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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Revised 7-05

INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1 Hydraulic Track Motors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-4


Disc Brake Units. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-4
Levelling Jacks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-5
FUNDAMENTALS OF DRILLING . . . . . 2-1 AIR SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-5
DESCRIPTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1 DUST COLLECTION SYSTEMS (option) . . . . . 7-8
DRILLING METHODS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2 WATER INJECTION SYSTEM (option) . . . . . . . 7-9
DRILLING EQUIPMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2
CONTROLS, OPTIONS AND MONITORING
DRILLING COMPONENTS . . . . . . . . . . 3-1 EQUIPMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-1
GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1
INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS . . . . . . . . . . 8-1
FEED (pulldown) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1
ELECTRONIC DEPTH COUNTER (EDC option) 8-1
ROTATION (torque) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1 The Pipe-In-Hole Alarm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-2
Percussive Drilling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-2
DRILL MONITORING SYSTEM (DMS option) . . 8-2
Rotary Drilling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2
TRAMMING INTERLOCK (option) . . . . . . . . . . . 8-3
PERCUSSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2
LOADER/ROTARY HEAD INTERLOCK (option) 8-3
Down the Hole Hammer (DTH) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-2
ANGLE DRILLING GROUP (option) . . . . . . . . . 8-3
FLUSHING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3
Bailing Air . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-3 REMOTE SERVICE CENTER (option) . . . . . . . 8-4
LUBRICATOR (option) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-4
FIRE SUPPRESSION SYSTEM (option) . . . . . . 8-5
SURFACE DRILLING METHODS & APPLI- AUTO LUBE SYSTEM (option) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-5
CATIONS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1 AUTO THREAD LUBE (option) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-6
GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1 ARTIC COLD HEATERS (option) . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-6
MISCELLANEOUS OPTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-7
BLAST HOLE DRILLING . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1 Electrical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-7
GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1 Hydraulic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-7
Compressor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-7
BLAST DESIGN AND DRILL PATTERNS . . . . . 5-1
Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-7
Bench Height . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-2
Machine Accessories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-7
Hole Diameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-2
Drill Accessories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-8
Burden and Spacing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-2
Cabin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-8
Movement/Throw . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-3
Special Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-8
Fragmentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-3
Blast Damage to New Highwall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-3
Environmental Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-3 DRILL STRING COMPONENTS. . . . . . 9-1
Vertical and Angled Holes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-4 DRILL STRING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-1
Standoff (Coal Mining) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-5 Drill Pipe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-1
Stabilizers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-1
RIG COMPONENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-1 Subs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-2
Drill Bits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-3
MAST ASSEMBLY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-2
DOWN THE HOLE HAMMERS (DTH) . . . . . . . . 9-4
LOADER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-2
Hammer Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-4
ROTARY HEAD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-3
Size of Hammer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-4
DRILL STRING TOOLING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-3 Hammer Air Consumption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-5
Power Wrench (breakout system) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-3 Hammerdril® Rigid Valve Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-5
Holding Wrench (deck wrench) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-4 Recommended Lubrication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-5
Bit Wrench . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-4 Bit Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-6
WINCH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-4 TOOL JOINT THREAD CHARTS . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-8
POWER UNIT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-4
UNDERCARRIAGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-5
MACHINERY DECK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-5 DRILL SPECIFICATIONS. . . . . . . . . . 10-1
DESCRIPTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-1
LUBRICANT SPECIFICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . 10-2
RIG SYSTEMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-2
HYDRAULIC SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1 Engine Oils (CH) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-2
Reservoir Tank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-1 Lubricating Grease (MPGM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-2
Pump Drives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-2 Compressor Oils (COMP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-2
Mast Raising and Locking Cylinders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-3 Hydraulic Oils (HYDO) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-2

Table of Contents Page i


Multipurpose - Type Gear Lubricant (MPL) . . . . . . . . 10-2
Refrigeration Oil (REF) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-2
MINIMUM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS FOR HY-
DRAULIC OILS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-6
AIR COMPRESSOR LUBRICANT RECOMMENDA-
TIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-7

GLOSSARY OF TERMS . . . . . . . . . . . 11-1

Page ii
Section 1

INTRODUCTION

Welcome to the first series of the new genera- The manufacturing plant in Alachua is also
tion training manuals offered by one of the home for the product marketing, testing, engi-
world’s leaders in earth drilling equipment. neering research and development, service
The purpose of this manual is to introduce and training departments on a 68 acre prop-
blasthole drilling techniques and components erty, with over 168,775 square feet of work
to our customer. Successive manuals will give space.
specific system, operating, maintenance,
troubleshooting, and repair procedure. We are proud to provide a quality product
based on customer requirements.
Rotary, blasthole and waterwell drills are
manufactured in the Alachua, Florida facility.
DTH products are manufactured in Mansfield, Please visit us at our scheduled Drill Schools.
Texas - Mexico City, Mexico, Poona, India Contact the product service secretary for
and Sandviken, Sweden. details. (386) 462-4100.

bh81

Introduction to Blasthole Drilling Page 1


Section 1

REFERENCE MATERIAL:

Sandvik Rock Tools - SD and XL hammer


operation manuals

Sandvik Roller bit manual

Sandvik Tamrock - Rock excavation for civil


engineers handbook

Denison Hydraulic - Application manual

Mills Machine Co. Inc. - Drill accessory man-


ual

Driltech - Technical publication and service


training departments
Sullair Corporation

Published by Driltech - USA

All rights reserved. No part of this manual may be reproduced in any form without prior written consent from Driltech.

Part No. 023501-012

Page 2
Section 2

FUNDAMENTALS OF DRILLING

DESCRIPTION
TWISTING/TEARING
Drilling is all about making a hole in the
ground. The two fundamental components of
making blastholes are:
• Chip making
• Chip clearing

CUT SURFACE

SKID
CHIP, SWEEP, DISTANCE
CHIP, SWEEP!

GRINDING/ABRADING

THRUST GRINDING

TORQUE

One or more of the following processes can


produce chips:
• Cutting/tearing
• Twisting/tearing
• Grinding/abrading
• Crushing
GRINDINGS

CUTTING/TEARING
CRUSHING

ANGLE OF
CUTTING PERCUSSION
IMPACT

(a) BUTTON INDENTION


DEPTH PER BLOW
CRUSHING
TO FINE CRUSHED ROCK
FREE SURFACE POWER

(b)
ACCUMULATION
OF FINE CHIPPING POTENTIAL CHIP
ROCK LOOSENING CRACK

(c) CRACKED FORMATION ZONE

Introduction to Blasthole Drilling Page 1


Section 2

The four main components of drilling are::


• Feed
• Rotation PERCUSSION
• Percussion
• Flushing ROTATION
AND COMPRESSED
FEED AIR

FEED FORCE
FLUSHING FLUSHING
CUTTINGS
ROTATION

DRILL
ROTARY DRILLING BIT

PERCUSSION DRILLING
DRILLING METHODS
Hardness and mineral composition of the rock
Blasthole drilling has been performed by two
will also be major factors in wear of the drill
different methods:
string components.
Percussive drilling, made up of:
• Top hammer tools
• Down-the-hole (DTH) tools DRILLING EQUIPMENT

Rotary drilling There are many types of surface drills, which


can be grouped according to their operating
The choice of drilling method is mainly depen- principles mentioned above:
dent upon the physical and geological proper- • Top hammer drilling
ties of the rock to be drilled. Hard formations • DTH drilling
generally require percussive drilling, while soft • Rotary drilling
or non-consolidated rock may need only • Auger drilling
rotary drilling. • Core drilling

Percussive drilling utilizes all four compo- Driltech manufactures a range of drill rigs suit-
nents, feed, rotation, percussion and flushing. able for both DTH and rotary drilling. Driltech
does not manufacture top hammer drills.
Rotary drilling does not use percussion, but
compensates by having increased feed force Drill rigs use drill steel equipment (when con-
and rotation torque. Rotation speeds and feed nected these are called a 'drill string') to drill
forces will vary according to ground condi- the hole. The drill steel equipment includes
tions. Each drilling application requires mod- components such as drill pipes, adapter subs,
erate changes in the rotary drilling technique. DTH hammers and drill bits.

Page 2
Section 2

DRILL PIPES

DTH HAMMER

DRILL BIT

DTH DRILLING

The choice of drill steel equipment should be


carefully selected to meet the needs of the
machine it is intended to be fitted to. Other
factors may be ground condition and hole
depth of rock to be excavated.

Section 9 gives details to the drill string com-


ponents utilized for rotary and down the hole
percussion drilling.

Introduction to Blasthole Drilling Page 3


Section 2

Page 4
Section 3

DRILLING COMPONENTS

GENERAL Every formation requires a minimum feed


force before the drill bit will penetrate, as the
The four components of drilling are: tooth pressure must exceed the rock strength.
1. Feed Soft rock such as shale will require a lower
feed force than hard rock such as granite.
2. Rotation Rotary drilling will be more efficient, if the feed
3. Percussion force is greater than the minimum needed, as
the bit will break out rock chips, rather than
4. Flushing abrading fine grindings.

In practice, a 'pulldown' system is needed on


FEED (pulldown) a drill machine, so that feed force additional to
that exerted by the weight of the drill string
Feed force is required in order to press the can be placed onto the bit. Effectively, part of
drill bit against the rock. This in itself will only the rig weight is added to the drill string
produce minor crushing of the rock immedi- weight. The feed force must be capable of
ately under the drill bit. Combined with the being varied. Control valves allow adjust-
forces of rotation and/or percussion, the feed ments to be made to suit drilling conditions.
force enables the processes of cuffing, tear-
ing, grinding and abrading to occur. As the bit
cuts, it must be fed down to keep the drill bit in TOO MUCH!!! NOT ENOUGH!!!
constant contact with the rock surface.

TOP SPROCKET

HOIST CHAIN

ROTARY
HEAD

FEED
CHAIN
SPROCKET
CARRIER

MAST
CHORD Insufficient feed force will
Excessive feed force will cause cause a low drill penetration
stress, high wear and damage rate, stress and damage to
to drill string components. drill string components.

WORK
DECK FEED (PULLDOWN)
CYLINDER

ROTATION (torque)
The pulldown cylinder moves the rotary head up and down Rotation components are adjustable to suit
via an arrangement of chains and sprockets.
drilling conditions. Single and twin motor
PULLDOWN SYSTEM arrangements are available for the many
Introduction to Blasthole Drilling Page 1
Section 3

different drilling applications. Single motor A 'rotary' system is required to turn the drill
applications are applicable for DTH percus- string and drill bit. The rotation speed must
sion drilling, whereas two motors may be also be variable, so it can be adjusted to pro-
required to turn large drill pipe and rotary bits. duce the largest cuttings possible (to optimize
penetration rates), as well as suit either rotary
Percussive Drilling or DTH hammer drilling applications.
Percussion energy is generated by a moving
piston. With each piston impact from the ham-
mer, the tungsten carbide buttons in the bit PERCUSSION
body penetrate the rock surface. The function
In general, percussion drilling produces more
of rotation is to turn the drill bit to a new posi-
efficient drilling in medium to hard formations.
tion between percussive impacts, so that the
Rocks that are not easily abraded by drag
drill bit carbides strike fresh rock surfaces.
force of rotary drilling alone may be more effi-
Slow to medium rotation speeds assist the bit
ciently drilled with percussive blows.
buttons to penetrate new rock with each pis-
ton impact. Hammer manufacturers specify Two types of percussion methods are the
applicable rotation speeds. pneumatic or hydraulic top hammers, or a
pneumatic down the hole hammer.
Rotary Drilling
Down the Hole Hammer (DTH)
Rotation is torque, used to roll the bit around
while the feed force holds it firmly against the Down the hole hammer drilling requires high-
ground. Rotary bit manufacturers specify pressure compressed air. Use light to medium
maximum rotation speeds and maximum pull- feed force for best results. Air pressure is pro-
down ratings. portional to penetrate rates. In harder rock for-
mations it is essential to maintain the highest
The combination of rotary torque and feed-
recommended air pressure. Specific care
force enables the bit to produce chips by
should be given to drill bit selection according
crushing and cutting.
to the rock material being excavated.

DOWN THE HOLE


ROTARY DRILL BITS HAMMERS

Page 2
Section 3

A DTH hammer provides drilling energy right Bailing Air


at the bit. It is highly efficient because piston
energy is transmitted directly to the bit at the Compressed air is the most common medium
rock surface. DTH hammers are best suited used with blasthole drills to clear chips from
for medium to hard rock materials. the hole. It is referred to as 'bailing air', as it
bails the chips from the hole.

