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1 JANUARY 2014

VOL 51 • ISSUE 1

IHS Jane’s Defence Weekly


F-X factor

Gripen triumphs in Brazil




THE 10™


5 th -8™ MAY


jin Monot/French Navy: 1513256

IHS™Jane’s Defence Weekly

IHS Jane’



VOLUME 51 ISSUE NO 1 • 1 January 2014



» On the cover

After a decade of on/off competition. Saab has been

selected to fulfil Brazil's F-X2

fighter contest with its Gripen E.

(See page 4)

» On the web

France has ordered nine ECUME boats for the

French Navy's special forces.


Asia Pacific

Brazil purchases additional Guaranis

4 Brazil selects Gripen E to meet F-X2


Huangdican AB imagery shows scope of

Russia starts construction of Bulava SLBM storage facilities


Chinese carrier ambitions

Australia and New Zealand look to greater

5 Congress approves two-year deal, relieves


Australia promises review of AWD programme

procurement harmony

sequester United Arab Emirates rejects Typhoon

Philippines to further upgrade cutters

Rogozin details plans for Russia's next SAP and defence industry


Middle East/Africa

Boeing rearranges executive ranks

6 Initial design of UK’s Successor SSBNs revealed 8 Major procurements drive Tokyo’s new defence policy

11 EU to review military pooling and sharing following defence summit Russia ‘deploys Iskander to Kaliningrad’

20 Syria retains deep-strike capability African Union peacekeepers to get C3I system

21 Saudi national guard air wing takes shape


The Americas

22 Russia considers new space weapons company


Sikorsky, Aurora win DARPA X-Plane

Hellenic Defence Systems cuts confirmed


23 Japan publishes guidance for defence exports

USAF says CRH prospects are poor Brazil pushes ahead with corvette project

24 Turkey amends rules to allow single-source bidding


Rand report: F-35 programme does not

save money US helo crashes in Afghanistan


Venezuela to receive 10 Dornier 228s


BRIC watching: Brazil, Russia, India, and


14 UK firms up UOR-to-core vehicle numbers Sukhoi delivers final Su-34s to Russia

15 Aero Vodochody announces new L-169 trainer development Saab contracted for Gripen E build

China are continuing to develop manned airborne surveillance aircraft. Martin Streetly reports


34 Commander Angus Essenhigh, Commanding Officer, HMS Daring (UK Royal Navy)

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Royal Navy stands down Sea King training unit

Sweden receives first upgraded NH90 helicopter

100th F-35 rolls off production line

Austal USA launches sixth US Navy Littoral Combat Ship

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4 | Jane's Defence Weekly 1 January 2014

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Brazil selects Gripen to meet F-X2 requirement



After more than 10 years of discussions, Brazilian President Dilma Rousseff has finally decided to purchase the Swedish Saab Gripen E multirole fighter aircraft for the Brazilian Air Force (FAB) to meet its F-X2 programme. Defence Minister Celso Amorim and FAB Commander Brigadier Juniti Saito made the official announcement at a press conference on 18 December. The decision to finally end the wait over which one of the three remaining bidders - the French Dassault Rafale, the US Boeing F-18E/F Super Hornet, and the Swedish Saab Gripen E (formerly NG) - would secure the contract for the 36 F-X2 fighters came suddenly following an end-of-year ceremony on 18 December involving Dilma and senior military officers. In the end, the outcome of one of the lengthiest military tenders in Brazilian his­ tory was a simple process of deduction. The French Rafale, of which the initial pack­ age reached USD8 billion, was deemed too expensive. It later emerged that the Brazil­ ian president informed French President Frangois Hollande, after his efforts earlier in December to persuade Brazil to buy the Rafale, that Brazil would not place the con­ tract with France. While Boeing offered an attractive pack­ age, budgeted at around USD7.5 billion with many benefits, the souring of relations between Brazil and the United States linked to the alleged activities of the US National Security Agency made it politically unviable. Thus Gripen moved to the fore. In fact in December 2009 the FAB had declared that the Gripen was its preferred choice. Speaking after the announcement, Brig Saito said: “We have never lost hope that this day would finally come after all the suffering particularly for our young fighter pilots, but perseverance, unity, and unconditional sup­ port from everyone has finally given us the key to our victory.” According to Amorim, the 36 Gripens are to cost Brazil about USD4.5 billion. He added that the decision to choose the

> Saab’s Gripen E has been selected for Brazil’s F-X2 programme

i Brazil’s defence minister said the 36 Gripens will cost about USD4.5 billion

Artist’s impression of the Gripen E that Brazil has chosen to meet its F-X2 requirement.

Swedish aircraft took into account its perfor­ mance, the degree of technology transfer, and the cost. The acquisition of the aircraft will, how­ ever, take some time and the fighters will be delivered through to 2023. “Brazil’s aeronau­ tic division will discuss the contract in detail

and we all know that something like this is time consuming,” said Amorim.

The transfer of all technological know-how related to the aircraft will also be defined during this discussion phase, along with more minute details of the contract. It is estimated that the formalisation of the purchase will take about 10-12 months, with the first aircraft arriving 48 months after the contract is signed. Saab outlined its offer in 2011 as a ‘no risk’ fixed price for F-X2 aircraft set either in euros, US dollars, or Swedish kroner, accord­ ing to Brazil’s preference. The first payment will not become due

until six months after the final aircraft of the planned first batch of 36 is delivered. Brazil

will then have up to 15 years to pay the full F-X2 acquisition cost. ■


Brazilian F-X2 deal gives fresh impetus to Saab’s Sea Gripen concept,


Saab secures Gripen E Meteor integration funding, 19.12.13

UK to reap F-X2 dividend, 19.12.13

For further insight and analysis go to

Congress approves two-year deal, relieves sequester



Congress has passed budget legislation that breaks a three-year impasse over government funding and provides the Department of Defense (DoD) with two years of relief from ‘sequestration’. The 2013 Bipartisan Budget Act, which was approved by the House of Representa­ tives on 12 December and the Senate on 18 December, is a two-year deal meant to keep the US government running and avoid the

sort of fiscal standoffs in Congress that led to

a government shutdown at the beginning of

FiscalYear 2014 (FY14) in October. The legislation, which must be signed by

President Barack Obama to be enacted, raises the mandated caps for discretionary ‘national defence’ budget authority to USD520.5 bil­ lion in FY14 and USD 521.4 billion in FY15, and added USD 1.2 6 billion to the FY14 Over­ seas Contingency Operations (OCO) account for warfighting costs. Those budget caps were required by the 2011 Budget Control Act’s sequestration mechanism that was implemented in March

after Republicans and Democrats could not agree upon debt cutting measures. New caps for the next two years essentially add USD22.38 billion this year and USD9.33 billion next year to sequestration’s ceilings:

USD498.1 billion in FY14 and USD512 bil­ lion in FY15 for ‘national defence’. According to IHS Jane’s estimates, the DoD and intelligence community represent 95.5% of the national defence budget authority, but this funding category also includes a variety of other departments and agencies. Sequestration’s caps on the DoD’s budget authority for FY14 were projected to have been about USD475 billion, but now are likely to be around USD497 billion (95.5% of USD520.5 billion). The DoD’s base budget in FY13 was just over USD490 billion after sequestration. The deal, reached by the leaders of the House and Senate budget committees, under­ wrote the near-term sequestration relief by extending certain cuts from the 2011 Budget Control Act, by raising airline fees, increas­ ing costs to guarantee pensions, and slowing cost-of-living increases by 1% for certain mili­ tary retirees under 62, among other things. ■



Earlier this year lawmakers were unable to reach a budget deal and therefore triggered the ‘sequestration’ mechanism created by the 2011 Budget Control Act, causing a sudden reduction in the DoD’s FY13 budget that led to several days of furlough for civilian employ­ ees and curtailed a range of training events for the military services.

A base budget of USD527.5 billion was enacted in FY13 for the DoD but sequestration, according to the Pentagon, reduced that by USD37.2 billion, The department has been operating in FY14 under a stop-gap funding measure, called a Continuing Resolution, that funds the department at about last year’s level. That measure was set to expire on 15 January 2014. Lawmakers were politically compelled to pass this legislation on time and not wait until potential failure or postponement just before their deadline. The many budget showdowns and missed deadlines over the past three years have angered the US elec­ torate and Congress is hoping to move past these battles before elections in November 2014. Still, enactment of the 2013 Bipartisan Budget Act does not fully prevent a government shutdown on 16 January 2014 and an omnibus appropriations bill must still be passed by Congress and signed by

the president before 15 January 2014.

United Arab Emirates rejects Typhoon proposal

BAE Systems has confirmed that discus­ sions with the United Arab Emirates (UAE) concerning the supply of Eurofighter Typhoon aircraft have been terminated. “The UAE have advised that they have

elected not to proceed with these proposals

at this time,” the UK-headquartered company

said in a statement after markets closed on 19 December. “All parties have invested significant effort in drawing up Typhoon proposals for the UAE and, recognising the risk, scale, and complexity of such a transaction, [BAE Systems] had not built this prospect into its planning assump­ tions. BAE Systems stands ready to work with the UAE to address any future requirements.” BAE Systems had been in discussions with the UAE since 2011 concerning the supply of 60 Typhoon aircraft, but reports in recent weeks that talks had reached deadlock hit the

group’s share price.










The UAE issued a request for proposals (RfP) in November 2011 calling for the provision of 60 combat aircraft and a training package for 90 pilots to be in place by 2017.

The request called for bids from Euro­ fighter for the Typhoon and Boeing for the F-15 Eagle and F/A-18E/F Super Hornet. The RfP had been viewed as a surprise given that the UAE had been in advanced talks with France concerning the acquisition of Dassault Rafale aircraft. However, the Rafale remained in the running following the issu­

ance of the RfP. The requirement for the 60 combat aircraft may be open to question, however. It was announced by the US in April 2013 that the UAE would be provided with an additional 2 5 F-16E/F Block 60 Desert Falcon aircraft under a USD 5 billion package. That accord - which would augment an inventory of 55 single-seat F-16E and 24 twin-seat F-16F units - is itself awaiting contract signature. Guy Anderson Jane’s Senior Principal Industry Analyst, London, & Marina Malenic Jane’s Industry Reporter, Washington, DC

Crown Copyright: 1525767


Initial design of UK’s Successor SSBNs revealed

For further insight and analysis go to

The UK MoD has revealed the first concept image

of the planned Successor class of SSBNs.


The UK Ministry of Defence (MoD) has unveiled the first image of the Royal Navy’s (RN’s) planned new class of nuclear powered ballistic missile submarines (SSBNs), alongside the announcement on 16 December of procure­ ment contracts for the first long lead items for the vessels. Based on the image released, the Successor class will include several innovations in hull-form and control from previous UK submarine designs. Notable

design features include an X-stern rudder arrangement,

a bowplane located below the waterline (when surfaced), and a fiercely raked sail design. Another notable feature of the design displayed is that the bow of the hull is prominently curved

• The design of the UK Royal Navy’s Successor-class SSBN includes several innovations in hull-form and control

• The Successor design will be slightly larger than the current Vanguard class

along the longitudinal axis of the boat: a curve that continues until roughly halfway through the sail, judging by the image released. The picture is representative of the current state of the design for the Successor SSBNs, which are planned to replace the RN’s exist­ ing Vanguard-class SSBNs and will operate the Trident D5 subma­ rine-launched intercontinental ballistic missile (SLBM). At about 17,000 tons displacement, the Successor design will be slightly

larger than the current Vanguard class, although it will remain com­ patible with extant infrastructure (such as the shiplift facility at HM

Naval Base Clyde).

The design rendering issued is “not 100% representative of the final Successor design”, a BAE Sys­ tems spokesperson told IHS Jane’s, with the image intended to show “how the early designs of Succes­ sor are taking shape”, according to the MoD. The image was released along­ side the announcement of two new contracts worth GBP47 mil­ lion and GBP32 million awarded to BAE Systems for the first long lead items for the Successor programme. The contracts cover castings and forgings, structural fittings, electrical equipment, and secondary propulsion equip-

Uganda deploys troops to Juba

The Ugandan military con­ firmed on 20 December that it was deploying troops to Juba, the capital of South Sudan, as reports of increasingly system­ atic killing of ethnic Nuer there heightened fears that the country could descend into a full-blown civil war. Tensions have been growing since July, when the Nuer leader Riek Machar was dismissed as vice-president and subsequently emerged as the leader of a dis­ sident faction of the ruling Sudan People’s Liberation Movement.

