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7F Users Conference April 4, 2001 Atlanta, Georgia

Click on a title to see the presentation:

Fleet Experience Red Flag Review Process Trip Reduction DLN Combustion System Status Compressor Update Generator Update Repair Solutions Advanced Technology Offerings e-Business Review: GE PartsEdge e-Business Review: Outage Optimizer M&D-Derived Performance Data

GE Power Systems

e

Advanced Technology Offerings For the 7F and 9F Fleet Gas Turbines

DeanDean ChristnerChristner CM&UCM&U ApplicationApplication EngineeringEngineering AprilApril 4,4, 20012001

GE Energy Services

F Technology

GE ìFî Technology: A Winner in Every Category

ï Proven Advanced Technology

ï Over 3.5 Million F-Class Operating Hours

ï Extensive Application Experience

ï High Availability

ï History of Competitive Uprating Advantage

ï Low Life-Cycle Costs

ï Best emission control in industry

Most Proven High-Efficiency Turbine in the Market
Most
Proven High-Efficiency Turbine in the Market

Benefits

Uprating with Latest F Technology

ï Improved Performance (output and Heat Rate)

ï Better Maintenance and Inspection Intervals

ï GE Guarantee and Support

ï Uprate Experience:

ñ successful uprates of 2 7FA units and 2 9FA+ units to FA+e configuration

ñ successful partial uprates including every combination of HGP parts, combustors, and compressor modifications

GE Has The Only Proven Uprate Program
GE Has The Only Proven Uprate Program

Design Time Line

1987

1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1 9 9 2 1993 1993 1994 1995 1997 2001
1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1 9 9 2 1993 1993 1994 1995 1997 2001

1988

1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1 9 9 2 1993 1993 1994 1995 1997 2001

1989

1990

1991

1992

1993

1993

1994

1995

1997

2001

GE Presents 7F 7F FSNL Testing 7F Factory Load Testing Introduction of 9F First 7F Plant in operation - Operated in Combined Cycle 9F FSNL Testing 9F Testing at Load First 9F in Commercial Operations

6F Program Begins Compressor and Turbine Issues occur First 6F assembled GE exceeds 1 million hours of ìFî operation GE Exceeds 3.5 million hours of ìFî operation

9F Fleet

ï Leveraged 60 Hz Experience

ï Introduced in 1989

ï Extensive Use of Geometric Scaling

- Components Scaled Up By 1.2x

- 44% Higher Output

- Same Stresses, Aerodynamics, Relative Frequencies

ï 212 MW Original MS9001F Simple-Cycle Rating

ï 52.8% Introductory Combined-Cycle Efficiency

Leveraged 60 Hz Development & Design
Leveraged
60 Hz Development & Design

7F Fleet

Product-line Evolution

PG7211(F)

7F Fleet Product-line Evolution P G 7 2 1 1 ( F ) PG7221(FA) P G

PG7221(FA)

Product-line Evolution P G 7 2 1 1 ( F ) PG7221(FA) P G 7 2

PG7231(FA+)

2 1 1 ( F ) PG7221(FA) P G 7 2 3 1 ( F A

PG7241(FA+e)

F ) PG7221(FA) P G 7 2 3 1 ( F A + ) PG7241(FA+e) Output

Output

150 MW

159 MW

168.8 MW

171.7 MW

HR

9880 Btu/KWh

9500 Btu/KWh

9380 Btu/KWh

9360 Btu/KWh

Press Ratio

13.5

15.1

15.5

16.2

Firing Temp.

