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1. (Problem 1.23 in the Book) A transmission case measures W = 0.

3 m on a side and
receives a power input Pi = 150 hp from the engine. If the transmission efficiency is ɳ
= 0.93 and airflow over the case corresponds to 𝑇∞ = 30C and h= 200𝑚2 𝐾K, what is the
surface temperature of the transmission.

KNOWN: Width, input power and efficiency of a transmission. Temperature and convection
coefficient associated with air flow over the casing.
FIND: Surface temperature of casing.


ASSUMPTIONS: (1) Steady state, (2) Uniform convection coefficient and surface
temperature, (3)
Negligible radiation.
 There is no temperature difference given so there is no conduction.
 There is no radiation coefficient or surrounding temperature given so there is no
ANALYSIS: From Newton’s law of cooling,


COMMENTS: There will, in fact, be considerable variability of the local convection

over the transmission case and the prescribed value represents an average over the surface.
2. (Problem 1.28 in the Book) An overhead 30m long, uninsulated industrial steam pipe of
120mm diameter is routed through a building whose walls and air at at 30C. Pressurized
steam maintains a pipe surface temperature of 150C, and the coefficient associated with
natural convection is h=10W /𝑚2 ⋅K. The surface emissivity =0.8.
a) What is the rate of heat loss from the steam line?
b) If the steam is generated in a gas-fired boiler operating at an efficiency of 𝑓 =0.90 and
natural gas is priced at Cg =$0.02 per MJ, what is the annual cost of heat loss from the line?

ASSUMPTIONS: (1) Steam line operates continuously throughout year, (2) Net radiation
transfer is between small surface (steam line) and large enclosure (plant walls).
ANALYSIS: (a) From Eqs. (1.3a) and (1.7), the heat loss is

Where A =πDL =11.3097𝑚2

q=11.3097𝑚2 [10𝑚2 .𝐾(150-30) K+0.8×5.67×10−8 𝑚2 𝐾4 (4234 − 3034 )]

q=11.3097𝑚2 [1200+1069.9𝑚2 .𝐾]=39243W

(b) The annual energy loss is

𝑠 ℎ 𝑑
E=qt=39243W×3600ℎ × 24 𝑑 × 365 𝑦 = 1.2376 × 1012 J
With a furnace energy consumption of Ef E/ f 1.3751×1012 J, the annual cost of the
loss is
C=𝐶𝑔 𝐸𝑓 = 0.02 𝑀𝐽 ×1.3751×1012 J=27502$
COMMENTS: The heat loss and related costs are unacceptable and should be reduced by
insulating the steam line.
3. (Problem 1.67 in the Book) A photovoltaic panel of dimension 2m×4m is installed on the
roof of a home. The panel is irradiated with a solar flux of GS =700W /m2, oriented normal to
the top panel surface. The absorptivity of the panel to the solar
Irradiation is s =0.83, and the efficiency of conversion of the absorbed flux to electrical power
is P /sGsA =0.553−0.001Tp, where Tp is the panel temperature expressed in Kelvins and A is
the solar panel area. Determine the electric power generated for
(a) A still summer day, in which Tsur =T∞=35C, h=100W /m2 ⋅K , and
(b) A breezy winter day, for which Tsur =T∞=−15oC, h=30W /m2 ⋅K. The panel
Emissivity is 0.90.


1. Steady state
2. Uniform convection coefficient and panel temperature
3. No conduction
A is the surface of the panel
And the heat absorbed by the panel is:
𝑞𝑠 = 𝛼𝑠 𝐺𝑠 𝐴 = 700 × 0.83 ×8=4648W
Supposing that the panel temperature is constant, the amount of heat going out of the panel
must be equal to the amount of heat that it recieves, so:
4648=A[h(𝑇𝑝 − 𝑇∞ )+(𝑇𝑝 4 − 𝑇𝑠𝑢𝑟 4 )]=8[10(𝑇𝑝 − 308)+0.9×5.67×10−8 (𝑇𝑝 4 − 3084 )]
As we can see, this equation can not be solved analitically easily, so we use trial error method
to solve this equation:
we define the equation again as
eq=8[10(𝑇𝑝 − 308)+0.9×5.67×10−8 (𝑇𝑝 4 − 3084 )]-4648
first guess
𝑇𝑝 = 330Keq= -1400
second guess
𝑇𝑝 = 350Keq= 1500
third guess
𝑇𝑝 = 340Keq= 74
forth try
𝑇𝑝 = 339𝐾eq= -69
so, 𝑇𝑝 must be a number between 340 and 339 say 339.5
=0.553-0.001𝑇𝑝  P=0.83×700×8(0.553=0.001×339.5)=992.348W
𝛼𝑠 𝐺𝑠 𝐴

