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ANSYS Mechanical APDL Cyclic Symmetry

Analysis Guide

ANSYS, Inc. Release 17.0


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Table of Contents
1. Introduction ............................................................................................................................................ 1
1.1. How the Program Automates a Cyclic Symmetry Analysis .................................................................. 1
1.2. The General Cyclic Symmetry Analysis Equations ............................................................................... 2
1.3. Commands Used in a Cyclic Symmetry Analysis ................................................................................. 2
2. Cyclic Modeling ....................................................................................................................................... 5
2.1. The Basic Sector ................................................................................................................................ 5
2.1.1. Mistuning Considerations ......................................................................................................... 6
2.2. Edge Component Pairs ..................................................................................................................... 6
2.2.1. CYCOPT Auto Detection Tolerance Adjustments for Difficult Cases ............................................ 6
2.2.2. Identical vs. Dissimilar Edge Node Patterns .............................................................................. 10
2.2.3. Unmatched Nodes on Edge-Component Pairs ........................................................................ 10
2.2.4. Identifying Matching Node Pairs ............................................................................................. 10
2.3. Modeling Limitations ...................................................................................................................... 10
2.4. Model Verification (Preprocessing) .................................................................................................. 11
3. Cyclic Symmetry Overview .................................................................................................................... 13
3.1. Understanding the Solution Architecture ........................................................................................ 13
3.1.1. The Duplicate Sector .............................................................................................................. 13
3.1.2. Coupling and Constraint Equations (CEs) ................................................................................ 13
3.1.3. Non-Cyclically Symmetric Loading .......................................................................................... 15
3.1.3.1. Specifying Non-Cyclic Loading ....................................................................................... 16
3.1.3.2. Plotting and Listing Non-Cyclic Boundary Conditions ..................................................... 17
3.1.3.3. Graphically Picking Non-Cyclic Boundary Conditions ...................................................... 17
3.2. Database Considerations After Obtaining the Solution .................................................................... 17
3.3. Model Verification ........................................................................................................................... 18
3.4. Postprocessing a Cyclic Symmetry Analysis ...................................................................................... 18
3.4.1. General Considerations .......................................................................................................... 18
3.4.2. Using the /CYCEXPAND Command .......................................................................................... 19
3.4.2.1. /CYCEXPAND Limitations ............................................................................................... 19
3.4.3. Result Coordinate System ....................................................................................................... 20
3.5. Comparing Cyclic Solutions ............................................................................................................. 20
4. Cyclic Symmetry Analyses ..................................................................................................................... 23
4.1. Modal Cyclic Symmetry Analysis ...................................................................................................... 23
4.1.1. Understanding Harmonic Index and Nodal Diameter .............................................................. 23
4.1.2. Stress-Free Modal Analysis ...................................................................................................... 25
4.1.3. Prestressed Modal Cyclic Symmetry Analysis ........................................................................... 25
4.1.4. Large-Deflection Prestressed Modal Cyclic Symmetry Analysis ................................................ 26
4.1.4.1. Large-Deflection Prestressed Modal Cyclic Symmetry Analysis with VT Accelerator .......... 27
4.1.5. Postprocessing a Modal Cyclic Symmetry Analysis ................................................................... 28
4.1.5.1. Real and Imaginary Solution Components ...................................................................... 28
4.1.5.2. Expanding the Cyclic Symmetry Solution ....................................................................... 28
4.1.5.3. Applying a Traveling Wave Animation to the Cyclic Model .............................................. 29
4.1.5.4. Phase Sweep of Repeated Eigenvector Shapes ............................................................... 29
4.1.5.5. Interference Diagram ..................................................................................................... 31
4.2. Harmonic Cyclic Symmetry Analysis ................................................................................................ 31
4.2.1. Full Harmonic Cyclic Symmetry Analysis ................................................................................. 32
4.2.1.1. Prestressed Full Harmonic Cyclic Symmetry Analysis ....................................................... 33
4.2.1.2. Postprocessing a Full Harmonic Cyclic Symmetry Analysis .............................................. 33
4.2.2. Mode-Superposition Harmonic Cyclic Symmetry Analysis ....................................................... 34
4.2.2.1. Perform a Static Cyclic Symmetry Analysis to Obtain the Prestressed State ...................... 35
4.2.2.2. Perform a Linear Perturbation Modal Cyclic Symmetry Analysis ...................................... 36

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Cyclic Symmetry Analysis Guide

4.2.2.3. Restart the Modal Analysis to Create the Desired Load Vector from Element Loads .......... 36
4.2.2.4. Obtain the Mode-Superposition Harmonic Cyclic Symmetry Solution ............................. 37
4.2.2.5. Including Mistuning Effects ............................................................................................ 38
4.2.2.5.1. Restarting a Mistuning Analysis for New Mistuning Values ..................................... 39
4.2.2.6. Modal Frequencies of the Reduced System .................................................................... 39
4.2.2.7. Review the Results ......................................................................................................... 39
4.2.2.7.1. Results Expansion to the Full 360° Model ............................................................... 40
4.2.2.7.2. Single Result vs. Frequency .................................................................................... 40
4.2.2.7.3. Specialized Results Calculations ............................................................................ 41
4.3. Static Cyclic Symmetry Analysis ....................................................................................................... 43
4.3.1. Postprocessing a Static Cyclic Symmetry Analysis .................................................................... 45
4.4. Linear Buckling Cyclic Symmetry Analysis ........................................................................................ 45
4.4.1. Postprocessing a Linear Buckling Cyclic Symmetry Analysis ..................................................... 46
4.5. Magnetic Cyclic Symmetry Analysis ................................................................................................. 46
5. Example Cyclic Symmetry Analyses ...................................................................................................... 49
5.1. Example Modal Cyclic Symmetry Analysis ........................................................................................ 49
5.1.1. Problem Description .............................................................................................................. 49
5.1.2. Problem Specifications ........................................................................................................... 49
5.1.3. Input File for the Analysis ....................................................................................................... 50
5.1.4. Analysis Steps ........................................................................................................................ 52
5.2. Example Buckling Cyclic Symmetry Analysis .................................................................................... 54
5.2.1. Problem Description .............................................................................................................. 54
5.2.2. Problem Specifications ........................................................................................................... 54
5.2.3. Input File for the Analysis ....................................................................................................... 55
5.2.4. Analysis Steps ........................................................................................................................ 58
5.2.5. Solve For Critical Strut Temperature at Load Factor = 1.0 .......................................................... 59
5.3. Example Full Harmonic Cyclic Symmetry Analysis ............................................................................ 61
5.3.1. Problem Description .............................................................................................................. 62
5.3.2. Problem Specifications ........................................................................................................... 62
5.3.3. Input File for the Analysis ....................................................................................................... 62
5.3.4. Analysis Steps ........................................................................................................................ 64
5.4. Example Mode-Superposition Harmonic Cyclic Symmetry Analysis with Mistuning .......................... 67
5.4.1. Problem Descriptions ............................................................................................................. 67
5.4.2. Finite Element Model of the Problem ...................................................................................... 68
5.4.3. Input File for the Analysis ....................................................................................................... 68
5.4.4. Analysis Steps ........................................................................................................................ 76
5.5. Example Magnetic Cyclic Symmetry Analysis ................................................................................... 83
5.5.1. Problem Description .............................................................................................................. 83
5.5.2. Problem Specifications ........................................................................................................... 84
5.5.3. Input file for the Analysis ........................................................................................................ 85

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List of Figures
1.1. Model of a Cyclically Symmetric Structure ............................................................................................... 1
2.1. A Basic Sector in a Cyclically Symmetric Structure .................................................................................... 5
2.2. Basic Sector Definition ............................................................................................................................ 6
2.3. Full Cyclic Model ..................................................................................................................................... 7
2.4. Cyclic Sector ........................................................................................................................................... 8
2.5. Successful Auto Detection with Default FACETOL = 15 Deg .................................................................... 8
2.6. Auto Detection Failure Due to Large Face Tolerance ................................................................................. 9
3.1. Connecting Low and High Edges of Basic and Duplicate Sectors ............................................................ 14
3.2. Cyclic Results Coordinate Systems with RSYS,SOLU ............................................................................... 20
4.1. Examples of Nodal Diameters (i) ............................................................................................................ 23
4.2. Process Flow for a Stress-Free Modal Cyclic Symmetry Analysis .............................................................. 25
4.3. Process Flow for a Prestressed Modal Cyclic Symmetry Analysis .............................................................. 26
4.4. Process Flow for a Large-Deflection Prestressed Modal Cyclic Symmetry Analysis ................................... 27
4.5. Traveling Wave Animation Example ....................................................................................................... 29
4.6. Interference Diagram ............................................................................................................................ 31
4.7. Process Flow for a Full Harmonic Cyclic Symmetry Analysis (Non-Cyclic Loading) .................................... 32
4.8. Process Flow for a Prestressed Full Harmonic Cyclic Symmetry Analysis ................................................. 33
4.9. Process Flow for a Prestressed Mode-Superposition Harmonic Cyclic Symmetry Analysis ........................ 35
4.10. CYCSPEC Frequency Response ............................................................................................................ 42
4.11. CYCSPEC Histogram Response ............................................................................................................. 43
4.12. Process Flow for a Static Cyclic Symmetry Analysis (Cyclic Loading) ...................................................... 44
4.13. Process Flow for a Static Cyclic Symmetry Analysis (Non-Cyclic Loading) ............................................... 44
4.14. Process Flow for a Linear Buckling Cyclic Symmetry Analysis ................................................................ 46
5.1. Example Modal Cyclic Symmetry Analysis Results .................................................................................. 54
5.2. Example Buckling Cyclic Symmetry Analysis Results ............................................................................... 59
5.3. Buckling Cyclic Symmetry Results: Load Factor Iterations ....................................................................... 59
5.4. Buckling Cyclic Symmetry Results: Load Factor Results Graph ................................................................ 61
5.5. Element Plot Showing Pressure Load on Sector 3 ................................................................................... 65
5.6. Contour Plot of Displacement Sum at Frequency of 866 HZ .................................................................... 66
5.7. Displacement Plot as a Function of Excitation Frequency ....................................................................... 67
5.8. Contour Plot of Amplitude Displacement Solution Along Z at Frequency 75 Hz ...................................... 78
5.9. Contour Nodal Plot of Equivalent Stress Solution at Frequency 75 Hz ..................................................... 79
5.10. CYCSPEC Frequency Response for Displacement Sum at Node 64 ........................................................ 80
5.11. CYCSPEC Histogram Response for Displacement Sum at Node 64 at Frequency 75 Hz ........................... 81
5.12. CYCSPEC Frequency Response for Displacement Sum at Node 64 After Restarting the Cyclic Mode-Su-
perposition Harmonic Analysis with Different Mistuning Parameters ............................................................ 82
5.13. CYCSPEC Histogram Response for Displacement Sum at Node 64 at Frequency 75 Hz After Restarting
the Cyclic Mode-Superposition Harmonic Analysis with Different Mistuning Parameters .............................. 83
5.14. Two-Phase Electric Machine - Full Model .............................................................................................. 84
5.15. Two-Phase Electric Machine - Half Model ............................................................................................. 84
5.16. Vector Plot of Cyclic Flux Density (B) - Half Model ................................................................................. 89
5.17. Contour Line Plot of Equipotentials - Half Model .................................................................................. 89

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List of Tables
3.1. Valid Non-Cyclically Symmetric Loads .................................................................................................... 15
5.1. Buckling Cyclic Symmetry: Load Factor Iteration Results ......................................................................... 61

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Chapter 1: Introduction
Cyclic symmetry modeling is an analysis tool used to simulate structures having a repetitive geometric
pattern in 360 degrees around an axis of symmetry. Common examples of cyclically symmetric structures
are domes, cooling towers, industrial chimneys, milling cutters, turbine blade disks, gears, fans, and
pump impellers. Figure 1.1: Model of a Cyclically Symmetric Structure (p. 1) shows a cyclically symmetric
hydrorotor.

Figure 1.1: Model of a Cyclically Symmetric Structure

If a structure exhibits cyclic symmetry, you can perform an automated static (p. 43), modal (p. 23),
harmonic (p. 31), buckling (p. 45), or magnetic (p. 46) analysis. Taking advantage of the repeatable
geometry, a cyclic symmetry analysis can vastly reduce model size and computational cost.

The following topics introducing you to cyclic symmetry analysis are available:
1.1. How the Program Automates a Cyclic Symmetry Analysis
1.2.The General Cyclic Symmetry Analysis Equations
1.3. Commands Used in a Cyclic Symmetry Analysis

1.1. How the Program Automates a Cyclic Symmetry Analysis


A cyclic symmetry analysis conserves time and CPU resources and allows you to view analysis results
on the entire structure. The program automates cyclic symmetry analysis by:

• Solving for the behavior of a single symmetric sector (part of a circular component or assembly)

• Using the single-sector solution to construct the response behavior of the full circular component or assembly
(as a postprocessing step)

For example, by analyzing a single 10° sector of a 36-blade turbine wheel assembly, you can obtain the
complete 360° model solution via simple postprocessing calculations. Using twice the usual number of
degrees of freedom (DOFs) in this case, the single sector represents a 1/18 part of the model.

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Introduction

1.2. The General Cyclic Symmetry Analysis Equations


The general dynamic equation is:

where , , and are the mass, damping, and stiffness matrices, and is the external force
vector.

A Fourier decomposition of the solution and the load vector is used:

where is the transformation matrix, and and are harmonic indices displacement and
load quantities.

Using the transformation matrix, the dynamics equation reduces to:

This set of uncoupled cyclic sector equations is solved while enforcing the compatibility boundary
conditions between the sectors.

For more information about the matrices, see Analysis of Cyclically Symmetric Structures in the Mech-
anical APDL Theory Reference.

1.3. Commands Used in a Cyclic Symmetry Analysis


The most important command in an automated cyclic symmetry analysis is CYCLIC, which initiates a
cyclic analysis and configures the database accordingly. The command automatically detects cyclic
symmetry model information such as edge components, the number of sectors, the sector angles, and
the corresponding cyclic coordinate system.

The ANTYPE command specifies the analysis type (for example, static, modal or buckling), and the
SOLVE command obtains the cyclic solution.

Other cyclic-specific commands include:

• CYCOPT for specifying solution options (/PREP7 and /SOLU)

• /CYCEXPAND for graphically expanding displacements, stresses and strains of a cyclically symmetric model
(/PREP7 and /POST1)

• CYCPHASE for determining minimum and maximum possible modal result values from frequency couplets
during postprocessing (/POST1)

Depending upon the type of cyclic symmetry analysis that you want to perform and your specific needs,
it may be necessary to issue other commands. For example:

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Commands Used in a Cyclic Symmetry Analysis

• In a prestressed modal cyclic symmetry analysis (p. 25), you must issue the PSTRES,ON command during
the static portion of the analysis to calculate the prestress effects for the subsequent modal analysis. (The
PSTRES command is not needed if the linear perturbation analysis procedure is used.)

• During modal postprocessing, you may want to issue the ANCYC command to apply a traveling wave anim-
ation (p. 29) to your cyclic model.

The sections of this document describing various cyclic symmetry analyses mention such commands
as necessary. For more information, see Cyclic Symmetry Overview (p. 13).

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Chapter 2: Cyclic Modeling
This chapter describes how to set up a cyclic sector model, discusses important considerations for edge
component pairs, and shows how to verify the cyclically symmetric model.

The following cyclic modeling topics are available:


2.1.The Basic Sector
2.2. Edge Component Pairs
2.3. Modeling Limitations
2.4. Model Verification (Preprocessing)

2.1. The Basic Sector


A cyclic symmetry analysis requires that you model a single sector, called the basic sector. A proper
basic sector represents one part of a pattern that, if repeated N times in cylindrical coordinate space,
yields the complete model, as shown:

Figure 2.1: A Basic Sector in a Cyclically Symmetric Structure

A basic sector model that is cyclically symmetric can be defined in any global or user-defined cylindrical
coordinate system. (For information about creating a model, see the Modeling and Meshing Guide.)

The angle α (in degrees) spanned by the basic sector should be such that Nα = 360, where N is an integer.
The basic sector can consist of meshed or unmeshed geometry. The program allows user-defined
coupling and constraint equations (including those created by MPC contact) only on nodes that are
not on the low or high edges of the cyclic sector. (For more information about the cyclic sector's low
and high edges, see Edge Component Pairs (p. 6).)

If meshed, the basic sector may have matching (as shown in Figure 2.2: Basic Sector Definition (p. 6))
or unmatched lower and higher angle edges. Matching means that corresponding nodes exist on each
edge, offset geometrically by the sector angle α. The edges may be of any shape and need not be "flat"
in cylindrical coordinate space. For more information, see Identical vs. Dissimilar Edge Node Pat-
terns (p. 10).

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Cyclic Modeling

Figure 2.2: Basic Sector Definition

Low Component Nodes

High Component Nodes

Z
Y
angle
Sector
X
CSYS =1

2.1.1. Mistuning Considerations


If mistuning is to be included in a harmonic analysis (see Mode-Superposition Harmonic Cyclic Symmetry
Analysis (p. 34)), the blade must be meshed such that the blade elements and the node interface sep-
arating the blade from the disk or the platform are readily separable. This can be accomplished by
either carefully crafting a mesh (if a brick mesh) or by slicing the geometry before meshing (especially
for a tet mesh). Note that the interface can exist at a location other than the blade-disk or blade-platform
interface, for example, just above the fillet.

2.2. Edge Component Pairs


The cyclic sector has two edges that align along the surfaces of cyclic symmetry. The edge having the
algebraically lower θ in the R-θ (cylindrical) coordinate system is called the low edge and the one having
the higher θ is called the high edge. The angle α between the two successive surfaces of cyclic symmetry
is called the sector angle.