The annular air velocity or 'up-hole velocity'


FLUSHING (UHV) determines whether or not there is suf-
ficient bailing air to ensure effective removal
Flushing is necessary to remove cuttings from of rock cuttings from the hole. Theoretically
the drill hole. Flushing should be sufficient to UHV will depend on these factors;
clear chips away from the bit immediately.
Otherwise the chips will be reground, increas- • The capacity of the compressor
ing bit wear and reducing the penetration rate. • The diameter of the drill bit in the hole
• The outside diameter of the drill pipe

The last two factors together determine the


volume of the drill hole that needs to be
1
bailed. If the drill pipe diameter is small com-
1. Flushing (Bailing Air)
2. Drill Steel Air Passage
pared to the hole diameter, then there will be
3. Drill Bit a large volume to be bailed and the UHV will
4. Bit Flushing Ports be low. If on the other hand, the diameters are
5. Cuttings Removal fairly close, there is a small volume to be
bailed and the UHV will be greater. If rock is
abrasive, rapid drill string wear will occur with
2
the higher UHV.

Water, foam or polymer may be injected into


the air stream to aid in dust suppression, chip
5
removal or to improve hole stability.

FLUSHING SYSTEM
TYPICAL UP-HOLE VELOCITY
(UHV) CHARTS

Introduction to Blasthole Drilling Page 3


Section 3

BIT PIPE COMPRESSOR UPHOLE


SIZE SIZE OUTPUT VELOCITY
Inch mm Inch mm cfm cu m/min fpm m/sec
5 5/8 143 2 7/8 73 900 25.5 7,046 36
5 5/8 143 2 7/8 73 1,000 28.3 7,829 40
6 1/4 159 3 1/2 89 900 25.5 6,143 31
6 1/4 159 3 1/2 89 1,000 28.3 6,825 35
6 3/4 171 4 102 900 25.5 5,571 29
6 3/4 171 4 1/2 114 1,000 28.3 7,230 37
7 3/8 187 4 1/2 114 900 25.5 4,824 25
7 3/8 187 4 1/2 114 1,000 28.3 5,360 27
7 7/8 200 5 1/2 140 900 25.5 5,185 27
7 7/8 200 5 1/2 140 1,000 28.3 5,761 30
8 1/2 216 6 152 900 25.5 4,543 23
8 1/2 216 6 152 1,000 28.3 5,048 26
8 1/2 216 6 5/8 168 900 25.5 5,808 29
8 1/2 216 6 5/8 168 1,000 28.3 6,453 33
9 229 6 5/8 168 900 25.5 4,438 22
9 229 6 5/8 168 1,000 28.3 4,931 25
9 229 6 5/8 168 1,100 31.2 5,425 27
9 7/8 251 7 3/4 178 900 25.5 4,397 17
9 7/8 251 7 3/4 178 1,000 28.3 4,886 19
9 7/8 251 7 3/4 178 1,100 31.2 5,375 21
9 7/8 251 8 5/8 219 1,000 28.3 7,914 40
9 7/8 251 8 5/8 219 1,100 31.2 8,705 44

UP-HOLE VELOCITY
(UHV) TABLE

Insufficient flushing leads to low penetration


(increased recutting), decreased drill pipe life
(bit wear and jamming of drill string) and high
bit wear. Optimum drilling occurs when dry air
flushing up-hole velocity factors can be main-
tained between 4000 to 9000 FPM depending
on rotary or DTH drilling methods.

Higher UHV may be acceptable for drilling


depending on ground conditions such as con-
sistent and solid low abrasive formations.
Select higher UHV when drilling occurs in bad
fractured ground, with voids or caverns, high
rock density or long hole depths.

Page 4
Section 4

SURFACE DRILLING METHODS AND APPLICATIONS

GENERAL
Selection of the appropriate drill method will depend on factors such as the rock strength, diam-
eter and depth of hole required. Typical applications are shown below.

TONS
TONS

ROLLER BIT ROTARY DRAG BIT ROTARY


1. 4.5” - 15” (114,3 - 381mm) HOLE DIAMETER 1. 1” - 5” (25,4 - 127mm) HOLE DIAMETER
2. 15,000 - 60,000 PSI (103.35-413.4 MPa) ROCK 2. 5,000 - 22,000 PSI (34.45-151.58 MPa) ROCK
3. ROTARY APPLICATION ROLLER BITS 3. ROTARY APPLICATION DRAG BIT

TOP HAMMER PERCUSSIVE DOWN - THE - HOLE


1. 1” - 6” (25.4 - 152.4mm) HOLE DIAMETER
1. 3.5” - 40” (89 - 1016mm) HOLE DIAMETER
2. 10,000 - 60,000 PSI (68,9-413,4 MPa) ROCK
2. 15,000 - 60,000 PSI (103,35-413,4 MPa) ROCK
3. BUTTON BITS
3. BUTTON BITS

Introduction to Blasthole Drilling Page 1


Section 4

RELATIVE MOH’S COMPRESSIVE


HARDNESS HARDNESS STRENGTH - PSI INDEX
ROCK
NUMBER
Extremely soft 1-2 < 2,000
Soft 2-3 2,000 - 5,000 1 TALC
Medium 3 - 4.5 5,000 - 10,000 2 GYPSUM
Medium hard 4.5 - 6 10,000 - 20,000
Hard 6-7 20,000 - 30,000 3 CALCITE
Extremely hard >7 > 30,000
4 FLUORITE

5 APATITE

RELATIVE MOH’S COMPRESSIVE 6 ORTHOCLASE


HARDNESS HARDNESS STRENGTH - MPa 7 QUARTZ
Extremely soft 1-2 < 14 8 TOPAZ
Soft 2-3 14 - 35
Medium 3 - 4.5 35 - 70 9 CORUNDUM
Medium hard 4.5 - 6 70 - 140
10 DIAMOND
Hard 6-7 140 - 210
Extremely hard >7 > 210
MOHS SCALE OF HARDNESS

ROCK HARDNESS & COMPREHENSIVE


STRENGTH TABLE

Compressive Strength
ROCK TYPE Mpa psi
IGNEOUS Andesite 300 400 42,660 56,880
IGNEOUS Basalt 250 400 35,550 56,880
SEDIMENTARY Congomerate 140 19,908
IGNEOUS Diorite 170 300 24,174 42,660
SEDIMENTARY Dolomite 150 21,330
IGNEOUS Gabbro 260 350 36,972 49,770
METAMORPHIC Gneiss 140 300 19,908 42,660
IGNEOUS Granite 200 350 28,440 49,770
SEDIMENTARY Limerock 30 100 4,266 14,220
SEDIMENTARY Limestone 120 17,064
METAMORPHIC Marble 100 200 14,220 28,440
METAMORPHIC Quartzite 160 220 22,752 31,284
IGNEOUS Rhyolite 120 17,064
SEDIMENTARY Sandstone 160 255 22,752 36,261
METAMORPHIC Schist 60 400 8,532 56,880
METAMORPHIC Serpentine 30 150 4,266 21,330
SEDIMENTARY Shale 70 9,954
METAMORPHIC Slate 150 21,330
IGNEOUS Trachyte 330 46,926

ROCK COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH

Page 2
Section 5

BLAST HOLE DRILLING

GENERAL The type of blasted product or 'fragmentation'


required from the blast will determine the way
Blast hole drilling is used in the extraction of in which a blast hole drill will be used.
rock products and minerals from surface
mines and quarries. A blast hole drill pro- For example:
duces holes to a predetermined plan. The • In a quarry, most of the material broken
holes are then charged with explosive and the out will be given further treatment. The
rock is blasted and broken. rock will need to be broken into fragments
which are easily dug, fill haulage units to
A typical drilling sequence involves: capacity, cause few interruptions to the
• Driving or tramming the machine to the primary crusher feed and are free from
required location. excess fines.
• Raising the machine on the leveling jacks • Open pit or surface mines differ from quar-
to provide a stable drilling platform. ries in that large quantities of overburden
• Raising the mast (from the horizontal) to or waste rock may need to be moved
the desired drilling position. quickly and will have no further treatment.
• Lock the mast into position. Therefore rock may be broken to a lesser
• Commence rotation, feed and air flushing, degree than quarry rock.
air percussion for DTH applications.
• Drilling to the required depth. A 'single Both examples move material by large
pass' operation, is a hole depth no more machinery such as front-end loaders, shovels
than one drill pipe length. A 'multi-pass' and/or draglines.
operation, is where drill pipes must be
added as the hole is drilled.
• Retracting the drill string. BLAST DESIGN AND DRILL PAT-
• Lowering the mast (to horizontal if neces- TERNS
sary), prior to tramming.
• Always lower the mast to horizontal with
truck mounted drilling equipment prior to Take the example of an open cut coal mining
moving the machine. operation. The engineer will need to design a
'drill pattern', mark it, so the machine operator
28% can drill it. To produce the desired fragmenta-
4%
C
D
tion, a number of factors must be taken into
account, including:
% (A) DRILLING • Type of rock or formation
B • Degree of blast movement / 'throw'
(B) LEVELING
(C) PIPE HANDLING required
(D) TRAMMING • Explosive selection
A
• Terrain conditions
• Environmental conditions
• Damage to the product
66%

TYPICAL DRILLING CYCLE Factors, which can be varied by the engineer


designing the blast, may include:

Introduction to Blasthole Drilling Page 1


Section 5

APPARENT BURDEN *
APPARENT SPACING *
HOLE-TO-CREST
HOLE DIAMETER

BACKBREAK
NEW CREST
(AFTER MUCKING)

STEM HEIGHT

CREST SIDE BREAK

HOLE EXPLOSIVE
DEPTH COLUMN FRONT BURDEN
HEIGHT BANK FACE
FLOOR OR FINAL GRADE

BOTTOM-HOLE BANK ANGLE


BURDEN

SUBGRADE
(SUB DRILLING)
TOE

*NOTE! TRUE burden and spacing may differ from APPARENT burden and spacing due to
the delay between firing adjacent lines.
BLAST DESIGN TERMINOLOGY

• Bench height 0.5 – 1% face height. Mine location, produc-


• Hole diameter tion rates, rock density, explosive factors for
• Type/quantity of explosive air and ground vibration monitoring may play
• Burden an important role in what type of machine and
• Spacing related hole diameter best suits the specific
• Vertical or angled holes mine.
• Standoff
Burden and Spacing
These factors are interrelated in their effects.
Some of these are discussed below. Burden and spacing are terms used to
describe the dimensions of a drill pattern.
Bench Height • Burden is the distance between each row.
• Spacing is the distance between the holes
When rock is drilled and blasted to create along a row.
steps, it is known as bench drilling. The bench
height may be determined by factors such as
the stability of the rock, the type of drilling Row 2
Row 3
Spacing
equipment available, or the access available. Row 1

en
rd
Hole Diameter Bu
HIGHWALL
Hole diameter is closely related to bench
height and burden, and should be between
Page 2
Section 5

Movement/Throw

Drill patterns are designed to obtain a suitable


blast profile for loading equipment like shov-
els or draglines. The most critical factor con-
trolling the movement of a shot is the burden.
A throw shot in a coal application may utilize
approximately 23ft (7m) of burden for 10 5/8”
holes. Likewise a shot to be “stood up” may
utilize approximately 33ft (10m) of burden for
the same hole. The selection of burden will
also depend on the width of the bench.

COAL
A. SECTION OF ‘STOOD UP’ SHOT

Blast Damage to New Highwall


COAL
B. SECTION OF ‘THROWN’ SHOT Often the row of holes that create the new
MOVEMENT/THROW highwall will be spaced more closely together.
This allows weaker explosives to be used and
Fragmentation creates a better highwall.

Fragmentation is a general term that When the row has half the spacing of the rest
describes the size of individual rocks after of the pattern, it is said to be a ‘staggered pat-
blasting. Once the burden has been selected, tern’.
the spacing must be selected to provide suffi-
cient fragmentation. Spacing is calculated
using the volume of rock to be blasted and the
tonnage of explosives to be put in each hole. Row 4
Row 3
Row 2
HIGHWALL Row 1

SPACING (SP)
)
(B
EN
RD
BU

STAGGERED PATTERN
ROCK VOLUME PER
BLAST HOLE =
BENCH HEIGHT. (BH) WITH PRE-SPLIT LINE (ROW 4)

VOL = B x SP x BH
Environmental Controls

Most mines have limits for noise and vibration


HOLE DEPTH = BENCH HEIGHT + SUBDRILLING
produced by blasting, imposed by an environ-
TONNAGE
CALCULATION
ment protection agency. Noise is increased if

Introduction to Blasthole Drilling Page 3


Section 5

holes “blow out” because the charge is uncon- ANGLED:


fined. The burden on the highwall row is • Better burden is produced on the highwall
selected with this in consideration. row.
• Machine can be set-up away from the
highwall.
Small burden on the highwall row
will cause the explosive to blow- • Used where the burden on the highwall
out and result in high noise.
row may be too large for vertical holes.
• Angle drilling may hinder dust suppression
systems.
• Operation set-up time and techniques are
affected.

