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AQUASMART HYDRONIC SYSTEMS

ENERGY STUDIES
Aquasmart EVOLUTION 2010

AN ENERGY SAVING COMMUNICATING HYDRONIC SYSTEM SOLUTION

2
Aquasmart EVOLUTION 2010
SYSTEM ENERGY SIMULATION
Application
Office application
6145m² of surface
Location London, United Kingdom
HVAC system comprising
4 pipe ducted fan coil system
60Pa ESP
Cycled fan control
Air cooled chiller(s)
Heatingg system
y boiler
Fresh air handling unit

Office occupancy hours of


07:00
07 00 – 19:00
19 00
week only

USING HAP (ENERGY SIMULATION TOOLS)

3
Aquasmart EVOLUTION 2010
System control energy optimisation
CASE ONE CASE TWO

Traditional

Thermostat Schedule NO YES


24hr operation 07:00 – 19:00

Cooling T-stat set points


Occupied 22.0 22.0
Unoccupied 22.0 26.0

Heating T-stat set points


Occupied 20.0 20.0
Unoccupied 20.0 15.0

Terminal fan coil speed control ON Cycled

Chill pump control


Chiller t l C
Constant
t t volume
l C
Constant
t t Volume
V l

EVALUATE CAREFULLY IN TERMS OF SHUT-IT OFF PROGRAM


SYSTEM ENERGY SIMULATION 5

Case study 1 –v- 2

HVAC COMPONENT ENERGY USAGE HVAC COMPONENT ENERGY USAGE


STUDY ONE STUDY TWO
(STAND ALONE controls) (COMMUNICATING Controls)

11% 1% 5% 10% 1% 3%

40%
46%
40%
43%

AHU System Fans Terminal unit fans (FCU's) Cooling Heating Pumps AHU System Fans Terminal unit fans (FCU's) Cooling Heating Pumps
SYSTEM ENERGY SIMULATION
Case study 1 –v- 2
CASE ONE CASE TWO

Site Energy
Component (kWh)
Air System Fans TOTAL) 10 474 6 002

AHU System Fans 1 942 1 942


Terminal unit fans (FCU's) 8 532 4 060
Cooling 69 487 68 962
Heating 76 307 59 638
Pumps 19 215 15 228

HVAC Sub-Total 175ONE


CASE 483 149TWO
CASE 830

TRADITIONAL AQUASMART
HVAC component consumption
y
Air System Fans TOTAL)) - 43%

AHU fans - 0%
Terminal unit fans (FCU's) - 52%
Cooling - 1%
Heating - 22%
Pumps - 21%

HVAC Sub-Total - 15%

ENERGY CONSUMPTION SAVINGS WITH AQUASMART OF 15%


Aquasmart EVOLUTION 2010
System control energy optimisation
CASE ONE CASE TWO CASE THREE

Traditional

Thermostat Schedule NO YES YES


24hr operation 07:00 – 19:00 07:00 – 19:00

Cooling T-stat set points


Occupied 22.0 22.0 22.0
Unoccupied 22.0 26.0 26.0

Heating T-stat set points


Occupied 20.0 20.0 20.0
Unoccupied 20.0 15.0 15.0

Terminal fan coil speed ON Cycled Cycled


control
Chiller pump control Constant volume Constant Volume Variable Volume

7
SYSTEM ENERGY SIMULATION
Case study 3
HVAC COMPONENT ENERGY USAGE
STUDY THREE
(COMMUNICATING Controls and Variable flow)

5% 1% 3%

43%
48%

AHU System Fans Terminal unit fans (FCU's) Cooling Heating Pumps

AQUASMART SYSTEM PLUS VARIABLE SPEED PUMPS

8
SYSTEM ENERGY SIMULATION 9

Case study 1 –v- 2 –v- 3


CASE ONE CASE TWO CASE THREE

Site Energy
Component (kWh)
Air System Fans TOTAL) 10 474 6 002 6 002

AHU System Fans 1 942 1 942 1 942


Terminal unit fans (FCU's) 8 532 4 060 4 060
Cooling 69 487 68 962 67 333
Heating 76 307 59 638 59 638
Pumps 19 215 15 228 6 980

HVAC Sub-Total 175ONE


CASE 483 149TWO
CASE 830 CASE 139 953
THREE

TRADITIONAL AQUASMART % ECONOMIES


HVAC component consumption
Air System
y Fans TOTAL)) - 43% 43%

AHU fans - 0% 0%
Terminal unit fans (FCU's) - 52% 52%
Cooling - 1% 3%
Heating - 22% 22%
Pumps - 21% 64%

HVAC Sub-Total - 15% 20%

VARIABLE SPEED PUMPS BRING FURTHER 5% SYSTEM SAVINGS


HYDRONIC
HEATING, VENTILATING & AIR CONDITIONING
SOLUTIONS

Energy Conservation Opportunities

Tim Ashton LEED™ AP


Business Development, Systems Marketing & Controls Manager

10
Agenda

• Introduction to Study objectives


• Baseline model definition
• Hydronic energy conservation measures
• Energy
gy simulation studyy results
• Conclusions
• Questions & Answers
STUDY OBJECTIVES

• Guide design teams and building owners on the


principal energy saving measures available with
hydronic systems to reduce the energy impact of
buildings on the environment .
• Quantify the main energy-saving
energy saving opportunities in terms of
energy saving potential.
• Evaluate how the impact of energy-saving measures may be
affected
ff t d by
b geographical
hi l llocation
ti anddhhence bby th
the weather
th
conditions and hence accordingly provide some guidance as to
the optimum solutions.