2300F

2350F

2400F

2420F

Compressor Stages

18

18

18

18

Turbine Stages

3

3

3

3

Installed Fleet Size

16

44

30

71 and growing

Operational Date

1990

1993

1998

2000

Evolution Consistent with GEís Philosophy Evolution Consistent with GEís Philosophy to Leverage Technology to
Evolution Consistent with GEís Philosophy
Evolution Consistent with GEís Philosophy
to Leverage Technology
to Leverage Technology

9F Fleet

Product-line Evolution

PG9281(F)

9F Fleet Product-line Evolution P G 9 2 8 1 ( F ) PG9311(FA) P G

PG9311(FA)

Product-line Evolution P G 9 2 8 1 ( F ) PG9311(FA) P G 9 3

PG9331(FA+)

2 8 1 ( F ) PG9311(FA) P G 9 3 3 1 ( F A

PG9351(FA+e)

F ) PG9311(FA) P G 9 3 3 1 ( F A + ) PG9351(FA+e) Output

Output HR Press Ratio Firing Temp. Compressor Stages Turbine Stages Installed Fleet Size

212.0 MW

226.5 MW

240.0 MW

255.6 MW

9995 Btu/KWh

9570 Btu/KWh

9420 Btu/KWh

9250 Btu/KWh

13.5

15.0

15.1

15.4

2300F

2350F

2400F

2420F

18

18

18

18

3

3

3

3

3

38

2

10 and growing

9F 9F Fleet Fleet Based Based on 30 Years Direct Design and Field Experience on
9F 9F
Fleet Fleet Based Based
on 30 Years Direct Design and Field Experience
on 30 Years Direct Design and Field Experience

Strategy

Parts and Kits Past Strategy

ï Old Strategy - 9 kits with different variations of nozzles, buckets, and shrouds and full uprate options (Not very flexible)

ï Significant Engineering effort required to ensure full compatibility of individual FA+e parts with F/FA/FA+ - successful!

New Strategy - February 2001

ï Allow individual parts (nozzles, buckets, or shrouds) to be sold with performance guarantees.

ï In most cases, CM&U still required to ensure proper interchangeability with fleet

ï There are no Technical Barriers to Conversion. Some Component Rules may apply.

GE Modifies Strategy To Be More Customer Centric
GE Modifies
Strategy To Be More Customer Centric

Technology Overview

CombustorCombustor ChangesChanges MarriageMarriage FlangeFlange ModMod
CombustorCombustor ChangesChanges
MarriageMarriage FlangeFlange ModMod

CompressorCompressor ModificationsModifications

ThrustThrust BearingBearing

Compressor Modifications Modifications Thrust Thrust Bearing Bearing Turbine Turbine Enhancements Enhancements

TurbineTurbine EnhancementsEnhancements

Compressor Modifications Modifications Thrust Thrust Bearing Bearing Turbine Turbine Enhancements Enhancements

Technology Overview

Uses Proven GE Aircraft Engine Advancements

Compressor Aero

Combustion

Turbine Aero

Engine Advancements Compressor Aero Combustion Turbine Aero Computer Advanced Cooling w/ High-Strength Alloys Modeling
Engine Advancements Compressor Aero Combustion Turbine Aero Computer Advanced Cooling w/ High-Strength Alloys Modeling
Engine Advancements Compressor Aero Combustion Turbine Aero Computer Advanced Cooling w/ High-Strength Alloys Modeling
Engine Advancements Compressor Aero Combustion Turbine Aero Computer Advanced Cooling w/ High-Strength Alloys Modeling
Engine Advancements Compressor Aero Combustion Turbine Aero Computer Advanced Cooling w/ High-Strength Alloys Modeling

Computer

Advanced Cooling w/ High-Strength Alloys

Aero Computer Advanced Cooling w/ High-Strength Alloys Modeling A A Marriage of Two Proven Marriage of

Modeling

Computer Advanced Cooling w/ High-Strength Alloys Modeling A A Marriage of Two Proven Marriage of Two
Computer Advanced Cooling w/ High-Strength Alloys Modeling A A Marriage of Two Proven Marriage of Two
A A Marriage of Two Proven Marriage of Two Proven GEGE TechnologiesTechnologies
A A
Marriage of Two Proven
Marriage of Two Proven
GEGE TechnologiesTechnologies

Compressor

Upgrades

ï New Blades and Stators 2-5 & 9-17 (applies to 7 & 9 F/FA)

ñTIL 1235-2R1 recommends replacement of blades which are sensitive to vibratory modes. New blades are less sensitive to surface debits (tip rubs, rough finish)