6 | Jane’s Defence Weekly 1 January 2014

The fighting began on 15 December after Machar and

other senior dissidents failed to attend a high-level meeting

of the ruling party. It initially focused on the army barracks on the outskirts of Juba that houses the elite Tiger forces of the Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA) and seems to have been sparked by reported orders to arrest Machar and disarm his loyalists. The fighting between the Tigers that remained loyal to Machar and those that support President Salva Kir, an ethnic

Dinka, then quickly spread to the army headquarters and

another barracks in the capital as government officials accused

the dissidents of launching an attempted coup. The SPLA had restored control in Juba by 19 December after more than 120 soldiers and an estimated 500 civilians were killed. A dozen dissident politi­ cians were arrested, but Machar remained at large at the time of writing. Heavy fighting also broke out

in Jonglei state, where Peter

ment, according to the MoD. Additional contracts have also been placed with US contractors, with a further GBP52 million being spent on elements of the vessel’s nuclear propulsion and GBP31 million on long lead items for the vessels’ missile tubes. The value of the contracts announced on 16 December is included within the earlier announced GBP533 million in funding approval for the Suc­ cessor vessels: part of the Initial Gate decision in 2011. The Successor class is currently three years through its planned five-year design and development process, with the Main Gate deci­ sion on this expected in 2016. ■

fgf Go to for more

Gadet, a former rebel com­ mander who had been integrated

into the SPLA, defected with his forces to support Machar. As of

20 December, these rebels were

in control of the town of Bor as fighting continued in other areas

of Jonglei. Although SPLA units are ethni­ cally mixed and deployed outside their home regions, many soldiers in Jonglei deserted their bases to join their respective fac­ tions. On 19 December a UN base in eastern Jonglei was overrun by Nuer soldiers and three peace­ keepers were killed.

Anna Reuss JDW Correspondent, Kampala

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Major procurements drive Tokyo’s new defence policy





ber of regional units from eight


divisions to five and six brigades to two. In the regional units’ place

Japan has announced plans to spend JPY24.7 trillion yen (USD240 billion) on new mat­ eriel over the next five years to build a ‘Dynamic Joint Def­ ense Force’ that can maintain air and maritime superiority around its islands in the East China Sea and better respond to ‘grey zone’ situations. The spending outline, pub­ lished by the Ministry of Defence (MoD) on 17 December, is a 5% increase on the MoD’s existing budget and includes plans to buy 17 tilt-rotor aircraft, three high- altitude long-endurance (HALE) unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs),

52 amphibious assault vehicles, and other capability enhance­

ments across all three services. The MoD said that it could make further purchases to build

a “highly effective and integrated

defence capability” if it can realise savings of JPY7 trillion. The plans are part of the 2013 National Defense Program Guidelines (NDPG): Tokyo’s version of a defence White Paper and the first to be published since December 2010. The new NDPG outlines Japan’s defence procure­ ment plans and military strategy from 2014-19. The NPDG was published alongside a National Security Strategy (NSS) - Japan’s first such document. The NSS stated that Japan needed to enhance its defensive posture in the southwest of the country - in

particular the Nansei island chain that includes Okinawa - because

a “shift in the balance of power”

in the Asia-Pacific region was cre­

ating “grey zone” situations that were “neither pure peacetime

8 | Jane’s Defence Weekly 1 January 2014

• Japan has published plans to spend JPY24.7 trillion on new platforms in the next five years

• Tokyo will buy tilt-rotor aircraft, HALE UAVs, more destroyers, and establish an amphibious rapid-reaction force to deter any attempts to invade its offshore islands

nor contingencies over territorial sovereignty and interests”. There is a risk that these ‘grey zone’ situations “could further develop into grave situations”, the NSS added. The NDPG and related briefing

documents suggest that in most cases Japan is reorganising rather than increasing the size of its armed forces. For example, the Japan Ground

Self-Defense Force (JGSDF) will reduce its heavy armour and artil­ lery from about 700 main battle tanks (MBTs) and 600 howitzers to about 300 MBTs and 300 how­ itzers, as well as cutting the num­

the JGSDF will stand up three rapid deployment divisions, four rapid deployment brigades, one

airborne brigade, one helicopter brigade, and one amphibious rapid deployment brigade. Acquisitions for the JGSDF include: 99 Maneuver Combat Vehicles (a wheeled 105 mm gun that was unveiled in mid-2013);

17 tilt-rotor aircraft - likely to be

the Bell-Boeing MV-22 Osprey; five more CH-47JA Chinook heavy-lift helicopters; and 52 amphibious assault vehicles. Although it is not clearly stated, it is likely that this will be based on the US Marine Corps’ AAV- 7A1, despite it being no longer in production in the United States. The Japan Maritime Self- Defense Force (JMSDF) is increasing its combined destroyer and frigate fleet from 47 to 54 ships and adding another two ships to its fleet of six Aegis-equipped ballistic missile defence destroyers. It also plans to purchase 10 Kawasaki P-1

Japan has announced plans to buy 17 tilt-rotor aircraft. The only viable candidate is the Bell-Boeing V-22 Osprey, seen here landing on the deck of Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force helicopter destroyer JS Hyuga (DDH 181) in June 2013.

maritime patrol aircraft (MPA), 26 Sikorsky-Mitsubishi SH-60K patrol helicopters, and five more AgustaWestland MCH101 mine- sweeping and transport helicop­ ters. As previously announced, it is increasing its submarine fleet from 16 to 22 boats through upgrades to older platforms. The JGSDF will also increase its number of coastal anti-ship mis­ sile batteries and medium-range surface-to-air missile sites. The Japan Air Self-Defense Force (JASDF) will reorganise some airborne early warning and control (AEW&C) groups into squadrons and convert one air reconnaissance squadron into a fighter squadron to give it 13

fighter squadrons. It is doubling its aerial refuelling capability to two squadrons - possibly via upgrades to C-l 3 OH transport aircraft - and increasing its fighter fleet from 260 to 280 aircraft. In addition, it plans to continue upgrades to its Mitsubishi-Boeing F-l 5J multi­ role fighters and its F-16-based Mitsubishi-Lockheed Martin F-2 air-superiority fighters. The NDPG also states the importance of improving Japan’s persistent intelligence, surveil­ lance, and reconnaissance (ISR) around the Nansei island chain. To do this the MoD plans to upgrade some land-based radars and deploy systems to new areas, such as Yonaguni island - the country’s westernmost island. A briefing paper also suggested that

Japan is examining upgrading its military capabilities in its Pacific

islands - such as Iwoto (Iwojima). Another element of improved ISR is the HALE UAV programme, which is likely to involve pur­ chasing three Northrop Grum­ man RQ-4 Global Hawk systems,

5 although it is not clear which I version the JASDF will opt for. | Given the maritime environ­ ment in which the systems will be operating, it is possible that Tokyo may opt for the MO _ 4C Triton variant. ■

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EU to review military pooling and sharing following defence summit

BROOKS TIGNER NATO and EU Affairs Correspondent


National leaders have issued cautious instructions to EU institutions to review how to accelerate military pool­ ing and sharing across the 28 member states, converge their national military require­ ments, and speed up financ­ ing of EU operations. These and other decisions, including a request for stronger security-of-supply arrangements across Europe, lay at the heart of the 19 December defence sum­ mit of EU leaders in Brussels. “Not only do these concrete projects serve security needs, they will also provide work to the defence industry, and that also

means jobs,” Herman Van Rom- puy, president of the European Council, said after the meeting. Jose Manuel Barroso, head of the European Commission, said a joint approach between the mem­

ber states and the EU is impera­ tive. “The Commission is ready to

bring its support to our member states’ actions through an appro­ priate regulatory framework and by exploiting the dual-use [civil- military] potential of our research programmes,” he said. In their final conclusions the leaders called on EU institu­ tions to explore the potential to build on existing initiatives by the Commission and European

Defence Agency (EDA) and to launch new ones. The leaders’ new decisions involve guidance to EU institu­

tions across a wide range of top­ ics. These comprise:

• instructions to the EDA to

frame policy ideas by the end

of 2014 to promote “greater

convergence of [national] capa­ bility needs and timelines” via

closer defence planning across the EU “in full coherence with” NATO defence planning;

• extension of the European Air Transport Command model for fixed-wing aircraft

to other areas of military

capability sharing. This could entail rotary-wing aircraft, the security of the EU’s exter­ nal frontiers, or maritime/


sealane surveillance;

• a request that the EDA exam­ ines how “non-market-distort­ ing” fiscal and other measures could be used to promote pooled procurement projects;

• a request to the EDA and the Commission by mid-2014 for a plan to develop defence industrial standards; and

• creation of a joint roadmap that leads to a comprehensive

EU-wide security-of-supply (SoS) regime that reflects “the

globalised nature of critical supply chains”. The existing ones include four EDA capability and research goals: development for 2020- 2025 of medium-altitude,

long-endurance, remotely piloted aircraft systems; creation of a fleet of air-to-air refuelling

aircraft jointly owned by national governments; new satellite communications capacities; and, finally, improved military-civil co-operation for cyber defence. ■

Russia ‘deploys Iskander to Kaliningrad’

Questions have emerged over whether Russia has deployed Iskander-M (SS-26 ‘Stone’) short-range ballistic missiles (SRBMs) to its Kaliningrad enclave following widespread media reports. The missile deployment was first reported on 17 December, although this was later denied by Russian President Vladimir Putin. The move would be the

latest step in the deteriorat­ ing relations between Russia and NATO, largely as a result of Russia’s objections to NATO’s ballistic missile defence (BMD) programme in Europe. Major General Igor Konash- enkov, head of the Ministry of Defence press service, confirmed to local media that Iskander missiles are currently deployed in Russia’s Western Military District, but fell short of confirm­

ing their deployment in Kalin­ ingrad. In quotes carried by state news agency RIA Novosti, Gen Konashenkov added that “the deployment of Iskander missile battalions on the territory of the Western Military District does not violate any respective inter­ national agreements”. Russia has suggested it may deploy Iskander systems to the Kaliningrad enclave and to Belarus since the Iskander entered service in 2005; reports of an imminent deployment to Kaliningrad have been made fairly regularly since late 2011. Russia sees NATO’s plans to place BMD interceptors in Poland and Romania as a direct threat to its own strategic deter­ rent and has been vociferous in its objections to the plans, despite NATO mollification that the BMD programme is aimed

at Iran, rather than Russia. The potential deployment of Iskander systems to Kaliningrad would be an overtly political move, although also operation­

ally significant in that it would place NATO’s planned Redzikowo SM-3 interceptor and SPY-1 radar site in Poland - which is roughly

200 km from the border of the

Kaliningrad enclave - within the SRBM’s range. Given the political impact of deloying the missiles to Kalin­ ingrad, keeping the Iskanders’ locations there secret would be illogical, which gives credence to Putin’s denial. Unlike Russia’s land-based

intercontinental ballistic missiles, operated by the Russian Strategic Missile Forces, the country’s SRBMs come under the control of the Russian Ground Forces.

A road-mobile system, each

Reports suggest

that Russia

has deployed Iskander SRBMs to its western Kaliningrad enclave.

Iskander-M fire unit carries two conventionally armed ballistic missiles, which are powered by a two-stage solid-propellant motor to a range of up to 400 km. A nuclear-armed version of the Iskander has been discussed, but no work on this is known to have taken place. Russia has understood to have fired several Iskanders during its short conflict with Georgia in August 2008. Nicholas de Larrinaga

JDW Europe Editor, London


For further insight and analysis go to

Brazil pushes ahead with corvette project

The Brazilian Navy’s Ship Design

Center was expected to select by

the end of 2013 a naval engi­ neering company to support the

development of a basic design project intended to generate a

locally built 2,400-tonne corvette.