When setting up a cyclic symmetry analysis, the CYCLIC command defines edge components automat-
ically, assigning them a default root name of “CYCLIC.”

Optionally, you can use the CYCLIC command to define the edges and the component names manually.
If you do so, you must specify a root name for the sector low- and high-edge components (line, area,
or node components). A root name that you specify can contain up to 11 characters. The naming con-
vention for each low- and high-edge component pair is either of the following:

name_mxxl, name_mxxh
(potentially matched node patterns)

name_uxxl, name_uxxh
(potentially unmatched node patterns)

The name value is the default (“CYCLIC”) or specified root name, and xx is the component pair ID
number (sequential, starting at 01).

2.2.1. CYCOPT Auto Detection Tolerance Adjustments for Difficult Cases


If the CYCLIC command fails to auto-detect the edges of your cyclic sector, adjusting the ANGTOL
and/or FACETOL values of the CYCOPT command may help. The most effective way to correct auto-
detection is usually by changing the ANGTOL value; however, for more difficult cases from FEA models
you may need to change FACETOL to achieve auto detection.

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Edge Component Pairs

When using the CYCOPT command, face tolerance, or FACETOL, automatically defaults to 15 degrees.
Face tolerance applies only to auto-detection from node/element models that are already meshed, and
are not solid models. The default face tolerance will accommodate most models, unless they include
extreme angles or complex model geometry, both of which can cause surface nodes to be excluded.
This problem, and possible solutions are illustrated in this section using the cyclic model shown in
Figure 2.3: Full Cyclic Model (p. 7).

Figure 2.3: Full Cyclic Model

Figure 2.4: Cyclic Sector (p. 8) shows a cyclic sector from the model above. As you can see, this sector
model is leaning heavily in the circumferential direction. The low and high boundaries in this figure
have been auto detected correctly using the default FACETOL value of 15 deg. This successful auto
detection of these boundaries can be seen in Figure 2.5: Successful Auto Detection with Default FACETOL
= 15 Deg (p. 8).

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Cyclic Modeling

Figure 2.4: Cyclic Sector

Figure 2.5: Successful Auto Detection with Default FACETOL = 15 Deg

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Edge Component Pairs

If you reset the FACETOL values in the figure above from 15 degrees to 30 degrees, auto detection
fails because the logic treats the left and bottom sides of the sector as a single face, and the top and
right sides as a second large face. This is because the bottom-left edge and top-right edge of this
model both contain a dihedral angle greater than 150 degrees (180-30), but less than 165 degrees (180-
15). These large angles add to the possibility of auto-detection errors.

If you start with a model tilted more than the sector in Figure 2.5: Successful Auto Detection with Default
FACETOL = 15 Deg (p. 8), it may fail at the default tolerance of 15 degrees. This may require you to
reduce FACETOL to 10 or even 5 degrees to get a successful result.

A FACETOL value that is set too low can also result in failure. A FACETOL value that is too low can
cause edges not to be detected along element boundaries on smooth surfaces. The valid range of FA-
CETOL is model and mesh dependent, and may be dictated by a single edge shared between 2 elements.

Whenever auto detect fails for an element model, save the node groups for each element face that you
were working with as node components NPF_001, NPF_002, etc. for diagnostic purposes. Each node
component should represent exactly one face of the cyclic sector (cyclic boundary or not).

In Figure 2.6: Auto Detection Failure Due to Large Face Tolerance (p. 9) , NPF_001 is clearly too large.
As you can see from the nodes, the group has leaked across the lower left edge. This indicates that
FACETOL is too large for the given dihedral angle.

Figure 2.6: Auto Detection Failure Due to Large Face Tolerance

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Cyclic Modeling

2.2.2. Identical vs. Dissimilar Edge Node Patterns

Automated Matching

The AMESH and VMESH commands perform automated matching. All other meshing-operation
commands (for example, VSWEEP) do not.

If you specify a meshing operation other than AMESH or VMESH, ensure that node and element
face patterns match, if desired. The CYCLIC command output indicates whether each edge-com-
ponent pair has or can produce a matching node pair.

To ensure the most accurate solution, it is preferable to have identical node and element face patterns
on the low and high edges of the cyclic sector. If you issue the CYCLIC command before meshing the
cyclic sector (via the AMESH or VMESH command only), the mesh will have identical node and element
face patterns on the low and high edges if possible. In this case, all entities must be meshed together
using one meshing command.

The program allows dissimilar node patterns on the low and high edges of the cyclic sector, useful
when you have only finite-element meshes for your model but not the geometry data necessary to
remesh it to obtain identical node patterns. In such cases, it is possible to obtain solution (SOLVE) results,
although perhaps at the expense of accuracy. A warning message appears because results may be de-
graded near the cyclic sector edges.

2.2.3. Unmatched Nodes on Edge-Component Pairs


Unmatched nodes on the low- and high-edge components produce approximate cyclic symmetry
solutions (as compared to matched-node cases). The program uses an unmatched-node algorithm
(similar to that of the CEINTF command) to connect dissimilar meshes.

In unmatched cases, the results exhibit discontinuity across segment boundaries when expanded (via
the /CYCEXPAND command). The discontinuity is an expected behavior; in the expansion process, the
low edge of sector 2 lies adjacent to the high edge of sector 1, and so on throughout the full 360°.

For information about expanding the solution results of a cyclic symmetry analysis, see Expanding the
Cyclic Symmetry Solution (p. 28).

2.2.4. Identifying Matching Node Pairs


To identify the matching node pairs, you can issue a *STATUS command to list the cyclic parameter
array Name_xref_n (where Name is the root name of the low- and high-edge components specified
via the CYCLIC command).

The cyclic parameter array is generated internally during element plotting with cyclic expansion activated
(/CYCEXPAND,,ON).

In the cyclic parameter array listing, the matching node pairs appear as a pair of node numbers with
the low-edge node number having a negative value.

2.3. Modeling Limitations


The following limitations exist when defining a cyclic symmetry model:

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Model Verification (Preprocessing)

• Cyclic symmetry solution does not work for elements that have thermal and hydrostatic pressure degrees
of freedom.

• The following structural element types are not supported:

– Axisymmetric elements (such as PLANE83)

– Generalized axisymmetric elements (such as SOLID272)

– Multipoint constraint elements (MPC184)

– Thermal surface effect elements (such as SURF151)

– Reinforced elements (such as REINF263)

– User-defined element (USER300)

– Reinforced concrete solid elements (SOLID65)

– Gasket elements (INTER192, INTER193, INTER194, INTER195)

– Superelement (MATRIX50)

– Generalized plane strain option (such as PLANE183 with KEYOPT(3) = 5)

• Birth and death of elements (EKILL and EALIVE) is not supported in a cyclic symmetry solution.

• A cyclic model generated while having solid model based cyclic edge components does not write cyclic
data to the .CDB file if CDWRITE is issued with Option = DB. A warning is issued that you must reissue
the CYCLIC command after a CDREAD of the model. You must also reissue any CYCOPT and CYCFREQ
commands previously issued, as they are not written during the CDWRITE operation in this case.

• Initial state is not supported (INISTATE).

2.4. Model Verification (Preprocessing)


If the CYCLIC command's default automatic detection capability accepts your model for cyclic analysis,
the program will have already verified the following two essential conditions for a cyclic analysis:

• When your model rotates by the cyclic angle about the local Z axis of the cyclic coordinate system, the edges
identified as "low" occupy the same space as those identified by "high" prior to the rotation.

• The cyclic angle divides evenly into 360°.

If you specify edge components and cyclic quantities manually, you must verify the two conditions
yourself.

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Chapter 3: Cyclic Symmetry Overview
The program solves for the full cyclically symmetric model using the basic sector model (p. 5) that
you have set up during preprocessing with the appropriate boundary conditions, loading, and any
coupling and constraint equations. For more information, see Cyclic Modeling (p. 5).

This chapter provides overview information for obtaining the solution to various types of cyclic symmetry
analyses and covers the following topics:
3.1. Understanding the Solution Architecture
3.2. Database Considerations After Obtaining the Solution
3.3. Model Verification
3.4. Postprocessing a Cyclic Symmetry Analysis
3.5. Comparing Cyclic Solutions

3.1. Understanding the Solution Architecture


At the solution (SOLVE) stage of a cyclic symmetry analysis, the program applies the appropriate cyclic
symmetry boundary conditions for each harmonic index solution requested (via the CYCOPT command)
and solves. The program performs each harmonic index solution as a separate load step.

The following solution architecture topics are available for cyclic symmetry analysis:
3.1.1.The Duplicate Sector
3.1.2. Coupling and Constraint Equations (CEs)
3.1.3. Non-Cyclically Symmetric Loading

3.1.1. The Duplicate Sector


The architecture of the cyclic symmetry solution process depends upon how the compatibility and
equilibrium conditions of the cyclic sector are enforced in the matrix-solution process. The two most
common solution methods are Duplicate Sector and Complex Hermitian. For faster performance, the
program uses the Duplicate Sector method.

During the solution stage, the program generates a duplicate sector of elements at the same geometric
location as the basic sector (p. 5). (Duplicate sector creation occurs automatically and transparently.)
The program applies all loading, boundary conditions, and coupling and constraint equations present
on the basic sector (p. 5) to the duplicate sector.

3.1.2. Coupling and Constraint Equations (CEs)


The program enforces cyclic symmetry compatibility conditions for each harmonic index solution via
coupling and/or constraint equations (CEs) connecting the nodes on the low- and high-edge components
on the basic and duplicate sectors. The program deletes the coupling and/or constraint equations after
each harmonic index solution, preserving any internal coupling and constraint equations that you may

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Cyclic Symmetry Overview

have defined on the basic sector (p. 5) for subsequent analyses. The constraint equations for edge-
component nodes have the form shown in Equation 3.1 (p. 14).

Note

These internal CEs cannot be listed or viewed after a cyclic symmetry solution, except by
using the Option = CONV on the CELIST command.

During the solution stage of a cyclic symmetry analysis, the program automatically rotates the nodal
coordinate systems of all nodes on the low and high sector edges to be parallel with the cyclic coordinate
system.

Figure 3.1: Connecting Low and High Edges of Basic and Duplicate Sectors

(3.1)

where,

= Harmonic index -- (0,1,2,…,N / 2) when N is even, (0,1,2,…,(N-1) / 2) when N is odd. (N is an integer


representing the number of sectors in 360°.)
= Sector angle ( )
= Vector of displacement and rotational degrees of freedom
represents the basic sector (p. 5) low side edge
represents the basic sector (p. 5) high side edge
represents the duplicate sector (p. 13) low side edge
represents the duplicate sector (p. 13) high side edge

The equation is a function of harmonic index k generating different sets of constraint equations for
each harmonic index. Therefore, for each harmonic index solution requested, the program creates the
appropriate constraint equations automatically, connects the edge-component nodes on basic sec-
tor (p. 5) A and duplicate sector (p. 13) B, and solves.

Constraint equations that tie together the low and high edges of your model are generated from the
low- and high-edge components, and nowhere else. You should verify that automatically detected

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Understanding the Solution Architecture

components are in the correct locations and that you are able to account for all components; to do so,
you can list (CMLIST) or plot (CMPLOT) the components.

3.1.3. Non-Cyclically Symmetric Loading


Non-cyclic loading is applicable to static and full harmonic cyclic solutions. A load is non-cyclic when
it varies between sectors and involves at least one harmonic index greater than zero. Support is available
for cyclic analyses that have some combination of cyclic and non-cyclic loading.

The program considers the arbitrary forces acting on the full system as the sum of a finite number of
spatial Fourier harmonics. The program analyzes the structure for each spatial harmonic index by applying
constraint equations between the basic sector (p. 5) and duplicate sector (p. 13). For each spatial
Fourier harmonic, the program solves a corresponding equation, then expands and sums the calculated
harmonics of the response to give the response for each substructure. For more information, see Cyclic
Symmetry Transformations in the Mechanical APDL Theory Reference.

Table 3.1: Valid Non-Cyclically Symmetric Loads

Non-Cyclic Commands Loads Comments


Load Type
Nodal Loads F, K FX, FY, and FZ HFLOW is blocked for
sector-restricted loading but
following can follow afterwards.
the
sector All other nodal loads are not
specifications supported for non-cyclic
(CYCOPT,LDSECT,n loading.
where
n > 0)
Surface SF, PRES CONV is blocked for
Loads SFA, sector-restriced loading but can
SFE, follow afterwards.
SFL
All other surface loads are not
following supported for non-cyclic
the loading.
sector
specifications
(CYCOPT,LDSECT,n
where
n > 0)
Inertia Loads ACEL, Applies to all sectors. (Not May require harmonic index 0
DOMEGA, affected by CYCOPT,LDSECT,n and/or 1 only.
CMDOMEGA, where n > 0.)
CMOMEGA,
OMEGA Default load in global X, Y, and
Z on all sectors.

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Cyclic Symmetry Overview

3.1.3.1. Specifying Non-Cyclic Loading


This section is applicable to static and full harmonic cyclic analyses only. For cyclic mode-superposition
harmonic analyses, non-cyclic loading is applied in a different manner. For more information, see Mode-
Superposition Harmonic Cyclic Symmetry Analysis (p. 34).

Specify non-cyclically symmetric loading via the LDSECT (load-on-sector) value on the CYCOPT command.
A value greater than 0 (the default, indicating that the loads are identical on all sectors) restricts sub-
sequently defined force loads and surface loads to the specified sector. The restriction remains in effect
until you change or reset it. Non-cyclic loads are placed in a special *DIM table using SECTOR as its
primary variable.

When non-cyclic loading applies, the program creates or modifies the required SECTOR tabular
boundary condition (BC) data to apply on the appropriate sector. Therefore, it is not necessary to ma-
nipulate tables for situations where the applied BC is not a function of other tabular BC variables such
as TIME, X, Y, Z, and so on.

If a SECTOR-varying table exists on an entity-BC combination (for example, node 17 FZ) and you enter
another value for the same entity-BC combination (perhaps specifying a different sector on which to
apply the load), the following conditions occur:

• The program modifies the existing table to accommodate the new specification.

• The table cannot reference any other independent variable (for example, TEMP). You must manually define
any BC table requiring more than one independent variable.

If a table exists for an entity-BC combination and you enter another table for the same entity-BC com-
bination, but the table does not reference SECTOR, the new table reference replaces the existing one.

During preprocessing, all tabular BC listings and plots referencing SECTOR will list the table names only.
During solution or postprocessing, all tabular BC listings and plots referencing SECTOR will list the values
per sector as they would be applied when solving (SOLVE).

Any tabular data X, Y, or Z variation applied to a cyclic model may not be applied in the same manner
in which such a variation would occur for an equivalent full model (the exception being a variation in
the axial direction). For example, if a tabular value of a nodal force is applied as function of the tabular
variable Y, the program applies it to the designated cyclic sectors using values based upon the Y values
of the basic sector (p. 5) only.

A given high-edge node is usually the same location in the structure as the corresponding low-edge
node of the adjacent sector; therefore, it is necessary to apply constraints consistently. Note that incon-
sistent constraints are impossible to satisfy if the solution remains cyclic. The results can be unpredictable.

If a high (or low)-edge DOF has a constant (non-tabular) constraint, and the corresponding low (or
high)-edge DOF is unconstrained, the program copies the constraint to the opposite edge. If a high (or
low)-edge DOF has a tabular constraint, and the corresponding low (or high)-edge DOF is unconstrained,
the program stops the solution with an error message. If a high-low corresponding pair of DOF are both
constrained in any manner, the program assumes that you have specified constraints in a consistent
manner.

One warning is issued the first time this is done for a given SOLVE operation.

Because edge nodes are rotated into the cyclic coordinate system during solution, any applied displace-
ments or forces on sector edges will be in the cyclic coordinate system.

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Database Considerations After Obtaining the Solution

Example 3.1: Non-Cyclic Loading via Automatically-Defined Tabular Load


CYCOPT,LDSECT,1 ! LOADS ON SECTOR 1 ONLY
SFL,ALL,PRES,10000

For DOF constraints, force loads, and body forces, any non-tabular load is cyclic. Any tabular load that
does not reference the variable SECTOR is cyclic. The program assumes any tabular load referencing
SECTOR to be non-cyclic (although it could be identical on all sectors).

Example 3.2: Non-Cyclic Loading via User-Defined Tabular Load


*DIM,S1PRES,TABLE,5,1,1,SECTOR
*SET,S1PRES(1,0,1),1,2,3,4,5
*SET,S1PRES(1,1,1),10000,0,0,0,0 ! PRESSURE ON SECTOR 1 ONLY
SFL,ALL,PRES,%S1PRES%

When combined with other independent variables, SECTOR can be in positions 1, 2, or 3 only. Other
independent variables operate as they do for non-cyclic data. (Think of X, Y, and Z as “ghost” coordinates,
behaving as though all sectors have been modeled with actual nodes and elements.)

Example 3.3: Deleting a Sector Load


CYCOPT,LDSECT,3
F,10,UX,value ! Apply a load (value) on node 10 at sector 3
...
FDELE,10,UX ! Delete the load on node 10 at sector 3

To delete a previously applied load on a specified sector, issue an FDELE command.

3.1.3.2. Plotting and Listing Non-Cyclic Boundary Conditions


You can plot non-cyclic boundary conditions (BCs) on the sector on which the BC (F, D, SF) is applied.
By expanding (p. 28) the cyclic sector model plot to the full 360 degrees (via the /CYCEXPAND com-
mand), you can view a BC on the sector on which it is applied.

Issue BC-listing commands FLIST, DLIST, and SFLIST to list non-cyclic BCs. The list indicates the value
of the BC and the sector on which it is applied.