REDUCE ENERGY IMPACT OF BUILDINGS WHILST MAINTAINING


OCCUPANT COMFORT AND HENCE PRODUCTIVITY
TYPICAL HYDRONIC FAN COIL
SYSTEM

Chillers/Heat pumps Fresh air


handling unit

Unit
mounted
controls

Hydronic terminal fan coils


BASELINE BUILDING MODEL
Definition
• Building
g
• 1380m² surface office
• Model defined covering all
aspects of building
envelope internal loads
envelope, loads,
and occupancy schedule.
• HVAC system description
• 4-pipe
4 pipe ducted fan coil
system
• air-cooled liquid chiller
• Space heating water by a
gas boiler.
boiler
• A fresh air handling unit
provides tempered outdoor
air to serve the occupied
spaces.
• Non-communicating
controls
BASELINE BUILDING MODEL
Definition
BUILDING ENVELOPE INTERNAL LOADS
Occupancy (occupied spaces) 12 m²/person
Structure U = W/m²/K R = m²•K/W
Recessed, vented
Main lighting type and power
12 W/m²
Walls 0.318 3.14
Task lighting (desk lights etc.) 5 W/m²
Floor/foundations 0.27 3.7 Electrical loads (PC, printers etc.) 10 W/m²
Outdoor air ventilation rates based on office
10 0 l/
10.0 l/s/person
/
requirement
Roof 0.685 1.46
Activity level office work
Sensible 71.8 W/person
Glazing 0.385 2.6 Latent 60.1 W/person

Figure 1: Occupancy schedule Figure 2: Lights/electricity schedule

TYPICAL INSULATION VALUES* WERE USED ((*SOURCE EURIMA))


SCHEDULES WERE BASED ON ASHRAE 90.1-2007
BASELINE BUILDING MODEL
8760 hr cooling & heating load simulation

DESIGN COOLING DESIGN HEATING


COOLING DATA AT Jun 1600 HEATING DATA AT DES HTG
COOLING OA DB / WB 26,9 °C / 19,4 °C HEATING OA DB / WB -9,4 °C / -11,0 °C
W/m² W/m²
57 44
BASELINE BUILDING MODEL
Consumption by system component
Energy Consumption by HVAC System Component
(kWhr)

80 000

69 668
70 000

60 000

50 000

40 000

30 000
20 919
20 000
13 567

10 000 7 152 7 859


3 530

0
Air Handling unit Terminal fan coil Cooling Heating Pumps (Cooling) Pumps (Heating)
motors motors

Air Handling unit motors Terminal fan coil motors Cooling Heating Pumps (Cooling) Pumps (Heating)

17
ENERGY CONSUMPTION BY HVAC
COMPONENT
57%

17%

11%
6% 6%

3%

Air Handling unit motors Terminal fan coil motors Cooling

Heating Pumps (Cooling) Pumps (Heating)

Example:
Office example of 1 380m² surface with occupancy hours: 07:00–19:00
Ducted fan coil system, air cooled chiller, boiler and fresh air handling
unit
BASELINE BUILDING MODEL
Simulated for eight european locations

Total Annual Cooling Plant Load… Total Annual Heating Plant Load… Total Annual Power Consumption …

250 000

200 000

150 000
kWh

100 000

50 000

0
Athens Rome Madrid Lyon London Brussels Munich Gothenburg

BRUSSELS, BELGIUM SELECTED FOR INDIVIDUAL FOCUS


IN STUDY PAPER
ENERGY CONSERVATION MEASURES
by system component
HVAC system component Energy-saving opportunities
Produces hot or cold water for distribution via a pipe Heat pumps/thermodynamic boiler for hot water production
Production
(chiller /

pumps)

network through the building Chiller system with integrated free-cooling system and/or integrated
heat

heat recovery options

Conditions the air in the occupied space, heating, Communicating controllers (part of communicating system)
terminals
Room

cooling, filtering and introducing pre-treated Demand Control Ventilation (CO2 sensors) for certain areas (meeting
fresh/outdoor air quantities in some systems. and conference rooms)
High-efficiency/low-energy motors (EC/DC)
Basic functions include filtering, pre-cooling and/or Heat recovery technology (plate heat exchangers, heat wheels) to
h air

pre-heating
pre heating outdoor air to provide neutral impact on recover waste heat/cool air from exhaust air to pre-treat
pre treat entering air.
nt
plan
Fresh

the occupied space conditions. Communicating controls allow strategies such as night-time free cooling
to pre-cool buildings before occupied periods.
Means by which hot and/or cooled water is provided Variable speed pump motor(s)allowing variable water flow to the
diistribution

to the various system components, traditionally using distribution, offering pump motor energy savings at part load conditions.
Piping

a constant-volume design.

