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Group 14 : Alawy Q (1401009), Bagus S.P (1601195), Aurelius A. (1401021),
Florianus A. (1601141), Jivon P.K (1501214), Claudia N.P (1601195)

ABSTRACT critical rate, while parameters such

Estimation of critical oil rate for as oil viscosity and gas density had
simultaneous water and gas coning an inverse influence on critical rate.
in horizontal wells is vital in defining Petroleum reservoirs in some cases
the profitability of reservoirs have a gas cap and / or an aquifer.
experiencing such scenario. The In such situation, they are often
ability to predict the critical oil rate at subjected to gas and/or water
which water and gas will break in movement towards the well. Usually,
simultaneously in oil reservoirs is as oil production begins, the
most critical in oil rim reservoirs. The interface between the fluids, that is,
determination of this rate would gas - oil - contact (GOC) or water-
assist in planning better exploitative oil-contact (WOC) deforms from its
strategies. This study presents a initial plane shape to a cone or a
modification of an existing model to crest. When a field is developed with
account for critical oil rate for the vertical wells, the shape of the
simultaneous water and gas coning. deformation is called a cone, but
The model also determines the when a field is developed with
optimum point to place the horizontal wells, the deformation is
horizontal well that will maximize better described as a crest. Coning
pre-breakthrough cumulative is the term used to describe the
recovery. The main attraction of this mechanism underlying the upward
model is its simplicity while at the movement of water and / or the
same time competing favourably downward movement of gas into the
with other similar correlations. perforations of a producing well.
Sensitivity analysis performed The application of horizontal well
revealed that parameters such as technology in developing
horizontal well length, oil column hydrocarbon reservoir has been
thickness, anisotropy, and water widely used in recent years. A major
density had a direct influence on objective of using this technology is
to improve hydrocarbon recovery simultaneous water and gas coning
from water and / or gas - cap drive in a vertical well. This correlation will
reservoirs. be modified by this study for
applications in horizontal wells.
Joshi (1988) used the derived
Recommendable efforts have been
expression by Meyer and Garder to
made over the years by several
derive critical rate of horizontal wells
authors to develop correlations for
using an effective wellbore radius
estimating critical rate and
concept, and concluded that for
breakthrough time in vertical wells
any situation, the critical rate for
and horizontal wells in recent times.
horizontal well is higher than that
Muskat and Wyckot (1935)
for vertical well. Papatzacos, et al
published the first work on this
(1989) developed a semi analytical
subject. They determined critical
solution for estimating break-
coning rate analytically by solving
through time and optimal horizontal
Laplace equation for single-phase
wellbore placement for
flow for a partially penetrated well.
simultaneous water and gas coning
Meyer and Garder (1954)
situation in an anisotropic, infinite
suggested that coning development
reservoir with a horizontal well
is a result of the radial flow of the
placed in the oil column. Obah and
oil and associated pressure sink
Chukwu (2000) developed a
around the wellbore. In their
generalized coning model by
derivations, they assumed a
empirical correlation of field data.
homogeneous system with a
Their model has been found to
uniform permeability throughout the
predict fairly well in the Niger Delta
reservoir, i.e., kh = kv .They
where most reservoirs are
developed separate correlations for
characterized by thin oil column
determining the critical oil flow rate
overlain by large gas cap and
in a vertical well. Pirson (1977)
bottom water. The authors
combined the Meyer and Garder
correlated parameters such as well
(1954) correlations for water coning
penetration, drawdown, vertical and
and gas coning to produce a
horizontal permeability ratio, gas oil
simplified expression for
ratio (GOR), basic sediments and
determining the critical oil rate for
water (BS&W), and hydrocarbon
contact. By multiple regression reservoirs are sandwiched
analyses, the corresponding between an aquifer and a gas cap
coefficients for the selected gas calls for a correlation to
parameters were generalized for determine critical oil rate for
simultaneous water and gas coning simultaneous water and gas coning
in a vertical well. Okwanake and in a horizontal well.
Isehunwa (2008) in their work
used conformal mapping to Development of the working
combine steady-state flow, equations

