
𝑆𝑊𝑅 = = = 4.714
1 − |ℾ| 1 − 0.65

## We now calculate at a distance of 20 m.

ℾ1(20) = ℾ𝑒 −𝑗2𝛽𝑙

## We express length in terms of lambda to be able to cancel.

𝑐 3 ∗ 108 𝑚/𝑠
𝜆= =
𝑓 3 𝐺𝐻𝑍
passing meters to gigameters we have left
0.3 𝐺
= 0.1
3𝐺

𝑙 = 20 𝑚 = 333.28 𝜆
The input impedance is.

𝑍𝐿 + 𝐽𝑍0 tan(2𝜋𝑙)
𝑍𝑖𝑛 = 𝑍0 ( )
𝑍0 + 𝑗𝑍𝑙 tan(2𝜋𝑙)

## 35 + 78𝑗 + 𝑗75 tan(666.56𝜋)

𝑍𝑖𝑛(20) = 75 ( )
75 + 𝑗(35 + 78𝑗)tan(666.5𝜋)

## 𝑍𝑖𝑛(20) = 45.9560 /−62.8979°

CONCLUSIONS

The topics studied in units 1, 2 and 3 were covered, where the topics were
discussed, Electrodynamics and waves, Waves in open and closed media
and Electromagnetic waves in guided media and radiation.

## Five exercises were developed where the aforementioned topics are

covered, as well as their development in the references shared by the
course.
REFERENCES

http://hdl.handle.net/10596/13139
 Quesada-Pérez, M., & Maroto-Centeno, J. A. (2014). From Maxwell's
Equations to Free and Guided Electromagnetic Waves: An
Introduction for First-year Undergraduates. New York: Nova Science