The design project is slated to be completed around mid-2014, although this schedule could be delayed as some bidders have filed legal complaints. Construction of the first of a planned four-ship class (initially designated Cv03) is scheduled to begin by late 2014, with commission­ ing due in 2020. Each Cv03 has an estimated price of USD400 million, with one to be built every four years. In August 2012 a working group composed of top-ranking officials on the Joint Staff of the Armed Forces, Ministry of Defence (MoD), and Brazilian Navy - co-ordinated by the MoD's Department of Defense Prod­ ucts - began to study the feasibility of the corvette programme. The new vessel is to be a deriva­ tive of the Brazilian Navy’s Barroso (V 34) corvette (built by Arsenal de Marinha do Rio de Janeiro) and will be fitted with updated features and technologies.

Victor Barreira

JDW Correspondent, Lisbon

Sikorsky, Aurora win DARPA X-Plane contracts

CAITLIN LEE Senior Americas Aviation Reporter


Sikorsky and Aurora Flight Sciences have each won contracts from the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) to build a new X-Plane that combines the high-speed character­ istics of fixed-wing aircraft with the hover capability of helicopters. Under DARPA’s Phase 1 con­ tracts, these companies - and up

to two more still unannounced bidders - will spend the next 22

months developing a preliminary design for a vertical take-off and landing (VTOL) aircraft dubbed the VTOL X-Plane. The overall goal of the pro­ gramme is to build a demonstra­ tor aircraft and fly it in the fourth quarter of 2017. The programme is expected to last a total of 52 months and cost USD 130 mil­ lion. According to DARPA, this will be no easy feat, since the his­ tory ofVTOL aircraft is littered with attempts to achieve top speeds without adversely affect­ ing the aircraft’s lift. The Bell-BoeingV-22 Osprey tilt-rotor has achieved this goal to

• Sikorsky and Aurora Flight Sciences have each won contracts for DARPA’s VTOL X-Plane programme

• Boeing may have also won an award, but declined to comment until DARPA releases more information

some extent, but DARPA is look­ ing for something much faster, capable of flying at sustained speeds between 300-400 kt com­ pared with the Osprey’s cruising speed of241-257 kt. DARPA so far would only confirm awards to Sikorsky and

Sikorsky’s notional concept for DARPA’s VTOL X-Plane may be designed to take off and land on its tails, which appear to have landing gear on them.

Aurora Flight Sciences, since news of the awards has already been published in formal con­

tract notices. Bell Helicopter, which is part­ nered with Boeing on the V-22 Osprey, told IHS Jane’s that it

competed for a contract but was not selected. Boeing would neither confirm nor deny that it had received an award, saying it is waiting for DARPA to issue a formal notice. The company’s VTOL

X-Plane concept is known as ‘Phantom Swift’ and features

a combination of two open fans

on the body of the aircraft as well as tilting ducted fans on the wing tips. Aurora Flight Sciences con­

firmed that it had received a con­ tract award, but told IHS Jane’s that it would not offer any public details about its design. Sikorsky announced in a press release that it is teamed with Lockheed Martin’s Skunk Works

to pursue a design known as the

‘Unmanned Rotor Blown Wing Concept’, which integrates fixed-

wing dynamics with advanced rotor control. The company declined to provide further details on the design. ■

USAF says CRH prospects are poor

Despite outcries from mem­ bers of the US Congress and a former chief of staff, the US Air Force (USAF) has cau­ tioned that the outlook is grim in Fiscal Year 2015 (FY15) for a new Combat Rescue Helicop­ ter (CRH). Retired general Michael Moseley, the USAF chief of staff from 2005-08, said in an early

12 | Jane’s Defence Weekly 1 January 2014

December press briefing that recapitalising the USAF’s cur­ rent fleet of HH-60 Pave Hawks, which comprise the service’s combat rescue fleet, should be a top priority. His call was echoed in a 12 December letter from 74 US lawmakers to Secretary of Defense Chuck Hagel that implored the Pentagon to fund in FY15 the USAF’s CRH effort,

which would involve buying






the HH-60 fleet. Despite the outcry, General Mark Welsh, the current USAF chief of staff, said on 13 December that the fate of CRH still hinges on the ongoing discussion over com­ peting USAF priorities within the FY15 budget. ‘‘The air force has to recapital­

ise in certain mission areas,” he said. “The question is: in what order do we recapitalise as the

budgets come down?”


budget deal provides some fund­ ing relief to the Pentagon for the next two years, there is no guarantee that the money will be enough to pursue new-start programmes such as CRH. Caitlin Lee Senior Americas Aviation Reporter, Washington, DC




For further insight and analysis go to

Rand report: F-35 programme does not save money

CAITLIN LEE Senior Americas Aviation Reporter


The Lockheed Martin F-35 Lightning II Joint Strike Fighter

(JSF) programme, which invol­ ves three US military services and eight partner nations,

costs more than it would have for the three military services to pursue their own individual fighter programmes, accord­

ing to a new study. Rand Corporation’s Project

Air Force, which was founded in 1946 by US Air Force General

Hap Arnold, found that nine years past Milestone B - the start of the engineering, manufactur­ ing, and development phase -

F-35 life cycle costs were higher

than what they would have been if the services had pursued three separate fighter programmes.

The study found that the F-35 approach - which involves build­ ing a fighter to meet the needs

of the US Air Force, US Navy, and US Marine Corps - may cost more

in the long run due to increased technical complexity and risk.

• F-35 life cycle costs are higher than what they would have been if each US military service built its own fighter, according to a Rand report

• The report found that F-35 life cycle costs were high due to the increased technical complexity and risk associated with building a joint aircraft

“The tension between main­ taining maximum commonality and meeting different service requirements has been difficult to resolve in the JSF programme,

resulting in less common variants, greater technical complexity and risk, less optimisation for service

needs, and difficulty in achieving the promised savings in life cycle

costs,” the report said. The US-led F-35 joint pro­ gramme office declined to pro­

vide a comment on the report.

However, F-35 prime contrac­ tor Lockheed Martin said in a


statement that the report ‘uses

outdated cost estimates’. The study authors used selected acquisition reports (SARs) from the F-35 programme between the Milestone B deci­ sion in 2001 and the SAR from

December 2010. Rand found that at the point

of the Milestone B decision in 2001, F-35 acquisition costs

- estimated at USD 17 5 billion in Fiscal Year 2002 dollars for

2,852 jets - were indeed esti­

mated to be 25% cheaper than having three separate notional

fighter programmes. This was due to predicted savings in terms of research and development costs and savings achieved from common learning. However, nine years later, in 2010, F-35

acquisition costs were estimated at 10% higher than they would

have been if the US military had pursued three separate fighter programmes. The F-35’s life cycle costs - which were expected to be lower

due to savings from common

parts and maintenance - were also found to be higher nine years after Milestone B. Because of growth in the cost estimates for operations and support,

the F-35’s life cycle costs were estimated to be 6 5% higher than

three single-service fighter pro­

grammes. ■

Venezuela to receive 10 Dornier 228s

The Venezuelan government is to receive 10 Dornier 228 passenger

aircraft, Swiss company Ruag announced on 18 December.

The twin-turboprop aircraft will comprise eight Dornier 229 New Generation and two pre-owned Dornier 228-212 platforms, which

are being procured by the Venezuelan Air Force (Aviacion Militar Bolivari-

ana Venezolana - AMBV) to better

connect remote regions of the Latin American country. In their seated configuration they will be capable of

carrying 19 passengers plus crew. Ruag declined to comment to IHS

Jane’s on reports that these aircraft will be operated by the AMBV or on timelines for delivery. In March 2011 the AMBV

announced it was to procure eight Shaanxi Y-8 medium-lift transport aircraft in a bid to improve its airlift

capabilities. The Dornier 228s will augment these eight recently

received Shaanxi Y-8 medium-lift transport aircraft, the two Shorts 360-300s that Venezuela procured in 2000, and the 10 Cessna Turbo Stationairs and five Cessna Caravans

it received in 2006.

Gareth Jennings

Jane's Aviation Desk Editor, London

US helo crashes in Afghanistan

A US military helicopter

crashed on operations in eastern Afghanistan on 17 December, killing six of those

on board. The helicopter came down in Zabul Province after reportedly

suffering a technical malfunc­ tion to one of its engines. One person survived with injuries. At the time of writing, neither the US Department of Defense nor the International Security Assistance Force had disclosed

the type of helicopter involved

in this incident or the unit it belonged to. However, given the location and the number of personnel involved, it is likely to be either a US Army Sikorsky UH-60 Black Hawk or Boeing

CH-47 Chinook.

Since operations in Afghani­ stan began in late 2001, 136 military and contractor heli­

copters from all nationalities have been lost. Of these, 29 have been attributed to enemy

action. In addition, 50 mili­

tary and contractor fixed-wing aircraft have been lost, 7 of which were the result of hostile action. Besides the threat of enemy action, it should be noted that

Afghanistan is in itself a hostile

environment for rotary-wing operations. The extreme topog­

raphy and the ‘hot and high’ conditions mean helicopters are constantly operating at the very edge of their performance

Even without the threat of enemy action, Afghanistan is one of the most dangerous places in the world for conducting helicopter operations.

envelopes and as such have little margin of safety.

Gareth Jennings Jane’s

Aviation Desk Editor, London


For further insight and analysis go to

Germany surprises with new defence minister

Ursula von der Leyen has been appointed as Germany’s new defence minister as part of Chancellor Angela Merkel’s new cabinet, which came into effect on 17 December.

The move forms part of the coali­ tion government created, following federal elections in September, between Merkel’s Christian Demo­ crats and the Social Democrats. Change in the political leadership of the German Ministry of Defence has come as a surprise, with Thomas de Maiziere having been expected to retain the defence brief in Merkel’s third cabinet. Instead, De Maiziere will return to his previous role as interior minister, with Von der Leyen becoming the first female defence minister in German history. Von der Leyen is a veteran of Chancellor Merkel’s government, having served as a federal minister from the beginning in all previous cabinets led by Merkel. She was the Federal Minister of Family Affairs, Senior Citizens, Women and Youth from 2005-2009, and the Federal Minister of Labour and Social Affairs from 2009 until now.

Sebastian Schulte

JDW Correspondent, Bonn

UK firms up UOR-to-core vehicle numbers

TIM RIPLEY JDW Correspondent


Nearly 2,000 vehicles pur­ chased for the Afghanistan campaign with Urgent Op­ erational Requirement (UOR) funding are to be brought into the UK Ministry of Defence’s (MoD’s) core equipment pro­ gramme under a GBP300 mil­ lion (USD488 million) overhaul and conversion project. Confirmation of the num­ bers of vehicles and supporting equipment was made by the UK

Defence Equipment & Support (DE&S) organisation in the December issue of its in-house

• The UK will bring about 2,000 vehicles bought for use in Afghanistan into its core equipment fleet

• The cost of overhauling and converting the vehicles is currently estimated at around GBP300 million

Desider magazine. Under the plans, almost every surviving protected mobility vehicle pur­ chased with UOR funding is to be absorbed into the peacetime British Army’s order of battle.

According to the DE&S announcement, the vehicles include 400 Mastiff 6x6,125

The UK is to bring nearly 2,000 armoured vehicles into its core budget, including Mastiff 6x6 and Ridgeback 4x4 vehicles (pictured).

Wolfhound 6x6, and 160 Ridgeback 4x4 mine-resistant, ambush-protected (MRAP) vehicles; 400 Jackal 4x4 and

70 Coyote 6x6 reconnaissance

vehicles; 325 Husky 4x4 patrol vehicles; and 100 Warthog articulated tracked vehicles. The vehicles are in the process of being returned from operational use in Afghanistan. The vehicles will now form the backbone of protected mobility capabilities under the British

Army 2020 concept as part of units assigned to both the soon- to-be-formed reactive and adap­ tive force units. Features of the regeneration include bringing the vehicles in line with standards required for UK roads, repairing blast dam­ age, or conversion into different roles to meet the future needs of the army. The estimated cost for the minor work, conversions, and support is thought to be in the region of GBP300 million over four years, said DE&S. Much of this work will be carried out in the United Kingdom. ■

& Go to for more

Sukhoi delivers final Su-34s to Russia

The Russian Air Force (WS) has received into service the last of the Sukhoi Su-34 ‘Full­ back’ strike aircraft that were ordered under an initial 2008 production contract, Sukhoi announced on 16 December. A ceremony marking the successful conclusion of this initial order lot was held at the VP Chkalov Novosibirsk aircraft

14 j Jane’s Defence Weekly 1 January 2014

plant (NAZ) in central Russia. With this ceremony, Sukhoi has fulfilled its 2008 state contract with the Russian Ministry of Defence for what is understood to be 32 aircraft (not including six prototypes). With the 2008 deliveries now complete, Sukhoi will shortly begin handing over those aircraft that were ordered under a second

production contract in 2012. This contract is for 92 aircraft out to 2020. The WS plans to equip five squadrons with the Su-34 as it looks to replace its ageing Soviet- era Su-24 ‘Fencer’ aircraft. The Su-34 programme has been ongoing since the early 1990s, although full-rate pro­ duction was only confirmed by Sukhoi in January 2008.