BLOW-OUT

Vertical and Angled Holes

Inclined or angled holes, result in more pro-


ductive blasting than vertical holes however
each have advantages and disadvantages.

VERTICAL:
• Movement of the drill is quicker.
• Less wear to the drill accessories.
• Easier machine set-up for operators.
• Greater disturbance to the new highwall.

It is not possible to drill this hole angled,


without special tooling, because of the
bench behind it.

VERTICAL HOLES

Toe

Angled burden
Burden with angled holes
reduces the toe compared Vertical burden
to vertical holes, resulting
in better floor surfaces.

ANGLED HOLES

Page 4
Section 5

Drilled to Coal
Row 4
Row 3
Row 2
Row 1

HIGHWALL

STANDOFF DRILL PATTERN

Standoff (Coal Mining)

If holes are drilled to or into coal, the explo-


sives will damage the coal product. Blast
damage reduces recovery and increases dilu-
tion of the coal. With smaller coal seams a
“standoff” drill pattern may be used to prevent
product damage.

With this system, not all holes are drilled to


the coal. The engineers drill plan may indicate
to drill every third hole to the coal. Other holes
standoff the coal product 5 feet (1.5 m). In this
situation a hole is drilled to find the depth of
the coal seam and the next two holes are 5
feet (1.5 m) shallower.

Introduction to Blasthole Drilling Page 5


Section 5

Page 6
Section 6

RIG COMPONENTS

MODEL D90KS SHOWN

1. Mast Crown 10. Mast Rest 19. Crawler Frame


2. Mast 11. Air Cleaners 20. Idler
3. Mast Raising Cylinders 12. Cooler 21. Boarding Ladder
4. Hydraulic Tank 13. Front Levelling Jacks 22. Rear Levelling Jack
5. Hydraulic Pump Gearbox 14. Main Frame 23. Dust Hood
6. Water Injection Pump 15. Machinery Deck 24. Operator’s Cab
7. Water Tank 16. Final Drive Sprocket 25. Air Conditioner
8. Engine 17. Track 26. Hydraulic Lines to Rotary Head
9. Compressor 18. Crawler Axle

Introduction to Blasthole Drilling Page 1


Section 6

MAST ASSEMBLY
CAROUSEL WINCH
CABLE
The mast supports the rotary drive and drilling
accessories. It may be constructed to allow
TOP AIR
the machine to drill vertical and/or angle PLATE HOSE
HANGER
holes.

• The mast assembly pivots upon a mast ROTARY


HEAD
pedestal frame. The pedestal is fabricated
to the machinery deck.
FEED
CHAIN
• Two hydraulic cylinders are used to raise
and lower the mast. Vertical or angle drill
positions and horizontal travel position are ROD
POCKETS
normal positions.

• Hydraulic motor(s) and planetary gears DRILL


PIPE
mounted to a rotary head provides the
drilling torque necessary to rotate the drill MAST
RAISING
string. CYLINDERS

SWING
• Hydraulic cylinder(s) with sprockets and CYLINDER

chains provides the necessary force to


INDEXING
raise and lower the rotary head and drill SYSTEM WORK
DECK
string.
MAST
• A loader on the mast structure provides PIVOT
BEARING
drill pipe storage. It can be indexed
(rotated) for drill pipe loading/unloading to/
from the rotary head. MAST & LOADER COMPONENTS

• Compressed air from the air receiver tank


is piped up the mast. The air swivel on the
rotary head allows air through the drill LOADER
string to the drill bit. Compressed air is
used to bail cuttings from the hole during A loader carries a number of drill pipes, which
drilling. allows for a multi-pass drilling operation.
When the drill rig is equipped with a loader,
• The bottom end of the mast supports a the operator can change pipes quickly and
table and work deck. Drilling tools to assist efficiently from inside the cab.
in pipe connections are available from the
work deck. A loader consists of:

• Hanger - typical hanger arrangements are


pivoted, and the carousel is swung in and
out of position by operator controlled
hydraulic valves and cylinders. Optional
sliding hanger arrangements may be fitted
for larger drill pipe configurations.

Page 2
Section 6

• Carousel - A top latch plate and bottom DRILL STRING TOOLING


pods hold up to 6 pieces of drill pipe.
Mounted below the bottom pods is an Tooling is necessary to enable joints (connec-
index lock plate which has locating holes tions) in the drill string to be made (tightened)
used for indexing the pipe position. or broken (loosened).

• Indexing System - A hydraulic locking pin Power Wrench (breakout system)


moves in and out of the locking plate. A
The “power wrench”, is used to break tight
hydraulic cylinder rotates the assembly. pipe joints and drill bit accessories which can-
When the pin is in the ‘unlock’ position, not be broken by reversing the rotation of the
only the indexing assembly is rotated.
drill string. This tool is a hydraulic powered,
When the pin is in the ‘lock’ position the
jaw-type breakout wrench mounted below the
hydraulic cylinder rotates the carousel. pipe loader. The wrench is controlled by the
operator from inside the cab.

ROTARY HEAD
Piston-type hydraulic motor(s) provide
mechanical torque to reduction gears
mounted to the rotary head housing. A large
bullgear and shaft transmit rotation directly to
the top sub and drill pipe. The bull shaft is hol-
low to permit compressed air to be passed
down the drill pipe to the blast hole. Mounted
on top of the bull shaft is an air swivel assem-
bly with seals. This swivel allows oil to remain
in the rotary head and air to be supplied to the
drill string.

Hydraulic cylinders and roller chains raise and


lower the rotary head, which is secured to the
mast with adjustable wear pieces (guide POWER WRENCH
shoes). The replaceable wear pieces are
made of a nylatron fiber. This material pro-
A tong wrench may be supplied. This is a
tects the sliding areas of the mast.
hydraulic actuated cylinder with a “Stilson”
type wrench. The tong wrench is manually
MOTOR placed onto the pipe during joint breaking.
GUIDE
SHOES
PLANETARY

GEARBOX
TONG WRENCH

ROTARY HEAD
Introduction to Blasthole Drilling Page 3
Section 6

Holding Wrench (deck wrench) When the drill bit is lowered into the bit
wrench it is held securely and cannot turn.
This sliding wrench is used to hold the drill Reverse rotation or the power wrench can
pipe, while the joint above it is broken (loos- assist thread breaking.
ened) or pipe-changing procedures take
place. The jaw of the wrench is shaped to
engage the top flats of the drill pipe, and it is
mounted on the mast table. The operator con- WINCH
trols the ‘engage’ and ‘disengage’ positions of
the wrench from inside the cab.

(TABLE BUSHING REMOVED)

WINCH

HOLDING WRENCH

Bit Wrench

A special wrench shape is required to hold the


drill bit during bit changing procedures. Precut The winch is controlled by the operator from
wrenches and blank wrenches are available. inside the cab and is used to lift accessories
such as hammers, bits, and subs, to and from
The bit wrench tool is put into the mast table the work deck. The winch can also be used to
in place of the table bushing. It can be held in change drill pipes when the mast is in a verti-
place with the holding wrench. cal position. From the spool, a wire rope with
. a lifting hook attached runs up and over the
top of the mast, via a set of sheaves.

POWER UNIT
The engine is the prime source of mechanical
power for the entire drill. Driltech Mission
BIT BASKET blasthole drills use Caterpillar or Cummins
diesel engines running at ‘high idle’ speed of
1800 rpm. Engine power is transmitted to
hydraulic pumps via drive shafts and gear-
boxes. A rotary screw compressor is driven
from the engine flywheel. Engines are water
cooled with radiator(s) and are temperature
protected with safety switches. Caterpillar ‘E’

Page 4
Section 6

series engines also utilize air-to-air aftercool- motor drive torque is transmitted to planetary
ers (ATAAC). A hydraulically driven cooling reduction gears in the final drive assembly.
system provides airflow through the radia-
tor(s) and oil coolers. Control of these drive motors can provide an
infinite range of steering maneuvers, from
gradual to radical cornering, by varying the
COMPRESSOR ENGINE
3 control lever positions in the forward and
CFM (m /min) PSI (bar) MODEL HP (Kw) RPM
750 (21.1) 100 (6.9) 3406E DITA 450 (336) 1,800
reverse ranges. Counter steering is possible if
750 (21.1) 100 (6.9) QSK 19C 500 (373) 1,800 one track is placed in forward while the other
900 (25.5) 100 (6.9) 3406E 450 (336) 1,800 is placed in reverse.
900 (25.5) 100 (6.9) QSK 19C 500 (373) 1,800
1,050 (29.7) 100 (6.9) 3406E 450 (336) 1,800
1,050 (29.7) 100 (6.9) QSK 19C 500 (373) 1,800
1,300 (36.8) 100 (6.9) 3408E 500 (373) 1,800
1,300 36.8) 100 (6.9) QSK 19C 500 (373) 1,800
900 (25.5) 350 (24.1) 3406E 450 (336) 1,800
UPPER
900 (25.5) 350 (24.1) QSK 19C 500 (373) 1,800 ROLLER SHOES
1,000 (28.3) 350 (24.1) 3406E 500 (373)
521 (389) 1,800 (PADS)
IDLER
1,000 (28.3) 350 (24.1) QSK 19C 500 (373) 1,800
TYPICAL D40KS, D45KS & D50KS MODEL
HORSEPOWER CHART

FINAL
DRIVE

CHAIN ROCK
GUARD FRAME

Each track chain, fitted with triple-lug grouser


plates, is supported and guided by track roll-
ers, a front idler and carrier rollers. Large coil
springs counter the recoil of the front idler to
cushion shocks and maintain track tension.
CATERPILLAR
3408E An adjustable cylinder provides track chain
slack adjustment. Track guides protect bottom
Pre-cleaners treat incoming air prior to final fil- rollers from rocks. Both track frames are piv-
tration through paper elements. An electronic oted on an axle and equalizer beam to pro-
metered ether injection system assists in cold vide some degree of track oscillation. Both
starts. undercarriage members are fitted with
hydraulic multi-disc brakes to prevent track
movement while the drill is not propelling.
UNDERCARRIAGE
Track undercarriages, manufactured by Cat-
erpillar are the most common track drive sys- MACHINERY DECK
tems (Badger and American undercarriages The machinery deck (frame) is steel fabrica-
have also been used). Two independently tions which mount and support most machine
operated crawler units, are driven by bent axis operating components such as: diesel engine,
axial piston type hydraulic motors. Hydraulic radiators and oil coolers, mast rest, compres-

Introduction to Blasthole Drilling Page 5


Section 6

sor, air receiver, air/oil separator, hydraulic


tank and oil filters, fuel tank, batteries, hydrau-
lic pump drives, water system, mast support
1
structure and cab. Access ladders and railed 2
3
walkways extend around the deck to facilitate
access to machinery for inspection and ser-
vicing, while the cab access is ladder or deck.
All leveling jacks are mounted securely to the 4
frame.

24
5

23
6
22
7

21

8
9
20
10

19 11
12

18

17
13

16

15 REAR
14
1. FRONT WALKWAY 13. OPERATOR’S STATION
2. FRONT JACK CYLINDER 14. CAB
3. COOLER 15. WORKDECK
4. COMPRESSOR 16. DUSTHOOD CYLINDER
5. AIR INLET 17. REAR JACK CYLINDER
6. ENGINE 18. DUST COLLECTOR
7. BATTERIES 19. MAST RAISING CYLINDER
8. DRIVESHAFT 20. WATER INJECTION PUMP
9. PROPEL PUMP DRIVE 21. WATER INJECTION TANK
10. HYDRAULIC PUMP DRIVE 22. MUFFLER
11. AIR LUBRICATOR TANK 23. RECEIVER TANK
12. HYDRAULIC TANK 24. AIR CLEANER

D55SP MACHINERY DECK

Page 6
Section 7

RIG SYSTEMS

HYDRAULIC SYSTEM Reservoir Tank

The track drive and rotation systems are fully The hydraulic reservoir tank performs the fol-
hydrostatic with independent pumps for each lowing functions:
circuit. The result is a system that is much
cleaner and easier to troubleshoot. These • Takes up the variations in oil volume,
systems are closed loop and equipped with which occur through the operation of actu-
three-micron filtration. Seamless steel tubing ators.
is utilized wherever possible to enhance sys-
tem cooling and decrease the maintenance • Assists in the cooling of the oil before
cost. being recirculated through the system.