ï Bigger Better Fillet - BBF (applies to 7&9 F/FA, 7FA+, and early 9FA+e)

ñThis modification reduces stress concentrations in the compressor tie bolt nut groove

ï Robust Backend (applies to 7&9 F/FA, 7FA+, and early 9FA+e)

ñThis modification improves overall compressor stability through numerous mods

ï Uncambered IGV (applies to 7 & 9 F-fleet)

ñ Improve contour of IGV blade thus reducing profile losses

Compressor

Uncambered IGV

ï Available as a one-piece IGV (replace during Major Inspection)

ï Also available as a two- piece IGV (replace during Combustion Inspection in 5-7 days with rotor in place)

ï New IGV improves compressor airflow and efficiency

ï Operates in same fashion as old IGV

ï New IGV set includes IGV gear - reuse existing IGV rack and ring

set includes IGV gear - reuse existing IGV rack and ring C L Gear Pin Set
set includes IGV gear - reuse existing IGV rack and ring C L Gear Pin Set

C L

Gear Pin
Gear
Pin

Set Screw

1-Piece IGV (Top Half)

IGV rack and ring C L Gear Pin Set Screw 1-Piece IGV (Top Half) Jack Shaft

Jack Shaft

Cap Screw

Washer

2-Piece IGV (Bottom Half)

Compressor Stability Modifications

Old Design Centerline Stage 13 wheel Stage 17 wheel (aft stub shaft) 7 2 8
Old Design
Centerline
Stage 13 wheel
Stage 17 wheel (aft stub shaft)
7
2
8
3
1
6
Robust Back End
4
5
Centerline
9

Enhancements:

1. Bigger Better Fillet = Nut groove filet radius enhancement

2. HPP has new axial position and changed to honeycomb seal

3. Tie bolt thread change to 12 per inch, refined undercut and shank undercuts. Using Lessons Learned from 3rd turbine subassembly bolt

redesign.

4 & 5. Solid wheels on Stages 16 and 17 to thermally match wheels and control the rabbet fillet.

6. Stage 15 bore sized for improved rabbet engagement and fillet stress.

7. Larger fillet radius to improve load distribution.

8. Solid bolt faces Stages 15 and 16 for increased rotor transient stiffness.

9. Solid Stage 14 for increased load carrying capability, to support solid inertia belt.

11

STG

Rotor

Reversed Marriage Flange

CASSCASS

Before

Female

DP

Male

Identified as potential problem area based on reanalysis

Legend:

CASS - Comp. Aft Stub Shaft DP - Distance Piece STG 1 - stage 1 turbine wheel

After

Reversed Marriage Flange Rabbet (Moved Radically Outward)

Male

Female

Marriage flange reversed rabbet design (rework distance piece).

Rotor

Thrust Bearing

Unit Centerline Aft Thrust Bearing ( Active ) Airflow
Unit Centerline
Aft Thrust Bearing
( Active )
Airflow

ï New aft thrust bearing required to handle increased rotor thrust

ï Cooling oil feed orifices must be resized

ï Most significant impact on thrust is FA+e stage 1 bucket

ï 96k # / 170k # thrust brg. Load Rating for the 7F/FA & 9F/FA respectively

ï 170k # / 236.6k # thrust brg. Load Rating for the 7FA+e & 9FA+e respectively

Combustor

DLN 2.6e & 2.0+ Combustion System - 9ppm Nox

Combustor DLN 2.6e & 2.0+ Combustion System - 9ppm Nox End Cover With Integral Fuel Nozzles

End Cover With Integral Fuel Nozzles

System - 9ppm Nox End Cover With Integral Fuel Nozzles Pre-Mix Cap DLN Liner Uprate Changes:

Pre-Mix Cap

- 9ppm Nox End Cover With Integral Fuel Nozzles Pre-Mix Cap DLN Liner Uprate Changes: ï

DLN Liner

Uprate Changes:

ï New liner arrangement

ï Cap assembly and aft case

ï Transition piece arrangement

ï Fuel nozzles

ï Combustion chamber arrangement

ï Sparkplugs

ï Control valves

ï Pulsed Water Wash System

ï Reuter-Stokes flame detection system

ï Piping modifications

Turbine

FA+e Stage 1 Nozzle

Turbine FA+e Stage 1 Nozzle FA+e added TBC and Cooling Holes Inner Side Wall ï Redesigned
Turbine FA+e Stage 1 Nozzle FA+e added TBC and Cooling Holes Inner Side Wall ï Redesigned

FA+e added

TBC and

Cooling Holes

Inner Side Wall

ï Redesigned cooling hole configuration improves thermal stress resistance

ï Improved sealing using cloth seals and reverse retaining ring hooks

ï FSX-414 nozzle with TBC (porous ceramic) added to Sidewalls

ï Requires new nozzle support ring when being put into FA & FA+

Outer Side Wall

ring when being put into FA & FA+ Outer Side Wall FA+e: Increased Trailing Edge Flow

FA+e:

Increased

Trailing

Edge Flow

FA+e added

TBC

FA+e:

Increased Cooling Flow With Shaped Holes

Turbine

FA+e Stage 1 Bucket

Ceramic Top Coat

Serpentine

Cooling Revised Tip Cooling Turbulated Cooling Passages
Cooling
Revised
Tip Cooling
Turbulated
Cooling
Passages

Showerhead

LE cooling

Impingement

LE cooling

GT33 Bond Coat
GT33 Bond Coat
Substrate
Substrate

Aluminide

Coating

ImprovedImproved AirfoilAirfoil TipTip CoolingCooling

FAFA

Improved Airfoil Airfoil Tip Tip Cooling Cooling FA FA FA+e FA+e FA FA Round Round EDM/Stem

FA+eFA+e

Airfoil Airfoil Tip Tip Cooling Cooling FA FA FA+e FA+e FA FA Round Round EDM/Stem EDM/Stem
Airfoil Airfoil Tip Tip Cooling Cooling FA FA FA+e FA+e FA FA Round Round EDM/Stem EDM/Stem

FAFA RoundRound

EDM/StemEDM/Stem

FA+eFA+e EllipticalElliptical CastCast (45(45 Holes)Holes)

ReducedReduced StressStress TrailingTrailing EdgeEdge

ï Airfoil rotated closed for better aerodynamics

ï Improved cooling using leading edge (LE) impingement and film cooling, shower head LE cooling, and active tip cooling

ï Airfoil has DenseDense VerticallyVertically CrackedCracked (DVC) Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) Advantages of TBC :

- TBC reduces heating in metal substrate by ~ 150F - The cooling flow reduction is ~ 15% in the 9FA+e

Turbine

FA+e Stage 1 Shroud

Inner and Outer shroud

ï

has cloth seal design for

FA FA+e e
FA
FA+e
e
improved sealing ï ï
improved sealing
ï
ï

Inner shroud has improved

cooling through backside impingement and film cooling on an enhanced heat transfer surface

Inner shroud has thermal barrier coating (TBC - porous ceramic) for improved thermal protection

(TBC - porous ceramic) for improved thermal protection Inner Shroud ï 2 piece shroud ï Eliminated
(TBC - porous ceramic) for improved thermal protection Inner Shroud ï 2 piece shroud ï Eliminated

Inner Shroud

ï 2 piece shroud

ï Eliminated pumpkin tooth design

ï Cloth seal design for improved sealing compared to the older pumpkin tooth design with q-tip, spline, and dogbone seals

ï Inner shroud has improved cooling through backside impingement and film cooling on an enhanced heat transfer surface

ï Inner shroud has (TBC - porous ceramic) for improved thermal protection

ï Special CM&U version of FA+e shroud used to accommodate differences in casings for F/FA/FA+ retrofits (stepped shroud) compared to current FA+e casings