The ‘Fullback’ represents the centrepiece of a modernisation programme that will see the

WS procure more than 200 new combat aircraft, attack helicop­ ters, trainers, and transports over the coming years. A new strategic bomber, dubbed the PAK-DA, is also being developed as part of a wider effort by the WS to phase out of service its more obsolete Soviet-era weaponry. Gareth Jennings Jane’s Aviation Desk Editor, London

For further insight and analysis go to

Aero Vodochody announces new L-169 trainer development






Czech aircraft maker Aero Vo­ dochody is developing a mod­ ernised version of the L-159 light attack and training aircraft called the L-169, according to the company’s management.

“The L-159 was intended primarily as a single-seat light

multi-role attack aircraft with

a two-seater training variant

coming much later, and this is why the sale of the aircraft has been unsuccessful. We want to

produce the L-169 as primarily a two-seater training aircraft, with

a secondary light attack capabil­

ity, which is something we think our clients are more interested in,” Aero Vodochody Strategy Director Petr Rehor stated. The new L-16 9 will have fuel

tanks in the wings, giving the aircraft greater range. Other upgrades will include greater indigenous content in the avion­ ics suite. Senior Aero Vodochody officials

Aero Vodochody is planning to create a new aircraft based on its existing L-159 attack/trainer aircraft, to be called the L-169.

said they expect the first develop­ mental prototype to be completed

for flight testing in 2015. “We are talking about a fundamental modernisation programme,” Aero Vodochody Military Aircraft Divi­ sion Director Martin Mamula said on 16 December. The existing fuel tank installed in the fuselage of the L-159 car­ ries 1,300 kg of fuel, while the additional fuel tanks in the wings of the L-169 will have a capacity of600 kg each. This will provide

nearly twice the range of the L-159 and will further eliminate drag caused when the existing L-159 carries additional fuel tanks on its underwing pylons. Senior Aero Vodochody officials believe the internally mounted fuel tanks will increase the range of the new L-l 59 by 600 km. The current L-159A has a range of 1,570 km using its internal fuel tank and 2,530 km using additional underwing mounted tanks. ■

Saab contracted for Gripen E build

The Swedish Defence Mat­ eriel Administration (FMV)

has contracted Saab to begin serial production of the JAS

39 Gripen E fighter aircraft,

the company announced on

18 December.

The SEK16.4 billion (USD2.5 billion) contract will cover serial production from 2013-26 and

covers the conversion of 60 Gripen C aircraft to Gripen E standard. Deliveries will begin


In February the FMV awarded Saab a one-year SEK2.5 billion agreement for development

work pertaining to the 60 Swed­ ish Air Force aircraft, as well as for 22 aircraft earmarked for Switzerland. This was followed

in March with a SEK 10.7 billion contract to take development

work through to 2023. A con­ tract to support mission-specific equipment and cover mainten­ ance has also been placed. Based on the two-seat Gripen NG demonstrator, the single­ seat Gripen E will feature an active electronically scanned array (AESA) radar, more advanced avionics, an improved General Electric F414G tur-

bofan engine, increased stores capabilities, and increased fuel tanks for further range.

It was also announced on 18 December that Saab has been

awarded a contract for inte­ gration of the MBDA Meteor beyond-visual-range air-to-air missile (BVRAAM) on the JAS 39 Gripen E multirole fighter. This contract is valued at SEK186 million (USD28.2 mil­ lion) and will cover integration of the Meteor on the Gripen E from 2013 to 2023. Gareth Jennings Jane’s Aviation Desk Editor, London


»In brief

Finland seeks Leopard 2A6s

Finland has entered negotiations with the Netherlands to purchase around 100 Leopard 2A6 main battle tanks (MBTs), the Finnish Ministry of Defence (MoD) announced on 18 December. “The preparations for the acquisition and the related negotia­ tions are ongoing,” a Finnish MoD statement said, adding that they “are proceeding in good faith”. The country is hoping it will be able to sign a contract for the order during a visit by

Finnish Defence Minister Carl Haglund to the Netherlands in late January 2014. “If the [Finnish] Parliament approves the draft budget", a decision on the purchase may come early in 2014, according to the MoD. Finland already operates 100 examples of the earlier Leopard 2A4 variant in frontline service, delivered from ex-German Army stocks from 2003 onwards,

Sweden orders more BvS10s

Sweden has ordered an additional

102 BvS10 all-terrain vehicles from BAE Systems, it was announced on 19 December. Valued at SEK800 million (USD120 million), the award sees Sweden take up part of an option it had previously agreed with BAE Systems for additional BvS10 vehicles. The new contract will see BAE Sys­ tems begin deliveries of the armoured, articulated tracked vehicles in 2014, with delivery of all 102 vehicles sched­ uled to be completed during 2015, The vehicles will be manufactured in Sweden at BAE Systems Hagglunds’ production facility in Ornskoldsvik.

Poland signs 0PV contracts

The Polish Armament Inspectorate signed two final contracts on 12 December to complete the ill-fated Project 621 Gawron-class corvette as an offshore patrol vessel (0PV). The warship, to be named Slazak, is planned to be completed by Novem­ ber 2016. The agreements, with Thales Nederland and Polish firm Enamor, are worth nearly EUR100 million (USD137 million).


[Ski-jump ramp|


supports multiple facets of naval flight operations, including both fixed- and rotary-wing aircraft.













For further insight and analysis go to


Arrestor wires ;

Huangdicun Air Base (40.500000 N 120.657222 E). The complex

© CNES 2013, Distribution Astrium Services / Spot Image S.A./ IHS: 1487012

Huangdican AB imagery shows scope of Chinese carrier ambitions

SEAN O’CONNOR Jane’s Imagery Analyst & JAMES HARDY JDW Asia-Pacific Editor


Recent satellite imagery of the PLA Navy Air Force’s (PLANAF’s) Huangdican Air- base (AB) shows the extent of

China’s progress in creating training infrastructure for its carrier-based fighter aircraft

- and its commitment to

developing effective naval air power as a means to project power in its near seas.

The imagery also suggests that Ukraine will be unsuccessful

in persuading China to rent its Soviet-era carrier aircraft training base the Nazemniy Ispitatelno- Tryenirovochniy Kompleks Aviatsii (NITKA). IHS Jane’s reported in November that Kiev was looking to China as a poten­ tial tenant at the NITKA facility as the Russian Navy is refusing to pay more to extend its lease. Located on the northwest coast of the Bohai Gulf, Huang­

16 | Jane’s Defence Weekly 1 January 2014

dicun AB is about 8 km south of Xingcheng AB in the Shenyang Military Region. Construction of the training centre began in


first publicised test flight using the base’s new facilities - by

a Shenyang J-l 5 Flying Shark

fighter aircraft - took place in January 2012. Huangdicun AB possesses

numerous features necessary

to train future PLANAF aviators

for operations aboard Liaoning, China’s Kuznetsov-class carrier,

or other future carriers. Mock carrier landing decks, fitted with

a complete set of arrestor wires

and deck markings including an outline of Liaoning’s super­ structure, lie at either end of the main runway. A second area adjacent to the main runway contains two more ski-jump ramps, again with complete sets

of mock deck markings. There are 24 visible hangars

for J-15 fighters, although these appear to be deployable aircraft shelters rather than permanent structures. There are also three permanent 36 x 55 m hangars that could be for rotary-wing assets. As of October the residential complex, which lies within the overall perimeter of the airbase

but is separate from the airfield proper, was still being built. This may partially explain the general lack of activities at the site at this time. Meanwhile, a

lack of weapon storage facilities, coupled with the absence of suit­ able long-term aircraft accom­ modation, serves to highlight the training and non-operational

nature of the site. The Huangdicun base is a major upgrade on the only other carrier aviation site in China:

Xian-Yanliang, which is home to the China Flight Test Estab­ lishment (CFTE) and the site of flight testing for the J-l 5. While

J-l 5 prototypes performed initial training using a ski-jump con­ structed at Xian-Yanliang, the base lacked arrestor gear. Huangdicun AB also alleviates

China’s need to seek outside locations for flight training, such as NITKA, which Ukraine was offering as a perfect solution for Chinese inexperience in carrier operations. The IHS Jane’s report on the NITKA proposal quoted a Ukrainian official who noted that the J-15 “is almost the same aircraft as the original Russian carrier-capable [Sukhoi] Su-33, so very little would need to be done to offer a training regime for Chinese carrier pilots”. The scope of Huangdicun AB provides clarity on future Chinese CV design. For example, the presence of two separate ski- jumps and arrestor wire landing strips lends credibility to the sug­ gestion that China’s next aircraft carrier will retain Liaoning’s short take-off but arrested recov­ ery (STOBAR) arrangement. ■

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Australia promises review of AWD programme

JULIAN KERR JDW Correspondent


An independent review into Australia’s AUD8 billion (USD7.2 billion) Air Warfare Destroyer (AWD) programme

will be established in early 2014, Defence Minister

David Johnston and Finance

• The Australian government will have an independent review of the AUD8 billion AWD programme in 2013, ministers have said

• The review is being ordered after an ANAO report into cost overruns and delays

Navy (RAN) were part of the legacy inherited from the Labor administration defeated in the September 2013 general election. The ministers’ statement fol­

lowed the release earlier in the day of an Australian National Audit

»In brief

Taiwan grounds Apaches

Taiwan has grounded six recently delivered AH-64E Apache attack helicopters due to risk of main trans­

mission failure, the country’s Ministry of National Defense (MND) revealed

on 18 December. Defence Minister Yen Ming said the United States had told Taiwan that the malfunction was affecting US Army AH-64Es

and as a result Taipei suspended all

AH-64E operations for safety checks. The MND said it has suspended all Apache training operations “pending

Office (ANAO) report into major

defence projects. This included figures showing that 2012-13 expenditure on the AWD pro­ gramme exceeded the 2012-13

budget of AUD618 million by AUD106 million, or about 17%.

This was attributed to increased costs for labour, mate­ rials, and subcontractor costs. Total expenditure from 2007 to the end of June 2013 was AUD4.565 billion, leaving AUD3.304 billion from the bud­

geted figure of AUD7.869 billion to cover the remainder of the

programme. Actual cost increases

in the programme budget were being met from project contin­ gency funds, the report said. The first of the three 6,350- tonne Hobart-class AWDs being

built by the AWD Alliance grouping will not be delivered to

the RAN until March 2016, the second in September 2017, and the third in March 2019. These delivery dates represent

delays of 15,18, and 21 months respectively against the original

planned dates. ■


full investigation being carried out

Minister Mathias Cormann an­


the United States".

nounced on 17 December.

Singapore in no hurry for F-35

In a joint statement the minis­ ters said unresolved issues with

Singapore is continuing its assess­

the programme to deliver three

ment of the Lockheed Martin F-35

Lightning II Joint Strike Fighter but

is in “no particular hurry” to buy, Defence Minister Ng Eng Hen said

on 12 December. The comments followed a meeting in Washing­

ton between Ng and US Defense Secretary Chuck Hagel. During a

joint news conference Ng referred

to a statement he made in March in

which he indicated that the F-35 is being considered as a replacement for the Republic of Singapore Air Force’s (RSAF’s) Northrop F-5s and Lockheed Martin F-16C/DS. Ng said:

“We’re in no particular hurry because

our F-16s are still very operational.”