Unit-mounted controls allowing space occupants to Unit fitted with auto-fan mode control that adjusts fan speed to match
Terminal

controls

adjust the temperature set point and control the fan space load requirements to economise fan motor energy by steps or
Unit

speed according to the terminal type. variable speed.

Non comm nicating or communicating


Non-communicating, comm nicating that may
ma be Use comm
communicating
nicating controllers with
ith a centralised management ssystem.
stem
HVAC System

integrated into a Building Management system. Benefits include:


controls

Communicating controls offer connectivity with a • management of occupied and unoccupied temperature set points
central management system to adjust unit and • time scheduling of operating hours to match work days and holidays
system settings and performance to building • monitoring and adjusting equipment operating conditions such as
requirements. chilled water/hot water to match outdoor conditions and loads.
ENERGY CONSERVATION MEASURES
Selected studies
Study Description of energy-saving measure
Baseline Traditional stand-alone system
= Terminal fan coil units with non-communication, ‘stand-alone’ controls
= manual user fan speed control
= single temperature set- point
Study 1 Advanced Fan coil controls and management using communication controls
= Terminal fan coil units with Auto fan coil unit fan cycling to meet space load.
= Separate temperature set points for both cooling and heating modes
= Temperature set point reset according to the building occupancy schedule.
Study 2 Use of heat recovery exchanger (50% efficiency) on the fresh air handling unit
= Recovery energy from return air using a plate heat exchanger to reduce pre-heat need.
Study 3 Variable-speed pumps for chilled water distribution.
= Variation of chilled water flow according to building load
Study 4 Use of a chilled water free-cooling system
= Integration of free cooling to benefit from low outside air temperatures and reduce mechanical ccoling.
Study 5 Replace traditional boiler with thermodynamic heating unit
= Thermodynamic heating offering COPS <4.2 versus other fuel sources
Study 6 EC motors fitted to Fan coil units
= Higher efficiency motors and reduced unit consumption
= Variable air volume control to better match room or zone loads
Study 7 Simultaneous use of the first three energy saving measures described in studies 1, 2 and 3.
ENERGY CONSERVATION MEASURE
Study 1

• Advanced Fan coil controls and management using


communication controls
– Terminal fan coil units with Auto fan coil unit fan cycling to
meet space load.
– Separate temperature set points for both cooling and
heating modes
– Temperature set point reset according to the building
occupancy schedule.
ENERGY CONSERVATION MEASURE
Communication HVAC system control
BASELINE STUDY STUDY 1
• Benefits include energy savings Traditional

by: Thermostat
Schedule
NO
24hr operation
YES
07:00 – 19:00

– Management of occupied / non-


non Cooling T-stat set
points 22.0 22.0
occupied periods Occupied 22.0 26.0
Unoccupied
– Separate cooling & heating set- Heating T-stat set
points
i t points 20.0 20.0
Occupied 20.0 15.0
– Holiday and work period Unoccupied

Terminal fan coil ON Cycled


schedules speed control

Chiller pump control Constant volume Constant Volume

Aquasmart - a standard small


hydronic system
Solution for buildings with up to
128 zones
ENERGY CONSERVATION MEASURE
Study 1: FCU management 90

88
88,91

86

kWh/m²/yrr
⇒REDUCED COOLING (1%) & HEATING LOADS (2%) 84

⇒REDUCED PUMP CONSUMPTION (34%) IN COOLING & (19%) IN 82 81,36


HEATING MODES.
⇒REDUCED TERMINAL FAN MOTOR POWER (70%) 80

78

76
140 000
Non-Eco Eco System
122 695 System
120 000
112 270

100 000

80 000
69 668 67 959

60 000

40 000

20 919 20 732
20 000 13 567
7 152 7 152 8 976 7 859 6 390
3 530
1 061
0
eline

eline

eline

eline

eline

eline

eline
0%

-1%

-2%

-8%
--70%

--34%

--19%
Base

Base

Base

Base

Base

Base

Base
Air Handling Unit Terminal Fans Cooling Cooling Heating Heating Pumps Pumps Non Eco Eco System
(NON-ECO (ECO (NON-ECO (ECO (Cooling) (Heating) System (FCU comfort
SYSTEM) SYSTEM) SYSTEM) SYSTEM) management)

POTENTIAL SAVINGS OF ~7.5KWH/M²/YEAR OFFERING AN


OVERALL SYSTEM REDUCTION OF 8%
ENERGY CONSERVATION MEASURE
Study 2

• Use of heat recovery exchanger (50% efficiency)


on the fresh air handling unit
– Recovery energy from return air using a plate heat
exchanger to reduce pre-heat need.
ENERGY CONSERVATION MEASURE
Air handling heat recovery
Air handling units provide fresh air to the
occupied spaces.
Basic unit‘s include supply & extract sections
andd may include
i l d cooling/heating
li /h ti coils il to
t pre-
temper supply air.