The hydraulic system has a supercharge sup- • Serves as a storage vessel for hydraulic
ply to assist the rotation and feed pump cir- oil. Oil is filtered before returning to tank.
cuits. This auxiliary replenishment is
pressurized to 125-175 psi (8,6-12 bar). The • The D40KS through the D75KS use a two
primary function is to keep the feed pump full reservoir system, the second being a
during cylinder actuations. The secondary is supercharge manifold.
to protect the rotation system from high shock
loads during the drilling sequence. The reservoir tank supplies oil for the follow-
ing pumps; propel pumps, rotation pump, feed
pump, cooling fan and accessory pumps. Oil
returned to the reservoir passes through 10-
micron return filter(s).

The hydrostatic systems use 3-micron loop fil-


tration fitted with service indicators, which
warn if the filter becomes clogged.

3 MICRON
FILTERS

HYDRAULIC
TEST STATION

An optional on-board hydraulic monitoring


system allows rapid diagnosis of hydraulic
systems.

Introduction to Blasthole Drilling Page 1


Section 7

PROPEL PUMPS
10 MICRON
FILTERS Variable displacement pumps supply oil to
propel motors on the undercarriage. The
operator may vary the speed at which the
machine is propelled by moving the propel
control levers. Propel pump volumes vary
from machine models. Output flows range
from 0 to 65 GPM (246 LPM). Maximum sys-
tem pressures also vary between models and
range from 3000 psi (204 bar) up to 4200 psi
(285 bar).

SHOE RETAINER
PLATE BARREL BRONZE
HYDRAULIC RESERVOIR BEARING SLEEVE
ROCKER CRADLE
PISTON
SHOE
ROCKER CYLINDER FACE
The reservoir is pressurized by air pressure CAM BARREL
PLATE

AUXILIARY
via a regulator valve to maintain 20 to 33 CPA DRIVESHAFT

(3 - 5 psi), which decreases ingress of con- INPUT


SHAFT
PORT ‘A’

taminants and provides pump inlet super- DUAL GEROTER


STROKING PUMPS IN 11 & 14
charging. VANE

PISTON PORT
CONTROL PLATE PORT ‘B’
CONTROL COVER
Pump Drives FLOW
CHANNELS

All pumps are direct drive by fixed ratio gear-


boxes. Engine derivations inputs connect to
the first gearbox. Most model machines have AXIAL PISTON PUMP
a speed increase ratio input gear in the first
gearbox. For cold weather conditions a gear- ROTATION PUMP
box fitted with disconnecting input shaft may
be ordered. This option will allow engine start- A variable displacement pump supplies oil to
ing without the hydraulic system loads. rotation motor(s) positioned on planetary drive
gears and the rotary head assembly. The
operator controls allow pump volume and sys-
AUXILIARY tem pressure changes for different drilling
PUMP DRIVE
conditions.

160000
140000
TORQUE (IN LBS)

120000
100000
80000
60000
40000
MAIN (PROPEL) 20000
PUMP DRIVE 0
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4200

PUMP DRIVE HYDRAULIC PRESSURE (PSI)


GEARBOXES
D75KS TORQUE CURVE @ 190 HP

Page 2
Section 7

Rotation pump volumes will vary from serve the return system and provide a super-
machine model. Output flows range from 0 up charge pressure for the main drilling pumps,
to 113 GPM (428 LPN) and pressures are (feed and rotation).
adjustable from 200 up to a range between
3000 - 4200 psi (206.9-289.6 bar). Some machine applications will use a flow
divider to allow multiple use of one vane
FEED PUMP pump output.

A variable displacement pump supplies oil OTHER PUMPS


through the hydraulic pulldown system. The
amount of (pulldown pressure) which is devel- • Variable displacement pump/motor for
oped in the circuit is operator controlled by the system cooling.
feed pressure control valve.
• Fixed displacement vane pump for 240-
Feed pump systems will have output flows volt generator.
from 0 to 102 GPM (387 lpm) with working
pressure of up to 3000 psi (204 bar). All feed • Vane pumps for dust collector and water
systems use a circuit protection called lift-off. injection options.
This protection limits the machine capacity. In
design it will keep the feed force below Mast Raising and Locking Cylinders
machine weight limits, protecting the machine
from accidental lift-off. Two double acting hydraulic cylinders are
pinned and supported to the rear mast chord
and machinery deck structure. Operators con-
trol the raise and lower mast sequence. Refer
to mast locking feature to position the mast for
drilling and tram modes.

In order to ensure the cylinders actuate


together and at the same speed, counterbal-
ance valves are fitted. Should hose failure
occur during mast positioning, these same
valves prevent the mast from falling.

MAST RAISING
D40KS FEED PERFORMANCE CURVE CYLINDERS
(BASED @ 81% EFFICIENCY)

ACCESSORY PUMP

These are fixed displacement vane type


pumps. One stage delivers oil to a hydraulic
motor, fixed size fan, thermostat and oil
cooler. This may be one of two designed cool-
ing systems for engine, compressor and
hydraulic fluid cooling. A second stage sup-
plies oil to accessory valve banks for the
operator selected features such as drill pipe
loader controls, dust control, angle drilling COUNTERBALANCE
accessories to name a few. These pumps VALVE

Introduction to Blasthole Drilling Page 3


Section 7

Hydraulic actuated controls allow mast-lock- All track drive motors have a manifold
ing pins to secure the mast in a vertical or mounted on the motor ports (hot oil shuttle
angled position for drilling. valve) with a spool valve and relief valve fit-
ted. This shuttle allows additional cooled and
filtered oil into the closed loop drive circuit.

Disc Brake Units


CYLINDER

PIN
OUTPUT
SHAFT

INPUT
SHAFT

L.H. MAST LOCKING PIN BRAKE


DISCS

Hydraulic Track Motors


SPRINGS
Track drive motors convert hydraulic flow and
pressure into rotational speed and torque, CRAWLER BRAKE UNIT
which is then, modified by the final drive
reduction gears. Each final drive unit is provided with a multi-
disc brake unit connected directly to the
hydraulic motor output shaft extension.

This spring applied, hydraulically released


MOTOR
HOT OIL
brake will securely hold the final drive input
SHUTTLE pinion when the machine is not tramming act-
ing as a park brake. When tram is selected,
hydraulic fluid from the propel pump servo
system will compress the belville springs,
which engage the brake, to release the pack
of discs.

Optional electronic interlock switches/sole-


noids may be added to the propel pump cir-
cuits. Interlocks will disable tramming until
operators have all conditions ready for mov-
ing the machine. Refer to jack brake and head
interlock options
L.H. TRACK MOTOR ASSEMBLY

Page 4
Section 7

Levelling Jacks The hydraulic cylinders are protected inside


two wear pieces called the jack boot and jack
hanger. A jack pad is attached to the end of
the jack-boot to provide firm footing for the
machine on stable ground surfaces.

AIR SYSTEM
The rotary screw compressor is driven by a
coupling to engine flywheel connection. High
volume compressed air provides receiver and
working air, which is available for drilling and
accessories. Working air is piped up the mast
to an air swivel, then into the drill string. The
air has two functions; one is to cool the drill bit
and bit bearings; the other is to bail the drill
cuttings out of the hole.

Hydraulic cylinders are operator controlled to


take the machine weight from the undercar-
riage, level and stabilize the machine during
drilling operations. Pilot operated check
valves are fitted to the cylinders to prevent
cylinder movement in the event of hose fail-
ure, and prevent the cylinder from drifting
down during drill operation.

SINGLE STAGE AIR END


(LOW PRESSURE COMPRESSORS)

HANGER
1st
STAGE

CYLINDER

2nd
STAGE
PAD
BOOT

2-STAGE AIR END


LEVELLING JACK (HIGH PRESSURE COMPRESSORS)

Introduction to Blasthole Drilling Page 5


Section 7

Filtered air drawn into the compressor intake air inlet valve (cylinder type, poppet type or
system compress by means of a matched set diaphragm) and the compressor inlet will
of male and female rotor screws. Oil is close (unload), reducing the volume of air
injected into the compressor mixing with the being compressed. Blow-down valves vent a
air to lubricate loaded components, seal the portion of air from the receiver tank during the
rotor screws and act as a coolant. run - unloaded mode. A relief valve deter-
mines the maximum air pressure in the sys-
Air/oil mixture discharges from the compres- tem. All receiver air pressure will vent to
sor into the receiver tank where the majority atmosphere through a final (shutdown) blow-
of the oil is separated from the air. The air down valve when the machine is stopped.
receiver tank serves as the compressor oil
sump. refer to diagram on page 7. The main valves and controls in the air sys-
tem are:
Oil in the receiver tank flows under air pres-
sure to thermal and bypass valve(s), to oil • Oil Stop Valve* - Stops the back flow of
coolers and main filters back to the compres- oil into the compressor at shutdown. (Not
sor. Oil separated in the air/oil separator used on poppet style inlet valves).
returns to the compressor via scavenge lines,
each fitted with a strainer and a sight-glass. • Discharge Check Valve* - Stops the
reverse flow of air/fluid mixture through the
A service indicator will show red if there is an
compressor system at compressor shut-
abnormal pressure drop through the separa-
down. (Not used on poppet style inlet
tor element. When this occurs, the element(s)
valves).
should be replaced.
• Thermal Valve – Used to regulate flow of
fluid to the coolers. Designed to maintain
POPPET VALVE minimum operating temperatures. Vari-
(AIR INLET)
ous thermostats are available for different
ambient and operating conditions. Ther-
mal manifolds have bypass valves fitted to
protect the compressor oil cooler.

• Minimum Pressure Valve - Maintains a


minimum receiver air pressure of 60 psi
(4.14 bar) for low pressure, and 140 psi
(9.65 bar) for high pressure units. This
pressure is necessary to ensure proper oil
circulation and oil cooling.

• Pressure Relief Valve - Opens the


receiver pressure to the atmosphere
LOW PRESSURE COMPRESSOR should pressure inside the tank become
too high. Low pressure machines use (140
psi), high pressure machines use (400 psi)
A closed inlet system relieves the compressor
safety valves.
load, during machine start-up.

When sufficient pressure(s) accumulates in • Check Valve - Prevents working line pres-
the receiver tank, air pressure will signal the sure back flow into the sump during
unload conditions and after shutdown.

Page 6
Section 7

AIR FILTER AIR INLET


CONTROL
VALVE *(May not be used on poppet style inlet valves)
AIR
AIR/OIL COMPRESSOR
OIL * OILVALVE
STOP

DISCHARGE CHECK VALVE *


AIR CONTROL MINIMUM
VALVE PRESSURE MAIN OIL FILTER
VALVE

WORKING
AIR

THERMOSTATS
SEPARATOR
ELEMENT

OIL COOLING
AIR/OIL MANIFOLD
SEPARATOR
TANK

PRESSURE
BYPASS

OIL COOLER

TYPICAL COMPRESSOR OIL LUBRICATION CIRCUIT


(HIGH OR LOW PRESSURE APPLICATIONS)

• Control Regulators - Opens a pressure • High Discharge Temperature Switch - A


line between the receiver tank and the air fast acting temperature switch will shut-
inlet, cylinder, poppet or sullicon control down the machine if the air discharge tem-
diaphragm. Regulators control compres- peratures raise above the switch value.
sor loads according to air demand.
SHUTDOWN SAFETY SWITCHES
• Pilot Valve - Bypasses the control regula-
tor. The poppet inlet valve will open, load- LOW PRESSURE HIGH PRESSURE
COMPRESSORS COMPRESSORS
ing the compressor allowing pressure to
build in the receiver tank. This feature is 230°F (110°C) FINAL 250°F (121°C) INTERSTAGE
used with low pressure poppet inlet valves 240°F (115°C) FINAL 265°F (129°C) FINAL
only.

• Blow-down Valves - Vents receiver tank


pressure to the atmosphere during unload
conditions, and after machine shutdown.

Introduction to Blasthole Drilling Page 7


Section 7

DUST COLLECTION SYSTEMS within the dust curtain surrounding the top of
(option) the blast hole. The dust laden air passes
through numerous dry dust filters within the
When drilling is performed without water, bail- dust collector housing. Large particulate mat-
ing air from the blast hole will be dust laden. ter and coarse dust are collected within the
This section describes a typical dry dust sup- dust collector assembly.
pression system. Dust collectors do not per-
form when contaminated with any means of
moisture or ground water.
Periodic impulse air blasts dislodge the fine
Operator controlled, hydraulic motor driven, trapped dust and enable this material to exit
exhauster fan draws bailing air from the area the dropout cone and curtain.