AWDs to the Royal Australian

Indonesia updates inventory

State-owned manufacturer PT Dirgantara Indonesia (PTDl) delivered several aircraft to the Indonesian

government on 17 December. The Ministry of Defence received three

NC295 medium transport aircraft and six NBell-412EP transport heli­ copters, the National Police received one NBell-412EP, and the National

Search and Rescue Agency received two AS365N3+ Dauphin light utility

helicopters. The NBell-412EP is a licence-built version of the Bell 412,

the NC295 is licensed to PTDl by

Airbus while the AS365 is licensed

by Eurocopter.

18 j Jane’s Defence Weekly 1 January 2014

Philippines to further upgrade cutters

The Philippine Navy (PN) is planning further upgrades for

its two ex-US Coast Guard

Hamilton-class cutters, PN spokesman Lieutenant Com­ mander Gregory Fabic told IHS Jane’s on 17 December.

Contracts to modernise the

two vessels, which are described by the PN as patrol frigates, are

expected to be tendered next year and will feature upgrades for navigation, propulsion, com­

munication, surveillance, and weapon systems.

IHS Jane’s understands that the PN is also seeking to equip the

vessels with an anti-submarine warfare capability and surface- to-surface missiles, although funding restrictions are likely to determine the full extent of the modernisation programme.

Cdr Fabic said the planned

upgrade will enhance the PN’s capability to protect and secure its assets in and around the

country’s exclusive economic zone, where tensions have remained high in recent years

due to territorial disputes with China.

The United States handed over the cutters to the PN in 2012

and 2013. They were provided without charge under the US Excess Defense Articles scheme,

although the Philippines has so far spent about USD30 million

to refurbish the vessels, which have been renamed BRP Ramon Alcaraz and BRP Gregorio Del Pilar

in PN service. Jon Grevatt Jane’s Asia- Pacific Industry Analyst, Bangkok

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Jordan seeks new patrol boat

The Royal Jordanian Naval Force (RJNF) has an urgent require­ ment for one or two coastal patrol boats, according to a request for information (Rfl) released on the US Federal Business Opportunities (FBO) website on 17 December.

“It is anticipated that one boat will be procured, with an option for a second,” it said. “Interested sources are encouraged to propose delivery schedules that can realistically be achieved while keeping in mind the vital need of this request.” The Rfl said the US Naval Sea Systems Command is conducting market research on behalf of Jordan to see if any boats fitting the RJNF’s requirements currently exist. These requirements include a hull length of 30-38 m, a speed of 30 kts at full-load displacement in tropical conditions, a range of 600 n miles at

21 kts, a six-day endurance, accom­ modation for four officers and 18

crew, and the ability to carry a 7 m rigid-hull inflatable boat (RHIB). The vessel will also have to able to cope with the additional weight of an MSI Defence Systems 30 mm gun, two .50 cal and two 7.62 mm machine guns, missile detection and chaff decoy systems, and four tonnes of ballistic protection.

Jeremy Binnie JDW Middle

East/Africa Editor, London

Syria retains deep- strike capability



The Syrian military’s ability to strike deep inside opposition- held areas and provide close air support for ground forces remains undiminished despite the loss of many aircraft dur­ ing more than two years of civil war. The radars of the Patriot air defence systems deployed to Turkey are detecting ‘Scud’ ballistic missiles being fired into

opposition-controlled areas on an almost daily basis, an Ankara- based Western military source has told IHS Jane’s. The source added that the Syrian military is also making increased use of

long-range artillery rockets. The Patriots are also detecting Syrian Arab Air Force (SAAF) heli­ copters and fixed-wing aircraft flying very frequently in support of ground forces. Turkish military sources told IHS Jane’s that the SAAF is able to generate an impressive 100 sor­ ties a day with rotary- and fixed- wing aircraft, on average 50% of which are combat sorties. The other sorties are split roughly equally between transport and training flights. The Western military source said few people outside Syria knew how many sorties the


Syrian Aero L-39 Albatros trainer carries out an air strike in the Aleppo area


September 2012. The trainers were the first Syrian

fixed-wing aircraft



seen carrying out ground-attack sorties. Now, MiG-21,





24 jets are regularly seen carrying out attacks in videos posted on the internet.

African Union peacekeepers to get C3I

The European Union (EU) is stepping up its military aid to the African Union (AU) by giving it a new command, control, communications, and information (C3I) system. The aim is to strengthen the AU’s peace support operations across the continent. The European Commission confirmed on 13 December

20 | Jane's Defence Weekly

1 January 2014

that it will use EUR 12.5 million (USD 17 million) of the EU’s Africa Peace Facility (APF) fund to pay for the C3I system, which will be implemented in 2014-


EU Commissioner for Devel­ opment Andris Piebalgs said the EU’s support “will help our African partners to set up the necessary communication and

management systems to rapidly deploy and manage African-led peace support operations wher­ ever they are needed”. The C3I system will support secure data, voice, and video services via satellite communi­ cation between the AU, sub­ regional organisations in Africa, and deployed missions, according to the Commission. It will also

SAAF flew a day before the war, but he presumed it was low. “The air force initially had problems because many aircraft were shot down, so it was inexperienced when it came to combat mis­ sions,” he stated. A Turkish military source claimed this situation had now changed. “The SAAF has become very effective in avoiding [the insurgency’s] air defence, which is mostly composed of light guns and shoulder-launched missiles seized from the Syrian army,” he said. “The increased strength of the SAAF has also been making it possible for Syrian ground forces to get more support from helicopters and aircraft. This is the biggest morale booster for ground forces.” The high sortie rate of Syria’s ageing, Soviet-era aircraft is at least partly attributable to Rus­ sian support. It has been widely publicised that Russia has been overhauling some Syrian Mil Mi-24 attack helicopters, some of which were reportedly being

returned on the Alaed cargo ship that was forced to return to Russia in June 2012 after its insurance was withdrawn. The annual reports released by Russian defence companies also indicate that 21 of the SAAF’s Sukhoi Su-24MK ground attack aircraft have been upgraded to the Su-24MK standard at the Rzhez Aircraft Repair Plant west

of Moscow. ■


generate reports and maps for managing operations on the ground. The EU’s decision to fund the C3I system flows from joint EU-AU technical work carried out as part of their AMANI Africa platform for co-operation. Brooks Tigner JDW NATO & EU Affairs Correspondent, Brussels

For further insight and analysis go to

Saudi national guard air wing takes shape


GARETH JENNINGS Jane's Aviation Desk Editor


BINNIE JDW Middle East/Africa Editors

The Saudi Arabia National Guard (SANG) is quietly making progress on estab­ lishing a new aviation wing that will give it a ground-

attack capability to rival that of the Royal Saudi Land Forces (RSLF). The SANG’s aviation plans

were outlined in October 2010

• The SANG has ordered AH-64E and AH-6i attack helicopters and the construction of its new airbase is well under way

• Saudi Arabia will have the third largest number of Apaches in service after the US and UK



handling pad






Astrium imagery shows the Saudi Arabia National Guard’s new Khashm al-An Airfield east of Riyadh on 30 November 2013.

© CNES 2013, Distribution Astrium Services / Spot Image S.A./ IHS: 1487008

when the US Defense Security

The FBO solicitation added

presumably a reference to a new

tors to provide navigation aids

identifies which branch of the

Cooperation Agency (DSCA)

notified Congress of a proposed sale of 36 Boeing AH-64D Block

that the helicopters will be sta­ tioned at Khashm al-An Airfield:

and air traffic control equipment for the SANG. The documenta­

tion suggests this facility will

Saudi military is involved. Nevertheless, the announce­ ments suggest the RSLF and


(now known as the AH-64E)

airbase that is being constructed

also be capable of handling

SANG programmes are proceed­

Apache attack helicopters, 36 Boeing AH-6i light attack heli­

near the eastern Riyadh suburb of the same name.

fixed-wing aircraft, but the avail­ able satellite imagery suggests

ing simultaneously: an assertion corroborated by a source who

copters, 12 MD Helicopters Inc (MDHI) MD 530F light helicop­

Satellite imagery shows that work on the facility began in

construction has yet to begin. None of the helicopter manu­

told IHS Jane’s that Boeing has orders for 36 AH-64Es for the


and 72 Sikorsky UH-60M

2011 and it now has a 2,000 m

facturers have confirmed they

RSLF in addition to the 12 for

Black Hawk utility helicopters. The SANG’s requirements

paved runway and taxiway for fixed-wing aircraft. Imagery

have received orders for the SANG, but at least some of the

the SANG. If the Saudi Royal Guard


firmed up since then and

from 30 November shows that

contracts have been finalised.

orders the 10 AH-64Es that it


consist of 12 AH-64E

24 aircraft shelters have been

Boeing announced during the

requested in 2010, Saudi Arabia

Apaches, 24 AH-6is and 24 UH-

constructed and there is space

Dubai Airshow in November that

will overtake the UK as the larg­

60M Black Hawks, according to

a solicitation that was released

by the US Federal Business

Opportunities (FBO) website in March asking for companies to

bid for the contract to support and maintain the aircraft.

documentation said the

SANG’s AH-6is - improved versions of the armed Little

Birds used by US special forces

- will be able to carry AGM-114

Hellfire missiles, laser-guided 70

mm Directional Attack Guided

Rockets (DAGRs), a 12.7 mm GAU 19 heavy machine gun, a

7.62 mm Ml 34 Minigun and

auxiliary fuel tanks to increase

their range. Eight of the Black

Hawks will be fitted with for­ ward-looking infrared systems

that will enable them to fly in

low-visibility conditions.


for at least another 24. There

are three large structures being constructed behind the aircraft shelters that will probably be the hangars for the three mainten­ ance battalions noted in the FBO solicitation. The documentation said the

contractor would be required to sustain a flying programme of 100 hours a year per aircraft and

should be prepared to support a surge up to 200 hours. It would also be expected to support SANG deployments to areas of Saudi Arabia beyond Khashm al-An and to other countries, although not conflict zones. The SANG intends to build another airfield at Dirab to the southwest of Riyadh, accord­ ing to another FBO solicitation released in May seeking contrac-

it had received an AH-6i order

for an undisclosed customer. IHS Jane’s understands that this

covered the delivery of 24 AH- 6is to the SANG. Meanwhile, the US Depart­ ment of Defense (DoD) indi­ cated that the SANG’s Apache programme was under way when it announced in Janu­ ary 2012 that it had awarded

a contract to Lockheed Martin

Fire Control to supply AH-64D target acquisition and night vision systems for the SANG. The contract’s completion date was given as 31 March 2015. Since then there have been various contract announce­ ments related to Saudi Apaches, but the situation is confusing as the RSLF also have an Apache requirement and the DoD rarely

est Apache operator outside the United States. While there was no mention of contracts covering the SANG’s Black Hawks, in July 2012 the DoD announced that MDHI had been awarded a contract to sup­ ply MD 530Fs to an unspecified branch of the Saudi military by July 2013. Derived from the same

platform as the AH-6i, the MD 530Fs would make ideal train­ ing helicopters for the SANG’s nascent air wing. However, the fact that the

SANG’s new bases had not been finished by the MD 5 3 OF con­ tract’s completion date and that the type was not mentioned in the FBO maintenance solicita­ tion suggests these have been delivered to the RSLF. ■

1 January 2014 Jane’s Defence Weekly | 21


Russia considers new space weapons company

For further insight and analysis go to

and missile interception system developed in the Soviet era. The call to redevelop the sys­ tem follows parliamentary hear­ ings in November in which the committee said such defences were needed in the light of US developments in hypersonic weapons capable of providing global rapid-strike capabilities. A committee document quoted by local media called on the government to “take the nec­ essary steps to restore [research and development] funding in the state arms programme for 2016-

25 to rejuvenate Kontakt”.

