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IDENTIFICATION OF GEOTHERMAL SYSTEM IN MASAINGI VILLAGE USING

GEOLISTRIK METHOD
Dewa Putu Budi Arnata1 *, Moh. Dahlan Th. Musa1, Sabhan1 1 Department of Physics, Faculty of
Mathematics, University of Tadulako
INTRODUCTION
Human need for energy each year is increasing while the reserves of energy resources are
decreasing, it makes people try to find new sources of alternatives that can be utilized to meet their
needs. Geothermal is one of the natural resources that has enormous potential to be utilized as one
alternative energy source. The facts show that Indonesia is a potential area of natural resources,
including geothermal resources (Minarto, 2007).
One area that has an indication of the existence of geothermal energy sources is in the area of
Masaingi Village. Masaingi Village is administratively located in Sindue District, Donggala District,
Central Sulawesi Province. The topography of Masaingi village tends to slope towards the coast
which also reflects the topographic bending due to structures or strong erosion rates. Its hilly area has
a geological condition composed by a granite intrusion of granite rocks with an altitude between 200-
1500 m above sea level (Bakrun, 2005). The availability of geothermal sources in this region can be
seen from the hot springs found around the hillsides and the riverbanks.
Identification of geothermal in Masaingi Village is very important to know about geothermal
system in Masaigi and its surroundings. To identify geothermal systems in this region, can be done
using geophysical methods such as geoelectric method. This method examines the nature of electric
current in rocks beneath the earth's surface. The basic principle is to inject the current down the
surface through 2 current electrodes, and measure the magnitude of the voltage between 2 potential
electrodes (Haerudin, 2008).
The purpose of this research is to identify geothermal system and distribution in Masaingi
Village.
REVIEW OF RESEARCH REGIONS
Geothermal source Masaingi has a geographic position at 0o35'00 "- 0o35'15" LS and
119o48'29 "- 119o48'47" BT. Located east of Marana Village, Sindue District, Donggala District,
Central Sulawesi Province. Masaingi geothermal areas have ideal geological conditions and meet the
requirements of potential hot earth areas to produce steam. This is supported in addition to the heat
source, the presence of reservoir rock with porosity and high permeability, and the presence of cap
rock that can withstand the release of heat, also supported by several faults that function on refilling
the water as a reservoir .
RESEARCH METHODS
The equipment to be used in this research is a set of geometrical measuring tools SuperSting
R8IP. The measurement method used is the Geolistrik Type Barrier Method with Wenner Electrode
Configuration (Figure 1). Spacing distance of 330 meters with a space of 6 meters electrode. With the
number of path measurements as many as 6 trajectories. The following is displayed in the
Measurement Path Map (Figure 2). The price of the apparent impediments is derived from the
equation:

With:

