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CE 397: Paste and Concrete Rheology, Unique #15585 - Professor R. Ferron

HomeWork #2

Problem 1: Two fresh concrete mixtures were found to have the same apparent viscosity when measured in a mixer at a
specified rotation velocity.
(a) Do the mixes necessarily have the same rheological properties?
(b) If not, discuss what could be the differences. If so, discuss what are the same.
Not necessarily, because knowing that the apparent viscosity supposes that at a specific point on the
curve, flow behavior of a non-Newtonian material is compared to a Newtonian, it is possible that
the concrete present same viscosity and different rheological behavior. The yield stress can be
different, and a concrete can has a thickening behavior (dilatant), while another can has a thinning
(fluxing), since at one point, the flow curves of different concrete intersect, and may have the same
plastic viscosity, as shown in Figure 1.

Figure 1: Flow curves and apparent viscosity.

Problem 2: Read: The two papers posted about yield stress on blackboard.
Answer the following questions:
1. Why do you think Evans felt the need to write his letter to the editor?
I think Evans wrote the letter because he has an alternative definition for the yield stress. For Evans the
definition that the yield stress is myth is thus too demanding to match with reality while the total
acceptance of its existence is too arbitrary to be of fundamental significance. The author believes that the
existence of an essentially horizontal region in a double-logarithmic plot of stress versus strain rate is the
most satisfactory criterion for the existence of a yield stress.

2. What examples did Barnes and Walters give to support their point of view? Do you think these were good examples?
Why/Why not?
The authors presented two examples. The first concerns a commercially available PVA latex adhesive.
Using a conventional rheometer, like the Weissenberg Rheogoniometer, it is difficult to obtain accurate
results at low shear rates, and might be tempted to conclude that the material has a yield stress. However,
the availability of results at very low shear rates shows a Newtonian plateau, characteristic of standard shear
thinning fluids.
A further is a 0.5% solution of Carbopol, a well known thickening agent for aqueous systems.
I consider good examples because clarified the point of view of the authors.

3. What examples did Evans give to support his point of view? Do you think these were good examples? Why/Why not?
The author showed just conceptual flow curves.
I think the author's point of view would be best explained with real examples, as the Barnes and Walters. So
was not a good example. The explanation was confused and without objectivity.

4. What are your thoughts about yield stress? Do you side with Barnes and Walters or Evans? Why? What example can
you give to support your decision? (feel free to cite papers in the literature)
I believe there flow both above and below of called "yield stress". Therefore, I agree with Barnes and
This idea has been discussed by many researchers. Historically, the idea of "yield stress" came up the
inability of the equipment available to carry out measurements in very low shear rates, apparently the
existence of a critical stress, below which the viscosity was infinite. However, providing adequate and
accurate enough equipment, it is observed that, below the called "yield stress", the viscosity may increase
by many orders of magnitude a very short period of stress.

Nevertheless, it is recognized that the definition of yield stress is very useful for a variety of applications,
when carefully defined. BOTELLA (2005)1 suggests that a liquid flow point is defined as the point where,
by decreasing the stress applied, the liquid appears to show a behavior similar to a solid, wherein the
deformation is very subtle.
Botella (2005) cites as an example a suspension: Al2O3 en fraction with a volume of 0.5 solids dispersed in
tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide at pH = 11. The first figure (Figure 2) suggests that there is an infinite
viscosity under a certain yield stress value. However, when the same mixture is tested on a device with
greater sensitivity (Figure 3), there is a finite viscosity value.

Figure 2: Flow curve and viscosity variation performed on the equipment A. (BOTELLA, 2005)

Figure 3: Viscosity variation performed on the equipment B. (BOTELLA, 2005)

1 BOTELLA, R.M. Reologia de suspensions ceramicas. Consejo superior de investigaciones cientificas, Madrid, 2005.