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1.

0 INTRODUCTION

Water quality index (WQI) provides a grade that is very significant in indicating
the overall water quality at a certain location and time based on various water quality
parameters. The index aims to turn complex water quality data into clear and useful
information that is understandable by the public. Water quality in rivers has been
monitored by Department of Environment (DOE) since 1978, primarily to established
baselines, to detect water quality changes and to identify pollution sources. In
Malaysia, the classification of rivers by the Department of Environment (DOE) is
based on a water quality index (WQI).[Department of Environment (DOE). (2010).]
Water quality data were used to determine the water quality status whether in clean,
slightly polluted or polluted category and to classify the rivers in Class I (WQI >
92.7), Class II (WQI = 76.5 – 92.7), Class III (51.9 – 76.5), Class IV (31.0 – 51.9) or
Class V (WQI < 31.0) based on Water Quality Index (WQI) and Interim National
Water Quality Standards for Malaysia (INWQS) every year. WQI is computed based
on 6 main parameters including dissolved oxygen (DO), Biochemical Oxygen
Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), ammoniacal nitrogen (NH3-N),
total suspended solids (TSS) and pH. The DOE-WQI is also the river water quality
index that is used by the DOE in classifying Malaysian rivers. The calculation of WQI
is shown below.

WQI  0.22SIDO + 0.19SIBOD + 0.16SICOD + 0.15SIAN + 0.16SISS + 0.12SIpH

To assess the water quality of river in UTHM, our group proposed to carry out all
these six parameters that included dissolved oxygen (DO), Biochemical Oxygen
Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), ammoniacal nitrogen (NH3-N),
total suspended solids (TSS) and pH. The selected location will be the sediment pond
near to the Pusat Kesihatan Universiti UTHM. It is usually used to capture eroded or
disturbed soil that is washed off during rain storms, and protect the water qualityof a
nearby stream, river, lake, or bay. The sediment-laden soil settles in the pond before
the runoff is discharged. Thus, this water quality assessment is going to be conducted
to check the suitability of water to be used as alternative water resource for plant
watering in order to achieve water saving in UTHM.
2.0 OBJECTIVE

1. To determine the water quality index(WQI) of sediment pond PKU.

2. To define the suitability of the water from sediment pond PKU to be the source of
plant watering in UTHM.

3.0 PROCEDURE
3.1 Sampling Procedure
a) Each group will get to the different target sampling area. Our target sampling
area located at the sediment pond PKU.

Figure 3.1.1: Sediment Pond PKU


b) Attached the rope to the bucket handle.

Figure 3.1.2: Bucket that had been tied with rope.


c) The most appropriate area in the pond for sampling is at the middle of it.
Obtained the sample at the middle of the pond.
d) If there is no bridge or floating platform, simply throw the attached bucket to
the middle of the pond.
e) Retrieved the bucket with the water sample and filled it into the sampling
bottle.

Figure 3.1.3: Filled the water sample into sampling bottle.

3.2 On-site Measurement


Turbidity, pH and Dissolved Oxygen (DO) test

1. After sampling, took out the water samples from the bucket and filled it into
sampling bottles for turbidity test.
2. Filled another sampling bottle with distilled water.

Figure 3.2.1: Filled the sampling bottle with distilled water.


3. Wiped out the sampling bottle using laboratory tissues provided.
4. Inserted the sampling bottle containing distilled water into turbidity meter first.
Pressed read. The reading should indicate zero. (for calibration)
5. After that, repeated step 3 and 4 for the collected water sample from the pond
and measured the turbidity.

Figure 3.2.2: Measured the turbidity of water sample.


6. For pH measurement, rinsed the tips of the pH meter using distilled water.
7. Dipped the tips of pH meter into the water sample inside the bucket.
8. Recorded the pH reading and turbidity reading of the collected water sample.

Figure 3.2.3: Measured the pH of water sample.


9. The water sample was then took to the lab to carry out Dissolved Oxygen (DO)
test.
10. Switched on the DO meter.
11. Dipped it into the sample and waited until the reading is stabilized.
Figure 3.2.4: Measured the DO of water sample.
12. Recorded the readings of DO for the sample.