Adding heat recovery technology


can offer
ff substantial
b t ti l economies
i
ENERGY CONSERVATION MEASURE
Study Two: Fresh air heat recovery
100
88,91
90
= SIGNIFICANT REDUCTIONS IN HEATING LOADS ((~60%)
60%) 80
= REDUCED ENERGY CONSUMPTION IN COOLING (<1%) 70
= SOME RELATED REDUCED PUMPING ENERGY (~5,4%). 60
58,06

kWh/m²/yr
140 000
50
122 695 40
120 000
30

20
100 000 10

0
80 129
Non-Eco Eco-System
80 000 System (Heat reclaim)
69 668

60 000

40 000
27 668
20 919 20 779
20 000 13 567 13 567
7 152 7 152 7 859 7 433
3 530 3 530
0
Baseline

Baseline

Baseline

Baseline

Baseline

Baseline

Baseline
0,0%

0,0%

0,0%
-0,7%

-5,4%

-35%
-60,3%
B

B
Air Handling Unit Terminal Fans Cooling Heating Pumps Pumps Non Eco Eco
(Cooling) (Heating) System System
(Heat

POTENTIAL SAVINGS OF ~30.8 KWH/M²/YEAR OFFERING AN


OVERALL SYSTEM REDUCTION OF 35%
ENERGY CONSERVATION MEASURE
Study Three

• Variable-speed pumps for chilled water


distribution.
– Variation of chilled water flow according to building load
BEST PRACTICES: CHILLER/HEAT
PUMPS Variable flow applications
ENERGY CONSERVATION MEASURE
Study Three: Variable flow pumps
90
88,9
= REDUCE PUMP ENERGY CONSUMPTION BY 72%
88
= CONTRIBUTION FROM REDUCED PUMP HEAT,
= HENCE REDUCING COOLING PLANT LOAD (>1%) 86

kWh/m²/yr
84

82
80,6
140 000
80
122 695
120 000 111 160
78

100 000
76
Non-Eco System Eco-System
80 000 (VWF)
69 668 69 668

60 000

40 000
20 919 19 172
20 000 13 567
7 152 7 152 7 859 7 859
3 530 3 530 3 779
0
-8,4%

-9,4%
-72,1%
0,0%

0,0%

0,0%

0,0%
Baseline

Baseline

Baseline

Baseline

Baseline

Baseline

Baseline
Air Handling Terminal Fans Cooling Heating Pumps Pumps Non Eco
Unit (Cooling) (Heating) Eco System
System (VWF)

POTENTIAL SAVINGS OF ~8,3 KWH/M²/YEAR OFFERING AN


OVERALL SYSTEM REDUCTION OF 9,4%
ENERGY CONSERVATION MEASURE
Study Four

• Use of a chilled water free-cooling system


– Integration of free cooling to benefit from low outside air
temperatures and reduce mechanical ccoling.
ENERGY CONSERVATION MEASURE
Introduction To Free Cooling

• Use of cold outside air to generate


chilled water when cooling is
required all year around

• Benefits
• Energy savings reducing compressor Average temperatures °C
run time City Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Ap
• Reduced equipment wear and noise Amsterdam 10 5.5 4.0 3.0 2.5 5.0 7.5
Berlin 93
9.3 42
4.2 1 1 -0.7
1.1 -0 7 07
0.7 37
3.7 85
8.5
London 10.9 6.8 4.9 4.1 4.3 6.3 8.2
• When Milano 13.1 6.9 2.3 1.4 4.2 8.3 12.3
• Free cooling not restricted to ‘cold’ Paris 10.8 6.4 3.7 2.9 4.1 6.6 9.9
countries, 5° outside air is sufficient Prague
g 9.1 3.5 0.1 -1.7 -0.3 3.4 8.5
for free-cooling
free cooling
Stockholm 6.8 1.9 -1.4 -3.2 -3.3 -1.0 3.8
Vienna 9.9 4.3 4.0 -1.2 0.6 4.5 9.8
Warsaw 8.2 2.5 -1.7 -3.8 -2.5 1.4 7.6
Zurich 9.1 4.0 0.5 -0.5 1.0 4.5 8.4
ENERGY CONSERVATION MEASURE
Traditional –v- Carrier DX free cooling

Traditional free cooling system


- Additional dry coolers / cooling towers*
- Outstanding Energy Efficiency EER = <13
- Glycol for winter operation

* For air cooled systems

DX ffree cooling
li system
t
- Integrated with chiller
- Outstanding Energy Efficiency EER = <13
- No glycol
gy
- Reduced Maintenance costs

DIFFERENT SYSTEMS EXIST ACCORDING TO DESIGN AND APPLICATION NEEDS


ENERGY CONSERVATION MEASURE
Traditional versus DX free cooling
BENEFITS Traditional H²O system DX-FC system
Economical free cooling! ☺ ☺
Reduced noise emission (no compressors) ☺ ☺