In this part, solution is just similar to part a, so
eq=8[30(𝑇𝑝 − 258)+0.9×5.67×10−8 (𝑇𝑝 4 − 2584 )]-4648
first guess
𝑇𝑝 = 280Keq= 1330
second guess
𝑇𝑝 = 270𝐾eq= -1400
third guess
𝑇𝑝 = 275𝐾eq= -42
forth try
𝑇𝑝 = 275.5eq= 94.4
So, 𝑇𝑝 must be a number between 275K and 275.5K say 275.25K
=0.553-0.001𝑇𝑝  P=0.83×700×8(0.553=0.001×275.25)= 1291W
𝛼𝑠 𝐺𝑠 𝐴
4. (Problem 2.32 in the Book) A plane wall of thickness 2L = 60mm and thermal
conductivity k =5W /m⋅K experiences uniform volumetric heat generation at a rate 𝑞̇ while
convection heat transfer occurs at both of its surfaces (x = −L, + L), each of which is exposed
to a fluid of temperature T∞ = 30C. Under steady-state conditions, the temperature
distribution is of the form T(x)=a+bx+c𝑥 2 where a = 86.0C,
b=-200C/m, c = −2×104 C/m2 , and x is in meters. The origin of the x coordinate is at the
midplane of the wall.

T is distributed by the form
T(x)=86-200x-20000𝑥 2
T at -L
T at L
And the maximum of temperature occurs in x=2(−20000) = 0.005 = −5𝑚𝑚
And the coefficient of 𝑥 2 is negative so the temperature distribution would be like the figüre

Substituting the temperature distribution expression into the appropriate form of the heat
equation, the rate of volumetric heat generation can be determined.

𝑞̇ = −2𝑐𝑘 = −2(−20000)5 =2×105 W/𝑚3

The heat fluxes at the two boundaries can be determined using Fourier’s law and the
distribution expression.

𝑞 ′′ 𝑥 (−𝐿) = −5(−200 − 2 × 20000 × (−0.03)) = −5000 W/𝑚2

𝑞 ′′ 𝑥 (𝐿) = −5(−200 − 2 × 20000 × (0.03)) = 7000 W/𝑚2
From an overall energy balance on the wall as shown in the sketch below

The convection coefficients, hl and hr, for the left- and right-hand boundaries (x = -L and x=
+L, respectively), can be determined from the convection heat fluxes that are equal to the
conduction fluxes at the boundaries. See the surface energy balances in the sketch above. See
also part (a) result for T(-L) and T(+L).

ℎ𝑙 [𝑇∞ − 𝑇(−𝐿)] = ℎ𝑙 (30 − 74) = −5000

ℎ𝑙 = 113.63𝑊/𝑚2 𝐾

ℎ𝑟 [𝑇∞ − 𝑇(𝐿)] = ℎ1 (62 − 30) = 7000

ℎ𝑟 = 218.75 𝑊/𝑚2 𝐾

The expression for the heat flux distribution can be obtained from Fourier’s law with the
temperature distribution

𝑞 ′′ 𝑥 = −5[−200 − 2 × 20000𝑥]=1000+2×105

The distribution is linear with the x-coordinate. The maximum temperature will occur at the
where 𝑞 ′′ 𝑥 (𝑥𝑚𝑎𝑥 ) = 0
𝑥𝑚𝑎𝑥 = =0.005m=5mm

If the source of the heat generation is suddenly deactivated so that 𝑞̇ = 0, the appropriate form
of the heat diffusion equation for the ensuing transient conduction is

At the instant this occurs, the temperature distribution is still T(x) = a + bx + c𝑋 2 . The right-
hand term represents the rate of energy storage per unit volume,

With no heat generation, the wall will eventually (t → ∞) come to equilibrium with the fluid,
T(x,∞) =𝑇∞ = 30°C. To determine the energy that must be removed from the wall to reach
this state, apply the conservation of energy requirement over an interval basis. The “initial”
state is that corresponding to the steady-state temperature distribution, Ti, and the “final” state
has Tf = 30°C.
We’ve used 𝑇∞ as the reference condition for the energy terms.

𝐸′′𝑜𝑢𝑡 = 2600 × 800[2 × 86 × 0.03 − 2 × 20000 × 0.033 − 2 × 30 × 0.03]

= 17.97 × 106 𝐽/𝑚2