3.3 Laboratory Testing


3.3.1 Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD)
Dilution water guidelines
• For the best results, use distilled water from an alkaline permanganate distillation.
• Use high-quality water that does not contain organic compounds or toxic
compounds (e.g., chlorine, copper and mercury).
• Do not use deionized water from ion exchange columns. The resins in the
cartridges (mostly new cartridges) occasionally release organic materials that
have an oxygen demand. In addition, bacteria can grow on the columns, which
adds contamination to the dilution water.
• The dissolved oxygen concentration of the dilution water must not change by
more than 0.2 mg/L when incubated for 5 days at 20 °C (68 °F). Prepare the
dilution water as follows:
a) Keep the dilution water in clean jugs in an incubator at 20 °C (68°F). Shake
the jugs to saturate the water with air. As an alternative, loosely put the cap on
the jugs and wait a minimum of 24 hours before use.
b) (Optional) Use a small aquarium pump or an air compressor to saturate the
water with air. Make sure to use filtered air. Make sure that the filter does not
grow bacteria.
c) Shake the BOD Nutrient Buffer Pillow to mix the contents.
d) Add the contents of the BOD Nutrient Buffer Pillow to the distilled water.
e) Put the cap on the jug. Shake the jug vigorously for 1 minute to dissolve the
nutrients and to saturate the water with air.
f) If the sample is known to be low in bacteria (e.g., industrial waste or sewage
that has been disinfected), immediately before the test, add 3 mL of raw
sewage to each liter of the dilution water.
g) Measure the BOD of the raw sewage collected. The BOD of the raw sewage
will be subtracted from the BOD of the sample.

Preparation the dilution water


Make sure that no source of oxygen demand or toxins are added when the dilution
water is prepared.
Items to collect:
• Dilution water (refer to the dilution water guidelines)
• BOD Nutrient Buffer Pillow1
• Raw sewage2 for the bacterial seed, 3 mL (if the sample is low in bacteria)
a) Different sizes are available for different quantities of water (e.g., 3 L and 6 L).
b) Keep the raw sewage at 20 °C (68°F) and do not move for 24–36 hours before
use. Pipette from the upper portion of the sewage.

Figure 3.3.1.1: Dilution water


BOD3 Measurement
Apparatus:

1. BOD bottles

2. Beaker

3. DO meter
4. BOD incubator

4.Measuring cylinder

5. Dilution water
PROCEDURE:
1. Prepared and labeled separately 4 unit of 300 mL BOD bottle. One bottle for
blank and another three bottles filled with 10ml, 15ml, and 25ml sample
respectively.
2. For each bottle, partially filled with dilution water and added volume of sample
size based on your calculation (except the blank bottle). Then, completely filled
the bottles with dilution water.

Figure 3.3.1.2: Four samples were prepared and labeled.


3. Determined the initial DO for each bottle using DO meter and recorded data on
Results section.

Figure 3.3.1.3: Determined the initial DO.


4. Placed the bottles into the incubator at 30°C and incubated for three days.
Figure 3.3.1.3: Placed the bottles into the incubator at 30°C.
5. At the end of exactly three days, determined the final DO content of the
incubated bottles. Record the result on data sheet.

3.3.2 Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD)

Apparatus:

DR6000 Spectrometer

Pipettes
COD Vial

DRB 200 Reactor

Procedure:

Reactor Digestion Procedure


1. Set the DRB200 Reactor power to on. Preheated to 150 °C. Refer to the
DR6000 Spectrometer User Manual for selecting pre- programmed temperature
applications.

Figure 3.3.2.1 Preheated the DRB200 Reactor to 150°C.


2. Prepared the sample:
a) Removed the cap from a vial for the selected range. Held the vial at an
angle of 45 degrees.

Figure 3.3.2.2: Hold the vial at 45 degrees.


b) Used clean pipette to add 2.00 ml sample to the vial.

Figure 3.3.2.3: Add 2ml sample.


c) For 250–15,000 mg/L vials: Used a Pipette to add 0.20 mL of sample to
the vial.
3. Prepared the blank:
a) Removed the cap from a second vial for the selected range. Held the vial at an
angle of 45 degrees. Used a clean pipet to add 2.00 mL of deionized water to the
vial.
b) For 250–15,000 mg/L vials: Used a Pipet to add 0.20 mL of deionized water to the
vial.
4. Closed the vials tightly. Rinsed the vials with water and wiped with a clean
towel.
Figure 3.3.2.4: Wiped with clean paper tower
5. Held the vials by the cap, over a sink. Inverted gently several times to mix. The
vials get very hot during mixing.

Figure 3.3.2.5: Inverted gently several times.


6. Put the vials in the preheated DRB200 reactor. Closed the lid.

Figure 3.3.2.6: Preheated DRB200 reactor


7. Heated the vials for 2 hours.
8. Set the reactor power to off. Let the vials cooled in the reactor for approximately
20 minutes to 120 °C or less.
9. Invert each vial several times while it is still warm.