DRIVE MOTOR
(HYDRAULIC)
BLOWER
FILTER
BACKFLUSHING
CLEAN AIR MODULE
DISCHARGE

WORKING AIR BACKFLUSHING


PRESSURE
FROM COMPRESSOR
REGULATOR

BURST
of
FLUSHING
DUST LADEN AIR AIR

FILTER

TABLE
BUSHING TABLE

DUST CURTAIN DUST


CUTTING
DEFLECTOR
ROCK
CHIPS

245-56

Page 8
Section 7

A dust hood and/or curtain may be lowered


and raised by operator controls. Raising the
curtain allows ground clearance from drill cut-
tings prior to tramming machine away from
blast holes.

WATER INJECTION SYSTEM


(option)
A piston type, positive displacement water
pump injects water under pressure into the
compressed air system to provide a means of
dust suppression. Water tanks are available
in 150 to 1000 gallon (568 to 3785 l) capaci-
ties. The pump shown, is belt driven by a
hydraulic motor.

PUMP

MOTOR

WATER INJECTION PUMP & MOTOR

Water injection can be used for collaring holes


in bad, broken ground conditions. Foam injec-
tion can be added to the water to stabilize the
blast hole and assist in drill cutting removal.
Additional attachments can allow for a
machine wash option.

Introduction to Blasthole Drilling Page 9


Section 7

Page 10
Section 8

CONTROLS, OPTIONS AND MONITORING EQUIPMENT

INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS ELECTRONIC DEPTH COUNTER


(EDC option)
Drills will have different arrangements of the
instruments and controls; however, they will The electronic depth counter has been
generally be grouped as follows: designed to assist the operator in drilling blast
1. Drilling controls actuate all drill and tooling holes.
functions.
2. Air and hydraulic pressure gauges monitor
drilling system pressures to allow the most
efficient machine operation.
3. Engine and compressor temperature
gauges monitor and control these major 20.00
components.
4. Tram, Mast and Jack hydraulic controls
enable these functions.

NOTE! Hydraulics may be direct, cable and


linkage or electronic controlled.

The function of the EDC is to supply the oper-


ator with information on:
• ‘Bit Position’ (6) position
• ‘Distance From Bottom’ of hole (7) position
• ‘Accumulated Depth’ (8) position
• ‘Penetration Rate’ (9) position

A push button panel is used to program the


EDC and the readings are displayed on the
LED screen. Input to the EDC comes from an
ENCODER that is mounted on the pulldown
sprocket shaft. Input signals from the encoder
4 are measuring distance moved. From these
signals, the EDC computes the depth and rate
of penetration.
OPERATOR CONTROLS

Introduction to Blasthole Drilling Page 1


Section 8

A PROXIMITY SWITCH mounted on the hold- are operated, the pipe-in-hole alarm (indicator
ing wrench is used to stop the counting light and buzzer) will be activated. Stop oper-
sequence when a drill pipe is being held. Con- ation to verify fault.
tact terminals inside the EDC open to stop the
counting, and close to start the counting
sequence. DRILL MONITORING SYSTEM (DMS
Stopping the EDC from counting the head dis- option)
tance moved while the pipe changing
The Drill Monitor System provides a warning
sequence takes place is essential for accu-
signal to the operator and/or shuts down the
rate hole depth measurements.
machine (for critical out-of-limit conditions) in
A preset hole depth indicator light on the front the event that the monitored operating condi-
of the EDC cover panel will illuminated when tions are not within safe limits.
the drill bit reaches or is greater than the pro-
grammed depth. Position 1 on the EDC panel
can be programmed for drilling depths to suit
specific bench heights.

The Pipe-In-Hole Alarm

This alarm is designed to prevent the operator


DRILL
from propelling the machine away from a hole MONITOR
when drill pipe is in the hole. This system SYSTEM
uses the holding wrench proximity switch, a
proximity switch mounted on the mast at the
rotary head top position, and a pressure
switch mounted on the hydraulic valves for
the leveling jacks.

The system is provided with a thirty second


delay for start up, a system test push button,
audible alarm, and a ‘first out’ indication for
shutdowns.
5.35
There are three different levels of fault sens-
ing:
Level 1 - Flashing amber light.

Level 2 - Flashing amber light and audible


alarm.

Level 3 - Flashing red light, audible alarm,


and machine shut down.

The audible alarm can be silenced at any time


by means of a silence push button.

The light will continue to flash until the fault


When the head is not fully raised, or the hold- condition is cleared. Only one level three fault
ing wrench is out, and the mast or jack valves will be indicated at any one time (first out).

Page 2
Section 8

This will allow the cause of the shut down to • All leveling jacks are not fully retracted.
be easily determined. • The rotary head is not retracted to the top
The items monitored are: of the mast. This allows proper clearance
with the drill pipe, drill bit to the ground.
Level 1 • The tram foot switch is not depressed.
• Compressor air filter pressure
An additional switch for dust hood may be
• Engine air filter pressure added in this system.
• Fuel level
The switch for the rotary head may be part of
• Alternator charging the electronic depth counter (EDC) system.
• Engine radiator coolant level An indicator lamp will be lit, and a warning
buzzer will sound when the operator tries to
• Air/oil separator pressure differential
operate any jack control lever or mast control
Level 2 lever if a drill pipe is still in the ground. (Pipe-
in-hole alarm)
• Hydraulic oil level
• Hydraulic oil temperature If any above systems are not in the proper
position to allow the machine to be moved, a
• Hydraulic oil filter pressure
visual indicator lamp will not light until the
• Engine oil temperature conditions are corrected. Once these systems
are corrected, the indicator light will illumi-
Level 3 nate, indicating the tramming circuit is pow-
• Compressor discharge temperature ered and the machine can be moved.
• Compressor interstage temperature (high In an emergency case, the tram interlock cir-
pressure only) cuit can be bypassed. A by-pass switch is
• Compressor oil pressure inside the tram junction box located directly
• Engine oil pressure (prior to 1996 elec- underneath the operator control panel.
tronic engines)
• Engine coolant temperature (prior to 1996
electronic engines) LOADER/ROTARY HEAD INTER-
• Engine coolant flow
LOCK (option)
This system is designed to prevent the rotary
NOTE! 1996 and later model engines do not
head from placing excessive feed force on the
have DMS connected ‘Engine Oil Pressure’
loader assembly when making up drill pipe.
and ‘Engine Coolant Temperature’ shutdown
switches. Engines manufactured with an When the loader is out from its stowed posi-
‘ECM’ and ‘Select’ computers, monitor these tion, proximity switches will cause the feed
functions and are programmed to shutdown pump to vent feed pressure as the rotary
the engine. head approaches the drill pipe in the loader.

TRAMMING INTERLOCK (option) ANGLE DRILLING GROUP (option)


Several tram interlock systems may be built Blast hole drills may be fitted with attach-
into the wiring system. The tram circuit for ments to give them the ability to drill holes up
both left and right crawler assemblies will not to 30° from vertical, 20° for most machines.
operate if any of the following conditions exist:
Introduction to Blasthole Drilling Page 3
Section 8

Mast position locks are: • Pipe guide mechanism: This swing arm
• Mast or frame mounted will hold drill pipe during the pipe changing
sequence. One hydraulic cylinder swings
• Holes at the bottom of the mast table are the support arm across the mast; a second
spaced at 5° increments. Hydraulic cylin- cylinder clamps a support around the drill
ders with lock pins engage these holes to pipe. A sequence valve allows one opera-
support the mast at the required angle, or tor control for this feature.
vertical position. Operators select the mast
raise position and mast locking sequence.
REMOTE SERVICE CENTER (option)
Diesel fuel, engine coolant, engine crankcase
oil and hydraulic oil may be pumped on board
the machine via the 'Wiggins' quick-fill cou-
plings. This system provides fast, efficient
transfer of fluids and minimizes the risk of
contamination. The result is less downtime
when servicing equipment in the field.

FRAME MOUNTED MAST LOCKS

• Pivoted work deck: The deck is pinned


and pivoted under the mast table. Adjust-
able chains support the position. The work
deck can be raised or lowered for angle
drilling to maintain a horizontal workspace.
• Drilling angle indicator: A pendulum
pointer pivots on a flat plate positioned on
the left side of the mast. As the mast is
tilted, the pointer indicates the vertical
position in 5° increments, up to 30°.

LUBRICATOR (option)
Oil reservoirs in 10 and 30 gallon (38 and
133.5 l) capacities are available for DTH and/
or rotary applications. The lubricator system
PIPE POSITIONER/ uses an air regulator, an air assisted pump
CENTRALIZER
and manual controls or electronic controls to
move oil into the flushing air to lubricate a
DTH and drill bit. Use the grade of rock drill oil
that is proper for the climactic and operating
condition at the machine site.

Page 4
Section 8

AUTO LUBE SYSTEM (option)


30 GALLON LUBRICATOR

PUMP

This option is required for all DTH applica-


tions, and is preferred by rotary bit manufac-
turers.

AUTO LUBE SYSTEM


FIRE SUPPRESSION SYSTEM
(option)
This is a centralized lube system designed to
A manually actuated (shown) or an electrically deliver lubricant automatically to various
sensed system delivers a dry chemical extin- grease points around the machine. The sys-
guishing agent through hoses to pre-set noz- tem uses control air regulation with airline
zles in fire prone areas and surfaces. lube, control via central timer assembly to an
air operated pump, to deliver lubricant grease
at timed intervals. Distribution lines and vari-
ous sized grease injectors lubricate fixed pins,
bearings and bushings only.
FIRE SUPPRESSION
ACTUATOR
The cycle is started by the electrical timer,
which turns the pump on. The pump builds up
pressure in the supply line until the injectors
discharge the lubricant. The pump keeps
building pressure until the back pressure in
the line opens an electrical pressure switch
circuit and stops the pump.

Introduction to Blasthole Drilling Page 5


Section 8

THREAD LUBE NOZZLE

When the foot pedal is depressed, the pump


is activated and pumps grease directly to the
AUTO LUBE SYSTEM INJECTORS discharge nozzle. The pedal also opens an air
valve, which injects air into the distribution
A bleed valve opens to allow the pressure in tube directly behind the discharge nozzle.
the lines to vent back to the lubricant con- This injected air helps to spray the grease
tainer. When pressure decreases in the line, directly onto the pipe thread.
the injectors reset ready for the next timed
cycle.

The reservoir may be as illustrated (30 lb/13.5 ARTIC COLD HEATERS (option)
kg) grease containers.
The arctic cold heater system is designed to
heat the following system fluids:

AUTO THREAD LUBE (option) • Hydraulic tank


The automatic thread lube system is designed • Water injection tank
to spray thread grease directly on to the male
thread of a drill rod held in the holding wrench • Pump drive gearbox(es)
tool. This system allows the operator to apply
as much thread lubricant as needed. The sys- • Batteries
tem consists of an air operated pump, foot
pedal or toggle switch, distribution tube, noz- • Air receiver tank
zle and a reservoir for the pumpable thread-
grease. • Engine oil, fuel and coolant
Use premium quality thread compounds only.
Consult a local supplier of lubricating oils and
grease for a pumpable drill pipe thread com-
pound.

Page 6
Section 8

Electrical
Remote start group
Battery disconnect group
High ambient engine switch group
Ground level shut-off group
Remote tram group
Tram control (deadman)
Tram/jack/head interlock group
Rotary head/loader interlock group
Variable speed throttle control
Engine timer group (5 minute idle)
Strobe light roof mounted (amber, blue or red)
RECEIVER TANK
HEATER Electronic depth counter (EDC)
Stratologger 2 data recorder
Drill monitor system (DMS
Rotation hour meter group
CE certification group
Premium lighting package
Under deck lighting group

Hydraulic
Holdback kit for deep holes
Hydraulic test station
Anti-jam group feed and rotation

Compressor
Air cleaning hose
Compressor air volume control Electric operated
Manual operated
High pressure compressor oil recovery group (tropical)

Tools
Barber cushion connector
WATER INJECTION Drilco shock sub
TANK HEATERS Foremost cushion connector
Barber table bushings
Subs
FLUID HEATERS Drill pipe
DTH hammers
Drill bits
Items shown are not the full compliment of Break-out tools
arctic weather accessories.
Machine Accessories
Machine wash group (requires water injection system)
MISCELLANEOUS OPTIONS Self-retracting hose reel - Wash/with wand
Self-retracting hose reel - Air cleaning
When placing a machine order, consider Fluid sampling group (engine, compressor, hydraulic)
Magnetic drain plug group
optional equipment carefully.
Tow bar
Shipping lift kit
Group numbers are assigned to each of the
Dry chemical fire extinguishers
options. Some of these items may not be Fire suppression systems
available for all products and options men- Pin style feed chain adjuster w/port-a-power
tioned herein are subject to change without Larger OD jack pads
notice. Ground level service center w/wiggins connections

Introduction to Blasthole Drilling Page 7


Section 8

Auxiliary fuel tank group Special Applications


Rearview mirror group
Hydraulic generator (19kv, 220vac, 50hz)
Front walkway group
Cold weather group
Right walkway group cab to deck
Arctic machinery house - insulated
Fabric cold weather curtain
Drill Accessories Heated water injection tank
Power-tong breakout group Insulated/heated water injection tank
Automatic thread lube system Insulated water injection pump
Hammer lubricator tank standard or heated (10 or 30 Centrifugal engine oil filter - Caterpillar engines
gallon capacity) Prelube engine starter kit
Angle drill group Fourth leveling jack
Angle drill workdeck Mast ladder assembly
Dust hood with spotting door Mesabi cooler
Dry dust collection system - Drilplex Auto drill controls
Dry dust collection system - Tipton Foam injection - used with water injection
Extended mast lengths Australian electrical code group
Hammer holder Hydraulic welder 200 amp
Bit storage boxes at workdeck Vandal cover groups
Swing cab - T40KS
Cabin
2-way radio
Lap belt
Auxiliary heater
Nameplate groups for operator controls

Page 8
Section 9

DRILL STRING COMPONENTS

DRILL STRING The diameter of the pipe must be smaller than


the bit diameter to allow the cuttings to pass
Drill Pipe to the top of the hole.

