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Ch 14.

Fluid Mechanics

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14-1. Density
Density ρ=m/V - kg/m3
1g/cm3=1000 kg/m3
Intrinsic to a material, independent of size & shape

Specific gravity ρ/ ρwater

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14-2. Pressure in a Fluid
Pressure in a fluid of uniform density (Static Case)

p2 - p1=-ρg(y2-y1)
p=po+ ρgh

Pressure is the same for any 2 points at the same level


in the fluid.
Gauge pressure:
Excess pressure above atmospheric pressure

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Pascal’s Law
Pressure applied to an enclosed fluid is transmitted undiminished to
every portion of the fluid and the walls of the container.

Application in hydraulic lift

F1 F2
p= =
A1 A2

A2
F2 = F1
A1

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14-3. Buoyancy

Archimedes’ Principle:
When a body is completely or partially immersed in a fluid, the fluid exerts an
upward force on the body equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the body.

B=ρfluid gVdisplaced fluid

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Surface Tension

Liquid alone
tends to minimize its surface area

Liquid in contact with solid Capillarity

Wetting Non-wetting Wetting Non-wetting

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14-4. Fluid Flow
Ideal fluid: incompressible (ρ const.) & no internal friction (viscosity)

Laminar flow:
adjacent layers of fluid slide
smoothly & flow steadily
Turbulent flow:
irregular & chaotic flow
no steady-state pattern
Denser streamlines, higher speed
Continuity Equation
Incompressible fluid:
dm1=dm2 (ρA1v1dt= ρA2v2dt)
A1v1= A2v2

Volume flow rate: dV/dt=Av

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14-5. Bernoulli’s Equation
For incompressible, steady flow of a fluid with no viscosity

1 1
p1 + ρgy1 + ρv12 = p2 + ρgy 2 + ρv2 2
2 2

Links pressure p, height y, flow speed v

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Special Cases of Bernoulli’s Equation
Special case #1:

p1=p2
1
ρgy1 + ρv12 = ρgy 2
2
Torricelli’s theorem: v1 = 2 g ( y 2 − y1 )

Special case #2:


Same height:
1 1
p1 + ρv1 = p 2 + ρv2
2 2

2 2
Where the speed is high, the pressure is low.

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Applications of Bernoulli’s Principle

Dec. 17, 1903: First flights by Wright brothers.

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