Developed by Almaz, the Kon­ takt system, designated 30P6, was developed in the 1980s in response to US development of the ASAT anti-satellite intercep­

tor missile. The Soviet system was of a similar configuration. The

10 m-long Fakel 79M6 missile

was carried on the centreline of a converted MiG-31D inter­ ceptor, guided to its target by a radar station in Kazakhstan. The system could engage satel­ lites up to 120 km from Earth and was designed to take out up to 24 targets in 36 hours, its designers claimed. Two MiG-31 Ds were con­ verted to carry the missiles, but

Kontakt was suspended in the early 1990s after the collapse of

the USSR. ■



The Russian government is to consider a plan to form a holding company that would produce weapons for the country’s Aerospace Defence Force and Strategic Missile Force. The new structure is likely to include the federal space agency Roscosmos, air defence systems concern Almaz Antei, the Tactical Missiles Corporation (KTRV) and the newly formed United Space and Rocket Corporation, Russian newspaper Kommersant reported on 18 December. The news comes just days after it was revealed that Rus­ sia’s parliamentary Defence Committee called in November for the revival of a Soviet-era anti-satellite weapon project in response to US plans for a rapid strike system using hypersonic weapons. According to the newspaper, Deputy Prime Minister Dmitry Rogozin said on 17 December that the plan for the new corpo­ ration will be put to President

• Russia is putting together a plan for a company that would produce weapons for the nation’s Aerospace Defence Force and Strategic Missile Force

• The Duma is also calling for the revival of a Soviet-era anti-satellite weapon project

Vladimir Putin by the Military Industrial Commission at the start of next year.

One anonymous source quoted by the paper said formation of the new Roscosmos holding, set up with the involvement of the Russian Ministry of Defence (MoD), is almost complete.

News of the space defence industry plan comes just a week after local media reported that the Defence Committee in Russia’s lower house of parliament, the Duma, has appealed to the presi­ dent and government to revive development of an anti-satellite

Russian Deputy Prime Minister Dmitry Rogozin (right) said the plan for a space weapons company will be put to President Vladimir Putin (left) next year.

Hellenic Defence Systems cuts confirmed

The Greek government announced on 17 December that it had finalised plans for state-owned arms company Hellenic Defence Systems SA (HDS SA) as part of an agree­ ment with the European Cen­ tral Bank, the European Com­ mission, and the International Monetary Fund to receive a EUR1 billion (USD1.37 billion) loan by the end of the year. Under the agreement HDS SA

22 j Jane’s Defence Weekly 1 January 2014

will close two manufacturing plants and lay off 300 staff: a reduction from 800 employees across five current facilities. The cuts are less severe than previously feared. Suggestions were raised earlier in December

that HDS would lose up to 600 staff and four facilities. The company will also, as previously expected, be allowed to maintain its export activity for a trial period of 12 months.

Having received state aid of a total ofEURl.lbillioninthepast,HDS

SA’s future will be determined at the end of the trial when, if export earnings are not deemed sufficient to sustain operations, the company will be placed in receivership. Currently, HDS SA

is expecting to sign a number of ammunition export contracts that will help it to offset declining revenues from the Greek military. Domestically, the Greek Army

has placed an order for 30 mm gun rounds for its Boeing AH-64 Apache helicopter fleet, with delivery expected to begin as soon as financing is arranged. Additionally, HDS SA is look­ ing to compete for the Greek Army’s Leopard 2 main battle tank (MBT) 120 mm ammuni­ tion contract once the tender is announced.

Theodore L Valmas JDW Correspondent, Athens

For further insight and analysis go to


Japan publishes guidance for defence exports

JON GREVATT Jane's Asia-Pacific Industry Analyst BANGKOK

Defence and security planning documents issued by Japan have reiterated the govern­ ment’s intention to allow its indigenous defence industry to export defence equipment and participate in internation­ al collaboration programmes, a senior official in the Japa­

nese Ministry of Defence (MoD) has told IHS Jane’s.

The documents - the 2013 National Defense Program Guidelines (NDPG) and National Security Strategy - both stated that the government will “set out clear principles on the overseas transfer of arms and military technology, which fit the new security environment”. The refer­ ence to “transfer” applies to both sales of defence equipment and Japan’s involvement in interna­ tional collaboration programmes. The documents continue:

“Considerations will be made with regard to defining cases

where transfers are prohibited; limiting cases where transfers could be allowed with strict examination; and ensuring appropriate control over transfers in terms of unauthorised use and third-party transfer.” The stated intention is similar to that outlined in the 2011 NDPG and the Guidelines for Overseas Transfer of Defense Equipment, published in Decem­ ber 2011. The latter said exports and collaboration could be under­ taken only in compliance with the long-standing Three Principles on Arms Exports and under the strict supervision of the government. The MoD official said the newly published documents will “consolidate and build” on Japan’s existing position regarding exports and collaboration. “Actu­ ally there is no change in policy,

but the new NDPG shows the intention of the government to continue the attitude expressed

in 2010 and 2011 and relax the ban on exports and promote col­ laboration programmes,” he said. “It is all about the language of the statement contained in the new NDPG,” he added. “The gov­ ernment is saying that it wants to be more specific about controls and conditions under which exports and collaboration can take place. The government intends to support this by outlining these specifics in a document [to be] published in 2014, although the timing of this will depend on public opinion and support about the issue.” These specifics, he said, are likely to be contained in revised Guidelines for Overseas Transfer of Defense Equipment. Since the introduction of the 2010 NDPG and the 2011 Guidelines for Overseas Transfer of Defense Equipment, Japan has entered defence technology col­ laboration agreements with the UK and Australia and has begun a programme with the former to develop chemical and biological

EDA to boost defence industry access to EU structural funds

The European Defence Agency (EDA) will boost the European defence industry’s access to EU Structural Funds worth EUR346 billion (USD476 billion) by supporting applica­ tions for dual-use research and production projects, EDA chief executive Claude-France Arnould has indicated. Arnould said the agency was preparing its stakeholder com­ munity, particularly small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the defence sector, to take up the funding opportunities offered by the EU’s enormous Structural

Funds. EU Structural Funds sup­ port regional economic develop­ ment, vocational training and technology projects, including dual-use research and produc­ tion. For the EU’s next 2014-20 operating period they are worth EUR346 billion. “We think the Structural Funds have high potential as a funding source for dual-use projects and we will use our good co-operation with the [Euro­ pean] Commission to move in that direction,” Arnould said. “We need to focus much more on dual-use synergies to the benefit

of capability development [for Europe’s civil security and defence users].” However, Arnould also

observed that Europe’s defence community “is not very famil­ iar” with the funds and that the agency has developed a new guide for its 27 national defence ministries to help identify future eligible projects. The agency has spent the last 18 months working with its MoDs to find suitable projects to propose in 2014 to the commis­ sion, which controls the funds’ disbursement. Structural Fund

protective suits. Tokyo has also indicated a willingness to enter similar agreements with France and Turkey. There is no record of any direct system exports, but Japan has indicated a willingness to con­ sider international sales of some items. These include aerospace parts that Japanese industry will produce as part of its involve­ ment in the F-35 programme, tank engines, and ShinMaywa Industries’ US-2 amphibious, fixed-wing aircraft. Japan’s Three Principles on Arms Exports were established in 1967 and prohibited export deals with Communist-bloc countries; countries subject to UN arms export sanctions; or countries involved in or likely to be involved in international con­ flicts. The policy was expanded in 19 76 to include a ban on all exports regardless of destination and in the early 1980s to allow Japan to jointly develop anti- ballistic missile systems with the United States. ■

technology projects are co-funded

in a 50-50 split between the funds and the project.

Ultimately the EDA received 72 capability proposals from 12 countries, of which seven were selected: from Bulgaria (urban security and defence via advance sensors); France (icing test plat­ form for aeronautics); Germany (short-wave infrared technol­ ogy for high-resolution imaging applications); Poland (intrusion detection and collision avoidance for aircraft); Portugal (sustainable sea-bottom operations); Spain (underwater signature monitor­ ing and analysis centre); and the UK (microwave and epitaxy technologies).

Brooks Tigner JDW NATO & EU Affairs Correspondent, Brussels

1 January 2014 Jane’s Defence Weeklv I 23


For further insight and analysis go to

Turkey amends rules to allow single-source bidding



different types of contract can be

prepared provided that the work to be carried out is outlined in detail in the technical specifica­

tions document. In addition, the amount allocated to the work should not exceed the sum agreed by the administration in question.

Turkey has amended its military procurement regula­ tions to allow the Ministry of National Defence (MND)

to open a tender for a sole source bidder under certain

conditions. The reform came through a cabinet decree that was pub­ lished in the MND’s official gazette on 16 December. Under

the decree, Article 10 of the Pub­ lic Tender Law (KIK) is amended

so that a single bidder can take part in a tender provided that

it meets the technical require­ ments of a given project. The same decree has also paved

the way for the MND to prepare

“a different type of contract” for tenders concerning research and

• Under certain conditions Turkey will allow a single­ source bidder to provide an offer for a project

• Different types of contracts can also be prepared for R&D projects following the procurement reforms

A senior Turkish defence

industry source confirmed to IHS Jane’s that the decree allows a single-source bidder to provide an offer for a project. The source explained: “There

have been cases where only one

company has the capacity to develop a given project due to its expertise. There have also been cases which necessitate

departure from the general prin­

ciples outlined in the KIK.

According to a subclause added to Article 28 of the KIK, due to

the nature of the system to be acquired through R&D projects

Turkish defence procurement investment (USD billions - 2013 constant values)

Procurement funding

2010 2011







development (R&D) projects: a

Source: IHS Jane’s Defence Budgets

the preparing of different kinds

of contracts in R&D projects to meet the specific requirements of the military. “Nevertheless, those amend­ ments being made in the KIK will be open to abuse if not checked in

a transparent fashion.” In the past, when the boundar­

ies between the user and buyer in the acquisition of arms were heavily blurred, the Turkish mili­ tary frequently resorted to the sole-source purchase of arms. The result was that Turkey bought sys­

tems at a higher cost than would arguably have been the case if a

competition had taken place. The historic lack of oversight over the expenditure of the Turkish military and the Turkish Defence Industries Undersec­

retariat raises the prospect of unintended consequences under

the new regime. However, the Turkish govern­

ment has already made several changes both to the KIK as well as to the Court of Accounts Law

of 2010, which for the first time paved the way for the auditing of

military expenses. ■

Ukraine, Russia agree to restart An-124 production

Russia and Ukraine have

agreed to restart production

of the Antonov An-124 as part

of wider agreements signed

between the two countries on 17 December.

The accord also covers the

resumption of production of the

Ivchenko-Progress D-l 8T turbo­

fan engine used by the aircraft. According to Ukrainian Prime

Minister Mykola Azarov, the

joint venture is expected to

produce 80 aircraft worth a total

ofUSD12.9 billion.

The announcement of the

intention to restart production

of the An-124 comes after specu­ lation relating to the financing of a potential deal, with Antonov Group vice-president Alexander

24 j Jane’s Defence Weekly 1 January 2014

Kiva announcing in April that the

company had received interest

from German backers interested

in resuming serial production

and modification of the platform. The last production airframes

reportedly rolled off production lines in the early 2000s, with the

aircraft having first been flown

The An-124 has played a major logistics role in Afghanistan.

in the 1980s. Under Russian procurement plans, the air force

is to upgrade its An-124 aircraft and purchase an additional 20

aircraft as part of its strategic

airlift requirements.

The An-124 has become a

stalwart of global heavy lift and

is a key component in logistical

supply chains for NATO forces

deployed to Afghanistan. An agreement on continued

development of the Antonov

An-70 aircraft was also signed,

but no firm commitment over

serial production or procurement

was announced. Collaboration on

the An-70 has been fraught with

difficulty, with only one An-70, built in the 1990s, currently fly­ ing. Components for the aircraft’s

wings were to have been made by

Uzbekistan’s Tashkent Aircraft

Production Organization, but the

company ceased operations in April. Two aircraft were to have

been delivered to the Ukrainian

Air Force by 2008, but due to

budget restrictions and technical

difficulties this has yet to happen.