A drill pipe is a steel pipe through which air is Stabilizers


passed to the bit. It has a female thread (box)
at the bottom and a male thread (pin) at the Because of the feed forces exerted on the drill
top. Machined flats at the top of the pipe are string during rotary drilling drill pipe may tend
used to hold the pipe while threads are being to bend under compression. This will cause
made. Typical DTH drilling threads are API - the drill bit to tilt slightly, placing unequal
regular and API IF - internal flushing. RH - stress on the cones of a rotary type drill bit.
right hand or Beco are most common for
Stabilizing the bit will improve performance
rotary drilling (refer to the thread tables at the
and service life by preventing misalignment of
end of this section).
the bit to the surface.

PIN THREAD
TOOL JOINT

FLAT

PIPE

DRILL PIPE STRAIGHT SPIRAL REPLACEABLE


BLADE BLADE ROLLER

STABILIZERS

A stabilizer resembles a short length of heavy


pipe. Male (pin) or female (box) thread may
be cut for either end. This tool may be hard
surfaced to resist wear.

On the outside diameter of the stabilizer,


BOX THREAD straight, spiral blades, or rollers, project to
TOOL JOINT
match the circumference of the bit. These
blades or rollers wear or roll on the sides of
Introduction to Blasthole Drilling Page 1
Section 9

the hole and keep the drill bit aligned with in


the hole.
DRILLING TOOLS
Subs
LIFTING
Subs are drill string connectors, available in a PLUG TOP SUB
variety of length, OD, and threads to suit dif-
ferent purposes. Some examples are:
DRILL PIPE
• TOP SUBS (saver sub) are connected to
the rotary head. Thread type and overall
length are factors in selecting a top sub. It
STABILIZER
is preferred for the sub thread to wear SUB
verses the rotary head API threads.
• BYPASS TOP SUB (not shown) is a spe-
cial sub used with a DTH in bad ground BIT
conditions. It allows a restricted amount of SUB
STABILIZER
air to bypass the hammer case. The
unused air will be directed upwards to
assist in hole cleaning. This is a special
order sub.
• BIT SUBS adapter subs in various lengths
and cross over subs with differing thread
configurations are used to connect rotary
bits, and DTH hammers that have API BUSHING
HAMMER
thread to drill pipes. The short sub is a
wear item and is easier to replace than a
full-length drill pipe.
• SHOCK SUBS are an after market tool, BIT
designed to absorb shock and vibration
from the drilling application. A resilient rub-
ber element(s) prevents metal to metal BIT
contact from the drill string to the rotary
head. Rotation speed, bit weight and
ground formation can cause unexpected BIT DTH
uphole vibration frequencies from the bot- BASKET
tom of the hole to a rotary head. When ROTARY
adequate down pressure cannot be main-
tained to the drill bit, or when rotation
torque is high due to ground conditions a
TONG WRENCH
shock sub will be required.
‘J” WRENCH
• LIFTING PLUGS screw onto drill string
components so that a winch may be used
to maneuver them.

PETOL WRENCH

PIPE & BIT BREAKERS

Page 2
Section 9

Carbide inserts are distributed over the three


rollers in such a manner that the entire bottom
API
REGULAR of the hole is worked on when the drill bit is
THREAD
rotated. Roller bits for hard and abrasive rock
have spherical cemented carbide inserts
closely spaced. Roller bits for softer rock may
have the chisel cemented carbide teeth or
quality milled steel teeth as the cutters.

Three types of cemented carbide inserts used


for roller type drill bits are shown.

CHISEL CONICAL HEMISHPERICAL

CEMENTED CARBIDE INSERT SHAPES


SHOCK SUB
A roller bit will utilize nozzles from which the
Drill Bits compressed air escapes to lift cuttings from
the bottom of the hole. Nozzle dimensions
ROLLER BITS need to be selected carefully with production
rates and drill string wear being the concerns.
A roller bit consists of a bit body with three Additional air passages in the bit allow air to
moveable conical rollers equipped with pass through to the bearings for cooling and
cemented carbide inserts or steel teeth. lubricating purposes.
The idea is to crush the rock by rolling the DRAG BITS
inserts against the rock with appropriate rota-
tion speed and feed force. A drag bit is used in clay or very soft material
where a roller bit will tend to clog or bind.
These bits have good flushing characteristics
SCREEN TUBE and are economical, but they are limited in
BIT LEG
size and carbide inserts are not designed for
NOZZLE hardrock material.
COOLING AIR
SHIRT TAIL CHANNEL
PROTECTION
BALL PLUG

ROLLER
BEARING

BALL BEARING

GAUGE REAR AXIAL


PROTECTION BEARING 4 - WAY 3 - WAY
THRUST TOP DRAG BITS
BUTTON CONE BEARING

Introduction to Blasthole Drilling Page 3


Section 9

CLAW BITS

A claw bit is used in soft to medium material


where the driller may encounter alternating
layers of soft clay then sand rock or hard 8
shale formations that would cause a a drag bit 1
5
to over-torque and stall. These bits have a
design which allows drilling as fast as a drag 9
bit while being as tough as a roller bit. They
feature inexpensive replaceable conical
shaped self-sharpening cutters which rotate in 10
their blocks.

Claw bits range in size from 3-1/2” to 24” in 2 6


diameter.
3

11

4
12

1. TOP SUB 7. RETAINER RING


2. DART 8. GUIDE SLEEVE
3. SPRING 9. BIT RETAINER
CLAW BIT
4. RIGID VALVE 10. DRIVER SUB
5. PISTON 11. FOOT VALVE
6. PISTON CASE 12. HAMMERBIT®

DOWN THE HOLE HAMMERS (DTH) HAMMERDRIL® XL


NOTE! High pressure compressed air is
ton diameter, the bigger the performance. It is
required.
important to keep the hammer diameter and
Hammer Selection bit diameter as close as possible, while still
maintaining enough clearance around the
There are many factors involved in selecting hammer for cuttings to pass. For example, an
the right hammer for the job. These factors XL 6 hammer should be chosen when drilling
include the size of the hammer, the hammer's a 6 1/2" hole rather than an XL 4 with a 6 1/2"
air consumption and, with the Driltech Mission bit. An oversized bit on a small hammer drops
Hammerdril® series, the correct rigid valve. hammer performance. A larger diameter ham-
mer allows a larger bit shank, better energy
Size of Hammer transfer resulting in greater strength and
lower stresses, more reliability and a lower
A hammer size should be selected as close to operating cost per foot.
the intended size of the hole drilled. The big-
ger the hammer diameter, the bigger the pis-
Page 4
Section 9

Hammer Air Consumption mer to run at the highest operating pressure


and use all of the available air.
It is best to select a hammer nearest the max-
imum operating conditions of the compressor. -BC rigid valve for low volumes of air. This
The higher the hammer operating pressure, rigid valve option can be used to increase
the better the performance. Use the following operating pressure and performance with
altitude correction chart for applications above small compressors.
4000 ft (1200 m) to assist in calculating the
proper compressor output and hammer selec- Although each rigid valve option comes with 3
tion. integral chokes (1/8", 1/4" and 3/8"), it will
always be more efficient to select the next
higher volume rigid valve rather than use
Feet Meters Correction Factor chokes to increase air consumption.
4,000 1,200 .86
5,000 1,500 .82 Recommended Lubrication
6,000 1,800 .79
7,000 2,100 .76 Correct lubrication during drilling operation is
8,000 2,400 .73
9,000 2,700 .70
extremely important. Inadequate lubrication is
10,000 3,000 .68 a major cause of hammer wear and failure.
11,000 3,400 .65
12,000 3,700 .63

900 CFM @ 5,000 Feet


Compressor Output = 900 x .82 = 738 SCFM

850 CFM @ 8,000 Feet


Compressor Output = 850 x .73 = 620 SCFM

ALTITUDE CORRECTION TABLE

Hammerdril® Rigid Valve Selection


BA BB BC
The Hammerdril series hammers can be cus-
tomized to a particular air compressor by a
simple change of the rigid valve. The descrip-
tions below provide a guide for the selection
of rigid valves.

-BA rigid valve for maximum air, maximum


flushing. The BA rigid valve should be used
with a large capacity compressor. This rigid
valve/ hammer combination requires maxi-
mum air to run efficiently. This is the rigid
valve to select if you need to efficiently pass
maximum air to flush the hole or to obtain
maximum penetration rates with low pressure,
high volume compressors. RIGID VALVES

-BB rigid valve for average air. In most


‘Rock drill’ oil is the only lubricant recom-
cases, this rigid valve is designed for the most
mended by Driltech Mission for use in the
popular size of compressor allowing the ham-
Hammerdril® XL. Use the grade of rock drill
oil that is proper for the climactic and operat-
Introduction to Blasthole Drilling Page 5
Section 9

ing conditions at the drill site. Use the chart Bit Design
below as a guide for selecting the proper
grade rock drill oil to use. Choosing a percussive bit is not a simple mat-
ter of requesting a bit with a particular shank
When using new drill pipe or pipe that has not and head diameter. Many options are avail-
previously been coated with oil, pour a quart/ able and some of these options can have a
liter of rock drill oil down the drill pipe each dramatic effect on how a bit performs. If you
time a new joint of drill pipe is added. are not sure about which particular bit is
suited for an application, Driltech Mission rec-
The recommended amount of rock drill oil for ommends testing that bit at the application
efficient operation of the hammers is shown site before commitments are made for large
below. project purchases.
An alternative method is to calculate the oil Several of the options of the bit design are:
requirements using the general rule “.15 -.25
quarts of oil per hour divided by 100 CFM". • Bit face design
• Carbide button shape and hardness grade
Example: XL 6/BA with a 3/8" choke uses
1335 SCFM. • Wing design
• Number of flushing air holes
1335 X .2 = 2.7 qts/hr
100
• Good in hard and abrasive
This method is more accurate, especially
formations
when using chokes or high/low operating • May cause hole deviation in
pressures. broken formations
• Large bits not collaring
Check oil levels each shift. Monitor the oil friendly
• Easy to sharpen buttons
delivery to the hammer by looking at oil drip-
ping from the bit after each hole is drilled.
FLAT
NOTE! When drilling with water injection, use
the next higher grade of Rock Drill oil.