Figure 3.3.2.7: Inverted several times


10. Put the vials in a tube rack to cool to room temperature.

Figure 3.3.2.8: Cooled to room temperature.

Colorimetric Procedure
1. Started program 431 COD ULR, 430 COD LR or 435 COD HR.
2. Cleaned the blank sample cell.
3. Inserted the blank into the cell holder.
4. Pushed ZERO. The display showed 0 or 0.0 mg/L COD.
5. Cleaned the prepared sample cell.
Figure 3.3.2.9: Clean prepared sample

6. Inserted the prepared sample into the cell holder.

Figure 3.3.2.10: Inserted the prepared sample.


7. Pushed READ. Results showed in mg/L COD.
Figure 3.3.2.11: Result shown.
8. If using High Range Plus COD digestion reagent vials, multiply the result by.
9. For the most accurate results with samples near 1500 or 15,000 mg/L COD,
repeat the analysis with a diluted sample.

3.3.3 Ammoniacal Nitrogen (NH3-N)

Apparatus:

DR6000 Spectrometer

Sample cells (25 mL) with appropriate


stoppers

-
Graduated cylinder (25 mL)

Pipette (1.0mL)

Procedure:

1. Collected samples in clean glass or plastic bottles.

Figure 3.3.3.1: Water sample is collected in plastic bottle

2. Started program 380 N, Ammonia, Ness.


3. Prepare the sample: Fill a mixing cylinder to the 25-mL line with sample.

Figure 3.3.3.2: 25mL of sample was filled into mixing cylinder


4. Prepared the blank: Filled a mixing cylinder to the 25‑mL line with
deionized water.
5. Added 3 drops of Mineral Stabilizer to each mixing cylinder.

Figure 3.3.3.3: Mineral Stabilizer


6. Put the stopper on the mixing cylinders. Inverted the mixing cylinders
several times to mix.
7. Add 3 drops of Polyvinyl Alcohol Dispersing Agent to each mixing
cylinder.

Figure 3.3.3.4: Polyvinyl Alcohol Dispersing Agent


8. Put the stopper on the mixing cylinders. Inverted the mixing cylinders
several times to mix.
9. Used a pipette to add 1.0 mL of Nessler Reagent to each mixing cylinder.
Figure 3.3.3.5: Nessler reagent was mixed into mixing cylinder

10. Put the stopper on the mixing cylinders. Inverted the mixing cylinders
several times to mix.

Figure 3.3.3.6: The mixing cylinder was inverted to mix the sample and
reagent.
11. Pour 10 mL from the blank cylinder into a sample cell.
12. When the timer expires, cleaned the blank sample cell.
13. Inserted the blank into the cell holder.
Figure 3.3.3.7: The blank sample was first to put into the DR6000.

14. Pushed ZERO. The display shows 0.00 mg/L NH3–N.


15. Poured 10 mL from the sample cylinder into a second sample cell.

Figure 3.3.3.8: The 10 mL of mixed sample was filled into the second sample cell.

16. Insert the prepared sample into the cell holder.


17. Press read. Results show in mg/L NH3-N.

Figure3.3.3.9: The result of was shown in mg/L using the DR6000


3.3.4 Suspended Solid (SS)
Apparatus:

Evaporating dishes

Oven

Desiccator

Funnel
Analytical balance

Graduated cylinder

Beaker
Procedure:
1. Placed a filter paper in the desiccator for a few minutes to let the moisture to be
absorbed by the silica gel.

Figure 3.3.4.1: Desiccator


2. Weighted the filter paper and record the reading.

Figure 3.3.4.2: Filter paper in evaporating dish

Figure 3.3.4.3: Weight filter

3. Place the filter disc onto the base and clamped it on the funnel.
Figure 3.3.4.4: Put filter paper onto filter disc

Figure 3.3.4.5: Clamping the funnel


4. Measured 50 ml of water sample and poured the water sample and let it flow
through the filter disc. Switched on the vacuum pump and continue suction to
remove all traces of water.

Figure 3.3.4.6: Measured 50 ml of water sample


Figure 3.3.4.7: Poured measured sample.
5. Dried the filter paper in the drying oven at temperature of 103 to105°C for 1
hour.

Figure 3.3.4.8: Put filter paper in the drying oven.


6. After 1 hour, took out the filter paper from the drying oven and cooled the filter
paper in the desiccator to balance temperature.
7. Weighted the filter paper and recorded the weight of solid.

