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Licensed copy: nottinghamtrent, Nottingham Trent University, 29/03/2012, Uncontrolled Copy, © Concrete Soci

CONCRETE ADVICE No. 42

(November 2010)

Holding down bolt design to Eurocode 2

Deryk Simpson BSc CEng MICE FCS

This document provides guidance on the design of holding down bolts for attaching steel or precast concrete stanchions to reinforced or un-reinforced concrete foundations, using Eurocode 2 (1) . Concrete Advice sheet 5 covers the design of holding down bolts to BS 8110-1 (3) . Design approaches are given for resisting the uplift on the bolts and for the allowable bearing pressure underneath the stanchion base plate. This document only covers bolts in tension or compression and does not cover bolts in shear. A method for the design of dowels in shear is included in Concrete Society Technical Report No 34 (4). Proprietary fixings are not included in this document. The manufacture’s technical literature should be consulted for the load capacity of proprietary fixings.

1 Uplift bolts in tension

There are two possible ways of checking bolts in uplift. The first is applicable to single bolts and pairs of bolts, which are effectively fully bonded over their full embedded length and have small or no anchor plates. The second method is applicable if the bolts are not effectively bonded over the embedded length but rely on an individual anchor plate for embedment, or when a group of bolts is fastened to a relatively large stiff anchor plate embedded in the concrete.

Method

1

Effectively

fully bonded

bolts

foundation around each bolt. The depth of the cone is to be taken as the full depth of the bolt for post-fixed bolts and to the top of the bolt anchor plate for cast-in bolts. The uplift loads used in these calculations is to be the relevant factored design actions not the characteristic actions.

Cone shear stress = Design uplift load ÷ Surface area of cone or cones

Note: Section 4 includes a method for calculating the surface area of non- intersecting cones and tabulated values for the combined areas of pairs of intersecting cones for different depths and spacings of pairs of bolts.

The actual shear stress on the area of the

Check shear stress

cones

should

be

compared

to

the

The following procedure can be used to

allowable

shear

stress

obtained

from

check the depth and number of bolts in

Equation

6.47

in

Eurocode

2.

In

tension, for fully bonded cast in bolts and

unreinforced

or

nominally

reinforced

post-drilled and fully grouted bolts. This

sections

the

ρ 1

term

is

zero

so

the

method assumes the tension in the bolts is resisted by shear stress on the surface area of 90° cones of concrete within the

allowable (v min + k 1 σ cp ).

shear

stress

becomes

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CONCRETE ADVICE NO. 42

In most foundations the horizontal stresses will be

low, thus the allowable shear stress becomes equal to

v min .

If the cone shear stress exceeds the allowable shear

stress then the bolts will need to be deeper and/or more bolts provided.

Check bond stress: Cast-in bolts

If the shear stress is less than the relevant allowable shear stress the bond anchorage of the individual bolts should be checked. The method for calculating the anchorage bond stress around a reinforcement bar in Section 8.4 of Eurocode 2 should be used. However Eurocode 2 only covers the anchorage of ribbed bars; the anchorage of plain bars is not

covered. If the embedded section of the bolt is threaded full length or consists of a length of ribbed reinforcement, the allowable bond strengths in Eurocode 2 are appropriate. If the embedded length of the bolt is a non-ribbed plain bar then the calculations in Eurocode 2 are theoretically not applicable. Engineering judgement will be needed if the embedded bolts are of plain round bars. There are two possible alternatives. The method in Eurocode 2 could be used, but with the bond strengths reduced to 55%. (This 55% relationship is based upon Table 3.26

in BS 8110-1). Alternatively the bond calculations for

plain bars in BS 8110-1 could be used.

If the actual bond stress exceeds the allowable bond

stress the bolts will need to be deeper and/or more bolts provided.

Check bond stress: Post-grouted bolts

In the cases where bolts are grouted into drilled holes

it may be prudent to check two anchorage bonds:

On the grout/bolt interface: The calculation will be as

for cast-in bolts, except that a value of allowable bond stress will need to be determined for the grout material, based upon the grout characteristic strength

or the manufacturers’ technical information.