The hammer will not be damaged by too • Most resistant to steel wash
much oil, but it will be damaged by not • Collars well
enough oil. • Reduces load and wear on
gauge buttons
• May need faster rotation to
run smoothly

CONVEX

• Most popular design


• Good in soft to medium hard
formations
• Often drills the straightest
holes
• More difficult to resharpen

RECOMMENDED ROCK DRILL OIL CONCAVE

BIT FACE SHAPES

Page 6
Section 9

CARBIDE BUTTON SELECTION


BUTTON
DRILLING
SHAPE & ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES AVAILABILITY
APPLICATIONS
GRADE

SPHERICAL All applications Easy to sharpen Slower than ballistic All grades and sizes
Strong and wear resis- penetration rate
tant

BALLISTIC All applications except Higher penetration rate More sensitive to Only DP55, 11-18mm
fractured formations Straighter holes breakage in broken
ground

All applications where Higher wear resistance Can develop snake- Spherical, 10-18mm
GRADE
40 40 long button life is than competitors’ stan- skinning in soft, non-
expected dard grades abrasive formations

Any application where Good wear resistance, Higher purchase price Spherical, 12-26mm
good wear resistance similar to Grade 40 than Grade 40 Ballistic, 11-18mm
55 55 and extra toughness Superior toughness
GRADE DP55 are needed Longer life

GRADE Highly abrasive forma- Good toughness, simi- More expensive than Spherical, 12-26mm
DP65 tions lar to Grade 40 Grade 50
65
Superior wear resis- Susceptible to snake
tance skinning in non-abra-
sive formations

Diamond Special applications Practically infinite wear Eventually fails from Spherical, 18-22mm
requiring exceptional resistance fatigue
wear resistance Expensive

Long Wing Length • Works well in most applications


• Preferable in most applications • Allows for good layout of face but-
• Increases bit life in unstable ground tons
(back reaming) • Normally has 8 gauge buttons; 7
gauge buttons in smaller bit sizes
Short Wing Length • More difficult to resharpen face
• May reduce steel wash on hammer TWO AIR-HOLES
• Increases risk of ‘getting stuck’ only in
solid ground formations • Preferable in soft rock conditions
Wear Protection • Reduces steel wash on bit
• Very effective when back reaming is • Improves hole cleaning
severe • May increase penetration rate
• Protects the steel holding the gauge • More difficult to measure bit diame-
buttons in place (back reaming) ter
• Only available with long wing length • Normally has 9 gauge buttons or
THREE AIR-HOLES
Fishing Thread 12 buttons in larger bit sizes
• Commonly selected when deep drilling
• Makes it possible to recover a BIT AIR-HOLES
shanked bit and save the hole
• Available for 152 mm bits & up
• Available only with long wing length

WING DESIGN

Introduction to Blasthole Drilling Page 7


Section 9

TOOL JOINT THREAD CHARTS


MATERIAL PIN DIMENSIONS BOX DIMENSIONS THREAD
O.D. MAKE O.D LENGTH DIAMETER BASE LENGTH MAX. O.D. TAPER PER IN. FORM

CHART COURTESY OF MILLS MACHINE CO., INC.

Page 8
Section 10

DRILL SPECIFICATIONS
DESCRIPTION MACHINE SPECIFIC DATA:
Driltech blasthole drills are identified by an C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Crawler mounted
alphanumeric name. Each element of which
T . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Truck mounted
provides information on the drill specifica-
tions. S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Skid mounted
Driltech machines are defined by pulldown L . . . . . . . . . . . . Low pressure compressor
pressure of which they are capable. The
H. . . . . . . . . . . . High pressure compressor
numeric part of the name relates to this. The
D40KS has a pulldown pressure capable of E . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Electric motor drive
40,000 lbs (18144 kg). Letters in the name
have the following meaning: SP. . . . . . . . Single- pass (cylinder and motor
applications)
MARKETING DESCRIPTION:
F . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Foundation Application
Example D40KS D. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Deep Hole Application
D40KS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Driltech W . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Water well
D40KS . . . . . . . . . . . .1000X numeric name X . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exploration
D40KS . . . . . . . . . . . . S series (after 1988)
The relationship between pulldown pressure
and hole diameter is shown in the table
below.
HOLE DIAMETER (mm)
Pulldown
3-3/4” 4-3/4” 5-1/2” 6” 6-3/4” 7-7/8” 9” 9-7/8” 10-5/8” 12-1/4” 15”
-Pounds- (95) (121) (140) (152) (171) (200) (230) (251) (270) (311) (381)

10,000 GATOR
25,000 D25KS
40,000 D40KS

Crawler 45,000 D245S D45KS


UP TO 7-7/8”
Mounted
Drills 50,000 D50KS
55,000 D55SP
60,000 D60KS
75,000 D75KS
90,000 D90KS
110,000 1190D&E
30,000 T35KS
Truck
Mounted 40,000 T40KS
Drills
60,000 T60KS

Introduction to Blasthole Drilling Page 1


Section 10

LUBRICANT SPECIFICATIONS decal on the receiver tank specifies other-


wise.

General NOTE!
Compressor oil change intervals will change
The classifications listed below follow S.A.E. depending on the type of oil used. The oil
J183 classifications. The MIL specifications manufacturers recommendations supersede
are USA Military Specifications. The following the recommended interval suggested in this
definitions will be of assistance in purchasing manual.
lubricants. The specific classifications for this
machine are found on the Lubricant Chart.
Hydraulic Oils (HYDO)

Engine Oils (CH) Use Engine Service Classification CC (MIL-L-


2104B), CC/SF (MIL-L-46152B), CD (MIL-L-
Only use oils that meet Engine Service Clas- 2104D) or industrial-type hydraulic oils that
sification CH (MIL-L-2104D). are certified by the oil supplier to have anti-
wear,-foam, -rust, and -oxidation additive
At the factory, this machine was filled with BP properties for heavy duty usage.
15W - 40. Consult the Caterpillar form
SEBU5939 for a listing of CH oil brands. At the time of shipment this machine was
filled with Citgo 32 AW hydraulic oil.
NOTE!
The engine oil and filter should be changed
after the first 50 hours of service on new and Multipurpose - Type Gear Lubricant (MPL)
reconditioned engines.
Use Gear Lubricant Classification GL-5 (MIL-
L-2105B) EP140. Use SHC 75 x 90 in cold
Lubricating Grease (MPGM) ambient conditions and SHC 5 x 90 in arctic
conditions.
Use only multi-purpose grease (MPGM)
which contains 3 to 5% molybdenum dis-
uphide. NLGI No, 2 Grade is suitable for most Refrigeration Oil (REF)
temperatures. Use NLGI No. 1 or No. 0 Grade
for extremely low temperatures. Use an ISO 100 refrigeration oil.

Compressor Oils (COMP)

As with any oil Do not mix different types of


oils. Contamination of synthetic oils with
traces of AFT may lead to foaming or plug-
ging of orifices.

When operating between 80 and 100°F (27


and 38°C) and with relative humidity above
80%, a synthetic hydrocarbon type fluid is rec-
ommended. Currently Shell Corena PAO oil
is used in the compressor system unless the
Page 2
Section 10

RECOMMENDED LUBRICANT VISCOSITIES


OUTSIDE °F -22 -4 +14 +32 +50 +68 +86 +104 +122
TEMPERATURE °C -30 -20 -10 0 +10 +20 +30 +40 +50

SAE 5W -20(SPC)
SAE 5W-20

ENGINE CRANKCASE SAE 10W


CH SAE 10W-30
SAE 15W-40
SAE 30
SAE 40

COMPRESSOR -40°F ISO 32


COMP ISO 46
Note oil change intervals
ISO 68

CD SAE 10W

UNDERCARRIAGE, CD SAE 30
FINAL DRIVE GEARBOX CD SAE 40W
MPL CD SAE 50W

32AW

HYDRAULIC SYSTEM 46AW


HYDO 68AW
100AW

WATER INJ. PUMP - CH SAE 30


SAE 10W-30

ROTARY HEAD, WINCH and


GL-5 EP 90
PUMP DRIVE GEARBOXES
MPL SHC 75W-90
SHC 5W-90

ISO46-100
HAMMER OIL
ISO 100-220
RDO
220-460

AUTOLUBE PUMP CH
SAE 10W

Introduction to Blasthole Drilling Page 3


Section 10

EQUIVALENT HYDRAULIC OILS

LUBRICANT ISO ISO ISO ISO


MANUFACTURER
BRAND NAME 22 32-46-68 100 150

ACCITE HIDRAULICO MH PETROLEOS MEXICANOS X X

AMOCO AW OIL AMOCO OIL CO. X

AMOCO RYDON OIL MV AMOCO OIL CO. X X

ANTECH EXXON/ESSO X

ASHLAND VG ASHLAND OIL CO. 32

BARTRAN HV BP OIL CO. 46 & 68

BRESLUBE VG BRESLUBE LTD.-CANADA X X

CANADIAN OIL MOXY T OIL CANADA X X X

CANVIS AW BP OIL CO. X X

CHAMPION SUPER GRADE LOWE OIL X

CHEVRON AW CHEVRON X

CITGO AW CITGO X X X

D-A WEAR GUARD II VG D-A LUBRICANT CO.-USA X

DECOL ANTI-WEAR SHELL CANADA X X X

DTE 24-25-26 MOBIL OIL CORP. X

DURO AW ARCO X X

EAL SYNDRAULIC MOBIL OIL CO. X

ELF OLNA DS ELF/ANTAR X

ENERGOL HLP-HD SERIES BP OIL CO. X X

EPPCO UNIVIVERSAL GP EPPERT OIL CO. X

GULF HARMONY AW GULF R&D X

GULF SYNFLUID SL H__AW GULF USA X

HIDRALUB EP MARAVAN S.A. X X

HARMONY AW GULF CANADA LTD. X X

HYDRAFLOW PETRO CANADA X X X

HYDRALUBE AW LUSCON IND. X X

HYDRELF DS ELF 46 & 68

HYSPIN AWS-AD CASTROL INC. X

HYTAC DISTAC LUBRICANTS X X

KENOIL R&O AW KENDALL REFINING CO. X X

LUSCON HD LUSCON IND. X X

MARATHON MULTI. VG MARATHON PETROLEUM X X

MOBIL HYD. OIL NZ MOBIL OIL CO. X

MOBIL HYD. OIL ZF MOBIL OIL CO. X

MYSTIK AW/AL CATO OIL & GREASE CO. X X

NERVOL FLUID SH2 NERVOL X X X

Page 4
Section 10

LUBRICANT ISO ISO ISO ISO


MANUFACTURER
BRAND NAME 22 32-46-68 100 150

NUTO-H EXXON/ESSO X X X

NUTO-HP EXXON/ESSO 32 & 46

NUTO-H PLUS EXXON/ESSO X

NYCO HYD. OIL NYCO LUBRICANT CORP. X X

ORLY AGENA ORLY INTERNATIONAL X

ORLY GALA ORLY INTERNATIONAL X

ORLY HYDRO ORLY INTERNATIONAL X

PACER POWER V PACER LUBRICANT INC. X X X

PARADENE ANTI-WEAR AW DRYDEN OIL CO. - USA X X X

PEAK HYDRA AW SERIES PEAK OIL CO. 46 & 68 X

PEN PREMIUM EP PENTAGON CORP. 32 & 68 X

PENNZBELL AW PENNZOIL PROD. CO. X X

PENNZOIL AW PENNZOIL PROD. CO. X X X

PENNZOIL AWX PENNZOIL PROD. CO. X X

RANDO OIL HD TEXACO INC. - USA X X

ROL ANTELITTERAM HVI ROL RAFFINERIA X

ROYAL AW EPPERT OIL CO. X

ROYAL PREMIUM VG EPPERT OIL CO. X

RYKON OIL AMOCO OIL CO. X

SELCO SF 330 SELCO X X X

SHARLU HYDROFLUIDS AW SHARJAH NATIONAL LUBE OIL X


CO. LTD.

SHOSEKI W-R SHOWA OIL LTD.-JAPAN X 32, 46 & 56

STAR PREMIUM VG EPPERT OIL CO. X

SUNVIS 8__ WR SUNCOR or SUNTECK X X X

SUPER BLUE HYD. OIL AUTOLINE OIL CO. X X X

SUPER HYD. OIL VG CONOCO X X

TELLUS SHELL CANADA LTD. X X X

TELLUS SHELL CO. - USA X X

TERRAPIN IND. OIL AUTOLINE OIL CO. X X X

TOTAL AZOLI A ZS J.W.LANE 46 & 68 X

TRC HYD. OILS VG TEXACO REFINERY X

UNION UNAX AW VG UNION OIL - USA 32 & 46 X X

UNIVIS N EXXON/ESSO X X

UNIVIS N PLUS EXXON/ESSO X X

UNIVIS SHP EXXON/ESSO 32 & 46

YUKONG SUPERVIS YUKONG LTD. X

(Page 2 of 2)

Introduction to Blasthole Drilling Page 5


Section 10

MINIMUM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS FOR HYDRAULIC OILS

The following are typical properties of hydraulic oils for use in severe duty applications of axial
piston and vane pumps. Any oil which meets these or similar properties or which is listed in the
approved list of Equivalent Hydraulic Oils may be used.

32 46 68 100
ISO VISCOSITY GRADE
(32AW) (46AW) (68AW) (100AW)

ASTM Viscosity Grade No.