Figure 3.3.4.9: Weighted filter paper using analytical balance


4.0 RESULT

Table 1: Best Fit Equations for the Estimation of Various Sub Index Values

[Nithyanandam,R.;and W.H.Tsu.;Huynh.N.(2015)]

Table 2: Sub Index calculation based on the equation and ranges in Table 1.

Parameters Reading Range SubIndex (SI)

Dissolved Oxygen 126.70% x ≥ 92 % 100.000


(DO)(% Saturation)

Biological Oxygen 19.85 mg/L x> 5 34.263


Demand (BOD)

Chemical Oxygen 28.00 mg/L x > 20 65.242


Demand

Ammnia Nitrogen 1.39 mg/L 0.3 < x < 4 39.336


(NH3-N)
Suspended Solid 100.00 mg/L x ≤ 100 54.593
(SS)

Acidic and 8.34 7 ≤ x ≤ 8.75 85.405


Alkaline (pH)

Table 3: Classification of Water Quality Index

WQI  0.22SIDO + 0.19SIBOD + 0.16SICOD + 0.15SIAN + 0.16SISS + 0.12SIpH


 0.22(100) + 0.19(34.263) + 0.16(65.242) + 0.15(39.336) + 0.16(54.593)
+ 0.12(85.405)
 63.833

The Water Quality Index(WQI) of sedimentation pond PKU is 63.833. It ranges


between 51.9-76.5 based on Table 3. Therefore it is classified as Class III.
5.0 CALCULATION

1. BOD

BOD3 =
DO  DO   B  B 1  P 
i f i f

P
Volume sample
P  Dilution factor  , Total Volume = 300mL
Total volume
Bi , B f  Initial and final DO conc. of the seeded diluted water (blank)
DOi , DO f  Initial and final DO conc. of the diluted sample

Table 4: BOD3 Calculation

Volume Blank, B 10mL 15mL 25mL


sample

Initial DO 8.60 8.67 8.65 8.65


(mg/L)

Final DO 8.50 7.74 7.53 7.39


(mg/L)

Dilution factor, - 10 15 25
 0.0333  0.0500  0.0833
p 300 300 300

BOD3 (mg/L) - 25.025 20.500 14.026

Average BOD3 25.025  20.500  14.026


 19.850
3
(mg/L)
2. Total Suspended Solid (TSS)

Residue on filter after drying = 0.095g

Tare mass of filter after drying = 0.090g

Sample size = 50m

(Residue on filter after drying, g) - (tare mass of filter after drying, g)


TSS 
sample size, Liter
((0.095 - 0.090)g)(1 03 mg/g)

50ml(10 -3 L / ml )
 100 mg/L
6.0 DISCUSSION

Water quality index (WQI) is some of the way that we can use to determine the
overall water quality. To obtained the WQI, there are some data needed to be obtained
each with their own experiments. There are 6 main parameters including dissolved
oxygen (DO), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand
(COD), ammoniacal nitrogen (NH3-N), total suspended solids (TSS) and pH. In term
of the outcome of the WQI there are no right or wrong outcomes as the data
represented will be presented within the range of 1 to 5. 1 being very good and can be
used as drinking water supply and 5 being highly polluted and not suitable for any
uses.

The water body that are being tested during this experiment is located between
Pusat Kesihatan Universiti UTHM and Library Tunku Tun Aminah Library. Beside
the lake, there is a road dividing the library and the lake which provide a surface
runoff that will fall into the lake when it rains. The lake is made as a mean of water
retention pond to control the discharge of water when it rains. According to the
surrounding of the environment of the pond, it is expected that the quality of the pond
is not too polluted and is not too clean to be used as drinking water.

The experiment of all the parameters are being tested at Fakulti Kejuruteraan
Awam dan Alam Sekitar (FKASS) environmental lab. However, there might be some
error during the experiment at some point of the experiment which may affect some of
the outcome from the WQI. Below are some of the probable situation in which the
error might happened during the experiment.