Reduced maintenance ((reduced compressor


p use)) ☺ ☺
FREE COOLING RELATED COSTS Traditional H²O system DX-FC system
Extra pump(s) ☺

Higher pumping cost due to Glycol viscosity ☺

Higher pumping cost due to pressure drop of additional ☺


exchanger and control valves
Higher fan power cost due to additional air pressure drop of ☺
radiator
Maintenance (time and costs) ☺
SYSTEM DESIGN IMPACT Traditional H²O system DX FC system
DX-FC
Reduced chiller COP due higher fan power. ☺
Chiller footprint ☺
I
Impact off glycol
l l on equipment
i selections
l i and
d sizes
i ☺
ENERGY CONSERVATION MEASURE
Study Four: Free Cooling 90

89
88,9

89

kWh/m²/yrr
88
=REDUCED COMPRESSOR OPERATION, FANS AND PUMPS
=ONLY REDUCING COMPRESSOR CONSUMPTION. 88
87,1
87

87

86
30,00%
Non-Eco… Eco-System…

25,00%
Free-cooling energy
savings (%)
CITY
over mechanical only
20,00% system
ATHENS
GREECE 0,18%
15,00% ROME
ITALY 0,74%
MADRID
10,00% SPAIN 2,00%
LYON
O
FRANCE 9,09%
LONDON
5,00% UK 7,12%
BRUSSELS
BELGIUM 11,72%
0,00% MUNICH
GERMANY 20,09%
ATHENS ROME MADRID LYON LONDON BRUSSELS MUNICH GOTEBURG GOTEBURG
GREECE ITALY SPAIN FRANCE UK BELGIUM GERMANY SWEDEN SWEDEN 26 39%
26,39%

Free‐cooling energy savings (%) over mechanical only system

POTENTIAL SAVINGS OF UP TO 26% PER YEAR ON COOLING PRODUCTION


ENERGY CONSERVATION MEASURE
Study five

• Replace traditional boiler with thermodynamic


heating unit
– Thermodynamic heating offering COPS <4.2 versus other
fuel sources
ENERGY CONSERVATION MEASURE
Heating production

Chiller

+
Heat P
Pump
mp

COP <5.9kW (output/input)


Boiler Dedicated heating heat pump

REVERSIBLE CHILLER / HEAT PUMP / DEDICATED THERMODYNAMIC HEAT PUMP


TO PROVIDE SPACE COMFORT HEATING
ENERGY CONSERVATION MEASURE
Consider heat recovery opportunities

• Providing cooling, chillers extract heat from


the system that is often rejected to outside.
• M
Many applications
li ti often
ft requirei hhott water
t ffor
sanitary purposes.
• Offices
• Industrial..
• Consider HEAT RECOVERY possibilities
• Full and p
partial recovery
y is p
possible
• water available up to 60 – 70°C according to
unit and application

RECOVER HEAT FOR PRACTICAL USE


ENERGY CONSERVATION MEASURE
Study five: Thermodynamic heat pump 100
88,9
90

80

70
= Thanks to heating COP’s 1.9 at -20°C up to 4.6 at 20°C
60

kWh/m²/yr
53,1
= Supplying medium temperature temp for space heating (40°C) 50

= Offers significantly reduced heating energy consumption. 40

30

20

10

0
75% Non-Eco Eco-System
System (Heat reclaim)
74%
HEAT PUMP
73% CITY
ECONOMYS
72% ATHENS
GREECE 74%
71% ROME
ITALY 73%
70%
MADRID
69% SPAIN 71%
LYON
68% FRANCE 71%
LONDON
67%
UK 72%
66% BRUSSELS
Savings % BELGIUM 71%
MUNICH
Athens, Greece Rome Italy Madrid Spain Lyon, France GERMANY 69%
London Heathrow Belgium, Brussels Munich, Germany Goteburg Sweden GOTEBURG
SWEDEN 69%

OVERALL COMFORT ((SPACE)) HEATING SAVINGS OF~69-74%


OVER CONDENSING BOILER
ENERGY CONSERVATION MEASURE
Study Six

• EC motors fitted to Fan coil units


– Higher efficiency motors and reduced unit consumption
– Variable air volume control to better match room or zone
loads
ENERGY CONSERVATION MEASURE
Study Six: Fan Coil Units with EC motors

• Reduced energy costs


• reduces fan coil consumption by 50% to 75%.
• May assist in meeting new energy regulations (w/m²) in
buildings.
buildings
• Improved comfort
• variable fan speed minimizes noise levels at reduced
loads
• Maximum fan speed may be fixed to allow limit energy
and sound.
• Maximum flexibility
• Auto-fan speed from 0- 100% better matches cooling and
heating loads and hence offers better comfort for the
occupant.
• Extended life
• brushless motor technology
gy offers lower fan motor
temperature and extends operating life.
ENERGY CONSERVATION MEASURE
Study Six: Fan Coil Units with EC motors
90

89 88,9
= Fan motor po
power er sa
savings
ings of 44%
= Corresponding savings in terminal cooling coil load of 1,3% 89

kWh/m²/yr
= with a small increase in heating of 0.2%. 88
87,6
140 000 88
122 695 120 919
120 000 87