(Saybolt) 150 215 315 465

Gravity: API 31.1 30.3 29.5 28.9

Viscosity, Kinematic: cSt


104°F (40.0°C) 30.04 42.70 62.9 96
212°F (100.0°C) 5.26 6.57 8.43 11.03

Viscosity, SSU
100°F (37.8°C) 155 220 325 500
210°F (98.9°C) 43.9 48.2 54.6 64

Viscosity Index,
ASTM D 2270 106 105 104 99

Interfacial Tension,
D 971
77°F:dyn/cm 31 31 31 32

Flash, P-M: °F (°C) 400 (205) 405 (208) 450 (233) 465 (241)

Flash, OC: °F (°C) 425 (219) 430 (222) 470 (244) 490 (255)

Fire, OC: °F (°C) 455 (235) 470 (244) 500 (260) 545 (285)

Pour: °F (°C) -25 (-32) -25 (-32) -20 (-29) +5 (+15)

Color, ASTM D 1500 L0.5 L0.5 L1.0 L1.5

Carbon Residue,
Ramsbottom: % 0.30 0.30 0.36 0.37

Rust Preventive Test,


ASTM D 665
Procedure A, 24 hr Passes Passes Passes Passes
Procedure B, 24 hr Passes Passes Passes Passes

Neutralization No.
ASTM D 974
Total Acid No. 0.68 0.68 0.68 0.68

Oxidation Test, ASTM D 943


Time Oxidized
Hr. to 2.0 Acid No. 2000+ 2000+ 2000+ 1500+

Emulsion, FTMS 791 3201,


180°F
Dist. Water: Minutes 40-40-0 (3) 40-40-0 (3) 40-40-0 (4) 40-40-0 (6)

Aniline Point, ASTM


D 611: °F (°C) 217 (103) 220 (105) 228 (109) 234 (113)

Page 6
Section 10

AIR COMPRESSOR LUBRICANT RECOMMENDATIONS

Driltech encourages the user to participate in an oil analysis program with the oil supplier. This
could result in an oil change interval differing from what is stated in these tables.

NOTE!
Mixing synthetic oils with an ATF may lead to operational problems, foaming, or plugging of ori-
fices. Do not mix different types of fluids.

AMBIENT CHANGE LUBRICANT


ISO
TEMPERATURE INTERVAL DESCRIPTION

-40°F to +95°F (-40°C to +35°C) 1000 Hours 32 Mobil SHC-624, 924 & 1024

-40°F to +95°F (-40°C to +35°C) 1000 Hours 32 Mobil Rarus 424

-40°F to +100°F (-40°C to +38°C) 1000 Hours 32 Chevron HiPerSYN

-40°F to +100°F (-40°C to +38°C) 1000 Hours 32 Chevron Tegra Synthetic

-40°F to +100°F (-40°C to +38°C) 1000 Hours 32 Shell Corena PAO

-40°F to +100°F (-40°C to +38°C) 1000 Hours 32 Royco 432

-40°F to +100°F (-40°C to +38°C) 1000 Hours 32 Conoco Syncon R&O

-40°F to +100°F (-40°C to +38°C) 1000 Hours 32 Texaco Cetus PAO

-40°F to +100°F (-40°C to +38°C) 1000 Hours 32 Valvoline Syn Guard CP

-40°F to +100°F (-40°C to +38°C) 1000 Hours 32 Petro-Canada Super SCF32

+30°F to +100°F (-1°C to +38°C) 1000 Hours 46 Chevron HiPerSYN

+30°F to +100°F (-1°C to +38°C) 1000 Hours 46 Citgo CompressorGuard

+30°F to +100°F (-1°C to +38°C) 1000 Hours 46 Conoco Syncon R&O

+30°F to +100°F (-1°C to +38°C) 1000 Hours 46 Mobil Rarus 425

+30°F to +100°F (-1°C to +38°C) 1000 Hours 46 Petro-Canada Super SCF46

+30°F to +100°F (-1°C to +38°C) 1000 Hours 46 Royco 446

+30°F to +100°F (-1°C to +38°C) 1000 Hours 46 Texaco Cetus PAO

+30°F to +100°F (-1°C to +38°C) 1000 Hours 46 Valvoline Syn Guard CP

+80°F to +120°F (+27°C to +49°C) 1000 Hours 68 Conoco Syncon R&O

+80°F to +120°F (+27°C to +49°C) 1000 Hours 68 Mobil SHC-626, 926 & 1026

Low and High Pressure Compressors

When operating between +80 and 100°F (+27 and 38°C) with a relative humidity above 80%,
synthetic hydrocarbon type fluid Mobil SHC or equivalent as recommended above should be
used.

All lubricant recommendations are based on 1200 rpm maximum WARM-UP speed.

Introduction to Blasthole Drilling Page 7


Section 10

Page 8
Section 11

GLOSSARY OF TERMS

Air Swivel Box Thread


The joint between the fixed air pipe from the compres- The female side of API, IF, Beco or RH thread.
sor and the rotating drill head.
Carbide Bit
Annulus A steel bit which contains inserts of tungsten carbide.
The clearance in the drill hole between the drill pipe
and the walls of the hole. Carousel
The rotating components of a loader.
API
American Petroleum Institute. Centralizer
A device to assist in alignment of drill steel in the mast.
Auxiliary Pump Drive Primarily used for angle drilling applications or single
The gearbox second in line from the engine. It transfers pass machines.
drive to pumps for feed and rotation, cooling fan, and
machine accessories such as water injection. Choke
An adjustable restrictor for a DTH that sets the division
Balling Air of air flows between the hammer mechanism and the
Is compressed air, which has passed down inside the bailing air.
drill string to lift drill cuttings to the surface.
Collaring
Bit Starting a drill hole. When the hole is deep and solid
The part of a drill which cuts the rock or soil. enough to hold the bit from moving about, it is said to
be collared.
• Carbide
A bit having inserts of tungsten carbide.
Deck Bushing
• Coring See Table Bushing.
A bit that grinds the outside ring of the hole, leaving an
inner core intact for sampling. Deck Wrench
• Roller See Holding Wrench.
A drill bit consisting of a pin shank, pin shoulder, bit leg
including shirttail, three separate cones with cutter Diamond Drill
teeth, nozzles, and a stamped description. A light rotary drill, most often used for exploratory work.
The three cones with rotating cutters roll as the bit is
rotated. Drill Bit
One of a number of different types of detachable cut-
Bit Break-Out ting tools used to cut a circular hole in rock, wood,
See Bit Wrench. metal, etc.

Bit Wrench Drill


A plate used to hold a drill bit while it is being joined to Blast Hole
or removed from other drill string components. A machine capable of drilling holes 4 inches or more in
diameter to a depth of 100 or more feet.
Blast Hole Percussion
A vertical drill hole 4 or more inches in diameter, used A pneumatic or hydraulic powered device used to
for a charge of explosives. break rock.

Box Drill Collar


The female end of a drill pipe. Thick walled drill pipe used immediately above a rotary
bit to provide extra weight on top of the drill bit

Introduction to Blasthole Drilling Page 1


Section 11

Drill Pipe ‘J’ Wrench


The sections of a rotary drilling string used to advance A stilson type wrench used to loosen tight drill pipe
the drill bit or DTH into the ground. joints. This tool is manually placed.

Drill Steel Kelly


Hollow steel connecting a percussion drill with the bit. A stationary rotary table turns a square and/or round
May be referred to as drill rods pipe with flutes and kelley drive pins. The kelley is free
to move up and down through the rotary table.
Drill String
All rotating components connected together between Lift Plug
the rotary head and drill bit. Lifting plugs are used to handle heavy equipment such
as hammers, stabilizers, and subs. Lifting plugs are
Drilling manufactured with box or pin type connections.
Rock drilling is used in many applications and is carried
out in many different ways. Within such a wide sphere Loader
of activity, an extensive range of equipment has been A rotating rack designed to hold drill pipes, positioned
developed and many special expressions and terms inside or outside the mast.
have come into use.
Main Pump Drive
Bench Drilling The pump drive gearbox first in line from the engine. It
Is drilling of blast holes for bench blasting, which is the normally drives the propel pumps plus sometimes the
simplest form of blasting. Characteristic for a bench is feed and rotation pumps.
that it has a free surface at the front towards which the
rock is blasted. Bench drilling can be carried out both Mud
over and under ground and drilling can be directed Additives to water for making a drilling fluid to improve
upwards, downwards or horizontally. performance in hole cutting, hole cleaning, hole stabil-
ity and productivity.
Down-The-Hole-Hammer (DTH) Trade names: Bentonite, Slurry, and Grout.
Pneumatic powered rock drill. A chuck driver, drill bit,
retaining rings and a foot valve for this type of rock tool Multi Pass Drilling
make a very efficient drilling method. Drilling to such depth as requires the use of more than
one drill pipe.
Feed Cylinders
Hydraulic cylinder(s) used to feed and retract the drill Pin
string by means of a chain and sprocket or cable and The male end of a drill pipe.
sheave arrangement.
Pin Thread
Flushing Medium The male side of API, IF, Beco and RH tapered thread.
Water, mud, air or foam used to flush drilled-out mate-
rial out of the hole. Pipe Support
Mechanisms to support drill pipe in the mast during
Holding Wrench pipe changing operations when angle drilling.
A wrench tool fixed to the drill platform and used to
hold drill pipe and subs to prevent them from turning Power Tong
when making and breaking joints. The hydraulic tool fixed at the bottom of a drill mast,
used to clamp and turn tight drill string components.
Jacks
A three-piece assembly used to support a blast hole Power Wrench
drill. A typical blast hole machine has three leveling See Power Tong.
jacks. Optional fourth jack available for unstable
ground conditions. Four leveling jacks are standard on
Propel Gearbox
Water well and D90KS machines.
See Main Pump Drive

Page 2
Section 11

Propelling Sub
The act of driving a crawler mounted drill in either
• Bit Subs
direction. Also may be referred to as tramming.
Used to connect bits, which have an API thread, to the
drill pipes, which may have API, IF, RH, Beco threads.
Pulldown
The force used to press the drill string and bit against • Bypass Top Sub
the bottom of the hole. It is controlled by the hydraulic Is an option sub and will bypass compressed air from a
pressure in the feed cylinders (up to the relief valve set- DTH. Used when bad ground conditions warrant extra
ting), and is related to the overall weight of the drill rig. flushing.
The pressure at the bit will be the sum of the pulldown • Saver Subs
force plus the force exerted by the weight of the drill Connectors between drill pipes, drill bits and the rotary
string. The term is also used to specify the pulldown head that save the thread of these components from
force, which is available from a particular drill. A D90KS the effects of constant use.
can produce 90,000-lbs. pulldown.
• Shock Subs
Pulldown Cylinders Tools that absorb shock and vibration with a resilient
See Feed Cylinders. rubber element, preventing metal to metal contact in
the drill string.
Receiver • Top Sub
The air tank or reservoir in a compressor system. A saver sub used on the rotary head.

Rotary Head Swivel Head


The hydraulically driven gearbox that turns the drill Allows compressed air to be delivered to a drill bit on a
string. diamond drill, reverse circulation, and kelly drive sys-
tem.
Rotary Table
The part of a rotary drill which turns a square or round Table Bushing
kelly bar. A replaceable bushing located in the mast table. A
fixed bushing for vertical drilling and a bearing type for
Round Trip angle drilling. This bushing centralizes the drill pipes as
The process of pulling the drill string from a borehole, they passing through it.
performing an operation on the string (such as chang-
ing bit, emptying core barrel, etc.) and then returning Thread Protectors
the drill string into the borehole. Threaded covers which prevent damage and contami-
nation of the threads on drill string components.
Single Pass Drilling
Drilling which is completed using only one drill pipe. Tooling
Tools used to make and break drill string joints, e.g.
Stabilizers auto tong, holding wrench.
A device to assist centering the bit in the hole, prevent-
ing hole deviation and providing equal weight distribu- Top Hammer
tion to each rotary cone. It is normally placed A rock drill which works on a feed slide. As the top
immediately behind the bit. Several stabilizers may be hammer cannot enter into the hole, the distance
used in a long drill string. between it and the drill bit increase, as the hole
becomes deeper.
Stacker Valves
This is a slang term for hydraulic spool valves. One Torque
inlet section, three sections up to eight sections and an A hydraulic motor and planetary reduction gears
outlet section may be used. The inlet section will have mounted on a rotary head develop rotary torque. The
a relief valve for circuit protection. torque is specified in inch-pounds.

Stroke Travelling Carrier


Total rotary head travel. Is a support for the feed and hoist chains. Sprockets
slide up and down by the feed (pulldown) cylinder(s)
motion.

Introduction to Blasthole Drilling Page 3


Section 11

UHV Up-Hole Velocity


The upward speed of the bailing air in the annulus of
the drill hole.
Refer to air water velocity charts.

Water Injection
Addition of a small quantity of water to the bailing air in
order to suppress dust.

Work Deck
A deck at the base of the mast which gives access to
components in the drilling area.

Page 4