volumetric voidage and pressure Basic assumptions

drop due to gravity effect in The following assumptions were

horizontal well to obtain models
- Steady State flow condition.
that predicts critical rates and
- Homogeneous and isotropic
breakthrough time. They observed reservoir.
that critical rate in horizontal wells
- Sharp interface exist between gas-
are affected directly by effective oil and oil-water interfaces
permeability, well length, oil - The thickness of the horizontal well
is neglected.
column thickness, etc. They
concluded that their correlation can - Horizontal well is perforated in the
entire length in the oil zone.
be applied in both horizontal and
The original conditions of reservoir
vertical wells. Onwukwe (2011) fluids exists as shown schematically
developed a semi-analytical model in Fig. 1 below, water underlying oil
and gas overlying oil. It is assumed
by applying the principle of nodal that the well is partially penetrating
analysis. He combined Joshi (1988) the formation so that the production
interval is halfway between the fluid
two models and estimated the contacts.
critical production rate and optimum
horizontal well placement for
reservoirs with thin oil zones
sandwiched between gas cap and
bottom water. Most of these
correlations for horizontal wells are
developed for critical rate in oil - Meyer and Garder (1954) proposed
water system and gas - oil system the following expressions for
estimating oil critical rate in an oil-
respectively. The fact that most oil
gas system and water-gas system radius (r’w) in equation (3) as also
in a vertical well as follows: derived by Joshi:
For oil-gas system:

For optimum well placement of Dt

from GOC, hp = 0, since the well is
Pirson (1977) combined equations horizontal (Fig.2). Therefore the
(1) and (2) to obtain an expression final expression for stand-off (critical)
for simultaneous critical rate for and rate for simultaneous water and gas
gas coning in a vertical well to obtain coning in a horizontal well is given
the as (8) below:


For optimum well placement, Pirson

(1977) also derived an equation for
the estimation of Dt from GOC (See
fig. 1) to the top of the perforation as

For optimum well placement:

The above Pirson’s equations (3)

and (4) were modified to suit a
horizontal well by incorporating
equations (5) and (6) Vertical well
drainage radius (re ) was
substituted with horizontal well
drainage radius (reh) in equation (3)
Anisotropy effects
as derived by Joshi:

For a reservoir with different

horizontal and vertical permeability,
the diffusivity equation can be
written as:
Vertical well effective wellbore
radius (rw) was replaced with
horizontal well effective wellbore
well perforated hp = 15 ft
Where wellbore radius rw = 0.25 ft
drainage radius re = 660 ft
oil effective ko = 93.5 md
horizontal and kh, kv = 110 md
And effective horizontal reservoir permeability
permeability is defined by Joshi oil relative kro = 0.85
(1991) as:
Meyer and Garder propose the
following expression for determining
the oil critical flow rate in a gas-oil
system :
Thus the influence of reservoir
anisotropy can be accounted for by
modifying the oil column thickness
Meyer and Garder propose a similar
expression for determining the
critical oil rate in the water coning

Based on available data, that we

used to calculated the value of For this combined gas and water
Critical Oil Rate (Qoc) in coning, Pirson (1977) combined
Simultaneous Gas and Water Equations in picture 1 and picture 2
coning, we used Meyer – Garder to produce the following simplified
Correlation in Simultaneous Gas expression for determining the
and Water Coning. maximum oil-flow rate without gas
and water coning :
The following data that we used are :
oil density ro = 47.5 lb/ft3
water density rw = 63.76
gas density rg = 5.1 lb/ft3
oil viscosity mo = 0.73 cp
Apply Equation above to solve for
oil FVF Bo = 1.1
bbl/STB the simultaneous gas and water-
oil column h = 65 ft coning problem, to give:
thickness Qoc = 0.246 x 10-4 (93.5/(0.73x1.1)
depth from Dt = 25 ft ((652 – 152) / ln(660/0.25)) x ((63.76
GOC to top of – 47.5) ((47.5 – 5.1) / (63.76- 5.1))2
perforations + (47.5 – 5.1) (1-((47.5 – 5.1) /
(63.76 – 5.1))2
Qoc = 17.027 STB/day
The critical oil rate (Qoc) using Based on the result of this paper, we
Meyer-Garder correlation is 17.027 calculate the value of critical oil rate
STB/day. (Qoc) in Simultaneous Gas & Water
Then, the oil rate we put in Eclipse Coning from Meyer-Garder method
2010 with the data that we used. and we obtained 17.027 STB/day.
After that, we obtained that : So, the maximum oil rate that can be
produced with doesn't happen water
and gas coning is 17.027 STB/day.

1. Ahmed, Tarek, 2000,
“Reservoir Engineering
Handbook”, Gulf Publishing
Company, Houston, Texas.
2. Clark, N., “A Review of
Reservoir Engineering,” World
Oil, June 1951.



FPR = 4107.95 Psi

1. Abstract Bagus Satria P.
2. Introduction Bagus Satria P.
3. Methodology Bagus Satria P.
4. Analysis & Alawy Q.
5. Conclusion Alawy Q.
6. Refferences Aurelius A. L.