3.1.3.3. Graphically Picking Non-Cyclic Boundary Conditions


You can use graphical picking via the GUI to apply non-cyclic BCs on any sector. The graphical picking
option is available after expanding (p. 28) the cyclic model (/CYCEXPAND). Applicable BCs are:

• Surface pressure (SF, SFL, SFA)

• Force (F, FK)

BCs applied by graphical picking ignore the current CYCOPT,LDSECT setting when cyclic expansion
(/CYCEXPAND) is active. When cyclic expansion is not active, BCs are applied to the sector specified by
CYCOPT,LDSECT (or all sectors if CYCOPT,LDSECT,ALL).

The mathematical characteristics of a cyclic symmetry solution require that displacement BCs (D, DK,
DL, DA) apply to all sectors.

3.2. Database Considerations After Obtaining the Solution


At the conclusion of the cyclic symmetry solution, exit the solution processor via the FINISH command.

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Cyclic Symmetry Overview

If you intend to exit the program at this point (before postprocessing), save the database (Jobname.DB).
The saved database allows you to perform postprocessing on the analysis results at a later time.

3.3. Model Verification


The cyclic solution reports the number of constraint equations generated for each harmonic index
solution and information about how they were created. The information should match what you already
know about the analysis model; if not, try to determine the reason for the discrepancy. The following
extracts (from a batch output file or an interactive output window) are typical:
NUMBER OF CONSTRAINT EQUATIONS GENERATED = 124
(USING THE MATCHED NODES ALGORITHM --
MAX NODE LOCATION ERROR NEAR ZERO)

Meaning: 124 constraint equations are created, used, and then deleted to enforce cyclic symmetry
conditions between the low- and high-edge nodes. Every node on the low edge is precisely matched
to a corresponding node on the high edge, representing the best possible situation.
NUMBER OF CONSTRAINT EQUATIONS GENERATED = 124
(USING THE MATCHED NODES ALGORITHM --
MAX NODE LOCATION ERROR = 0.73906E-02)

Meaning: 124 constraint equations are created, used, and then deleted to enforce cyclic symmetry
conditions between the low- and high-edge nodes. Every node on the low edge is matched to a corres-
ponding node on the high edge within the current tolerance setting, but not all matches are precise.
The largest position mismatch is 0.0073906.
NUMBER OF CONSTRAINT EQUATIONS GENERATED = 504
(USING THE UNMATCHED NODES ALGORITHM)

Meaning: 504 constraint equations are created, used, and then deleted to enforce cyclic symmetry
conditions between the low- and high-edge nodes. At least one node on the low edge does not match
any node on the high edge within the current tolerance setting, so the program uses the unmatched
nodes algorithm.

3.4. Postprocessing a Cyclic Symmetry Analysis


This section describes how to perform postprocessing on the solution results obtained from a cyclic
symmetry analysis. The following topics are available:
3.4.1. General Considerations
3.4.2. Using the /CYCEXPAND Command
3.4.3. Result Coordinate System

3.4.1. General Considerations


If you exited the program after obtaining the cyclic symmetry solution, use the database (Jobname.DB)
that you saved for postprocessing. For more information, see Database Considerations After Obtaining
the Solution (p. 17).

The real (basic sector (p. 5)) and imaginary (duplicate sector (p. 13)) parts of the solution reside in the
results file. However, the solution does not yet represent the actual displacements, stresses, or reaction
forces for any part of the actual structure.

Listing or plotting the sector results causes the program to issue a warning message such as PLNSOL
is displaying the unprocessed real and imaginary parts of this cyclic

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Postprocessing a Cyclic Symmetry Analysis

symmetry solution. Furthermore, the basic (p. 5) and duplicate sectors (p. 13) overplot each
other if displayed, providing yet another indication that a problem exists.

3.4.2. Using the /CYCEXPAND Command


The /CYCEXPAND command is used to expand the cyclic symmetry results to the full 360° model (or
a portion thereof ). The command does not modify the geometry, nodal displacements or element
stresses stored in the database. Issue the command to expand your basic sector (p. 5) model and obtain
the full 360° model displacement, stress, or strain response.

After the expansion, you can plot (PLESOL or PLNSOL) or print (PRNSOL) the results. Other commands
(such as NSEL and NSORT) continue to operate on the unprocessed real and imaginary parts of the
solution.

Using the cyclic symmetry solution of the basic (p. 5) and duplicate sectors (p. 13) (illustrated in Fig-
ure 3.1: Connecting Low and High Edges of Basic and Duplicate Sectors (p. 14)), the /CYCEXPAND
command combines the solutions from the two sectors by performing computations on the selected
load step (specified via the SET command) to combine the results of the two sectors. The program uses
the following response equation for the full structure or assembly:
(3.2)

where,

= Response of the full structure or assembly (displacement, stress, or strain) for sector number
n
= Basic sector (p. 5) solution
= Duplicate sector (p. 13) solution
= Sector number for response expansion -- n = 1,2,3,…,N
= Harmonic index (p. 23) -- (0,1,2,…,N / 2) when N is even, (0,1,2,…,(N-1) / 2) when N is odd. N is
an integer representing the number of sectors in 360°.
= Sector angle ( )

3.4.2.1. /CYCEXPAND Limitations


• Only PLNSOL, PRNSOL (plot and print of nodal solution, respectively), and PLESOL (plot of element solution)
are supported after /CYCEXPAND. All other postprocessing commands operate on unprocessed real and
imaginary parts of the solution.

• Postprocessing a nodal solution on a selected set of nodes (for example, on nodal components defined by
CM) is not supported after /CYCEXPAND. Select the attached elements (ESLN) to postprocess a selected
set.

• Load case operations (LCOPER) are not supported after /CYCEXPAND.

• Postprocessing contact element status (PRESOL,CONT) is not supported after /CYCEXPAND.

• The /CYCEXPAND command does not work with PGR files.

• The /CYCEXPAND command is incompatible with the /ESHAPE,1 or /ESHAPE,FAC command.

• For magnetic cyclic symmetry analyses, the /CYCEXPAND command produces contour plots, but not vector
plots.

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Cyclic Symmetry Overview

• The AVRES command with Opt = FULL is not supported after the /CYCEXPAND command is issued.

• Contour plots (PLNSOL or PLESOL) will not show the displaced shape (that is, the displacements will not
be added to the coordinates) if RSYS,SOLU is active.

3.4.3. Result Coordinate System


Result Coordinate System
Results are displayed or printed in the currently active results coordinate system (RSYS). For RSYS,SOLU,
the result is in the nodal coordinate system of the base sector, and it is rotated to the expanded sector’s
location, as demonstrated in Figure 3.2: Cyclic Results Coordinate Systems with RSYS,SOLU (p. 20).

Care must be taken when interpreting RSYS,SOLU (especially averaged nodal stress and strain) results
when the solution coordinate systems are not in the cyclic cylindrical system. Using RSYS,SOLU can be
useful when you want to track sliding motion along a contact interface or a stress in a single crystal
alloy. Note that /POST26 only works in the RSYS,SOLU system.

Figure 3.2: Cyclic Results Coordinate Systems with RSYS,SOLU

3.5. Comparing Cyclic Solutions


In a typical design procedure, you may want to make small changes to you model and compare the
solutions you obtain from the new model to solutions from the original model. The RSTMAC command
performs MAC calculations to compare the basic and duplicate nodal solutions from two results files
(.RST or .RSTP).

For cyclic symmetry analysis, the following applies:

• The database must be saved after the solution is finished.

• The mapping and interpolation method (TolerN = -1) must be used.

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Comparing Cyclic Solutions

• If nodes and/or elements are selected (using the NSEL and/or ESEL commands), the results of the mapping
and/or the interpolation will show differences. If you want to perform the MAC calculation on a part of the
model, you can use the ESEL command, but ensure you select the elements of the basic sector as well as
those of the duplicate sector. All the selected element nodes must also be selected (NSLE).

• The modes obtained after a modal analysis for a cyclic symmetric structure are repeated when the harmonic
index is greater than zero. In this case, the MAC values table is merged to allow solutions matching. This
merging consists of summing and averaging the MAC values of the repeated frequencies.

This procedure is described fully in Comparing Nodal Solutions From Two Models or From One Model
and Experimental Data (RSTMAC) in the Basic Analysis Guide.

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Chapter 4: Cyclic Symmetry Analyses
This chapter provides specific information for obtaining the solution to various types of cyclic symmetry
analyses and covers the following topics:
4.1. Modal Cyclic Symmetry Analysis
4.2. Harmonic Cyclic Symmetry Analysis
4.3. Static Cyclic Symmetry Analysis
4.4. Linear Buckling Cyclic Symmetry Analysis
4.5. Magnetic Cyclic Symmetry Analysis

4.1. Modal Cyclic Symmetry Analysis


Cyclic symmetry modal analyses currently support only the Block Lanczos, PCG Lanczos, Supernode,
and Subspace methods (MODOPT).

This section describes harmonic indices in relation to modal cyclic symmetry analyses and provides in-
formation necessary for solving several types of modal analyses:
4.1.1. Understanding Harmonic Index and Nodal Diameter
4.1.2. Stress-Free Modal Analysis
4.1.3. Prestressed Modal Cyclic Symmetry Analysis
4.1.4. Large-Deflection Prestressed Modal Cyclic Symmetry Analysis
4.1.5. Postprocessing a Modal Cyclic Symmetry Analysis

4.1.1. Understanding Harmonic Index and Nodal Diameter


To understand the process involved in a modal cyclic symmetry analysis, it is necessary to understand
the concepts of harmonic indices and nodal diameters.

The nodal diameter refers to the appearance of a simple geometry (for example, a disk) vibrating in a
certain mode. Most mode shapes contain lines of zero out-of-plane displacement which cross the entire
disk, as shown in these examples:

Figure 4.1: Examples of Nodal Diameters (i)

For a complicated structure exhibiting cyclic symmetry (for example, a turbine wheel), lines of zero
displacement may not be observable in a mode shape.

The harmonic index is an integer that determines the variation in the value of a single DOF at points
spaced at a circumferential angle equal to the sector angle. For a harmonic index equal to nodal dia-

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Cyclic Symmetry Analyses

meter , the function describes the variation. This definition allows a varying number of
waves to exist around the circumference for a given harmonic index, provided that the DOF at points
separated by the sector angle vary by . For example, a harmonic index of 0 and a 60° sector
produce modes with 0, 6, 12, ... , 6 waves around the circumference.

The nodal diameter is the same as the harmonic index in only some cases. The solution of a given
harmonic index may contain modes of more than one nodal diameter.

The following equation represents the relationship between the harmonic index and nodal diameter
for a model consisting of sectors:
(4.1)

where = 0, 1, 2, 3, ...,

For example, if a model has seven sectors ( = 7) and the specified harmonic index = 2, the program
solves for nodal diameters 2, 5, 9, 12, 16, 19, 23, ....

The following table illustrates Equation 4.1 (p. 24), showing how the harmonic index, nodal diameter
and number of sectors relate to one another:

Harmonic
Index Nodal Diameter (d)
(k)
0 0 N N 2N 2N ...
1 1 N-1 N+1 2N - 1 2N + 1 ...
2 2 N-2 N+2 2N - 2 2N + 2 ...
3 3 N-3 N+3 2N - 3 2N + 3 ...
4 4 N-4 N+4 2N - 4 2N + 4 ...
... ... ... ... ... ... ...
N/2

(N N/2 N/2 3N / 2 3N / 2 5N / 2 ...


is
even)
(N - 1) /
2
(N - 1) / (N + 1) / (3N - 1) (3N + 1) (5N - 1)
...
(N 2 2 /2 /2 /2
is
odd)

Note

To avoid confusion, be aware that in some references mode refers to harmonic index as
defined here and nodal diameter describes the actual number of observable waves around
the structure.

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Modal Cyclic Symmetry Analysis

Harmonic Index in an Electromagnetic Analysis For electromagnetic analyses, only the EVEN and
ODD harmonic index settings (see the CYCOPT command) are valid (for symmetric and antisymmetric
solutions, respectively).

Using VT Accelerator You can use the Variational Technology Accelerator (VT Accelerator) to speed
up the solve time needed to sweep over the range of values of the harmonic index. To activate VT Ac-
celerator, issue CYCOPT,VTSOL prior to solving. You can use VT Accelerator only with matched node
pattern sectors in a modal cyclic symmetry analysis. You will see the most significant speed up for
models with a large number of sectors and/or a large number of eigenvalues. The benefit of using VT
Accelerator is realized only when solving for more than five harmonic indices. In addition, the level of
performance improvement realized with VT Accelerator may also be dependent upon the problem.
Solving for less than five harmonic indices prevents a solution and displays an error message.

4.1.2. Stress-Free Modal Analysis


The following flowchart illustrates the process involved in a stress-free modal cyclic symmetry analysis.

Figure 4.2: Process Flow for a Stress-Free Modal Cyclic Symmetry Analysis

A modal cyclic symmetry analysis allows only cyclically symmetric applied boundary conditions. Ei-
gensolutions are performed, looping on the number of harmonic indices specified (via the CYCOPT
command) at each load step.

The number of modes specified on the MXPAND command are the number of modes extracted per
harmonic index.

4.1.3. Prestressed Modal Cyclic Symmetry Analysis


The process for a prestressed modal cyclic symmetry analysis is essentially the same as that for a stress-
free case (p. 25), except that a static solution is necessary to calculate the prestress in the basic sec-
tor (p. 5). The prestress state of the sector may be from a linear static or a large-deflection nonlinear
static analysis. The following flowchart illustrates the process involved in a prestressed modal cyclic
symmetry analysis.

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Cyclic Symmetry Analyses

Figure 4.3: Process Flow for a Prestressed Modal Cyclic Symmetry Analysis

The modal cyclic symmetry solution occurs after the static cyclic symmetry solution. The modal solution
uses the same low- and high-edge components defined in the static cyclic analysis stage (via the CYCLIC
command). The analysis yields the eigenvectors of the structure in the prestressed state.

4.1.4. Large-Deflection Prestressed Modal Cyclic Symmetry Analysis


Geometric nonlinearity occurs when the deflections are large enough to cause significant changes in
the geometry of the structure. In such cases, the equations of equilibrium must account for the deformed
configuration. When a nonlinearity is present, the program uses an iterative process to obtain the
solution.

To calculate the frequencies and mode shapes of a deformed structure, you can perform a prestressed
modal analysis (using the linear perturbation solution method) of cyclic structures after first performing
a large-deflection (NLGEOM,ON) static analysis. Other nonlinearities such as frictional contact may also
be included.

The prestress effects are automatically accounted for in the linear perturbation modal analysis procedure.

To obtain the cyclic symmetry modal solutions of a deformed structure, follow these steps:

1. Perform a nonlinear static solution with the prestress load. Use the RESCONTROL command to define the
necessary restart files. Non-cyclic loading cannot be applied.

2. Restart the previous static solution from the desired load step and substep.

3. Issue the PERTURB command to define the analysis type, material behavior to be used, contact status
(ContKey = CURRENT, STICKING, or BONDED) and load values to be retained from the previous static
solution (LoadControl = ALLKEEP, INERKEEP, PARKEEP, or NOKEEP).

4. Modify the behavior of individual contact pairs, as needed, using the CNKMOD command.

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Modal Cyclic Symmetry Analysis

5. Issue the SOLVE,ELFORM command to regenerate the matrices.

6. Issue the MODOPT and MXPAND commands to specify the modal analysis option.

7. Issue the SOLVE command to perform the eigensolution.

8. Postprocess the results from the Jobname.RSTP file.

Note

During the SOLVE,ELFORM (Step 5), the coordinates of the model are updated to account
for the large deflections of the static analysis. Any subsequent nodal coordinate listings and
geometry plots will be in this updated state.

The flowchart below illustrates the process involved in a large-deflection prestressed modal cyclic
symmetry analysis.

Figure 4.4: Process Flow for a Large-Deflection Prestressed Modal Cyclic Symmetry Analysis

For detailed information about the linear perturbation analysis procedure, see Linear Perturbation
Analysis in the Structural Analysis Guide. In addition, Example 9.4: Contact Status Control in a Linear
Perturbation Modal Analysis in that same document provides a complete example input listing for a
linear perturbation cyclic symmetry modal analysis.

4.1.4.1. Large-Deflection Prestressed Modal Cyclic Symmetry Analysis with VT Accel-


erator
Specify the VT Accelerator method (CYCOPT,VTSOL) in the block solution to solve a linear perturbed
cyclic symmetry modal analysis with the VT Accelerator method.
/solu
csys,0
antype,0 ! Perform Static analysis.

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Cyclic Symmetry Analyses

nlgeom,on ! Include large deformation effects


rescontrol,define,all,1 ! Enable the file writing in multiframe restart
nsub,10,10,10 ! Number of substeps = 10
solve
finish

/solu
antype,static,restart,,,perturb ! Perform a static restart with perturb
! from the last substep of the previous static solve
perturb,modal,,,allkeep ! Set the analysis options for perturbed modal analysis
solve,elform

outres,all,all
modopt,lanb,10
mxpand,10
cycopt,hindx,0,6,1 ! Solve harmonic indices ranging from 0 through 6
cycopt,vtsol,yes ! Turn on the VT accelerator method
solve
finish

4.1.5. Postprocessing a Modal Cyclic Symmetry Analysis


A cyclic symmetry solution typically has multiple load step results depending upon the harmonic in-
dex (p. 23) solutions requested. The SET,LIST command will list the harmonic indices solved and the
frequencies within each harmonic index. Use SET,LIST,,,,,,,ORDER to list the frequencies themselves in
numerical order.