100 000 87
NON-ECO ECO
SYSTEM SYSTEM
80 000 69 668 69 831

60 000

40 000
20 919 20 642
20 000 13 567 13 475
7 152 7 152 7 859 7 857
3 530 1 962
0
Baseline

Baseline

-44,4%

Baseline

Baseline

Baseline

Baseline

Baseline
0,0%

-1,3%

0,2%

-0,7%

0,0%

-1,4%
B

B
Air Handling Unit Terminal Fans Cooling Heating Pumps Pumps NON-ECO ECO
(Cooling) (Heating) SYSTEM SYSTEM

POTENTIAL SAVINGS OF ~1,29 KWH/M²/YEAR OFFERING AN


OVERALL SYSTEM REDUCTION OF 1,4%
ENERGY CONSERVATION MEASURE
Study Seven

• Simulation of an HVAC system incorporating:


– Advanced Fan coil controls and management using
communication
co u ca o cocontrols
os
• Terminal fan coil units with Auto fan coil unit fan cycling to meet space
load.
• Separate temperature set points for both cooling and heating modes
• Temperature set point reset according to the building occupancy
schedule.
– Use of heat recovery exchanger (50% efficiency) on the fresh air
handling unit
• Recovery energy from return air using a plate heat exchanger to
reduce pre-heat need
– Variable
Variable-speed
speed pumps for chilled water distribution.
• Variation of chilled water flow according to building load
ENERGY CONSERVATION MEASURE
Study Seven: HVAC system 100
88,9
90

80

70
= Terminal fan savings of 70%

kWh/m²/yr
60
= Cooling savings of 33% 50 47,1

140 000 = Heating savings of 59% 40

= Pumps (cooling of 81% & heating 23%) 122 695 30


120 000 20

10
100 000 0
Non- Eco
Eco System System
80 000 69 668
64 995
60 000

40 000
28 698
20 919 19 425
20 000 13 567
7 152 7 152 7 859 6 087
3 530 1 061 2 572
0
Baseline

Baseline

Baseline

Baseline

Baseline

Baseline

Baseline
0%

-70%

-59%

-81%

-23%

-47%
-7%

Air Handling Unit Terminal Fans Cooling Heating Pumps Pumps Non Eco Eco
(Cooling) (Heating) System System

POTENTIAL SAVINGS OF ~41,8 KWH/M²/YEAR OFFERING AN


OVERALL SYSTEM REDUCTION OF 47%
EUROPEAN LOCATION SIMULATIONS

Gothenburg

Brussels
London

Munich

Lyon

Madrid

Athens
Rome

SIMULATIONS REPEATED ACROSS EUROPEAN LOCATIONS


EUROPEAN LOCATION SIMULATIONS
Selected study comparisons

Study 1 Study 2 Study 3 Study 7


Terminals with auto-fan cycling,
communicating controls with seperate
cooll & h
heatt set-point
t i t & occupancy Fresh Air Handling with heat recovery Combined effect of measures in studys
scheduling exchanger (50% efficiency) Variable speed chilled water pumps 1,2 & 3.
0,0%

-10,0%

-20,0%

-30,0%

-40,0%
40 0%

-50,0%

-60,0%

-70,0%

ATHENS, GREECE ROME, ITALY MADRID, SPAIN LYON, France


LONDON, UNITED KINGDOM BRUSSELS, BELGIUM MUNICH, GERMANY GOTHENBURG, SWEDEN

COMBINATION OF ENERGY MEASURES


RESULTS IN ~38-65% SYSTEM SAVINGS
ENERGY EFFICIENT SOLUTIONS
Conclusions
• Require
q a system
y carefully
y
selected based upon building
& application needs
• Incorporating optimised
equipment components at
product and system level
controls to maximise
performance and minimise
energy consumption.
• Integrate energy conservaition
methods
• SERVICE & MAINTAIN!

ESSENTIAL STEPS TO ENSURE EFFICIENT PERFORMANCE


& COMFORT CONDITIONS FOR OCCUPANTS
HYDRONIC SOLUTION
Summary
• Offer a wide range of Energy Conservation Opportunities to
minimise building energy consumption.
• Significant economies may be achieved by designing in energy-
saving
i measures.
• Evaluate savings at the system level.
• Communicating controls are fundamental to ensure economical
occupancy comfort.
• Building designs will become more energy-efficient, reducing the
needd ffor heating
h ti and d lik
likely
l th
thatt off cooling,
li h
however ventilation
til ti
systems will become increasing sophisticated and important to
integrate from a system approach.