Turbine

FA+e Stage 2 & 3 Shroud

Turbine FA+e Stage 2 & 3 Shroud Cloth Seals Honeycomb Insert ï Single piece shroud design
Turbine FA+e Stage 2 & 3 Shroud Cloth Seals Honeycomb Insert ï Single piece shroud design
Turbine FA+e Stage 2 & 3 Shroud Cloth Seals Honeycomb Insert ï Single piece shroud design

Cloth Seals

Turbine FA+e Stage 2 & 3 Shroud Cloth Seals Honeycomb Insert ï Single piece shroud design

Honeycomb

Insert

FA+e Stage 2 & 3 Shroud Cloth Seals Honeycomb Insert ï Single piece shroud design compared

ï Single piece shroud design compared to 2 piece F design

ï Added cloth seals for improved intersegment shroud sealing instead of dogbone seals

ï Added honeycomb insert at interface between shroud and bucket for improved stage efficiency

ï Honeycomb shroud requires new cutter tooth bucket. Must be purchased as a pair if new shroud is desired

Turbine

FA+e Stage 2 & 3 Buckets

Scalloping

Cutter Tooth Cooling Holes Leading Edge StageStage 22 BucketBucket Internal Cooling Air Flow
Cutter Tooth
Cooling Holes
Leading Edge
StageStage 22 BucketBucket
Internal
Cooling Air Flow
Edge StageStage 22 BucketBucket Internal Cooling Air Flow Cutter tooth ï Improved cooling for stage 2

Cutter tooth

22 BucketBucket Internal Cooling Air Flow Cutter tooth ï Improved cooling for stage 2 buckets ï
22 BucketBucket Internal Cooling Air Flow Cutter tooth ï Improved cooling for stage 2 buckets ï

ï Improved cooling for stage 2 buckets

ï Scalloped bucket tip shroud to reduce the tip stress and improve creep resistance to deformation

ï Added cutter tooth design for integration with honeycomb shroud to improve overall stage efficiency

ï Cutter tooth bucket may be installed without installing honeycomb shroud

ï Stage 3 bucket remains uncooled

Turbine

FA+e Stage 2 & 3 Nozzles

Turbine FA+e Stage 2 & 3 Nozzles Stage 2: ï Newly designed core plug for optimized
Turbine FA+e Stage 2 & 3 Nozzles Stage 2: ï Newly designed core plug for optimized

Stage 2:

ï Newly designed core plug for optimized cooling air distribution for stage 2 nozzle

ï Cloth seals used for inter-segment sealing between nozzle and diaphragm

ï Better distribution of trailing edge cooling holes

ï GTD-222 nozzle material makes the nozzle resistant to oxidation

Stage 3:

ï Nozzle cooling air extracted from compressor stage 9 instead of previously used stage 13

ï Cloth seals used instead of dogbone seals between the nozzle and diaphragm segments

ï GTD-222 nozzle material makes the nozzle resistant to oxidation

Other

Off Base Modifications

ï New LCI (Load Commutated Inverter) (applies to 7 & 9 F/FA)

ï Due to the new compressor characteristics, the starting means capacity must increase to handle larger starting torque

ï New Inlet Bleed Heat System - IBH (applies to 7 & 9 F-fleet)

ï Turbine and combustor operability rely on the redesigned High Pressure system and associated Control system changes

ï New Pulsed Water Wash System (applies to 7 & 9 F-fleet)

ñ 50% reduction of total water volume used for off-line washing

ñ Increased drainage area keep water out of combustor

ñ Design does not require disconnection the gas fuel pigtails which significantly reduces overall time to perform water wash

ï Controls Modifications

ï Piping Modifications

7FA+e Performance

The following performance is a result of putting 7FA+e parts into the older fleet