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


In identifying the existence of geothermal system and how the geothermal distribution in the
research area is needed the data of type resistance value from the measurement in the field that is from
the change of current value (I) and followed by change of potential difference (ΔV) and other data
that is in the form of geological condition and barrier value type of some known rock type, which is
then processed using the 2D EarthImager Program. The results of the treatment (Fig. 3) show the type
resistance values ( ) and the depth of each layer varied. Below are the results of data processing
using EarthImager 2D Program.
According to the geological map of Palu sheets, Sulawesi (Sukamto, 1973) that the
constituent of rocks in the Masaingi region consists of several rock formations. Based on the age of
the rock, this formation is divided into Tinombo Ahlburg Formation, Molasa Celebes Formation and
Sarasin and Aluvium and Coastal Deposition. The Tinombo Formation is widely exposed in the
eastern part of the Masaingi region, where its constituent rocks consist of shale, sandstone,
conglomerate, volcanic rock, limestone and deer including filit, slate and quartzite close to intrusions
(especially volcanic rocks). This rock age is the Middle Eocene to the Upper. The Molasa Celebes
Formation is located to the north of the study site, which consists of conglomerates, sandstones, mud,
limestones, coral and napal all of which only harden weakly, these rocks are thought to be Meocene
aged. In alluvium and coastal sediments, the constituent rock consists of sand, gravel, mud and
limestone coral. In addition to these formations, there is also a unit of granite rock and granodiorite
type of igneous rocks in (pluton) that dominantly contains high feldsparum potassium, and there is
also a unit of metamorphic rock type of green schist which is the oldest type of rock in the study area
of pratersier age. Based on the distribution of type resistance values on the 2D model and observation
of the geological condition of the research site, it can be explained that: The resistance value of the
species ranging from ± 2 - 200 μm is shown in dark blue to green is suspected to be the risk value of
clay clay and clay sand containing water , where the dark blue layer is thought to be a layer of clay
and clay sand containing hot water (geothermal). Typical barrier values ranging from ± 200-700 Ωm
indicated by yellow are thought to be layers of sandstone, conglomerate, limestone. The value of type
resistance ranging from ± 700-4900 Ωm indicated by red color is thought to be a layer of granite and
andesite .
1. Cross section 1
Based on the results of the processing, on this track seen the existence of geothermal is shown
by the blue color on the 2D cross-section. The hot springs in this pathway exist to undetectable depths
just below the geothermal manifestations. Geothermal distribution is also detected at a depth of 7 m
located in the southern part of the geothermal manifestation. This can reinforce the assumption of type
resistance values ranging from 2-200 Ωmeter as the type resistance value of geothermal.
2. Cross section 2
This trajectory cuts track 1 on the electrode between 6 and 7. In this path, hot water is
detected, this can be known by the type of resistance value ranging from 2-20Ωm (dark blue). This
hot water is found to an undetectable depth.
3. Section 3
This path lies south of the hot springs and cuts Path 1 on the 8th electrode. Based on the
resulting 2D cross-sectional area, it can be seen the presence of hot water at infinite depths indicated
by a dark blue image that is only present in electrodes 2 to 19. From the image also seen the presence
of hard rocks marked by the red color where in this rock there is a gap or fracture (cesarean) which
allegedly as the path of emergence of geothermal manifestation on the surface of hot springs.
4. Cross section 4
This trajectory cuts the 5th track on the electrode between 18 and 19. Based on the resulting
2D cross-section, on this trajectory also detected the presence of hot water at a depth of 46 meters
located at electrode 10 to 15 and at infinite depth at electrode 25. The hot springs on the track this is
spread evenly for each electrode with the direction of East-West deployment.
5. Section 5
This trajectory intersects Path 4 on electrode 33 and 34. This trajectory is directly across the
drill hole point with the electrodes at the drill point are 28 and 29. In the 2D processor the visible field
illustrates the presence of hot water detected right in the middle of the path ie between 28 and 29
electrons. This can reinforce the notion of geothermal systems spread in the area, namely to the East-
West.

6. Section 6
This trajectory is located on the southern part of the end of the track 1. Based on the cross-
section of the 2D processing, a field shown indicating the presence of the hot springs appears in a
surface marked in blue. In addition, there is also hot water on almost along the path that leads to the
West.
Of the several geoelectric measurement tracks that have been performed, as described above
for all measurement paths are detected the presence of hot water. It is postulated that around the
location of the measurement there is a geothermal system (hydrothermal system) as a trigger of the
emergence of geothermal manifestation of hot springs exposed on the surface. In addition, because of
the fracture of rock (fault field) as the gap of the emergence of geothermal manifestation to the
surface. The geothermal spread in Masaingi village is spread evenly around the measuring site with
the direction of spread towards the East-West direction. This allegation is also corroborated by the
presence of geothermal manifestations in Marana Village located on the west of the measurement site.

CONCLUSION
Based on the measurement of geoelectric in Masaingi Village, Sindue District of Donggala
Regency, it can be concluded that: Geothermal system in Masaingi Village is hydrothermal system.
The spread of geothermal fluid (hydrothermal) in the study area is spread evenly with the direction of
spreading towards the West, where the tufan sand layer as conductive zone and clay as the cover layer
with resistivity value between 2-200 Ωmeter.