4.1.5.1. Real and Imaginary Solution Components


To transform the real and imaginary cyclic symmetry solution results to the actual structure solution,
three postprocessing (/POST1) commands are available:

• /CYCEXPAND

• EXPAND

• CYCPHASE

Note

The CYCPHASE command uses full model graphics (/GRAPHICS,FULL) to compute peak
values. Because of this, there may be slight differences between max/min values obtained
with CYCPHASE, and those obtained via /CYCEXPAND (/GRAPHICS,POWER).

For information about /CYCEXPAND and EXPAND command usage, see Expanding the Cyclic Symmetry
Solution (p. 28). For information about CYCPHASE command usage, see Phase Sweep of Repeated Ei-
genvector Shapes (p. 29).

4.1.5.2. Expanding the Cyclic Symmetry Solution


This section describes the capabilities of the /CYCEXPAND and EXPAND commands and explains their
differences. Use the commands to expand the solution results of your cyclic symmetry analysis to the
full model.

The /CYCEXPAND command does not modify the geometry, nodal displacements, or element stresses
stored in the database. For more details, see Using the /CYCEXPAND Command (p. 19).

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Modal Cyclic Symmetry Analysis

The EXPAND command offers an alternate method for displaying the results of a modal cyclic symmetry
analysis. It is a specification command that causes a SET operation to transform and expand the data
it is reading before storing it in the database. If you request two or more sector repetitions, the command
creates additional nodes and elements to provide space for the extra results. After the expanded results
are stored in the database, you can plot (PLESOL or PLNSOL), print (PRNSOL). You can also process
them as you would those for a non-cyclic analysis, in cases where you may wish to process results in a
manner unsupported by the /CYCEXPAND command. Care should be taken in such cases as the database
can become very large, negating the inherent model size advantage of a cyclic symmetry analysis.

Caution

Do not confuse the EXPAND command with /EXPAND.

4.1.5.3. Applying a Traveling Wave Animation to the Cyclic Model


After you have completed a modal cyclic symmetry analysis, you can apply an animated traveling wave
to the cyclic model by issuing the ANCYC command (which uses /CYCEXPAND functionality). The
traveling wave capability applies only to modal cyclic symmetry analyses. For more information, see
the description of the ANCYC command in the Command Reference.

Figure 4.5: Traveling Wave Animation Example (p. 29) illustrates the ANCYC command's effect. To view
the input file used to create the model shown, see Example Modal Cyclic Symmetry Analysis (p. 49).

The following demo is presented as an animated GIF. View online if you are reading the PDF version of the
help. Interface names and other components shown in the demo may differ from those in the released
product.

Figure 4.5: Traveling Wave Animation Example

4.1.5.4. Phase Sweep of Repeated Eigenvector Shapes


In a modal cyclic symmetry analysis (p. 23), repeated eigenfrequencies are obtained at solutions corres-
ponding to harmonic indices k, greater than 0 and less than N/2. The repeated modes are a consequence
of the cyclically symmetric geometry of the structure or assembly being modeled by the cyclic sector.

The eigenvector shapes corresponding to the repeated eigenfrequencies are non-unique. That is, for
the repeated eigenfrequencies fi = fi+1, the mode shapes corresponding to fi and fi+1 can be linearly

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Cyclic Symmetry Analyses

combined to obtain a mode shape that is also a valid mode shape solution for the frequencies fi and
fi+1. A valid linear combination of the eigenvectors is:
(4.2)

where,

c1 and c2 = Arbitrary constants


Ui and Ui+1 = Eigenvectors corresponding to fi and fi+1, respectively

The orientation of the combined mode shape U will be along a nodal diametral line that is neither
along that of Ui nor Ui+1. Because the full structure may have stress-raising features (such as bolt holes),
determining the eigenvector orientation that causes the most severe stresses, strains, or displacements
on the structure or assembly is critical.

To determine the peak value of stress, strain or displacement in the full structure or assembly, it is ne-
cessary to calculate U at all possible angular orientations ϕ in the range of 0 through 360°. In the gen-
eral postprocessor, the CYCPHASE command performs the computational task.

Because c1 and c2 are arbitrary constants, the CYCPHASE calculation rewrites Equation 4.2 (p. 30) as
follows:
(4.3)

Using the cyclic symmetry expansion of Equation 3.2 (p. 19) in Equation 4.3 (p. 30), the simplified phase-
sweep equation that operates on the cyclic sector solution (rather on the computation-intensive full-
structure expression in Equation 4.3 (p. 30)) is:
(4.4)

A phase sweep using the CYCPHASE command provides information about the peak values of stress,
strain and/or displacement components and the corresponding phase angle values. Using the phase
angle value further, you can expand the mode shape at that phase angle to construct the eigenvector
shape that produces the peak stress, strain and/or displacement. The expansion expression with the
phase angle used by the /CYCEXPAND command is:
(4.5)

where

n = 1,2,3,...,N

Example:

To determine the eigenvector orientation that causes the highest equivalent stress, perform a phase
sweep on the stress via the CYCPHASE,STRESS command. Obtain a summary of the phase sweep via
the CYCPHASE,STAT command to determine the value of ϕ at which maximum equivalent stress occurred.
You can shift the mode shape to that angle via the /CYCEXPAND,,PHASEANG command and plot the
expanded mode shape via the PLNSOL,S,EQV command.

Note

The CYCPHASE command uses full model graphics (/GRAPHICS,FULL) to compute peak
values. Because of this, there may be slight differences between max/min values obtained
with CYCPHASE, and those obtained via /CYCEXPAND (/GRAPHICS,POWER).

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Harmonic Cyclic Symmetry Analysis

4.1.5.5. Interference Diagram


The interference diagram, generated using the PLZZ command, plots the cyclic modal frequencies
versus the harmonic index (or nodal diameter). If the rotational speed is provided (or known from a
prior prestressing step using linear perturbation, see Prestressed Modal Cyclic Symmetry Analysis (p. 25)),
the speed line is superimposed on the diagram. This is also known as a SAFE diagram or a ZZENF diagram
[1], and indicates potential frequencies where resonance may occur.

Figure 4.6: Interference Diagram (p. 31) illustrates an interference diagram with the speed line and two
additional speed lines enveloping the primary speed line.

Figure 4.6: Interference Diagram

1. Singh, M.P., Vargo, J.J., Schiffer, D.M., Dello, J.D.,“SAFE Diagram - a design and reliability tool for turbine
blading”, Dresser-Rand, Wellsville, NY

4.2. Harmonic Cyclic Symmetry Analysis


Two harmonic analysis (forced response) methods are available for cyclic structures: full (p. 32) and
mode-superposition harmonic analysis (p. 34). The advantages of the full method are:

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Cyclic Symmetry Analyses

• You do no need to choose frequencies and mode shapes that adequately represent the response.

• The non-cyclic loading can be arbitrary and may be applied to any sector.

The advantages of the mode-superposition method are:

• It is faster than the full method.

• Postprocessing is more encompassing.

Only engine order loading (traveling wave excitation) is supported in a mode-superposition analysis.
Cyclic loading is a special case of engine order loading where the engine order is equal to zero.

While engine order excitation is a non-cyclic load, no other forms of non-cyclic loads are supported.

4.2.1. Full Harmonic Cyclic Symmetry Analysis


Cyclic or non-cyclic loading may be applied in a full harmonic cyclic analysis.

The flowchart below illustrates the process involved in a harmonic cyclic symmetry analysis with non-
cyclic loading.

Figure 4.7: Process Flow for a Full Harmonic Cyclic Symmetry Analysis (Non-Cyclic Loading)

For more information, see Non-Cyclically Symmetric Loading (p. 15)

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Harmonic Cyclic Symmetry Analysis

4.2.1.1. Prestressed Full Harmonic Cyclic Symmetry Analysis


The process for solving a prestressed harmonic cyclic symmetry analysis is essentially the same as a
stress free case, except that a static solution is necessary to calculate the prestress in the basic sector.
The prestress state of the sector may be from a linear static or a large-deflection nonlinear static analysis.
Non-cyclic loading cannot be applied in the static solution.

The linear perturbed harmonic cyclic symmetric analysis is supported for the following methods: AUTO,
FULL, VT (see HROPT command).

Cyclic or non-cyclic loading may be applied in a prestressed full harmonic cyclic analysis.

The flowchart below illustrates the process of a harmonic cyclic symmetry analysis with non-cyclic
loading.

Figure 4.8: Process Flow for a Prestressed Full Harmonic Cyclic Symmetry Analysis

4.2.1.2. Postprocessing a Full Harmonic Cyclic Symmetry Analysis


If cyclic expansion via the /CYCEXPAND command is active, the PLNSOL and PRNSOL commands have
summation of all required harmonic index solutions by default.

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Cyclic Symmetry Analyses

In a full harmonic analysis with non-cyclic loading, all applicable harmonic index solutions are computed
and saved in the results file as load step results.

A SET,LIST command lists the range of load step numbers in the group containing each solution. Each
load step post data header contains the first, last, and count of load steps from the given SOLVE com-
mand, as shown:
***** INDEX OF DATA SETS ON RESULTS FILE *****
SET TIME/FREQ LOAD STEP SUBSTEP CUMULATIVE HRM-INDEX GROUP
1 1.0000 1 1 1 0 1-3
2 2.0000 2 1 2 1 1-3
3 3.0000 3 1 3 2 1-3
4 1.0000 1 1 1 0 4-6
5 2.0000 2 1 2 1 4-6
6 3.0000 3 1 3 2 4-6
...

The SET command establishes which SOLVE load step group should display. Summation via /CYCEXPAND
is automatic. Plots and printed output show the summation status.

With /CYCEXPAND turned on, the results are expanded at each load step and then combined to plot
the full solution as a complete sum. For example, in a four sector model where the harmonic index
results 0 through 2 are available in the results file, the plot command PLNSOL will display the results
as STEP=1 THRU=3 COMPLETE SUM.

Accumulation occurs at the first applicable PLNSOL or PRNSOL command. After accumulation, the last
load step number of the current group becomes the new current load step number.

4.2.2. Mode-Superposition Harmonic Cyclic Symmetry Analysis


The mode-superposition method sums factored mode shapes (obtained from a modal analysis) to cal-
culate the harmonic response. The procedure (in the most general case) consists of these steps:

1. Build the cyclic model

2. Perform a static cyclic symmetry analysis to obtain the prestressed state

3. Perform a linear perturbation modal cyclic symmetry analysis

4. Restart the modal analysis to create the desired load vector from any element loads (for example, pressures)

5. Obtain the mode-superposition harmonic cyclic symmetry solution, including mistuning effects if desired.

6. Review the results

The following flowchart illustrates the process involved in a prestressed mode-superposition harmonic
cyclic symmetry analysis. For a non-prestressed solution, you may skip step 2, so that step 3 becomes
a stress-free modal analysis (p. 25).

The first step, building the cyclic model, is described in Cyclic Modeling (p. 5). The remaining steps
are described below.

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Harmonic Cyclic Symmetry Analysis

Figure 4.9: Process Flow for a Prestressed Mode-Superposition Harmonic Cyclic Symmetry Analysis

4.2.2.1. Perform a Static Cyclic Symmetry Analysis to Obtain the Prestressed State
Static Cyclic Symmetry Analysis (p. 43) describes how to obtain the static solution that will compute
the prestressing. In the static analysis:

• Only cyclic loading is permitted

• You must use the cyclic option (CYCOPT,MSUP,ON) before the first static SOLVE

• If you wish to apply real or imaginary pressure loading in the downstream harmonic solution, you must
define the SURF154 elements at this stage to facilitate the load application. These elements must be defined
before the CYCLIC command is issued.

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Cyclic Symmetry Analyses

4.2.2.2. Perform a Linear Perturbation Modal Cyclic Symmetry Analysis


This step is outlined in Large-Deflection Prestressed Modal Cyclic Symmetry Analysis (p. 26), and has
the following restrictions and guidelines:

• Only Block Lanczos is supported (MODOPT,LANB).

• The VT Accelerator method is not supported (CYCOPT,VTSOL).

• You must use MXPAND to write the modes to the results file.

• The frequency range on MXPAND is ignored. Specify the frequency range using the MODOPT command
instead.

• Be sure to extract all the modes that may contribute to the harmonic response. As a general guideline,
modes contributing to the harmonic response will fall in the range ½Ω to 2Ω, where Ω is the harmonic fre-
quency (HARFRQ) used in the subsequent harmonic solution. If mistuned, a range of ½Ω to 5Ω is recom-
mended.

• Residual vectors (RESVEC) are not supported.

• Enforced motion (MODCONT,,ON) is not supported.

• Mode selection is not supported.

• Stress modes (MXPAND,ALL,,,YES,,YES) are not supported.

An even number of modes (per harmonic index) is always computed. If you specify an odd number of
modes on the MODOPT command, it is increased by 1. Only the base sector solution is stored on the
.MODE and .RST files, so they are significantly smaller than the non-mode-superposition modal files
(CYCOPT,MSUP,OFF).

If you are performing a stress-free modal analysis (p. 25), make sure you use the cyclic option (CY-
COPT,MSUP,ON). You may use ANPRES to animate the pressure loading at the specified engine order
(CYCFREQ,EO).

4.2.2.3. Restart the Modal Analysis to Create the Desired Load Vector from Element
Loads
If you need to apply harmonically varying elements loads (for example, pressures), specify them in the
modal analysis. The program ignores the loads for the modal solution, but calculates a load vector and
writes it to the mode shape file (Jobname.MODE). You can also generate multiple load vectors. The
load vectors created can then be scaled and used in the harmonic solution. For more information, see
Modal Analysis Restart in the Basic Analysis Guide. The following limitations apply:

• You may not introduce additional elements (such as SURF154) to facilitate application of the loads. You
must apply the loads directly to the existing base elements and nodes. Specify any load elements in the
static step (or prior to the modal solution if there is no prestressing step required) before the CYCLIC com-
mand is issued.

• Nodal loads (F) can be applied directly in the harmonic analysis if desired, rather than creating a modal load
vector.

• Specify THEXPAND,OFF to ignore the thermal loads in the load vector generation.

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Harmonic Cyclic Symmetry Analysis

It is possible to skip this step and add the loads directly in the prior modal analysis step. If you choose
to skip this step, only one modal load vector can be generated.

You may use the /MAP processor to map pressure loads from a CFD analysis, and from a CFX Transient
Blade Row analysis in particular, to use in the harmonic analysis. See Unidirectional Pressure Mapping:
CFD to Mechanical APDL in the Coupled-Field Analysis Guide.

4.2.2.4. Obtain the Mode-Superposition Harmonic Cyclic Symmetry Solution


In this step, the program uses mode shapes extracted by the modal solution to calculate the harmonic
response. The following requirements apply:

• The mode shape file (Jobname.MODE) must be available.

• The full file (Jobname.FULL) must be available.

• The database must contain the same model from which the modal solution was obtained.

Additionally, the following limitations apply:

• The range of modes on the HROPT command is ignored. All the modes from the modal analysis are con-
sidered.

• The cluster option on the HROPT command is not supported.

• Tabular loading with respect to frequency is not supported in the cyclic symmetry mode-superposition
harmonic solution. Only tabular loading with respect to location is supported.

• When using the NSUBST command, the NSBMX, NSBMN, and Carry arguments are not supported.

The following inputs must also be provided:

• Apply the required load on the base sector. Only nodal forces and the load vector created in the modal
analysis are valid. Use the LVSCALE command to apply the load vector from the modal solution. Note that
all loads from the modal analysis are scaled, including forces and pressures. To avoid load duplication, delete
any loads that were applied in the modal analysis.

• Specify the engine order of the excitation (CYCFREQ,EO). Typically, the engine order is simply a count of
the number of stators, combustion nozzles, etc., that cause the disturbance. All loads from the modal solution
and nodal loads that are applied during a given load step will be applied as engine order loads. The program
computes the “aliased” engine order (including its sign) internally. An engine order excitation typically occurs
due to circumferential disturbances in the flow field, for instance from upstream stators or vanes.

• Specify the number of harmonic solutions to be calculated (NSUBST). The solutions (or substeps) will be
evenly spaced within the specified frequency range (HARFRQ). For example, if you specify 10 solutions in
the range 30 to 40 Hz, the program will calculate the response at 31, 32, 33, ..., 39, and 40 Hz. No response
is calculated at the lower end of the frequency range.

• Damping in some form should be specified; otherwise, the response will be infinity at the resonant frequencies.
ALPHAD and BETAD result in a frequency-dependent damping ratio, whereas DMPRAT specifies a constant
damping ratio to be used at all frequencies. DMPSTR specifies a constant structural damping coefficient.
MDAMP cannot be used to specify a modal damping ratio. See Damping in the Structural Analysis Guide for
further details.

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Cyclic Symmetry Analyses

• Aerodynamic coupling (aero coupling) may also be specified to include the effects of the fluid media on the
blade vibration (CYCFREQ,AERO)

The modal coordinates (the factors to multiply each mode by) are written to the file Jobname.RFRQ,
and no output controls apply. The modal coordinates can be plotted in POST1 using the PLMC command.

Note

There is no need to specify a command to expand the mode-superposition solution as in a


non-cyclic mode-superposition harmonic solution. The solution is expanded automatically
during postprocessing. Therefore, OUTRES has no effect during the solution.

4.2.2.5. Including Mistuning Effects


Small mistuning effects (on the order of a few percent) may be included in the analysis by introducing
blade-to-blade variations in the stiffness (frequency) of each blade. Mistuning is based on the Component
Mode Mistuning methodology (see Mistuning in the Mechanical APDL Theory Reference), which requires
the elements making up the blade and the interface nodes between these elements and the rest of the
sector model to be in an element and nodal component (CM) respectively. Use the CYCFREQ,BLADE
command option to provide this information, as well as how many blade modes to include and their
frequency range. For blades with shrouds, the nodes on the shroud boundaries should also be in the
node component (if the shroud interfaces are modeled as stuck).