Put into F Ä Output (%) Put into F Put into FA Put into FA
Put into F
Ä Output (%)
Put into F
Put into FA
Put into FA
Ä Heat Rate (%)
Ä Output (%)
Ä Heat Rate (%)
FA+e Stage 1 Nozzle
No Engineering Approval
No Engineering Approval
+0.43
+0.02
FA+e Stage 1 Bucket
Insignificant Performance Ä
Insignificant Performance Ä
+0.54
-0.49
FA+e Stage 1 Shroud
+1.16
-0.53
+1.07
-0.46
FA+e Stage 2 Nozzle
Insignificant Performance Ä
Insignificant Performance Ä
Insignificant Performance Ä
Insignificant Performance Ä
FA+e Stage 2 Bucket
Insignificant Performance Ä
Insignificant Performance Ä
Insignificant Performance Ä
Insignificant Performance Ä
FA+e Stage 2 Shroud
+0.31
-0.23
+0.45
-0.38
FA+e Stage 3 Nozzle
Insignificant Performance Ä
Insignificant Performance Ä
Insignificant Performance Ä
Insignificant Performance Ä
FA+e Stage 3 Bucket
Insignificant Performance Ä
Insignificant Performance Ä
Insignificant Performance Ä
Insignificant Per formance Ä
FA+e Stage 3 Shroud
+0.27
-0.23
+0.30
-0.25
Increase IGV Angle
(88 to 90)
+0.45
+0.05
+0.45
+0.05
UnCambered IGV (88C* to 89U*)
+1.84
-0.30
+1.84
-0.30
HPP Inner Barrel Brush Seal**
+0.70
-0.35
+0.55
-0.20
* Legend:
C
~ Cambered
U
~ UnCam bered

HPP ~ High Pressure Packing

** Notes:

HPP Brush Seal applies to those compressors which have NOT been modified to the ìRobust Back Endî

9FA+e Performance

The following performance is a result of putting 9FA+e parts into the older fleet

Put into F Ä Output (%) Put into F Ä Heat Rate (%) Put into
Put into F
Ä Output (%)
Put into F
Ä Heat Rate (%)
Put into FA
Ä Output (%)
Put into FA
Ä Heat Rate (%)
FA+e Stage 1 Nozzle
No Engineering Approval
No Engineering Approval
+0.61
-0.07
FA+e Stage 1 Bucket
Insignificant Performance Ä
Insignificant Performance Ä
+0.23
-0.34
FA+e Stage 1 Shroud
+0.92
-0.43
+0.87
-0.38
FA+e Hybrid Stage 2 Nozzle
+0.21
-0.27
+0.38
-0.43
FA+e Stage 2 Bucket
Insignificant Performance Ä
Insignificant Performance Ä
Insignificant Performance Ä
Insignificant Performance Ä
FA+e Stage 2 Shroud
+0.28
-0.23
+0.42
-0.37
FA+e Stage 3 Nozzle
Insignificant Performance Ä
Insignificant Performance Ä
Insignificant Performance Ä
Insignificant Performance Ä
FA+e Stage 3 Bucket
Insignificant Performance Ä
Insignificant Performance Ä
Insignificant Performance Ä
Insignificant Performance Ä
FA+e Stage 3 Shroud
+0.11
-0.13
+0.13
-0.15
Increase IGV Angle
(88 to 90)
+0.45
+0.05
+0.45
+0.05
UnCambered IGV (88C* to 89U*)
+1.84
-0.30
+1.84
-0.30
HPP Inner Barrel Brush Seal**
+0.75
-0.35
+0.60
-0.20
* Legend:
C
~ Ca mbered
U
~ UnCambered

HPP ~ High Pressure Packing

** Notes:

HPP Brush Seal applies to those compressors which have NOT been modified to the ìRobust Back Endî

Uprate Options - Flexibility

Summary

ï Engineering has completed extensive reviews and has approved interchangeability of FA+e parts being put in F/FA/FA+ vintage units (except S1N into a F)

ï Full Uprate includes all new HGP, combustion system, and latest compressor modifications

ï GE can upgrade every nozzle, bucket, or shroud independently as needed

ï Compressor design changes improve reliability and overall stability

ï New combustion system offers best emission on the market (9 ppm Nox)

ï Strong performance gains (due to increased firing temperature (to 2420F), improved cooling & sealing technology, and increased compressor airflow ñ unit specific performance evaluated in uprate proposal

ï FA+e technology is a direct result of CR&D and Aircraft Engine development