On the grout/drilled hole interface: The calculation will be similar to that for cast-in bolts except that the effective diameter will be the hole diameter and the allowable bond stress will be the lesser of that for the foundation concrete or the grout. An assessment of the bond characteristics of the perimeter of the drilled hole will need to be made. This will depend on the roughness of the inside of the hole. For a ‘rough’ hole (e.g. produced by percussive drilling) the bond stress appropriate for deformed bars could be assumed. For

a ‘smooth’ hole (e.g. produced by diamond drilling) the bond stress values appropriate to plain bars should be used. If there is any doubt about the potential roughness of the hole assume a ‘smooth’

hole for bond calculations purposes.

In all cases if bond stress exceeds the allowable bond stress it will be necessary to deepen and/or increase the number of bolts.

Method 2 - Anchor plate pull out

This method assumes that the anchor plate embedded in the concrete tries to pull out of the concrete by a punching shear failure. The anchor plate effectively becomes the loaded area for punching shear design, which is undertaken in accordance with Section 6.4 in Eurocode 2, with the section depth h shown in Figure 6.12 being taken as the depth of embedment to the top of the anchor plate. The anchor plate must be stiff enough so that the uplift forces in the bolt(s) produce an even distribution of compressive stress on the top face of the plate. The majority of stanchion holding down bolts will fall into this category, because in practice the grouting up of the bolt cones around the bolts cannot be assumed to be fully effective in transferring shear from the bolt into the surrounding concrete.

Design procedure Check the shear stress around the perimeter of the anchor plate. If the shear stress exceeds the allowable value it will be necessary to increase the size of the anchor plate. The plate may require stiffening if increased in size.

Then check the shear stress on the first critical perimeter. If the shear stress exceeds the allowable value there are a number of options available:

Lengthen the bolts, thus setting the anchor plate deeper into the concrete.

Increase the size of the anchor plate. The plate may require stiffening if increased in size.

Increase the amount of top reinforcement to increase the allowable shear stress.

Provide punching shear reinforcement. This would be regarded as a last resort due to the practical difficulties and cost of installing shear links in foundations. In this instance the shear would have to be checked on the next punching shear perimeter, and if necessary subsequent shear perimeters.

Overall design

The bolts themselves should also be checked for direct tension stresses. Also the foundations should be designed to resist the uplift.

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CONCRETE ADVICE NO. 42

2 Base plate sizing – Compression

The following procedures will give the absolute minimum stanchion base plate size and applies to pin jointed bases only. This procedure assumes the base plate has adequate stiffness to give a uniform distribution of compressive stress. For stanchion bases required to resist overturning moments refer to the relevant codes of practice and design guides for the design of the base plate size.

Use factored design loads not characteristic loads.

Base plate area = Maximum design compressive load ÷÷÷÷ Allowable ultimate bearing stress

Two cases should be considered and the maximum area used.

Infill material to concrete foundation interface Use the design method in Section 6.7 of Eurocode 2. The dimension h in Figure 6.29 will normally be the depth of the foundation. The f cd value in Equation 6.63 will be that for the foundation concrete. For axially loaded symmetrical bases A c1 in Figure 6.29 may be the plan area of the base.

Base plate to grout/infill material interface Use the design method in Section 6.7 of Eurocode 2, taking the ratio A c1 /A c0 in Equation 6.63 as 1.0. The f cd value in Equation 6.63 will be that for the grout/infill material. Table 1 lists typical values for the characteristic strength of grout/infill materials.

Table 1: Typical values for grout/infill material characteristic cube strengths

Material

Characteristic

cube strength

(N/mm²)

Characteristic cylinder strength (N/mm )

2

Cement

12

– 15

10

-12

grout

   

Sanded

15

– 20

12

- 16

grout

   

Mortar

20

– 25

16

- 20

Fine

Use

28

day

Use

 

28

day

concrete

cube strength

cylinder strength

Proprietary

Refer to manufactures literature

 

grouts

 

Notes The design bearing stresses can be used as the maximum values for the design of base plates that are subject to an overturning movement or non-uniform stress distribution.