1. Water Sampling
a. The water is being collected at the side of the lake instead of at the
middle of the lake. The water at the side of the lake might be affected
by other factors such as rocks and the water runoff from outside
sources. The most suitable place for water collection is at the middle of
the lake as there will be fewer outside factors which may affect the
chemical properties of the water.
2. Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD)
a. During the sampling process, ensure there are no air bubble inside the
bottle to provide an accurate reading of BOD.
b. Ensure that the temperature reading of the incubator are within 30
degree
c. Rinse the bottle using distilled water to remove unwanted outside
factors
d. After 3 days within the incubator, ensure the temperature of each bottle
are the same with room temperature before reading the DO.
3. Dissolve oxygen (DO)
a. Ensure the testing of DO of sample are being done as quickly as
possible upon entering the lab to obtained the most accurate DO level.
b. Rinse the tip of the DO reader using distilled water before reading the
water sample to reduce errors upon reading the results
4. Suspended solid (SS)
a. Before recording the filter paper ensure that the evaporating dish are
clean from other small material like dust to ensure the reading of
sample are precise.
b. Before placing the filter paper inside the drying oven, place the filter
paper inside the desiccator for a few minutes to let the moisture to be
absorbed by the silica gel.
5. Chemical oxygen demand (COD)
a. Ensure the reading of the pipet are properly taken, most preferably with
the aid of two persons.
b. Mix the deionized water with the water sample gently by inverting the
bottle one side at a time.
c. Ensure the vials are being cleaned and wiped before being put inside
the reactor.
d. Ensure the vials are being cool to room temperature after being put
inside the reactor before being read for the COD level.
6. Ammoniacal-Nitrogen
a. Ensure all the mixture of Mineral stabilizer, Nessler reagent and the
dispersing agent are according to the proper quantity.
b. Mix the mixture by inverting the bottle gently a couple of times.
c. For safety purposes throw away the mixture inside a special plastic case
after being read.
From the calculation, the result shows that the WQI index is 63.33 which falls
between 51.9-76.5 which is the classification for Class III. Class III are considered
moderate water body which is not too polluted nor too clean. Full treatment of water
is needed for the use of drinking water. The result of WQI index is acceptable as it is
expected for an open water body near a surface water runoff to be at class III.
Therefore, the water at sediment pond PKU is suitable to used to be used as
alternative water resource for plant watering in order to achieve water saving in
UTHM.

Table 5: Category of WQI values


7.0 CONCLUSION

To conclude, the objective of this experiment which is to find out the water
quality index (WQI) and to find out the suitability of the water from sediment pond of
PKU to be source of plant watering in UTHM has been achieved.

Water quality index (WQI) provides a grade that is very significant in indicating
the overall water quality at a certain location and time based on various water quality
parameters. The parameter includes pH value, ammonia nitrogen test, BOD, COD and
total suspended solids (TSS) test. Each test have been carefully perform to minimize
the amount of random error as low as possible.

The pH values have been obtained by testing the water sample on site. The
ammonia nitrogen value, BOD, COD and TSS have been obtained by testing the
water samples inside the laboratory by following the stated procedure.

The obtained DO, BOD. COD, Ammonia nitrogen, suspended solid and pH are
126.7%, 19.85 mg/L, 28.00 mg/L, 1.39 mg/L, 100.00 mg/L and 8.34 respectively.
These values were then substituted into WQI formula. The obtained WQI formula is
63.33 which falls between 51.9-76.5 which is the classification for Class III.

Class III are considered moderate water body which is not too polluted nor too
clean. Full treatment of water is needed for the use of drinking water. The result of
WQI index is acceptable as it is expected for an open water body near a surface water
runoff to be at class III. Therefore, the water at sediment pond PKU is suitable to use
to be used as alternative water resource for plant watering in order to achieve water
saving in UTHM.
8.0 REFERENCE

 Amneera, W.A.; Wahidatul, A.Z.; Rawdhoh, S.M.Y.; and Ragunathan, S.


(2014). Water Quality Index of Perlis River, Malaysia. International Journal of
Civil & Environmental Engineering, 13, 1-2.
 Department of Environment (2008). Interim National Water Quality Standards
for Malaysia. Malaysia.
 Department of Environment (DOE). (2010). Malaysia Environmental Quality
Report 2010.
 Department of Environmental (2011). Environment Quality Report 2009:
River Water Quality.
 Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment Malaysia (2009). Study on
the River Quality Trends and Indexes in Peninsular Malaysia.
 Nithyanandam,R.;and W.H.Tsu.;Huynh.N.(2015).Case Study: Analysis of
Water Quality in Sungai Batu Ferringhi.Taylor’s University.
 APHA (1995). AMPHA. Standard methods for the examination of water and
waste water, 19th edition, American Public Health Association,
WashingtonDC.
 Horton, R.K. (1965). An index number system for rating water quality. Journal
of Water Pollution Conti. Fed.,3:300-305
 Guidelines for drinking water quality, fourth edition, world heal organization
ISBN 978 92 4 154815 1. 2012
 Bharti, N, and Katyal, D, “Water quality indicates used for surface water
vulnerability assessment”, Int. J. Environ. Sci, 2(1). 154-173. 2011.