The mistuning parameters are provided in an array parameter of size N x 1, where N is the number of
blades. Each row represents the deviation in stiffness of each blade n from the nominal value
used in the modal cyclic symmetry analysis. Equivalently, the stiffness deviation may

be expressed in terms of each blade's natural frequency deviation squared, , where is the
nominal (tuned) blade frequency and is the mistuned frequency of blade n.

It should be noted that the stiffness deviation is equivalent to


where denotes the Young's modulus only in the case where there are no prestress effects. In the
presence of prestress, the nominal stiffness is updated, and then mistuning is applied.

You may also mistune each of the individual blade frequencies, in which case the provided array para-
meter would be N x M, where each column is for the M blade frequencies (from the CYCFREQ,BLADE
specification), and each entry corresponds to that blade’s frequency deviation squared,
, where the subscript i refers to the ith frequency of blade n (such that the array
location (n,i) contains this value). Use the CYCFREQ,MIST command to provide this array name.

Note

The first step of the harmonic solution is to internally perform a Linear Perturbation Substruc-
ture analysis (see Second Phase - Substructure Generation Pass in the Structural Analysis
Guide) in order to generate the nominal (tuned) blade frequencies.

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4.2.2.5.1. Restarting a Mistuning Analysis for New Mistuning Values


Once you have performed a mistuning analysis, you may restart the analysis for a new set of mistuning
parameters using CYCFREQ,RESTART,MIST. The previously generated files Jobname.MODE, Job-
name.FULL, Jobname_blade.*, and Jobname*.MATR must be available. If you are restarting in a
new session, you must set the Jobname to that of the original run. The restart will reuse the previously
generated matrices of the reduced order model to efficiently process the new mistuning values. You
can only change the mistuning parameters when using this type of restart. All other changes, such as
a new force or damping are ignored. This type of restart can only be performed by exiting the current
mistuning solution using FINISH and re-entering the solution phase using /SOLU and then calling the
desired CYCFREQ,RESTART command.

Any postprocessing desired for a given mistuning run must be done before running any subsequent
restart analyses.

4.2.2.6. Modal Frequencies of the Reduced System


It is often useful to compute the modal frequencies once the aerodynamic coupling (CYCFREQ,AERO)
and/or the mistuning effects (CYCFREQ,MIST) are incorporated. The CYCFREQ,MODAL,ON option
computes these and outputs their values to the output file (the harmonic solution is not performed).
Modal frequencies are written to the output file, but no other postprocessing is available for this modal
solve.

If aerodynamic coupling is included, the frequency solution is complex, with the imaginary term being
the frequency (in Hertz) and the real term the stability value. If the stability value is negative (and the
modal damping ratio positive), the frequency is stable (no flutter). If the stability value is positive (and
the modal damping ratio negative), the frequency is unstable (flutter).

4.2.2.7. Review the Results


Postprocessing a cyclic mode-superposition harmonic analysis is different than postprocessing a cyclic
harmonic analysis without mode-superposition both in the commands used and in what is being per-
formed internally. Instead of doing a solution expansion pass, in a cyclic mode-superposition analysis
the "expansion" of the modal coordinates on the file Jobname.RFRQ to the base sector displacements,
stresses, and strains, and to the full 360° model, occurs during postprocessing. In order to postprocess
a cyclic mode-superposition analysis, the following files are required:

• The Jobname.RFRQ file containing modal scaling factors must be available.

• A modal results file must be available containing the modes that are to be included in the harmonic solve.
If the analysis does not have linear perturbation, the file is Jobname.RST. If the analysis does have linear
perturbation, the file needed is Jobname.RSTP.

Note

In a linear perturbation analysis, both Jobname.RST and Jobname.RSTP will exist.


Jobname.RST contains the results from the static solution and Jobname.RSTP contains
results from the modal solution. It is important to use the Jobname.RSTP file for post-
processing the harmonic solve when the analysis is linear pertubation cyclic mode-super-
position harmonic analysis.

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Cyclic Symmetry Analyses

Various postprocessing methods exist to query and view the results, depending on your needs. You
can view the results of the expanded model using the /CYCEXPAND feature. You can also pick a node
or element of interest in a given sector, and print or plot the result across all frequencies. Additionally,
you can query the results for a set of nodes across all frequencies and across all sectors to develop a
table of maximum responses. Refer to Input File for the Analysis (p. 68) and Analysis Steps (p. 76) for
an example input showing the postprocessing commands and the postprocessing steps for this type
of analysis.

The various methods to postprocess this type of analysis are discussed in detail below:
4.2.2.7.1. Results Expansion to the Full 360° Model
4.2.2.7.2. Single Result vs. Frequency
4.2.2.7.3. Specialized Results Calculations

4.2.2.7.1. Results Expansion to the Full 360° Model


In /POST1, specify the modal results file (RST if there is no linear perturbation; RSTP if there is linear
perturbation) and the harmonic modal coordinate file (RFRQ) using the CYCFILES command. You may
then use the SET command to retrieve the harmonic solution of interest, followed by the /CYCEXPAND
command. You may then plot and list the desired displacement, stress, and strain quantities. For more
information, see Postprocessing a Cyclic Symmetry Analysis (p. 18).

Caution

If you do not use the CYCFILES command, you will be postprocessing the modal solution.

Additional postprocessing features and restrictions include:

• You can perform a phase angle sweep to extract the maximum value (displacement, stress, or strain; com-
ponents or derived) at every node (/CYCEXPAND,,PHASEANG,SWEEP).

• You can extract the amplitude of the response (SRSS of the real or imaginary solution) at every node
(/CYCEXPAND,,PHASEANG,AMPLITUDE).

• You can animate the response using the ANHARM command.

• The postprocessing internally invokes PowerGraphics (/GRAPHICS,POWER). However, /EFACET is always


set to 1 and AVRES,,FULL is not supported.

• For equivalent strain output (EPEL, EQV), you should supply an effective Poisson’s ratio (AVPRIN).

Note

/CYCEXPAND,,PHASEANG,SWEEP and CYCCALC average the nodes first, then do the amplitude
or phase sweep calculations. LCOPER,,,CPXMAX (used for phase sweep of non-cyclic harmonic
solutions) does the phase sweep first, then averages the nodes.

4.2.2.7.2. Single Result vs. Frequency


If you computed harmonic solutions at several frequency points, you can also use /POST26 to obtain
graphs of displacement versus frequency, stress versus frequency, and so on for any sector. First, define
the variables in which the result items of interest (displacements, stresses, reaction forces, etc.) are to
be stored (NSOL, ESOL, RFORCE, etc.) on the base sector. Use the RCYC command to compute the

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Harmonic Cyclic Symmetry Analysis

harmonic solution on the sector you select. The files Jobname.RST (or Jobname.RSTP if linear per-
turbation is present) and Jobname.RFRQ must be present.

Note

For ANSOL, RCYC averages the modal stresses first at the requested node then sums the
modes to get the harmonic solution. /CYCEXPAND and CYCCALC sum the modes first then
average. For coarse meshes, this can lead to the solutions not matching.

4.2.2.7.3. Specialized Results Calculations


Finding where a maximum result occurs in the model, and in which sector, at what frequency, and
when during a cycle of motion (phase sweep) is difficult especially when mistuning is considered. You
can extract tables of displacement, stress, and/or strain data for all computed harmonic solutions and
for all sectors using CYCSPEC and CYCCALC. The extracted data can be plotted using PLCFREQ and
PLCHIST.

The CYCSPEC command is used to identify:

• The location at which to evaluate the results. This may be a single node or a node component, for example,
containing the blade fillet. For stresses and strains, only corner nodes are processed.

• The result item and component to evaluate, such as the principal stress value S1.

The CYCSPEC command may be repeated to build a table of results for evaluation. For shell and layered
elements, the results are at the SHELL and LAYER location respectively. For EPEL,EQV, the results are
based on the EFFNU value on the AVPRIN command. The controls active when the CYCCALC command
is issued determine the result values. If results at another SHELL/LAYER location are desired, issue the
new SHELL/LAYER command and then reissue the CYCCALC command.

The CYCCALC command evaluates the specifications and returns a table of results for each specification.
The table has rows for each frequency, and columns for each sector. The table entries are the maximum
result in the given set of nodes for each frequency and sector. Three additional columns are provided:
the maximum of all the sectors, at which node it occurs, and in which sector the node resides as shown
below:
Maximum amplitude value UZ for nodes in component BLADENODES RSYS= 0
Max Max Max
Frequency Value Node# Sector# Sector 1 Sector 2 Sector 3
2950.0 0.53347E-06 13204 11 0.48773E-06 0.50390E-06 0.50472E-06
2951.0 0.45341E-06 13204 11 0.41385E-06 0.42812E-06 0.42898E-06
2952.0 0.38796E-06 13204 11 0.35423E-06 0.36670E-06 0.36715E-06
2953.0 0.33509E-06 13204 11 0.30708E-06 0.31775E-06 0.31732E-06
2954.0 0.29342E-06 13204 11 0.27113E-06 0.27998E-06 0.27820E-06

All the specified nodes, items, and components will be evaluated for all sectors and the maximum
amplitude value output. For combined stresses or strains (1, 2, 3, or EQV) or displacement vector sum
(SUM), a 360° phase sweep is performed at each location to determine the maximum.

The individual tables are written to either the output file or to a text file. If outputting to a text file, you
can chose either a formatted file or a comma-separated value (CSV) file for ready processing in a
spreadsheet or statistical program.

The results may be graphed. PLCFREQ plots the requested specification versus frequency, one curve
for each sector as shown in Figure 4.10: CYCSPEC Frequency Response (p. 42).

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Cyclic Symmetry Analyses

Figure 4.10: CYCSPEC Frequency Response

PLCHIST plots a histogram of the requested specification at the requested frequency, one bar for each
sector as shown in Figure 4.11: CYCSPEC Histogram Response (p. 43).

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Static Cyclic Symmetry Analysis

Figure 4.11: CYCSPEC Histogram Response

The values in the table may also be retrieved using *GET or *VGET (Entity = CYCCALC).

4.3. Static Cyclic Symmetry Analysis


For cyclically symmetric loading, support is available for linear static and large-deflection nonlinear
static solution options. Cyclically symmetric loading implies any load applied on the cyclic sector rep-
resenting a loading pattern that is repetitive at sector angle increments around the 360° structure.

The following flowchart illustrates the process involved in a static (linear or large-deflection) cyclic
symmetry analysis with cyclic loading.

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Cyclic Symmetry Analyses

Figure 4.12: Process Flow for a Static Cyclic Symmetry Analysis (Cyclic Loading)

Only a harmonic index zero solution is valid for a static solution with cyclic loading.

For non-cyclically symmetric loading, the program supports linear static analysis only. The following
flowchart illustrates the process involved in a static cyclic analysis with non-cyclic loading.

Figure 4.13: Process Flow for a Static Cyclic Symmetry Analysis (Non-Cyclic Loading)

Non-cyclic loading cannot be applied when thermal loading is present.

For more information, see Non-Cyclically Symmetric Loading (p. 15).

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Linear Buckling Cyclic Symmetry Analysis

4.3.1. Postprocessing a Static Cyclic Symmetry Analysis


If cyclic expansion via the /CYCEXPAND command is active, the PLNSOL and PRNSOL commands have
summation of all required harmonic index solutions by default.

In a full harmonic analysis with non-cyclic loading, all applicable harmonic index solutions are computed
and saved in the results file as load step results.

A SET,LIST command lists the range of load step numbers in the group containing each solution. Each
load step post data header contains the first, last, and count of load steps from the given SOLVE com-
mand, as shown:
***** INDEX OF DATA SETS ON RESULTS FILE *****
SET TIME/FREQ LOAD STEP SUBSTEP CUMULATIVE HRM-INDEX GROUP
1 1.0000 1 1 1 0 1-3
2 2.0000 2 1 2 1 1-3
3 3.0000 3 1 3 2 1-3
4 1.0000 1 1 1 0 4-6
5 2.0000 2 1 2 1 4-6
6 3.0000 3 1 3 2 4-6
...

The SET command establishes which SOLVE load step group should display. Summation via /CYCEXPAND
is automatic. Plots and printed output show the summation status.

With /CYCEXPAND turned on, the results are expanded at each load step and then combined to plot
the full solution as a complete sum. For example, in a four sector model where the harmonic index
results 0 through 2 are available in the results file, the plot command PLNSOL will display the results
as STEP=1 THRU=3 COMPLETE SUM.

Accumulation occurs at the first applicable PLNSOL or PRNSOL command. After accumulation, the last
load step number of the current group becomes the new current load step number.

4.4. Linear Buckling Cyclic Symmetry Analysis


The process for a linear buckling analysis is essentially the same as that for a prestressed modal cyclic
symmetry analysis (p. 25), with the exception that buckling options (ANTYPE,BUCKLE and BUCOPT,LANB)
are necessary to calculate buckling loads and the corresponding buckled mode shapes. The following
flowchart illustrates the process involved in an eigenvalue buckling cyclic symmetry analysis.

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Cyclic Symmetry Analyses

Figure 4.14: Process Flow for a Linear Buckling Cyclic Symmetry Analysis

The linear perturbation procedure is not supported for cyclic symmetry buckling analyses.

4.4.1. Postprocessing a Linear Buckling Cyclic Symmetry Analysis


A cyclic symmetry solution typically has multiple load step results depending upon the harmonic index
solutions requested. The SET,LIST command lists the harmonic indices solved and the buckling load
multipliers within each harmonic index. Use SET,LIST,,,,,,,ORDER to list the buckling load multipliers in
ascending order.

Use the /CYCEXPAND command to expand the cyclic symmetry results to the full 360° model, see Using
the /CYCEXPAND Command (p. 19).

4.5. Magnetic Cyclic Symmetry Analysis


Most magnetic analysis problems can be defined with flux parallel and/or flux normal boundary condi-
tions. With problems such as electrical machines, however, cyclic boundary conditions best represent
the periodic nature of the structure and excitation, and have the advantage of being able to use a less
computation-intensive partial model, rather than a full model.

You can analyze only one sector of the full model to take advantage of this kind of symmetry. The full
model consists of as many sectors as the number of poles. In Example Magnetic Cyclic Symmetry Ana-
lysis (p. 83), the number of sectors is two; the analysis can be done on a half model.

The cyclic boundary condition is between matching degrees of freedom on corresponding symmetry
faces. The studied sector is bounded by two faces called the low edge and high edge, respectively. In
Figure 5.15: Two-Phase Electric Machine - Half Model (p. 84), the low edge face is the y = 0, x >= 0
plane; the high edge is the y = 0, x <= 0 plane.

The simplest case is when the node-matching interface of the low edge is the same as the high edge.
In this case, for every node, there is one and only one matching node on the high edge; moreover the

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Magnetic Cyclic Symmetry Analysis

pertinent geometry and connectivity are the same. In this case, the cyclic boundary condition for the
edge formulation could be formulated as

Az(low entity) = - Az(high entity)

This is an anti-symmetric condition which is called ODD symmetry (p. 23).

The analysis could be carried out on a 360/p sector (where p is the number of poles), in which case the
cyclic condition would be:

Az(low entity) = + Az(high entity)

which is a symmetric condition called EVEN symmetry (p. 23).

In Example Magnetic Cyclic Symmetry Analysis (p. 83), the ODD model is smaller and thus more prac-
tical. For some problems, depending on geometry and excitation, EVEN symmetry may be more practical.
The program supports both ODD and EVEN cyclic symmetry.

In a more general case, the mesh on the low and high end may be different. In this case, more general
cyclic symmetry conditions can be established by interpolation on the pertinent faces. The program
handles this process automatically via the CYCLIC command.

The geometry of the low- and high-end cyclic faces may be more general than a simple plane surface.
Thus, for example, a skewed slot of an electric machine may constitute the cyclic sector modeled.

Cyclic Modeling (p. 5) discusses cyclic modeling in detail.

The following restrictions apply to a magnetic cyclic symmetry analysis:

• Cyclic conditions can be restricted to specific degrees of freedom (DOFs) via the DOF option. DOF re-
strictions may be useful, for example, in cases involving circuit-/voltage-fed solenoidal edge elements
.

• Multiphysics coupling must use the same EVEN/ODD condition.

• Circuit coupling is not supported for cyclic symmetry.

• Harmonic and transient analyses are not supported.

• By default, plotting displays the partial solution only. To see the full model solution, issue the /CYCEX-
PAND command. For magnetic cyclic symmetry, the /CYCEXPAND command produces contour plots
but not vector plots.

Figure 4.12: Process Flow for a Static Cyclic Symmetry Analysis (Cyclic Loading) (p. 44) shows the process
for a cyclic symmetry analysis. The process is virtually identical for a magnetic cyclic symmetry analysis;
simply disregard the step for a large-deflection solution.

Magnetic cyclic boundary conditions can be applied to the following element types:

• Nodal magnetic vector potential elements: PLANE13

• Magnetic scalar potential elements: SOLID5, SOLID96, SOLID98

• Electrostatic elements: PLANE121, SOLID122, SOLID123

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Chapter 5: Example Cyclic Symmetry Analyses
The following example cyclic symmetry analyses are available:
5.1. Example Modal Cyclic Symmetry Analysis
5.2. Example Buckling Cyclic Symmetry Analysis
5.3. Example Full Harmonic Cyclic Symmetry Analysis
5.4. Example Mode-Superposition Harmonic Cyclic Symmetry Analysis with Mistuning
5.5. Example Magnetic Cyclic Symmetry Analysis

A comprehensive example of cyclic symmetry analysis, including performance comparison to other


analysis types and recommendations, can be found in Centrifugal Impeller Analysis Using Cyclic Symmetry
and Linear Perturbation in the Technology Demonstration Guide. This case also includes an example of
the Mode-Superposition Harmonic Cyclic Symmetry Analysis (p. 34) usage.

