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Aminoglycosides are natural or semisynthetic antibiotics which are derived from soil actinomyces. They
are bactericidal and concentration dependent. Aminoglycoside binds irreversibly to 30s ribosomal
subunit leading to interference in protein synthesis which leads to abnormal initial complexes
accumulation, misreading and stoppage of mRNA translation (Goodman et al., 2014).

The activity of these drugs is primarily directed toward gram negative bacteria. Aminoglycosides are
administered parenterally for treatment of hospital acquired infections caused by Enterobacter,
Proteus, Pseudomonas, Klebsiella, Escherichia and Serratia that infects the respiratory system,
gastrointestinal tract, urinary tract, bone, skin, blood or soft tissues (Kester et al., 2012).


Tetracyclines are crystalline amphoteric substances that can exist as a base or an acid. They have the
ability to chelate divalent ions which causes interference with their adsorption and activity (Katzung,
2012). Tetracycline binds to 30s bacterial ribosome that results in inhibition of protein synthesis and
prevention of accessing the tRNA to the acceptor A site on the mRNA-ribosome complex (Goodman et
al, 2014).

Tetracyclines are broad spectrum antibiotics and bacteriostatic. They exhibit activity against a wide
range of aerobic and anaerobic gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria (Goodman et al., 2014).
Tetracyclines are the drug of choice for Rickettsial infections. These are used for treating Mycoplasma
pnemoniae and Chlamydiae infections. The spectrum of activity of tetracyclines also encompasses
protozoan parasites such as Plasmodium falcifarum (Katzung, 2012).

Goodman, L. S., Gilman, A., Hilal-Dandan, R., & Brunton, L. L. (2014). Goodman and

Gilman's manual of pharmacology and therapeutics. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Kester, M., Karpa, K. D., & Vrana, K. E. (2012). Elsevier's integrated review pharmacology.

Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier.

Katzung. (2012). Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. McGraw-Hill.