CORRECTLY DESIGNED HYDRONIC SYSTEMS OFFER OCCUPANT COMFORT


AND ENERGY-EFFICIENT BUILDING SOLUTIONS.
BACK-UP SLIDES
HOURLY ANALYSIS PROGRAM (HAP)
Load Estimating capabilities and
p
procedures.
• Building loads are calculated for three different purposes in HAP.
– Design cooling conditions to size cooling equipment.
– Design heating conditions to size heating equipment.
– During the whole year building simulation in the energy analysis portion of HAP.
• Different procedures and considerations are used when computing building loads.
– Design Cooling.
• Load profiles are computed for one design cooling day in each month using design weather conditions , design day operating
schedules and the ASHRAE-endorsed Transfer Function load calculation method.
– Design weather data uses design temperature data, coincident humidity levels and clear sky solar radiation conditions.
– Design day operating schedules represent the variation of internal heat gains for design cooling conditions.
– The Transfer Function load method provides accurate estimates of building loads considering the transient nature of heat transfer
processes in the building.
– Design Heating
• Loads are computed for a single heating design condition using winter design weather conditions, neglecting all sources of
heat gain, and using instantaneous load assumptions for transmission and infiltration load components.
– Design weather data represents the winter design temperature.
– Sources of heat gain are neglected so that a worst-case heating load can be calculated.
– The instantaneous load procedure assumes transmission and infiltration heat losses are immediately converted to heating loads.
– Energy Simulations
• Loads are computed for all 8,760 hours in the year using simulation weather data, operating schedules for the different days
of the week, and the ASHRAE Transfer Function load method.
– Actual weather data is used to evaluate how the building's HVAC systems react to real sequences of weather over the course of a
year. This is necessary to generate accurate operating cost estimates.
– Operating schedules define how heat gains vary on different days of the week.
– The Transfer Function load method provides accurate estimates of building loads considering the transient nature of heat transfer
processes in the building.
HOURLY ANALYSIS PROGRAM (HAP)
ASHRAE Transfer Function Method

• HAP uses the ASHRAE Transfer Function Method


for load calculations that comprises two calculation
stages.
• First stage
– uses the Room Transfer Function equations to calculate room
loads as if cooling is provided 24 hours a day and the room is
held precisely at the cooling thermostat set point.
• Second stage
g
– uses the Space Air Transfer Function (aka Heat Extraction) to
correct first stage results for actual operating conditions which
involve less than 24 hours of operation and the fact that room
temperature floats within the thermostat throttling range.

• Conclusion
– HAP performs both first and second stage calculations and
therefore offers results for non-24-hour operation that are
more accurate than programs such as Block Load.
ENERGY CASE STUDIES
U-values in Europe
Requirements and/or recommendations on component level
U-value [W/m²K]
Wall Roof Floor
ISO 3166-1 country
City Country code low high low high low High
Bruxelles Belgium BEL 0,6 0,6 0,4 0,4 0,9 1,2
Helsinki Finland FIN 0,25 0,25 0,16 0,16 0,25 0,25
Paris France FRA 0,36 0,36 0,2 0,2 0,27 0,27
München Germany DEU 0,3 0,3 0,2 0,2 0,4 0,4
Ah
Athens G
Greece GRC 07
0,7 07
0,7 05
0,5 05
0,5 19
1,9 19
1,9
Milano Italy ITA 0,46 0,46 0,43 0,43 0,43 0,43
Oslo Norway NOR 0,18 0,22 0,13 0,18 0,15 0,18
Warsaw Poland POL 0,3 0,5 0,3 0,3 0,6 0,6
Lisboa Portugal PRT 0,5 0,7 0,4 0,5 - -
Madrid Spain ESP 0,66 0,66 0,38 0,38 0,66 0,66
Zürich Suisse CHE 0,2 0,3 0,2 0,3 0,2 0,3
Goteborg Sweden SWE 0,18 0,18 0,13 0,13 0,15 0,15
Amsterdam The Netherlands NLD 0,37 0,37 0,37 0,37 0,37 0,37
London United Kingdom GBR 0 25
0,25 0 35
0,35 0 13
0,13 02
0,2 02
0,2 0 25
0,25

EURIMA is the European Mineral Wool Manufacturers Association.


BEST PRACTICES: TERMINAL
SOLUTIONS
BEST PRACTICES: TERMINAL SOLUTIONS

Visible Systems (in room)

42WH :High Wall 42N Floor Mounted 42GW Cassette


• Cooling 1 – 2.1
2 1 kW • Cooling 1 – 7 kW • Cooling 2 – 11 kW
•Heating 1.8 – 3.2 kW • Heating 2 – 9.8 kW
• Heating 4 – 14 kW

WITH CLASSIC SOLUTIONS CONTROL IS MAIN OPPORTUNITY


BEST PRACTICES: TERMINAL SOLUTIONS

D t dS
Ducted Systems
t

ATM 42GR/ ITM 42GM : ICM 42BJ : ATMOSPHERA 42EM:


installation in technical room installation in the installation in false
cooling 2.8 to 4.1 kW ceilings
corridor (false ceiling)
300Pa (42GR) cooling 4.3
4 3 to 11.6
11 6 kW
cooling
li 2.3
2 3 to 4kw
4k
50Pa
150Pa
Variable speed