The agreements between

Russia and Ukraine were part of

a larger package that included

slashing the cost of gas supplied to Ukraine by Russia by 33% and

the purchase of USD 15 billion in Ukrainian Eurobonds. The deal

is significant for Ukraine, as it allows the country to tackle its mounting debt problems. Charles Forrester Jane’s Defence Industry Analyst, London

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Airborne surveillance platforms in the BRIC nations



Brazil, Russia, India, and China are continuing to develop manned airborne surveillance aircraft. Martin Streetly reports

D espite increasing access to overhead reconnaissance assets and increasing use - or at least increasing interest in

- unmanned aerial vehicles, the BRIC nations (comprising Brazil, Russia, India, and China) are continuing to develop and field airborne manned surveillance assets that contain indig­ enous content to a greater or lesser extent. The Brazilian Air Force (Forqa Aerea Brasileira: FAB) deploys the Embraer EMB- 145RS (FAB designation: R-99) remote- sensing platform as part of the country’s Amazon Surveillance Program (SIVAM). This programme is designed to monitor activity within the Amazon basin and is best regarded as a ‘system of systems’ that incorporates air traffic control/surveillance/weather radars, EMB- 145SA airborne early warning and EMB- 145RS surveillance aircraft, weather/light­ ning/hydrological sensors, satellite imagery receivers, airport instrument landing systems,

26 | Jane’s Defence Weekly 1 January 2014

HF direction-finders, air traffic control and co-ordination centres, and flight inspection aircraft. Key programme objectives include environmental protection, law enforcement support, protection of indigenous peoples,

prevention and control of disease, border surveillance, river navigability monitoring, air traffic control, and support for regional devel­

opment within the area. First delivered during July 2002, the EMB- 145RS is equipped with a mission suite that includes a MacDonald Dettwiler multimode/ band synthetic aperture radar (SAR), a FLIR Systems Star Safire forward-looking infrared (FLIR) sensor, an Argon ST combined ultra­ violet/visible light/IR scanner, a Communica­ tions/Non-Communications Signals Exploita­ tion (SE) system and a datalink. The SAR used operates in both the L- (1 to 2 GHz) and X- (8 to 12.5 GHz) bands, with the former being noted as a multipolarimetric application and

the latter as offering interferometer, SAR, inverse SAR, moving target indication, and air-to-air capabilities. Resolution is select­ able from ‘high’, ‘medium’, and ‘low’ options (believed to be three, six, and 18 m in SAR strip map mode) and the equipment’s swath is given as being between 20 and 120 km. The sensor can record up to five channels of data (quad L + X) simultaneously and its slant range is believed to be in the region of 120 km when operating from an altitude of

10,058 m (33,000 ft). Externally, the EMB-145RS is charac­ terised by a FLIR turret housing beneath ' its cockpit, a three-part radar antenna assembly, a ventral SE radome (located just aft of the ventral radar fairing), a ventral datalink antenna housing (on the aircraft’s belly just aft of its wing trailing edges) and twin ventral stabilising surfaces beneath its tail unit. The FAB has procured three R-99s

The EMB-145 RS/R-99 remote-sensing aircraft is equipped with a multiband SAR radar, FLIR, IR/ultra-violet/visible light scanner, and communications band ES system, m™*: 0568230


Although of relatively











was intercepted

over the Sea of Japan is indicative of the type’s baseline configuration.



that, at the time of writing, were assigned (alongside five EMB-145SA/E-99 airborne early warning platforms) to the 2° Esquad- rao (Squadron) of the service’s 6° Grupo

de Aviaqao (GAv - Aviation Group) based at Anapolis in Brazil’s Goias State.

Alongside their tactical Su-24MR and strategic MiG-2 5R reconnaissance assets, Russia’s Military Air Forces (WS) operate a small number of Ilyushin I1-20M (NATO reporting name ‘Coot-A’) multisensor platforms that are capable of undertaking photography, radar surveillance as well as communications and electronic intelligence (COMINT/ELINT) collection. Making its maiden flight during late March 1968, the II-20M is based on the Ilyushin II- 18D airliner. In baseline form it is described by Moscow-based Joint Stock Company (JSC) Aviaremont’ as being equipped with an equipment fit that included an A-87P long-range oblique camera installation, an Igla-1 phased array side-looking airborne radar (SLAR), the Kvadrat-2 (Square-2) and Romb-4 ELINT systems, and the Vishnaya (Cherry) communications band ES system.

The A-87P camera installation is under­ stood to have been located in the forward section of the aircraft’s main cabin, with either two cameras or an optical system capable of being pointed port or starboard. External evidence of this installation took the form of a pair of optically flat viewing ports that were located at the forward ends of slab-shaped fairings mounted on either side of the aircraft’s forward fuselage. When not in use, these ports were protected by sliding covers. The antenna for the Il-20M’s SLAR was housed in an approximately 10 m long, cigar-shaped fairing that was located

beneath the aircraft’s forward fuselage. Sources suggest that the type’s baseline ELINT capability incorporated a six-console operator ‘complex’ (the Russian term for an

equipment suite) located in the middle of its main cabin. The complex comprises two onboard systems: the Kvadrat-2 and the Romb-4. The Kvadrat-2 has been associated with an array of six suppressed antennas (located in threes on either side of the aircraft’s rear fuselage) and is quoted as having been an analysis facility that was able to determine the bearings, frequencies, pulse repetition frequencies, pulse-lengths, and amplitudes of received signals. The Romb-4 is described as having been

able to establish emitter bearing and fre­ quency, with alternate designations SRS-6A

and SRS-7 in its Romb-4A and Romb-4B configurations respectively. When applied to the ‘Coot-A’ it made use of reception arrays located in the rear sections of the type’s forward fuselage slab fairings. Russian sources describe the SRS-6A con­ figuration as having been fully automated, covering a total of 34 frequency bands and being able to monitor and record (on film) pulsed radar transmissions from a system- specific range of emitters. Other cited features include simultaneous reception of pulsed signals within a defined frequency range, automatic signals recording, visual warning of radar illumination (on both sides of the host platform), and a post-mission analysis capability that was able to deduce the wavelength and other parameters of recorded signals. The baseline Il-20M’s ELINT capability is also likely to have made use of a third set of

antennas that were mounted in a series of ventral blister fairings along the aircraft’s belly. The Vishnya ES system is reported to have been a single-operator equipment and made use of two large blade aerials mounted above the Il-20M’s forward fuselage and/ or an array of five blades located beneath its rear fuselage. Alongside the six-man (subsequently increased to eight) signals intelligence (SIGINT) operator crew and the single ES operator, the baseline 11-2 OM had accommo­ dation for a camera operator and a five-man flight crew. All of the platform’s original crew seats were able to accommodate parachute packs and sources suggest that there was an escape hatch/chute arrangement that exited via what in the II-18D had been the baggage hold access hatch. Other type-specific modifications included the removal of most of the II-18D’s cabin furniture, some local airframe strengthen­ ing and the introduction of a nosewheel mud­ guard to prevent foreign object damage to the type’s ventral antenna housing. JSC ‘Aviar­ emont’ notes the type as having a crew rest area in the rear of its main cabin. Whether or

not this description refers to the original II- 20M or to one of its upgraded configurations remains unclear. Circa 2001, reports began to emerge that Russian contractor Myasishchev was involved in upgrading both the I1-20M surveillance aircraft and the 11-22 airborne command post.

On the available photographic evidence, the first such update was externally characterised by the removal of the baseline aircraft’s trio of ventral blisters and the two dorsal/five ventral blade aerials associated with the Vish­ nya system in addition to the introduction of

1 Januarv 2014 Jane’s Dfiffinnp WppH\/ I 97



An in-flight photograph of the prototype Tu-214R taken from a JASDF interceptor over the Sea of Japan on 18 December 2012.

•)**»*»» mod:1305375

a thimble-shaped radome above the aircraft’s forward fuselage, three circular radomes above its rear fuselage, a rectangular-shaped radome beneath its centre fuselage (just aft of the trailing edges of its wings), and what appears to be an electro-optical (EO) sensor aft of its nosewheel bay. As yet unconfirmed sources suggest that the I1-20M aircraft 173011501,173011502, and 175011706 have all undergone the described upgrade, with photographic evi­

dence showing aircraft 173011501 as being fitted with both the configuration’s dorsal thimble-shaped radome and ventral EO turret during April 2010 and aircraft 175011706 both with and without the dorsal thimble radome and without an EO turret during January 2012.

Subsequent to this first batch of upgrades, 1 November 2013 saw the Japan Air Self- Defence Force (JASDF) intercept an I1-20M above the strait between Kyushu and the Korean peninsula that exhibited a radically new appearance. Here (and alongside the

28 | Jane's Defence Weekly 1 January 2014

standard forward fuselage camera ports, ventral SLAR pod, and Vishnya ES system), the platform was fitted with two thimble radomes beneath its rear fuselage, a major new feature aft of the trailing edge of at least its port wing, and two new slab fairings scabbed onto the side and bottom of at least the port side of its rear fuselage. Of these, the feature aft of the aircraft’s port wing was of considerable size and featured a two-axis, facetted outer face. The I1-20M entered operational service during 1970, with the surviving members of the fleet being thought to be assigned to WS Independent Reconnaissance Flights (ORAO). Each ORAO typically fielded two aircraft and was flown by the WS on behalf of Russian military intelligence. The period

29 January 2010 to 9 March 2011 saw the

JASDF intercept Il-20Ms over the Sea of Japan on at least 12 occasions, with further sightings of single aircraft occurring on 2,14, and 15 November 2012 and on 27 December.

Elsewhere in the world, 3 June 2013

saw a pair of French Air Force Mirage F1CR fighters intercept a ‘Coot-A’ off the coast of Lithuania. The JASDF spotted and photo­ graphed the latest known I1-20M configura­ tion on 1 November 2013. Within the same timeframe (2001-2002) that the first-generation upgrade programme

for the I1-20M began, the main intelligence directorate of the General Staff of the Rus­ sian Armed Forces (GRU) started develop­ ment of a potential replacement based on the Tu-214 airliner. Known variously as the Izdeliye (Item) 411 and the Tu-214R and forming part of the Fraktsya-4 (Fraction 4) programme, the new platform incorporates a mission ‘complex’ that includes a CNIRTI- sourced SIGINT package (a communications suite), a Vega REC-sourced VHF (30 to 300 MHz)/L-band (1 to 2 GHz)/X-band (8 to 12.5 GHz) MRK-411 radar system, and a TPC Linkos EO imaging system. The EO architec­ ture functions in both the visible light and

IR bands and includes digital, television, and thermal-imaging cameras, with all three sen­ sors being mounted in a single head that has 160° and ±80° fields-of-view in azimuth and elevation respectively. Externally the Tu-214R is characterised by box-shaped fairings scabbed onto either

side of its forward fuselage just aft of its cockpit, an arrangement of a satellite com­ munications antenna radome (forward), and a linear equipment fairing on top of its centre fuselage. There is a double-tiered equipment fairing beneath its forward fuse­ lage aft of its nosewheel bay, a small circular radome on its centreline just aft of the

leading edges of its wings, large equipment housings that are faired into the trailing

edges of the aircraft’s wings and extend back as far as the last main cabin windows on both sides of its rear fuselage, and an arrangement of one large (forward) and one smaller radome along its centreline beneath its rear fuselage. The small belly radomes appear to be associated with a pair of sub­ stantial cruciform antenna arrays mounted on the sides of the aircraft’s fuselage. The forward fuselage box fairings have been associated with the MRK-411 radar and are grouped with square and round sensor port-type features ahead and behind the main fairings respectively. The housing beneath the aircraft’s forward fuselage is likely to house the platform’s EO sensor and features large rectangular and smaller aerodynami- cally shaped sub-fairings, with the latter incorporating either a dielectric section

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or a sensor port covering forward. It has been suggested that the equipment housings that reach back from the aircraft’s wing trailing edges house power generation and/or self-defence equipment, while the large ventral radome beneath the aircraft’s rear fuselage appears to be connected with the MRK-411 radar. The port and starboard cruciform antenna arrays (together with the pair of small belly radomes) have been linked with the type’s CNIRTI SIGINT package and the Tu-214R is noted as incorporating a dorsal satellite communications antenna radome above its centre fuselage. Aside from CNIRTI, TPC Linkos, and Vega REC, airframer OAO KAPO ‘S P Gorbunov’ is reported to be involved in the programme. In programmatic terms, a complete Tu- 214R mission ‘complex’ is said to have been available for ground testing during early

2008, with the type making its maiden flight on 24 December 2009. Thereafter,

the Tu-214R underwent flight tests at OAO KAPO S P Gorbunov’s facility at Kazan in the Tatarstan Republic during the early part of 2012. By mid-year local media reported that the GRU had begun litigation against the Tu- 214R’s airframer over a series of programme delays. The primary problem was associated with the platform’s mission suite and the judges in the case had awarded the GRU some RUB180 million (USD5.S million) in damages. The first of the two Tu-214Rs then on order was photographed by the JASDF over the Sea of Japan on the 17 and

18 December 2012.

The following January Russian newspaper Izvestia carried an article suggesting that the GRU was contemplating refusing to accept the second Tu-214R following initial

30 j Jane’s Defence Weekly 1 January 2014


the East China Sea during November 2013.








operations with the first aircraft. The article claimed that the Tu-214R’s endurance and low-speed stability had been found wanting and that the Russian military wanted better performance in these areas: a process that was said to involve changes to the aircraft’s “wings and systems”. The Antonov An-140 had been considered as the basis for Russia’s next-generation multi-intelligence platform, but had been replaced by the Tu-214 due to concerns about “delays with its production”, the report noted. Subsequent to the Decem­

ber 2012 sighting, the prototype Tu-214R was photographed in an overall grey colour scheme during August 2013.