Simple examples of cyclic symmetry analysis can also be found in the Mechanical APDL Verification
Manual:

• VM244 - Modal Analysis of a Cyclic Symmetric Annular Plate

• VM246 - Cyclic Analysis of an End-Loaded Hollow Cylindrical Cantilever Beam

5.1. Example Modal Cyclic Symmetry Analysis


This example modal cyclic symmetry analysis (p. 23) presents a simplified ring-strut-ring structure used
in many rotating-machinery applications.
5.1.1. Problem Description
5.1.2. Problem Specifications
5.1.3. Input File for the Analysis
5.1.4. Analysis Steps

5.1.1. Problem Description


The component is a simplified fan inlet case for a military aircraft engine. As part of the design process
for the assembly, you must determine the vibration characteristics (natural frequencies and mode
shapes) of the inlet case.

5.1.2. Problem Specifications


The geometric properties for this analysis are as follows:

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Example Cyclic Symmetry Analyses

The material properties for this analysis are as follows:

Young's modulus (E) = 10e6


Poisson's ratio (υ) = 0.3
Density = 1e-4
All applicable degrees of freedom are used for the cyclic symmetry edge-component pairs. The first six
mode shapes for all applicable harmonic indices are requested.

5.1.3. Input File for the Analysis


Use this input file (named cyc_symm.inp) to perform the example modal cyclic symmetry analysis.
The file contains the complete geometry, material properties and solution options for the finite element
model.
! Modal Cyclic Symmetry Analysis Example
! Ring-Strut-Ring Configuration

! STEP #1
! Start an interactive session

! STEP #2
! Read in this input file: cyc_symm.inp

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Example Modal Cyclic Symmetry Analysis

finish
/clear

r1=5
r2=10
d1=2
nsect=24
alpha_deg=360/nsect
alpha_rad=2*acos(-1)/nsect

/view,1,1,1,2
/plopts,minm,0
/plopts,date,0
/pnum,real,1
/number,1

/prep7
csys,1
k,1,0,0,0
k,2,0,0,d1
k,3,r1,0,0
k,4,r1,0,d1
l,3,4
arotat,1,,,,,,1,2,alpha_deg/2
k,7,r2,0,0
k,8,r2,0,d1
l,7,8
arotat,5,,,,,,1,2,alpha_deg/2
arotat,2,,,,,,1,2,alpha_deg/2
arotat,6,,,,,,1,2,alpha_deg/2
a,5,6,10,9
mshkey,1
et,1,181
r,1,0.20
r,2,0.1
mp,ex,1,10e6
mp,prxy,1,0.3
mp,dens,1,1e-4
esize,0.5
asel,,,,1,4
aatt,,1
asel,,,,5
aatt,,2
allsel
finish

/solution
antype,modal
modopt,lanb,6
mxpand,6,,,yes
dk,5,uz,0
finish

aplot
/prep7

/eof

! STEP #3
! Configure the database for a cyclic symmetry analysis

cyclic

! STEP #4
! Mesh the areas

amesh,all

! STEP #5
! Turn on cyclic symmetry graphical expansion

/cycexpand,,on

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Example Cyclic Symmetry Analyses

! STEP #6
! Plot the elements

eplot

! STEP #7
! List the cyclic status

cyclic,status

! STEP #8
! List the cyclic solution option settings

cycopt,status

! STEP #9
! Solve the modal cyclic symmetry analysis

/solution
solve

! STEP #10
! Specify global cylindrical as the results coordinate system

/post1
rsys,1

! STEP #11
! Read results for "load step 1 - substep 4 - harmonic index 0"

set,2,6

! STEP #12
! Plot the tangential displacement contour

plns,u,y

! STEP #13
! Read results for "load step 13 - substep 1 - harmonic index 12"

set,13,1

! STEP #14
! Plot the tangential displacement contour

plns,u,y

! STEP #15
! Read results for "load step 2 - substep 5 - harmonic index 1"

set,2,5

! STEP #16
! Plot the tangential displacement contour

plns,u,y

5.1.4. Analysis Steps


The following table describes the input listing and the steps involved in the example modal cyclic
symmetry analysis in more detail.

Step Description Command


1. Start an interactive session. ---
2. Read the input file: cyc_symm.inp /INPUT,CYC_SYMM.INP

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Example Modal Cyclic Symmetry Analysis

Step Description Command


3. Specify a cyclic symmetry analysis and configure the database CYCLIC
accordingly.
4. Mesh the areas. AMESH,ALL
5. Activate cyclic symmetry graphical expansion. /CYCEXPAND,,ON
6. Plot the elements. EPLOT
7. List the cyclic status. CYCLIC,STATUS
8. List the cyclic solution option settings. CYCOPT,STATUS
9. Solve the modal cyclic symmetry analysis. /SOLU
SOLVE
10. Specify the global cylindrical coordinate system. /POST1
RSYS,1
11. Read results for “load step 1 - substep 4 - harmonic index 0.” SET,2,6
12. Plot the tangential displacement contour. PLNSOL,U,Y

Executing this step causes the struts of the assembly to bend “in
phase.”
13. Read results for “load step 13 - substep 1 - harmonic index 12.” SET,13,1
14. Plot the tangential displacement contour. PLNSOL,U,Y

Executing this step causes the struts of the assembly to bend “out
of phase.”
15. Read results for “load step 2 - substep 5 - harmonic index 1.” SET,2,5
16. Plot the tangential displacement contour. PLNSOL,U,Y

----

This step completes the example modal cyclic symmetry analysis.


Your results should match those shown in Figure 5.1: Example
Modal Cyclic Symmetry Analysis Results (p. 54).

The results of your analysis should match those shown here:

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Example Cyclic Symmetry Analyses

Figure 5.1: Example Modal Cyclic Symmetry Analysis Results

Note

Mode shape values may vary slightly depending on your computer system.

To view a traveling wave animation of your model, issue the ANCYC,24,,0.1 command. For more inform-
ation, see Applying a Traveling Wave Animation to the Cyclic Model (p. 29).

5.2. Example Buckling Cyclic Symmetry Analysis


This example buckling cyclic symmetry analysis (p. 45) presents a simplified ring-strut-ring structure
used in many rotating-machinery applications.
5.2.1. Problem Description
5.2.2. Problem Specifications
5.2.3. Input File for the Analysis
5.2.4. Analysis Steps
5.2.5. Solve For Critical Strut Temperature at Load Factor = 1.0

5.2.1. Problem Description


The object is a simplified structure that experiences a thermal load emanating outward from the center.
The inner ring is kept at a constant 600° F temperature and the outer ring is kept at a constant 0° F. A
linear eigenvalue buckling analysis determines when the struts will buckle as the temperature in the
struts increases from 100° F to 500° F.

5.2.2. Problem Specifications


The geometric properties for this analysis are as follows:

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Example Buckling Cyclic Symmetry Analysis

The material properties for this analysis are as follows:

Poisson's ratio (υ) = 0.3


Density = 1e-4
Coefficient of thermal expansion (α) = 5e-5
Young's modulus (E) = 10e6 (at 0° F)
Young's modulus (E) = 4e6 (at 600° F)
The Young's modulus value varies linearly between 0 and 600° F. All applicable degrees of freedom
(DOFs) are used for the cyclic symmetry edge-component pairs. The first six mode shapes for all applicable
harmonic indices are requested.

5.2.3. Input File for the Analysis


Use this input file (named buck_cyc_sym.inp) to perform the buckling cyclic symmetry analysis
example. The file contains the complete geometry, material properties and solution options for the finite
element model.

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Example Cyclic Symmetry Analyses

! Cyclic Symmetry Buckling Example


! Ring-Strut-Ring Configuration

! STEP #1
! Start an interactive session

! STEP #2
! Read in the input file: buck_cyc_sym.inp

r1=5
r2=15
d1=4
nsect=6
alpha_deg=360/nsect
alpha_rad=2*acos(-1)/nsect

/view,1,1,1,2
/plopts,minm,0
/plopts,date,0
/pnum,real,1
/number,1

/prep7
csys,1
k,1,0,0,0
k,2,0,0,d1
k,3,r1,0,0
k,4,r1,0,d1
l,3,4
arotat,1,,,,,,1,2,alpha_deg/2
k,7,r2,0,0
k,8,r2,0,d1
l,7,8
arotat,5,,,,,,1,2,alpha_deg/2
arotat,2,,,,,,1,2,alpha_deg/2
arotat,6,,,,,,1,2,alpha_deg/2
a,5,6,10,9
mshkey,1
et,1,181
r,1,0.20
r,2,0.1
mptemp,1,0
mptemp,2,600
mpdata,ex,1,1,10e6
mpdata,ex,1,2,4e6
mp,prxy,1,0.3,0.0
mp,dens,1,1e-4
mp,alpx,1,5e-5
tref,0
esize,1.0
asel,,loc,x,r1
bfa,all,temp,600
asel,a,loc,x,r2
aatt,,1
asel,inve
bfa,all,temp,100
aatt,,2
allsel
amesh,all
lsel,,loc,z,d1/2
lsel,r,loc,y,alpha_deg/2
ksll
nslk
nrotate,all
dk,all,uz,0
dk,all,uy,0
allsel
finish
aplot
/prep7

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Example Buckling Cyclic Symmetry Analysis

/eof

! STEP #3
! Configure the database for a cyclic symmetry analysis

cyclic

! STEP #4
! Turn on cyclic symmetry graphical expansion

/cycexpand,,on

! STEP #5
! Plot the elements

eplot

! STEP #6
! List the cyclic status

cyclic,status

! STEP #7
! List the cyclic solution option settings

cycopt,status

! STEP #8
! Specify static analysis type with prestress effects

/solution
antype,static
pstres,on

! STEP #9
! Solve the prestress static analysis

solve

! STEP #10
! Specify buckling analysis type

finish
/solution
antype,buckle

! STEP #11
! Specify buckling analysis options

bucopt,lanb,3

! STEP #12
! Specify mode expansion options

mxpand,3,,,yes

! STEP #13
! Solve the buckling analysis

solve

! STEP #14
! Read results for the smallest load factor

finish
/post1
set,first,,,,,,,order

! STEP #15
! Plot the buckled mode shape

plnsol,u,sum

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Example Cyclic Symmetry Analyses

5.2.4. Analysis Steps


The following table describes the input listing and the steps involved in the example buckling cyclic
symmetry analysis in more detail.

Step Description Command


1. Start an interactive session. ---
2. Read in the input file: buck_cyc_sym.inp /INPUT,buck_cyc_sym.inp
3. Specify a cyclic symmetry analysis and configure the database CYCLIC
accordingly.
4. Activate cyclic symmetry graphical expansion. /CYCEXPAND,,ON
5. Plot the elements. EPLOT
6. List the cyclic status. CYCLIC,STATUS
7. List the cyclic solution option settings. CYCOPT,STATUS
8. Specify a static analysis type with prestress effects. /SOLU
ANTYPE,STATIC
PSTRES,
ON
9. Solve the prestress static analysis. SOLVE
10. Specify a buckling analysis type. FINISH
/SOLU
ANTYPE,BUCKLE
11. Specify buckling analysis options BUCOPT, LANB, 3
12. Specify mode expansion options. MXPAND, 3, , , YES
13. Solve the buckling analysis. SOLVE
14. Read the results from the smallest load factor. (This should FINISH
correspond to the smallest frequency.) /POST1
SET, FIRST ,
,,,,,,
ORDER
15. Plot the buckled mode shape. PLNSOL, U, SUM

----

This step completes the example buckling cyclic symmetry


analysis. Your results should match those shown in
Figure 5.2: Example Buckling Cyclic Symmetry Analysis
Results (p. 59).

The results of your analysis should match those shown here:

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Example Buckling Cyclic Symmetry Analysis

Figure 5.2: Example Buckling Cyclic Symmetry Analysis Results

5.2.5. Solve For Critical Strut Temperature at Load Factor = 1.0


You can automatically solve for the critical strut temperature by iterating on the variable loads until
the eigenvalue becomes 1.0 (or nearly 1.0 within some tolerance). The iterations ensure that the eigen-
value solution does not factor the stress stiffness matrix from the constant loads. The following flowchart
illustrates the process:

Figure 5.3: Buckling Cyclic Symmetry Results: Load Factor Iterations

Use the /PREP7 portion of the previous input file (buck_cyc_sym.inp) to construct your model.
After defining the model parameters--but before activating cyclic symmetry--define the arrays and the
programming operations, as follows:
*dim,Tstrut,array,10
*dim,Tfact,array,10

*do,I,1,10

/prep7

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Example Cyclic Symmetry Analyses

*if,I,eq,1,then
Tstrut(I)=100
*else
Tstrut(I)=Tstrut(I-1)*Tfact(I-1)
cyclic,undouble
*endif

asel,,real,,2
bfa,all,temp,Tstrut(I)
allsel

After you have defined the iterative parameters, proceed with the cyclic symmetry portion of the ana-
lysis:

cyclic
/cycexpand,,on
eplot
cyclic,status
cycopt,status
/solution
antype,static
pstres,on
solve
finish
/solution
antype,buckle
bucopt,lanb,3
mxpand,3,,,yes
solve
finish
/post1
set,first,,,,,,,order
plnsol,u,sum

*get,loadmult,active,,set,freq
Tfact(I)=loadmult

*enddo

The program then plots the data to determine the critical strut temperature:

*dim,data,table,10,2
data(0,1)=1
data(0,2)=2

*do,I,1,10

data(I,0)=I
data(I,1)=Tstrut(I)
data(I,2)=Tfact(I)

*enddo

/AXLAB,X,Strut Temperature
/AXLAB,Y,Load Factor
/GROPT,DIVX,5
/GROPT,DIVY,5
/XRANGE,100,200
/YRANGE,0.9,1.4
/GTHK,CURVE,1
/GMARKER,1,3

*VPLOT,data(1,1),data(1,2)

The eigenvalues (frequencies) calculated for the buckling analysis represent the buckling load factors.
The eigenvalues represent load factors for all applied loads.

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Example Full Harmonic Cyclic Symmetry Analysis

The iteration strategy yields the following results:

Table 5.1: Buckling Cyclic Symmetry: Load Factor Iteration Results

Iteration T° (Strut) Load Factor


1 100.00 1.3039
2 130.39 1.1845
3 154.44 1.0972
4 169.45 1.0461
5 177.27 1.0206
6 180.91 1.0089
7 182.52 1.0038
8 183.21 1.0016
9 183.50 1.0007
10 183.62 1.0003

A graph of the results shows the convergence at Load Factor = 1.0:

Figure 5.4: Buckling Cyclic Symmetry Results: Load Factor Results Graph

5.3. Example Full Harmonic Cyclic Symmetry Analysis


This section introduces the harmonic cyclic symmetry analysis capability with an example problem. The
example presents a simplified ring-strut-ring structure used in many rotating-machinery applications.
5.3.1. Problem Description
5.3.2. Problem Specifications
5.3.3. Input File for the Analysis
5.3.4. Analysis Steps

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Example Cyclic Symmetry Analyses

5.3.1. Problem Description


The component is a simplified fan inlet case for a military aircraft engine. As part of the design process
for the assembly, the harmonic response characteristics of the inlet case may be investigated, as shown
in this example.

5.3.2. Problem Specifications


The geometric and material properties used for the harmonic cyclic analysis are the same as used in
Example Modal Cyclic Symmetry Analysis (p. 49).

All applicable degrees of freedom are used for the cyclic symmetry edge-component pairs. The harmonic
response to a pressure load applied on the assembly is computed.

5.3.3. Input File for the Analysis


Use the input file given below (named harm_cyc_symm.inp) to perform the example harmonic
cyclic symmetry analysis. The file contains the complete geometry, material properties and solution
options for the finite element model.

! Harmonic Cyclic Symmetry Analysis Example ! Ring-Strut-Ring Configuration

! STEP #1
! Start an interactive session

! STEP #2
! Read in this input file: harm_cyc_symm.inp

finish
/clear

r1=5
r2=10
d1=2
nsect=24
alpha_deg=360/nsect
alpha_rad=2*acos(-1)/nsect

/view,1,1,1,2
/plopts,minm,0
/plopts,date,0
/pnum,real,1
/number,1

/prep7
csys,1
k,1,0,0,0
k,2,0,0,d1
k,3,r1,0,0
k,4,r1,0,d1
l,3,4
arotat,1,,,,,,1,2,alpha_deg/2
k,7,r2,0,0
k,8,r2,0,d1
l,7,8
arotat,5,,,,,,1,2,alpha_deg/2
arotat,2,,,,,,1,2,alpha_deg/2
arotat,6,,,,,,1,2,alpha_deg/2
a,5,6,10,9
mshkey,1
et,1,181
r,1,0.20
r,2,0.1
mp,ex,1,10e6

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Example Full Harmonic Cyclic Symmetry Analysis

mp,prxy,1,0.3
mp,dens,1,1e-4
esize,0.5
asel,,,,1,4
aatt,,1
asel,,,,5
aatt,,2
allsel

dk,5,all,0

aplot
/prep7

!/eof

! STEP #3
! Configure the database for a cyclic symmetry analysis

cyclic

! STEP #4
! Mesh the areas

amesh,all

! STEP #5
! Turn on cyclic symmetry graphical expansion

/cycexpand,,on

! STEP #6
! Plot the elements

eplot

! STEP #7
! List the cyclic status

cyclic,status

! STEP #8
! List the cyclic solution option settings

cycopt,status
fini

! STEP #9
! Solve the harmonic cyclic symmetry analysis

/solution
! Specify harmonic analysis option and frequency sweep values
antype,harmic
hropt,full
harfrq,860,878
nsub,9

! Apply pressure load on the outer surface area


asel,s,area,,2
asel,a,area,,4
! Loading to be applied on sector number 3
cycopt,ldsect,3
sfa,all,,pres,-124
asel,all

solve
fini

! STEP #10
! Go to database results post processor

/post1

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Example Cyclic Symmetry Analyses

set,list

! STEP #11
! Read results for "substep 3 - excitation freq. of 866 HZ"

set,,3
plns,u,sum,1
fini

! STEP #12
! Go to time/freq. history postprocessor

/post26

! STEP #13
! Store X and Y disp. of node #34 on sector #3"

nsol,2,34,U,x,UX_34,3
nsol,3,34,U,y,UY_34,3

! STEP #14
! Plot UX and UY disp. of node #34 as a function of freq.

plvar,2,3

5.3.4. Analysis Steps


The following table describes the input listing and the steps involved in the example harmonic cyclic
symmetry analysis in detail.