HIGH TIER SOLUTIONS OFFERING MORE OPPORTUNITIES


VARIABLE SPEED & SERVICE/MAINTENANCE BENEFITS
BEST PRACTICES: FAN COIL SOLUTIONS
Demand Control Ventilation (DCV)
• Classical systems deliver a
constant amount of fresh air Fresh air damper
(30m3/h for ex.) Supply
Air neuf

• DCV uses a CO² sensor to Return


ATM

analyze Co2 in the space & Sonde


CO 2

regulate fresh air to meet occupied


demand.
Input Output
– Energy economies result from Carrier
reducing
d i ffresh h air
i supply
l tto meett reall concentratio
n CO2
New T
N Tc Fresh air

occupancy of the space. Main components

– Variable speed fans adjust precisely to


l d needs
load d
Electronic
Sensor CO2 control Air regulator

ADAPT FRESH AIR TO OCCUPATION NEEDS


CO2 (ppm)
C

0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
09
9:12
09
9:25
09
9:37
09
9:49
10
0:01
10
0:13
10
0:25
10
0:37
10
0:49
11:01
11:13
11:25
11:37
11:50
12
2:23
12
2:35
12
2:47
12
2:59
Time 13
3:11
13
3:24
13
3:36
13
3:48
14
4:00
14
4:12
14
4:28
1300 ppm

14
4:40
14
4:52
Directive française

15
5:05
CO2 ppm

15
5:17
15
5:29
Demand Control Ventilation (DCV)

15
5:41
15
5:53
16
6:05
16
6:17
16
6:29
16
6:41
VARIATION OF CO² CONCENTRATION IN A MEETING ROOM
BEST PRACTICES: FAN COIL SOLUTIONS
BEST PRACTICES: TERMINAL SOLUTIONS
Chilled beam solution

• Multi service beams


– cooling / heating, lighting and sprinkler services
• Applications:
• Offices with high quality design, low cooling load requirements 60/70W Froid / m2
• High comfort levels
• Directionable air flow
• Low noise level
• Hygienic (no condensation.
• Low Maintenance
• No condensate
• No fan or filter
• High System efficiency
• Uses higher chilled water temperatures
• Compatible applications free-cooling
• AHU supplies primary fresh
– double flow (supply/extract) with heat recovery and free cooling possibilities.
OFFICE APPLICATIONS
36CB Chilled beams
BEST PRACTICES: AIR HANDLING
UNITS: Optimise selection

• Selection of AHU:
– Optimization of different components:
– Energy class (Eurovent)
– Standards EN 13053 and EN 13779
• AHU velocity class
• Heat recovery y efficiencyy class
• Mixing temperature efficiency class
• Specific fan power kW/m3/s
• Motors with better efficiency (EC, EFF1)
• Si i (l
Sizing (larger size
i l
lower LCC)
• Include Energy features
– Free cooling
– Recirculation application with IAQ technology
– Use High efficient heat recovery systems
BEST PRACTICES: AIR HANDLING
UNITS
y
Consider life cycle cost of AHU for
selection Maintenance cost Capital
expenditure
8% 5%
Thermall energy
Th
humidification
17%

Thermal energy
cooling
4%

Power
consumption fans
Thermal energy 52%
heating
12% P
Power
consumption
pumps
2%

Around 65-85% of life cycle costs of an AHU = operation costs


Source: Class V3 unit, 4 m3/s @ 500 Pa, ambient conditions De Bilt (NL), lifetime AHU 15 years, continuous operation
BEST PRACTICES: CHILLER/HEAT
PUMPS
Chose Best in Class efficiency products
EER kW/kW

> 3.10

2.90 - 3.10

2.70 - 2.90

2.50 - 2.70

2.30 - 2.50

2.10 - 2.30

2.10
Innovation
L
Low operating
ti costs
t
Low sound
Economical installation
Reliability, low maintenance costs
E
Ease off operation
ti
Minimum environmental impact
And Options to satisfy customer needs

AQUAFORCE IS ONE EXAMPLE


BEST PRACTICES: CHILLER/HEAT
PUMPS: DXFC Free cooling solution
• Supply chilled water to system
without using compressors at
low outdoor air temperature.
– LCWT minus OAT > 6°C

Free Cooling Performances @ 10°C LWT)

100% 35
90%
80% 30
% of Nominal

kW)
70% 25
Capacitty

EER (kW/k
60%
50% 20
40%
EER Energy Efficiency with 13 kW cooling for 1 kW power*
30% 15 Simple system with pure water no glycol
20% 10 Only the fans and a pump running, lower noise
10% Reduced Maintenance costs with less compressor run
0% 5 time
6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30
DT (LWT-OAT) - (°K)

ELIMINATE EXTRA PUMPS, CONTROLS & GLYCOL


BEST PRACTICES: CHILLER/HEAT
PUMPS
Evaluate chilled water temperature
setting Leaving chilled
water of 7°C

Leaving chilled
water of 10°C

HIGHER TEMPERATURE = ECONOMY ~14% ENERGY CONSUMPTION


Important System Issues
• Consider part load
• Use smaller zones
• Measure energy use
• Evaluate heat recovery
• High efficiency filtration