Within the Indian domain, the Indian Navy’s No 310 ‘Cobras’ Squadron (based at Indian Naval Station (INS) Hansa, at Dabolim in Goa, is understood to operate an inventory of Hindustan Aerospace Ltd-built Do 228-

201 aircraft in the ‘information warfare’ role.

The sensor fit includes a belly-mounted sur­ veillance radar and an ES/ELINT system. Do 2 2 8-201 information warfare aircraft IN-2 2 3 has been photographed with what appear to be four reception arrays located fore and aft









j«x™i ***> 1517334

on both sides of its fuselage, while aircraft IN-232 has been logged with a three-port array located on each of its wingtips. Interest­ ingly, this aircraft appears to show evidence that it was once equipped with a similar array to that fitted to IN-223. Indian sources sug­ gest that IN-232 acquired its six-port array post-2003 and that the installation serves a 0.5 to 18 GHz-band Elisra Group AES-210/E Emerald ES/ELINT system. Against this, the latest known AES-210/E installations make use of fundamentally dif­ ferent antenna configurations to that exhib­

ited by IN-2 3 2 and it is possible that IN-2 3 2

is equipped with a variant of Bharat Elec­

tronics’ Airborne ES System, which has been promoted for use aboard the Do 228. Aircraft IN-232 is reported to have been retrofit­ ted with an Elta Systems EL/M-2022A(V) 3

maritime surveillance radar as a precursor to

a major upgrade programme that would see

the BNS’s ‘information warfare’ Do 228- 201s equipped with a mission suite that would be built around an ES/ELINT system; the cited EL/M-2022A(V)3 radar; aTamam Airborne Multi-mission Optronic Stabilised

Payload; a ring laser gyro inertial navigation/ GPS package; mission commander, observer, and radar stations; and a real-time datalink. Over time the update package does not appear to have been implemented. In terms of usage an insight into Indian Naval Air Squadron (INAS) 310’s activities can be gained from its participation in the 1999 Kargil War between India and Pakistan. Three Do 228-201s and approximately 50 squadron personnel were deployed from INS Hansa to Naliya in Gujarat for participa­ tion in Operation ‘Vijay’. The deployment’s initial sortie was conducted over the Arabian Sea and is claimed to have identified Paki­ stani ground radars at Karachi, Khetibandar, Malir, Ormara, and Pasni, as well as airborne systems aboard Pakistani Breguet Br. 11 SO Atlantic and Lockheed Martin P-3 Orion maritime patrol aircraft. During June 1999 the unit undertook a second serial of‘Vijay’ ELINT sorties from Naliya, with missions being flown over the Kori Creek (Gujarat) - Bikaner (Rajasthan) area and along the Indo-Pakistani border. In the first instance the aircraft were escorted by MiG-29 fighters, with the border flights being restricted to 8-10 km inside Indian ter­ ritory. The serial was on behalf of the Indian

Army and detected Pakistani radars around Karachi, Lahore, and Pir Patho. INAS 310 is understood to have retained

a presence at Naliya after the fighting and

during the entire Kargil campaign the unit’s aircraft are reported to have been flown by a crew of four and to have completed some 358 (228 by day and 130 by night) combat flight hours. Most recently INAS 310 has continued to operate ‘information warfare’ Dorniers, with at least six such aircraft being in service during May 2013. The manned airborne surveillance capabil­ ity generated by the remaining BRIC nation - China - is currently built around ‘special mis­ sion’ variants of the Tupolev Tu-154 airliner and the Shaanxi Y-8 transport aircraft. The People’s Liberation Army Air Force (PLAAF) has over time operated at least four Tu-154s configured for SIGINT (including aircraft B-4018) and an as-yet-unidentified role that involves the installation of a large canoe

fairing beneath the forward fuselages of at least three other Tupolevs. Aircraft B-4018

is thought to have entered service during

1998, with one of the three canoe-equipped platforms (aircraft B-4015) being intercepted most recently by the JASDF on 17 and 2 3 November 2013.

The Y-8 capability forms part of the ‘Gaoxin’ (‘High New’) programme and involves the Y-8CB (‘Gaoxin-1’), Y-8G (‘Gaoxin-3’), and Y-8JB (‘Gaoxin-2’) SIGINT platforms. Of these, the Y-8CB is characterised by an external fit that includes a pair of dorsal radomes, a ventral canoe beneath its forward fuselage, and a variety of blade and blister antennas dotted around its airframe. Y-8CB

is said to have made its maiden flight during January 2000 and to be in service with the PLAAF’s 10th Air Division (AD) at Nanjing-Dajianchang. The Y-8G features a cylindrical fairing above its vertical fin, large semi-circular ‘cheek’ fairings, and a ventral drum-shaped radome. Most recently, it has been logged with the PLAAF’s 10th AD at Anqing North and an independent electronic warfare regi­ ment at Shenyang Yu Hung Tun. The Y-8JB is characterised by fore and aft dorsal radomes, a nose-mounted thimble radome, and a large ventral fairing under its




23 November 2013.
















China Sea


japans mod: 1517335

An in-flight view of a Y-8JB SIGINT aircraft that shows many of the antennas and equipment features that characterise the type’s external appearance.

Chinese internet:1299060

nose. The type shares some of the external characteristics of the Y-8CB and according to

IHS Jane’s sources is operated by the People’s Liberation Army Navy’s (PLAN’s) 1st (based at Liayang (rendered by some as Liaoyang) - and 7th (based at Sanya/Yaxian) Independent Air Regiments. As ofmid-2013 the same sources have identified at least seven Y-8CBs, 10 Y-8Gs, and five Y-8JBs as being in service with the PLAAF and the PLAN. The latest known sight­ ing was a Y-8CB aircraft that was intercepted by the JASDF over the East China Sea on 23 November 2013. Chinese contractor China Electronics Technology Company has pro­ moted a Y-8 based SIGINT aircraft for export with a mission suite that is understood to have included a variant of its 1 to 18 GHz- band KZ800 ELINT architecture. A KZ800 type application may also have been installed aboard theY-8JB.

Martin Streetly, Contributing Editor, JC4ISR & Mission Systems: Air, London

1 January 2014 Jane’s Defence Weekly I 31


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1 January 2014 Jane’s Defence Weekly I 33


Commander Angus Essenhigh


S even months into a high-profile, nine-month Asia-Pacific deployment, the UK Royal Navy’s (RN’s) Type

45 anti-air warfare destroyer HMS Daring has notched up several firsts, including its successful detection and tracking of ballistic

missile targets at the US Army’s Reagan test site in the Marshal Islands. One first that Daring’s commanding officer, Commander Angus Essenhigh, was happy to avoid was blocking the Panama Canal. “Daringwas the first Type 45 to transit

the canal, and it was a challenge; the ship is

22 metres wide and the canals are about 3 5

metres wide, which is not a lot of room, but the

dominant feature is that our stabilisers project beyond the waterline,” he told IHS Jane’s. “If we’d touched the sides we could have bent the stabilisers, in comes some water, and we’d have closed the canal.” To date, Daring’s deployment has included an en route counter-narcotics exercise in the Caribbean; the first port call in more than a decade by an RN ship to San Diego and Pearl Harbor; the first ever visit by the RN to Kwa- jalein Atoll, site of the Reagan test facility; an international fleet review in Sydney; a visit to Singapore; and an urgent diversion to the

typhoon-hit Philippines while participating in the Five Powers Defence Arrangement

Exercise ‘Bersama Lima’ off Malaysia. Still to come are port calls in South Korea,

China, Thailand, and Vietnam. Speaking in Sydney, Cdr Essenhigh said

the Type 45 had aroused great interest. “It’s

a very modern platform and people want to

see it; people are intrigued to have the Royal

Navy back. We haven’t operated in the region enough, to be honest, but it’s difficult when you have a navy of a certain size and standing overseas commitments.” Undertaking the deployment without a supporting ship has highlighted Daring’s range (7,500 n miles at 18 kt) and confi­ dence that teething problems with the ship’s engines have been overcome. “Daring was the first warship to have integrated electric propulsion and, as with every new technology, there comes a learning curve which has to be addressed. We’re well

resourced in terms of the spares we carry, but

I think we’re pretty much over that learning

34 I Jane’s Defence Weekly 1 January 2014

‘[The Type 45 has] a huge amount of potential for the future In terms of what’s coming online’

curve,” Cdr Essenhigh commented. “We’re now starting to get second and third time returnees to these ships, and we have the experience we really need to operate what is a very complicated system, one which gives you a huge amount of potential for the future in terms of what’s coming online. Lasers, rail guns; all these are energy hungry and are perfectly suited to ships that use integrated electric propulsion.” New crew continue to be brought into the Type 45 programme, and it was Cdr Essen- high’s mission to bring them up to the experi­ ence level of personnel who were leaving. “What we’ve been looking to do in the first few years of the ship’s life is to recycle all that experience back into the programme in senior positions. I was the air warfare officer in build, and I’m very privileged to have come back as the captain,” said Cdr Essenhigh. “In my wardroom probably 40 to 5 0% of the

officers have already served in a Type 45. It’s about putting them through the courses, pro­

moting them, and bringing them back into a role

where they can utilise their knowledge of the ship’s systems and develop a team below them.” Daring’s visit to the Reagan test facility on Kwajalein was, according to the UK Missile Defence Centre, to explore the potential of the Type 45 for anti-ballistic missile defence. Cdr Essenhigh said the ship had trialled its Sampson radar against what he described

as representative targets flying over the ship

“and I’m pleased to say from our perspective it

was successful and we tracked the objects that we were required to”. Having served for two years aboard the Arleigh Burke Flight IIA guided missile destroyer USS Winston S Churchill, Cdr Essen­

high said he could give “a favourable analysis”

of the Type 45’s Sampson multi-function

radar compared to the AN/SPY-1D (V) phased-array radar linked to the Aegis combat system aboard US Navy and other platforms. “Sampson does a very similar job, but after years of extra development it’s a generational leap in technology,” he said. “Fixed-face phased arrays are heavy, and they’re mounted below bridge level on US ships; we’ve got ours at masthead height to better track seaskim- ming missiles, and Sampson’s back-to-back arrays on a rotating antenna provide almost

360 degree coverage all the time.” “The other benefit is that if a flat-panel array covering 90 degrees of the horizon has a defect you’re down to your centrepiece cover­ age whereas with Sampson, even if there’s a

defect with one array, so long as the antenna continues to rotate in a standard fashion that’s still good enough for a fire control solution”. Daring begins a capability upgrade in Ports­ mouth next March, during which it will be the first of four of the six Daring-class ships

to receive two quadruple Harpoon anti-ship

missile launchers recycled from decommis­ sioned RNType 22 frigates. “This will be a significant addition to the ship’s capability in surface warfare terms,” said Cdr Essenhigh. “We want as much capa­

bility as they’re willing to put on the ship at

a time when we’re mindful of the economic

imperative that we’ve got to make the ships sustainable and cost-effective too.”

Julian Kerr JDW Correspondent, Sydney

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