The procedures given above assume a uniform distribution of stress below the base plate, i.e. that the base plate is stiff. If the stress is not uniform, i.e. a flexible base plate, different procedures will be needed to size the base plate.

Proprietary grouts: In practice proprietary grouts are likely to be used. The compressive strength given in the manufacturer’s literature should be used for design. If no cylinder strength is quoted in the literature the appropriate cylinder strength can be obtained from the cube to cylinder strength relationships indicated in Table 3.1 of Eurocode 2.

Fine concrete: Designed concrete with a small aggregate to suit the intended thickness of the infill.

The other materials defined in Table 1 are as follows (the proportions and strengths are taken from Reference 5);

Grout: Mixture of cement (usually Portland cement) to water in proportion of about 2:1 by weight.

Sanded

grout:

Mixture

of

cement,

sand

and

water

in

approximately

equal

proportions

by

weight.

Mortar: Mixture of cement, sand and water in proportions of about 1:3:0.4 by weight.

3 Surface area of cones around embedded bolts

Single bolts The surface area (AS) of a 90° cone around a single bolt of embedded depth D is:

AS = 4.443 × D 2

Note: This equation cannot be used if bolts are closer together than 2D or closer to the edge of a foundation than 1.5D.

Pairs of bolts D = embedded depth of the bolts X = horizontal distance between the bolt centres AD = combined surface area of the two 90° cones around the bolts.

If X is greater than 2D, AD = 8.886 D 2 If X is less than 2D the cones overlap. The values for AD are listed in Table 2, which is based on information in Reference 5).

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CONCRETE ADVICE NO. 39

Table 2: Effective conical areas for overlapping cones.

   

X (mm)

 

D

100

150

200

300

450

600

750

1000

(mm)

 

EFFECTIVE CONICAL AREA OF TWO CONES ( ×10 3 mm 2 )

 

100

71.5

82.5

88.9

88.9

88.9

88.9

88.9

88.9

150

141.6

160.8

178.0

199.9

199.9

199.9

199.9

199.9

200

233.7

260.5

28.59

329.8

355.4

355.4

355.4

355.4

300

484.3

525.8

566.4

643.4

742.0

799.7

799.7

799.7

450

1027

1090

1152

1274

1448

1602

1728

1799

600

1769

1853

1937

2103

2345

2574

2784

3072

750

2711

2817

2922

3131

3439

3737

4021

4451

1000

4726

4867

5008

5288

5705

6114

6513

7149

REFERENCES

1. BS EN 1992-1-1: 2004 Eurocode 2: Design of concrete structures – Part 1-1: General rules and rules for buildings

2. Holding down bolts, suggested design procedures using BS 8110-1, Concrete Advice Sheet 5, Concrete Society 2009

3. BS 8110-1: 1997 Structural use of concrete, Part 1: Code of practice for design and construction,

4. Concrete industrial ground floors – A guide to design and construction, Concrete Society Technical Report No. 34, Third Edition, 2003

5. Holding down systems for steel stanchions, Concrete Society, Cement and Concrete Association and CONSTRADO, 1980

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Issued November 2010

CONCRETE Advice Sheets are produced and published by The Concrete Society. The information and advice contained in the Advice Sheets is based on the experience and knowledge of the Concrete Society’s Technical Staff. Although The Society does its best to ensure that any advice, recommendation or information it gives is accurate, no liability or responsibility of any kind (including liability for negligence), howsoever and from whatsoever cause arising, is accepted in this respect by The Concrete Society, its servants or agents. Readers should also note that all Concrete Society publications are subject to revision from time to time and should therefore ensure that they are in possession of the latest version.

are subject to revision from time to time and should therefore ensure that they are in