Step Step Description Description


1. Start an interactive session. ---
2. Read the input file: harm_cyc_symm.inp. /INPUT,HARM,CYC_SYMM.INP
3. Specify a cyclic symmetry analysis and configure CYCLIC
the database accordingly.
4. Mesh the areas. AMESH,ALL
5. Activate cyclic symmetry graphical expansion. /CYCEXPAND,,ON
6. Plot the elements. Figure 5.5: Element Plot EPLOT
Showing Pressure Load on Sector 3 (p. 65)
shows an element plot showing pressure load
on sector 3.
7. List the cyclic status. CYCLIC,STATUS
8. List the cyclic solution option settings. CYCOPT,STATUS
9. Solve the harmonic cyclic symmetry analysis /SOLU
with non-cyclic loading.
SOLVE

CYCOPT,LDSECT
10. Enter database results postprocessor. /POST1
11. Read results for sub step 3 – Frequency = 866. SET,1,3
12. Plot the displacement sum contour. PLNSOL,U,SUM
Figure 5.6: Contour Plot of Displacement Sum
at Frequency of 866 HZ (p. 66) shows a contour
plot of displacement sum at frequency = 866
HZ.

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Example Full Harmonic Cyclic Symmetry Analysis

13. Enter time/frequency history postprocessor. /POST26


14. Store nodal data from results file for node 34, NSOL,2,34,u,x,UX_34,3
sector 3.
NSOL,3,34,u,y,UY_34,3
15. Plot frequency versus displacement. Plot at node PLVAR,2,3
34. Figure 5.7: Displacement Plot as a Function
of Excitation Frequency (p. 67) shows the
displacement plot as a function of the excitation
frequency.

The results of your analysis should match those shown below:

Figure 5.5: Element Plot Showing Pressure Load on Sector 3

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Example Cyclic Symmetry Analyses

Figure 5.6: Contour Plot of Displacement Sum at Frequency of 866 HZ

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Example Mode-Superposition Harmonic Cyclic Symmetry Analysis with Mistuning

Figure 5.7: Displacement Plot as a Function of Excitation Frequency

5.4. Example Mode-Superposition Harmonic Cyclic Symmetry Analysis


with Mistuning
This example problem details the procedure to perform cyclic mode-superposition harmonic analysis
with mistuning. The example presents a simplified bladed disc model.
5.4.1. Problem Descriptions
5.4.2. Finite Element Model of the Problem
5.4.3. Input File for the Analysis
5.4.4. Analysis Steps

5.4.1. Problem Descriptions


A circular disc with attached blade is modeled and meshed with SOLID185 elements. A temperature-
dependent material model is used for disc and blade elements. The blade and disc are connected by
means of bonded contact using CONTA173 and TARGE170 elements. The disc is constrained along the
inner radius. The model is prestressed with thermal load (BF) and rotational velocity (OMEGA). Mode-
superposition harmonic analysis is then performed on this prestressed model using the linear perturb-
ation procedure with out-of-plane force load acting as the harmonically varying load. The stiffness
mistuning parameters are defined for each blade using CYCFREQ,BLADE. The cyclic mode-superposition
harmonic analysis is restarted to perform the analysis with different mistuning parameters using CYC-
FREQ,RESTART,MIST.

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Example Cyclic Symmetry Analyses

If you remove the mistuning commands (steps 15, 16 and 17) from this example problem you are left
with a standard mode-superposition harmonic cyclic symmetry analysis.

5.4.2. Finite Element Model of the Problem

5.4.3. Input File for the Analysis


Use the input file given below to perform the example mode-superposition harmonic cyclic symmetry
analysis.

/filnam,example

/prep7

et,1,solid185 ! SOLID185 elements


keyopt,1,2,3 ! simplified enhanced strain formulation

type,1

TREF, 75.00000
MPTEMP, 1, 75.00000, 200.00000, ! Temperature-dependent material model
MPDATA, EX, 1, 1,.3364959E+08, .3348502E+08
MPDATA,NUXY, 1, 1,.3000000E+00, .3000000E+00
MPDATA,ALPX, 1, 1,.7391837E-05, .7399809E-05
MPDATA,DENS, 1, 1,.8391600E+00, .8391600E+00

local,11,1 ! Defining local cylindrical coordinate system


csys,11

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Example Mode-Superposition Harmonic Cyclic Symmetry Analysis with Mistuning

esys,11 ! Stress and strain are radial and tangential in solution CS

cylind,2,5,0,1,0,60 ! Disc
cylind,5,8,.25,.75,20,40 ! Blade

esize,1

type,1
mat,1
cyclic ! Create cyclic symmetry model (6 sectors)

vmesh,all

allsel,all

et,4,conta173 ! CONTA173
et,5,targe170 ! TARGE170

keyopt,4,12,5 ! Bonded
keyopt,4,5,1 ! Close the gap
keyopt,4,9,1 ! Exclude gap or offset

r,4

type,4
real,4

asel,s,area,,10
nsla,s,1
esurf ! Form contact elements

type,5
real,4

asel,s,area,,3
nsla,s,1
esurf ! Form target elements
allsel,all

vsel,s,volume,,2
eslv,s
esel,r,ename,,185
cm,bladeelem,elem ! Create components with blade elements
allsel,all

cmsel,s,bladeelem,elem
nsle,s
nsel,r,loc,x,5
cm,interface,node ! Create node component to define interface between blade and disc
cmsel,s,bladeelem,elem
nsle,s
nsel,r,loc,z,.75
cm,pressurenodes,node ! Create node component on pressure side
allsel,all

nsel,s,loc,x,2
d,all,all,0 ! Constrain inner radius
allsel,all

/show,png,rev

/view,1,1,1,1
eplot
/show,close

nsel,s,loc,x,8
nsel,r,loc,z,.75
cm,load1,node ! Defining node component for harmonic loading
allsel,all
nrotate,all
finish

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Example Cyclic Symmetry Analyses

/solu
antype,static
rescontrol,define,all,1 ! Write restart files for all load steps and substeps
nlgeom,on
autots,on
nsubs,10,100,1
time,1.0
*get,nnodes,node,0,count
nd=0
*do,i,1,nnodes ! Define a radially-varying temperature profile
nd=ndnext(nd) ! Next selected node having node number greater than 0
tt=100-(100-75)*(8-nx(nd))/(8-2)
bf,nd,temp,tt ! Apply thermal pre-stress load
*enddo
allsel,all
cycopt,msup,1 ! Needed to perform subsequent MSUP analysis
solve ! 1st load step

time,2.0
omega,0,0,3000*2*3.14159265/60 ! Rotational velocity (3000 RPM)
solve ! 2nd load step
finish

/post1
set,last
/cycexpand,,on
/show,png,rev
/view,1,1,1,1
plnsol,u,sum ! Plotting USUM from static solve
plnsol,s,eqv ! Plotting SEQV from static solve
/show,close
finish

/solu
antype,,restart,,,perturb ! Restart from last load step and last substep
perturb,modal,,,parkeep ! Perform LP modal solve, delete all loads except displacement constraints
solve,elform

omega,0,0,0
bfdele,all,all
modopt,lanb,1000,0,500 ! Extract modes from 0-500
mxpand,,,,yes
solve ! Perform LP modal solve
finish

/solu
antype,modal,restart ! Restarting the modal solve
f,load1,fz,-10e3 ! Harmonic force load
solve
finish

/post1
file,,rstp
set,list,,,,,,,order ! Modal frequencies
/show,png,rev
/yrange,0,200
plzz ! Plot cyclic modal frequencies vs Harmonic Indices
/show,close
/yrange,default
finish

/solu
antype,harmonic ! Perform harmonic analysis
hropt,msup,,,yes ! MSUP harmonic, write modal coordinates to MCF file
outres,all,all
harfrq,65,85 ! Excitation frequency range
nsubs,20
cycfreq,eo,1 ! Engine order of excitation = 1
fdele,load1,fz
lvscale,1.0,1.0 ! Scaling the load from modal solve
dmpstr,0.25 ! Structural damping

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Example Mode-Superposition Harmonic Cyclic Symmetry Analysis with Mistuning

kbc,1
*dim,kmist,array,6,1
kmist(1,1)=0.02,-0.015,0.03,-0.022,0.013,0.01 ! Mistuning parameters for each blade
cycfreq,blade,interface,bladeelem,20 ! Defining blade element component and interface nodes
cycfreq,mist,k,kmist ! Stiffness mistunning
solve
finish

/post1
cycfiles,,rstp,,
rsys,solu
/show,png,rev
plmc,1,10 ! Plot modal coordinates from MSUP for SET,1,10 (real)
plmc,1,10,,1 ! Plot modal coordinates from MSUP for SET,1,10 (Imaginary)
plmc,1,10,,,1,1 ! Plot modal coordinates from MSUP for SET,1,10 (real) for HI=1
plmc,1,10,,1,1,1 ! Plot modal coordinates from MSUP for SET,1,10 (Imaginary) for HI=1
/show,close
esel,s,ename,,185
nsle,s,1

set,1,10,,0 ! Real set


avprin,,0.33
/cycexpand,,on
/show,png,rev
/view,1,1,1,1,
plnsol,u,x
*get,uxmaxr,plnsol,0,max
plnsol,u,y
*get,uymaxr,plnsol,0,max
plnsol,u,z
*get,uzmaxr,plnsol,0,max
plnsol,s,eqv
*get,seqvmaxr,plnsol,0,max
plnsol,epel,eqv
*get,epeleqvmaxr,plnsol,0,max

set,1,10,,1 ! Imaginary set


plnsol,u,x
*get,uxmaxi,plnsol,0,max
plnsol,u,y
*get,uymaxi,plnsol,0,max
plnsol,u,z
*get,uzmaxi,plnsol,0,max
plnsol,s,eqv
*get,seqvmaxi,plnsol,0,max
plnsol,epel,eqv
*get,epeleqvmaxi,plnsol,0,max

set,1,10
/cycexpand,,phaseang,360 ! Amplitude
plnsol,u,z
*get,uzmaxa,plnsol,0,max
plnsol,s,x
*get,sxmaxa,plnsol,0,max
plnsol,epel,x
*get,epelxmaxa,plnsol,0,max

/cycexpand,,phaseang,sweep ! Phase sweep solution


plnsol,s,eqv
*get,seqvmaxs,plnsol,0,max
plnsol,epel,eqv
*get,epeleqvmaxs,plnsol,0,max
allsel,all
/show,close

/cycexpand,,default
finish

/post26
file,,rstp
numvar,30

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Example Cyclic Symmetry Analyses

nsol,2,64,u,z,uz1 ! UZ at node 64
rcyc,5,2,1,uzsector1
rcyc,6,2,2,uzsector2
rcyc,7,2,3,uzsector3
rcyc,8,2,4,uzsector4
rcyc,9,2,5,uzsector5
rcyc,10,2,6,uzsector6

ansol,3,52,s,x,sx1 ! SX at node 52
rcyc,11,3,1,sxsector1
rcyc,12,3,2,sxsector2
rcyc,13,3,3,sxsector3
rcyc,14,3,4,sxsector4
rcyc,15,3,5,sxsector5
rcyc,16,3,6,sxsector6

ansol,4,64,epel,x,epelx1 ! EPELX at node 64


rcyc,17,4,1,epelxsector1
rcyc,18,4,2,epelxsector2
rcyc,19,4,3,epelxsector3
rcyc,20,4,4,epelxsector4
rcyc,21,4,5,epelxsector5
rcyc,22,4,6,epelxsector6

/show,png,rev
plvar,5,6,7,8,9,10
plvar,11,12,13,14,15,16
plvar,17,18,19,20,21,22
/show,close
finish

/post1
cycfiles,,rstp
set
cycspec,,64,u,z ! UZ at node 64
cycspec,,52,s,x ! SX at node 52
cycspec,,64,epel,3 ! EPEL3 at node 64
cycspec,,pressurenodes,s,1 ! max S1 in pressurenodes
cycspec,,64,epel,x ! EPELX at node 64
cycspec,,52,s,eqv ! SEQV at node 52
cycspec,,64,epel,eqv ! EPELEQV at node 64
cycspec,,64,u,sum ! USUM at node 64
cycspec,list

cyccalc ! Compute results from cyclic MSUP using the


! specifications defined by CYCSPEC command
/com, Plot the frequeny response for the CYCSPEC specifications for all sectors
/show,png,rev

plcfreq,1
plcfreq,2
plcfreq,3
plcfreq,4
plcfreq,5
plcfreq,6
plcfreq,7
plcfreq,8

/com, Plot the histogram of frequency response for each sector for given CYCSPEC specification

plchist,1,10
plchist,2,10
plchist,3,10
plchist,4,10
plchist,5,10
plchist,6,10
plchist,7,10
plchist,8,10

/show,close

*get,uz_10,cyccalc,1,freq,10,sector,3 ! Retrieve UZ CYCCALC result at set,1,10 for sector 3

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Example Mode-Superposition Harmonic Cyclic Symmetry Analysis with Mistuning

*get,sx_10,cyccalc,2,freq,10,secmax ! Retrieve SX maximum CYCCALC result at set,1,10

*get,epel3_10,cyccalc,3,freq,10,sector,1 ! Retrieve EPEL3 CYCCALC result at set,1,10 for sector 1

*get,s1_10,cyccalc,4,freq,10,secmax ! Retrieve S1 maximum CYCCALC result at set,1,10

*get,s1_node,cyccalc,4,freq,10,secnode ! Retrieve the node number at which maximum S1 CYCCALC result occur for

*get,s1_sector,cyccalc,4,freq,10,secnum ! Retrieve the sector number at which maximum S3 CYCCALC result occur fo

*get,epelx_10,cyccalc,5,freq,10,secmax ! Retrieve EPELX maximum CYCCALC result at set,1,10

*get,seqv_10,cyccalc,6,freq,10,sector,4 ! Retrieve SEQV CYCCALC result at set,1,10 for sector 4

*get,epeleqv_10,cyccalc,7,freq,10,secmax ! Retrieve EPELEQV maximum CYCCALC result at set,1,10

*stat,uz_10
*stat,sx_10
*stat,epel3_10
*stat,s1_10
*stat,s1_node
*stat,s1_sector
*stat,epelx_10
*stat,seqv_10
*stat,epeleqv_10
finish

/com, --------------------------------------
/com, Restarting the cyclic MSUP harmonic
/com, analysis with different mistuning
/com, values
/com, --------------------------------------

/out,scratch
/solu
cycfreq,restart,mist
*dim,kmist,array,6,1
kmist(1,1)=0.025,-0.015,0.025,-0.022,0.014,0.02 ! Mistuning parameters for each blade
solve
save
finish

/post1
cycfiles,,rstp,,
rsys,solu
esel,s,ename,,185
nsle,s,1

set,1,10,,0 ! Real set


avprin,,0.33
/cycexpand,,on
/show,png,rev
/view,1,1,1,1,
plnsol,u,x
*get,uxmaxr,plnsol,0,max
plnsol,u,y
*get,uymaxr,plnsol,0,max
plnsol,u,z
*get,uzmaxr,plnsol,0,max
plnsol,s,eqv
*get,seqvmaxr,plnsol,0,max
plnsol,epel,eqv
*get,epeleqvmaxr,plnsol,0,max

set,1,10,,1 ! Imaginary set


plnsol,u,x
*get,uxmaxi,plnsol,0,max
plnsol,u,y
*get,uymaxi,plnsol,0,max
plnsol,u,z
*get,uzmaxi,plnsol,0,max

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Example Cyclic Symmetry Analyses

plnsol,s,eqv
*get,seqvmaxi,plnsol,0,max
plnsol,epel,eqv
*get,epeleqvmaxi,plnsol,0,max

set,1,10
/cycexpand,,phaseang,360 ! Amplitude
plnsol,u,z
*get,uzmaxa,plnsol,0,max
plnsol,s,x
*get,sxmaxa,plnsol,0,max
plnsol,epel,x
*get,epelxmaxa,plnsol,0,max

/cycexpand,,phaseang,sweep ! Phase sweep solution


plnsol,s,eqv
*get,seqvmaxs,plnsol,0,max
plnsol,epel,eqv
*get,epeleqvmaxs,plnsol,0,max
allsel,all
/show,close

/out,

/com, *****************************
/com, Real Solution
/com,
/com, From FULL 360 degree model
/com,
/com, UX = 0.030986
/com, UZ = 0.421651
/com, SEQV = 590406
/com, EPELEQV = 0.01715
/com, *****************************

qacomp,'uxmaxr',0.030986,2
qacomp,'uzmaxr',0.421652,5
qacomp,'seqvmaxr',590406,2
qacomp,'epeleqvmaxr',0.01715,2

/com, *****************************
/com, Imaginary Solution
/com,
/com, From FULL 360 degree model
/com,
/com, UX = 0.031084
/com, UY = 0.012545
/com, UZ = 0.434993
/com, SEQV = 627737
/com, EPELEQV = 0.018234
/com, *****************************

qacomp,'uxmaxi',0.031084,2
qacomp,'uymaxi',0.012545,2
qacomp,'uzmaxi',0.434993,2
qacomp,'seqvmaxi',627737,2
qacomp,'epeleqvmaxi',0.018234,2

/com, *****************************
/com, Amplitude Solution
/com,
/com, From FULL 360 degree model
/com,
/com, UZ = 0.470124
/com, SX = 577714
/com, EPELX = 0.016764
/com, *****************************

qacomp,'uzmaxa',0.470124,2
qacomp,'sxmaxa',577714,2
qacomp,'epelxmaxa',0.016764,2

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Example Mode-Superposition Harmonic Cyclic Symmetry Analysis with Mistuning

/com, *****************************
/com, Phaseangle solution
/com,
/com, From FULL 360 degree model
/com,
/com, SEQV = 630383
/com, EPELEQV = 0.018311
/com, *****************************

qacomp,'seqvmaxs',630383,2
qacomp,'epeleqvmaxs',0.018311,2
/cycexpand,,default
finish

/post26
file,,rstp
numvar,30
nsol,2,64,u,z,uz1 ! UZ at node 64
rcyc,5,2,1,uzsector1
rcyc,6,2,2,uzsector2
rcyc,7,2,3,uzsector3
rcyc,8,2,4,uzsector4
rcyc,9,2,5,uzsector5
rcyc,10,2,6,uzsector6

ansol,3,52,s,x,sx1 ! SX at node 52
rcyc,11,3,1,sxsector1
rcyc,12,3,2,sxsector2
rcyc,13,3,3,sxsector3
rcyc,14,3,4,sxsector4
rcyc,15,3,5,sxsector5
rcyc,16,3,6,sxsector6

ansol,4,64,epel,x,epelx1 ! EPELX at node 64


rcyc,17,4,1,epelxsector1
rcyc,18,4,2,epelxsector2
rcyc,19,4,3,epelxsector3
rcyc,20,4,4,epelxsector4
rcyc,21,4,5,epelxsector5
rcyc,22,4,6,epelxsector6

/show,png,rev
plvar,5,6,7,8,9,10
plvar,11,12,13,14,15,16
plvar,17,18,19,20,21,22
/show,close
finish

/post1
cycfiles,,rstp
set
cycspec,,64,u,z ! UZ at node 64
cycspec,,52,s,x ! SX at node 52
cycspec,,64,epel,3 ! EPEL3 at node 64
cycspec,,pressurenodes,s,1 ! max S1 in pressurenodes
cycspec,,64,epel,x ! EPELX at node 64
cycspec,,52,s,eqv ! SEQV at node 52
cycspec,,64,epel,eqv ! EPELEQV at node 64
cycspec,,64,u,sum ! USUM at node 64
cycspec,list

cyccalc ! Compute results from cyclic MSUP using the


! specifications defined by CYCSPEC command
/com, Plot the frequeny response for the CYCSPEC specifications for all sectors
/show,png,rev

plcfreq,1
plcfreq,2
plcfreq,3
plcfreq,4
plcfreq,5

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Example Cyclic Symmetry Analyses

plcfreq,6
plcfreq,7
plcfreq,8

/com, Plot the histogram of frequency response for each sector for given CYCSPEC specification

plchist,1,10
plchist,2,10
plchist,3,10
plchist,4,10
plchist,5,10
plchist,6,10
plchist,7,10
plchist,8,10

/show,close

*get,uz_10,cyccalc,1,freq,10,sector,3 ! Retrieve UZ CYCCALC result at set,1,10 for sector 3

*get,sx_10,cyccalc,2,freq,10,secmax ! Retrieve SX maximum CYCCALC result at set,1,10

*get,epel3_10,cyccalc,3,freq,10,sector,1 ! Retrieve EPEL3 CYCCALC result at set,1,10 for sector 1

*get,s1_10,cyccalc,4,freq,10,secmax ! Retrieve S1 maximum CYCCALC result at set,1,10

*get,s1_node,cyccalc,4,freq,10,secnode ! Retrieve the node number at which maximum S1 CYCCALC result occur for

*get,s1_sector,cyccalc,4,freq,10,secnum ! Retrieve the sector number at which maximum S3 CYCCALC result occur fo

*get,epelx_10,cyccalc,5,freq,10,secmax ! Retrieve EPELX maximum CYCCALC result at set,1,10

*get,seqv_10,cyccalc,6,freq,10,sector,4 ! Retrieve SEQV CYCCALC result at set,1,10 for sector 4

*get,epeleqv_10,cyccalc,7,freq,10,secmax ! Retrieve EPELEQV maximum CYCCALC result at set,1,10

/out,
*stat,uz_10
*stat,sx_10
*stat,epel3_10
*stat,s1_10
*stat,s1_node
*stat,s1_sector
*stat,epelx_10
*stat,seqv_10
*stat,epeleqv_10
finish

5.4.4. Analysis Steps


The following table describes the input lines and the steps involved in the example mode-superposition
harmonic cyclic symmetry analysis in detail.

Step Step Description Description


1. Build cyclic symmetry disc-blade model with temperature CYCLIC
dependent material properties assigned to both the disc and blade
MP
2. Mesh the volumes VMESH
3. Define bonded contact between disc and blade using CONTA173 ET
and TARGE170 elements
ESURF
4. Create components for blade elements and interface nodes betweenCM
blade and disc

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Example Mode-Superposition Harmonic Cyclic Symmetry Analysis with Mistuning

Step Step Description Description


5. Define boundary conditions to constrain the inner radius of the D
disc
6. Perform non-linear static solve with thermal load and rotational NLGEOM
st
velocity loading. Specify CYCOPT,MSUP,1 before the 1 static solve
to generate files needed to perform downstream CYCOPT
mode-superposition analysis
BF

OMEGA
7. Restart the non-linear static analysis to perform linear perturbation ANTYPE,,RESTART
modal analysis
PERTURB
8. Perform modal solve using Block-Lanczos eigensolver MODOPT,LANB

SOLVE
9. Restart modal analysis to define load vectors to be used in the ANTYPE,MODAL,RESTART
downstream harmonic analysis
F
10. Postprocess modal frequencies and plot the cyclic modal /POST1
frequencies versus harmonic indices
SET,LIST

PLZZ
11. Perform mode-superposition harmonic analysis for an excitation ANTYPE,HARMONIC
frequency range of 65 Hz - 85 Hz; request 20 harmonic solutions
be calculated HROPT,MSUP

HARFRQ

NSUBST
12. Specify the engine order of excitation CYCFREQ,EO,1
13. Scale the load vector from the modal solve LVSCALE
14. Define structural damping DMPSTR
15. Define the array to specify mistuning paramaters *DIM
16. Define blade information required for mistuning analysis CYCFREQ,BLADE
17. Define mistuning parameters CYCFREQ,MIST
18. Perform mode-superposition harmonic solve SOLVE
19. Specify the files to postprocess the cyclic symmetry CYCFILES
mode-superposition harmonic analysis
20. Postprocess real set, imaginary set, amplitude, and phase sweep SET
solution
/CYCEXPAND
21. Enter time history postprocessing to calculate cyclic /POST26
mode-superposition harmonic result for a specified node/element
and sectors. NSOL

ANSOL

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Example Cyclic Symmetry Analyses

Step Step Description Description


RCYC
22. Enter general postprocessing to calculate sector results /POST1

CYCSPEC

CYCCALC
23. Plot the frequency response for the CYCSPEC specifications PLCFREQ

PLCHIST
24. Repeat steps 17-23 with new mistuning values by restarting the CYCFREQ,RESTART,MIST
cyclic mode-superposition harmonic analysis

The results of your analysis should match those shown below:

Figure 5.8: Contour Plot of Amplitude Displacement Solution Along Z at Frequency 75 Hz

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Example Mode-Superposition Harmonic Cyclic Symmetry Analysis with Mistuning

Figure 5.9: Contour Nodal Plot of Equivalent Stress Solution at Frequency 75 Hz

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Example Cyclic Symmetry Analyses

Figure 5.10: CYCSPEC Frequency Response for Displacement Sum at Node 64

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Example Mode-Superposition Harmonic Cyclic Symmetry Analysis with Mistuning

Figure 5.11: CYCSPEC Histogram Response for Displacement Sum at Node 64 at Frequency 75 Hz

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Example Cyclic Symmetry Analyses

Figure 5.12: CYCSPEC Frequency Response for Displacement Sum at Node 64 After Restarting the
Cyclic Mode-Superposition Harmonic Analysis with Different Mistuning Parameters

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Example Magnetic Cyclic Symmetry Analysis

Figure 5.13: CYCSPEC Histogram Response for Displacement Sum at Node 64 at Frequency 75 Hz
After Restarting the Cyclic Mode-Superposition Harmonic Analysis with Different Mistuning
Parameters

5.5. Example Magnetic Cyclic Symmetry Analysis


This magnetic cyclic symmetry analysis (p. 46) uses a model of a simplified electrical machine where
the model size can be reduced via cyclic boundary conditions.
5.5.1. Problem Description
5.5.2. Problem Specifications
5.5.3. Input file for the Analysis

5.5.1. Problem Description


Figure 5.14: Two-Phase Electric Machine - Full Model (p. 84) shows a typical example, the full model of
a 2-phase electrical machine.

In the full model, flux parallel boundary conditions can be formulated at the outer surface of the stator
frame. If only phase A were excited, the magnetic flux would point in the y direction at x=0 plane; flux
parallel condition could be formulated at the x=0 plane, allowing an analysis on a half model in the
x>=0 space. Similarly, if only phase B were excited, the magnetic flux would have only x component
on the y=0 plane; again, flux parallel could be applied to a half model in the y>=0 plane.

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Example Cyclic Symmetry Analyses

Typically, however, both coils are excited, and no flux parallel conditions could be formulated over the
x=0 or y=0 planes. However, due to the cyclic nature of the field, the field pattern repeats itself after
180 degrees. In particular, on the y=0 plane:

By(x) = By(-x)

A similar pattern can be observed in Figure 5.15: Two-Phase Electric Machine - Half Model (p. 84), where
the flux lines (equi vector potential lines) are plotted:

Az(x) = - Az(-x)

In this example, the field has a two pole pattern. In general, there are 2p poles; the repetition would
take place after 180/p degrees.

Figure 5.14: Two-Phase Electric Machine - Full Model


y Coil phase B+
Rotor
Flux tangential BC

Coil phase A- Stator

+ x
B

+ +
B
+ +
Coil phase A+
Air gap

Coil phase B-

Figure 5.15: Two-Phase Electric Machine - Half Model


y

Flux tangential BC

+
x

Cyclic high edge Cyclic low edge

Periodic BC

5.5.2. Problem Specifications


The material properties for this analysis are as follows:

Iron relative permeability: 1000

Iron electrical resistivity: 9.579E-8

Aluminum relative permeability: 1.0

Aluminum electrical resistivity: 2.65E-8

Copper relative permeability: 1.0

Copper electrical resistivity: 1.74E-8

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Example Magnetic Cyclic Symmetry Analysis

5.5.3. Input file for the Analysis


Use this input file to perform the example magnetic cyclic symmetry analysis. This file contains the
complete geometry, material properties, and solution options for the finite element model. Magnetic
cyclic symmetry commands of particular interest are preceded by the comment:
!!! Apply Cylic

/title,Cyclic Symmetry Model for EMAG Analysis (Dual Coils with Iron Yoke)
/com
/com ***** Quarter Symmetry Model Expanded to Half Then to Full *****
/com
/com
/com
/nopr
/out,scratch

!!! Setup Model Parameters

_geomgen=1
p=1 ! Use for number of quarter sectors
! (i.e. 1 = 1 90deg sector, 2 = 2 sectors in 90deg)
alpha=22.5/p ! angle up to the end of first coil
beta=alpha+(45/p) ! angle from coil1 to coil2
gamma=beta+(22.5/p) ! angle from beginning of coil2 to end of sector
r1=3
r2=4.5
r3=5
r4=7
r5=11
ncoil=(4*p)
i1=1
i2=2

*dim,alpha1,,ncoil
*dim,alpha2,,ncoil
*dim,current,,ncoil
*dim,coilname,string,ncoil

coilname(1) = 'coil1'
coilname(2) = 'coil2'
coilname(3) = 'coil3'
coilname(4) = 'coil4'

*do,i,1,ncoil

alpha1(i) = -alpha + (i-1)*(90/p)


alpha2(i) = alpha + (i-1)*(90/p)

*enddo

ii=0

*do,i,1,p

ii = ii + 1
current(ii) = i2
ii = ii + 1
current(ii) = i1
ii = ii + 1
current(ii) = -i2
ii = ii + 1
current(ii) = -i1

*enddo

/prep7

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Example Cyclic Symmetry Analyses

ET,1,13,4 ! Use PLANE13 Elements (DOFset = UX,UY,TEMP,AZ)

!!! Setup Model using Parameters

PCIRC,r1, ,0,alpha,
PCIRC,r1, ,0,beta
PCIRC,r1, ,0,gamma
PCIRC,r2, ,0,alpha
PCIRC,r2, ,0,beta
PCIRC,r2, ,0,gamma
PCIRC,r3, ,0,alpha
PCIRC,r3, ,0,beta
PCIRC,r3, ,0,gamma
PCIRC,r4, ,0,alpha
PCIRC,r4, ,0,beta
PCIRC,r4, ,0,gamma
PCIRC,r5, ,0,alpha
PCIRC,r5, ,0,beta
PCIRC,r5, ,0,gamma
AOVLAP,ALL

!!! Setup Material Properties

! IRON
MP,MURX,1,1000
MP,RSVX,1,9.579E-8

! AL
MP,MURX,2,1
MP,RSVX,2,2.65E-8

! Copper
MP,MURX,3,1
MP,RSVX,3,1.74E-8

! Air
MP,MURX,4,1
MP,RSVX,4,0

!!! Setup Components and Atributes

! Iron Core
CSYS,1 ! Enter Cylindrical Mode
ASEL,S,LOC,X,0,r1
CM,Inner_Iron,AREA
AATT,1,,1,

! Al Core
ASEL,S,LOC,X,r1,r2
CM,Outer_AL,AREA
AATT,2,,1,

! Air Gap
ASEL,S,LOC,X,r2,r3
CM,AIR,AREA
AATT,4,,1

! Coil 1
ASEL,S,LOC,X,r3,r4
ASEL,R,LOC,Y,0,alpha
CM,COIL1,AREA
AATT,3,,1

! Coil 2
ASEL,S,LOC,X,r3,r4
ASEL,R,LOC,Y,beta,gamma
CM,COIL2,AREA
AATT,3,,1

! Iron Yoke
ASEL,S,LOC,X,r3,r4

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Example Magnetic Cyclic Symmetry Analysis

ASEL,R,LOC,Y,alpha,beta
ASEL,A,LOC,X,r4,r5
CM,YOKE,AREA
AATT,1,,1
ALLSEL
CSYS,0 ! Enter Cartesian Mode

!!! Setup and Mesh Model

MSHKEY,1
CSYS,1
LSEL,S,LOC,Y,0
LSEL,A,LOC,Y,gamma
LESIZE,ALL,,,6,,1,,,1,
CMSEL,S,Inner_Iron
AMESH,ALL
CMSEL,S,Outer_AL
AMESH,ALL
CMSEL,S,Air
AMESH,ALL
CMSEL,S,Coil1
AMESH,ALL
CMSEL,S,Coil2
AMESH,ALL
CMSEL,S,Yoke
AMESH,ALL
ALLSEL
CSYS,0

!!! Reflect Model across X-axis


!! Create HALF model from QUARTER model

arsym,x,all

/prep7
save,magtest,db ! save half model for cyclic

arsym,y,all ! create full model reflecting on y axis


nummrg,all

csys,1
nsel,s,loc,x,r5
CM,extnode,NODE

! Apply BFE Current loads to each coil

*do,i,1,ncoil

asel,s,loc,x,r3,r4
asel,r,loc,y,alpha1(i),alpha2(i)
esla,s
cm,coilname(i),element
bfe,all,js,,,,current(i)

*enddo

csys,0

allsel
cmsel,s,extnode
d,all,az,0
d,all,temp,25
allsel
FINISH

/solu
/out,scratch

antype,static
allsel
solve

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Example Cyclic Symmetry Analyses

FINISH

/post1

!!! Plot Out Result Plots


plvect,b,,,,VECT,ELEM,ON,0

FINISH
parsav,all
/clear,nostart
resume,magtest,db ! Resume half Model
parres,new

!! Delete Bottom half of model and all loading attatched to bottom nodes

/prep7

allsel
nummrg,all

csys,1
nsel,s,loc,x,r5
D,all,az,0 ! AZ = 0 on outside nodes of arc
D,all,temp,25

!! Define Coils on Half Model

! Coil 1
ASEL,S,LOC,X,r3,r4
ASEL,R,LOC,Y,0,alpha
esla,s
CM,COIL1,ELEMENT
! Coil 2
ASEL,S,LOC,X,r3,r4
ASEL,R,LOC,Y,beta,(180-beta)
esla,s
CM,COIL2,ELEMENT
! Coil 3
ASEL,S,LOC,X,r3,r4
ASEL,R,LOC,Y,(180-alpha),180
esla,s
CM,COIL3,ELEMENT

!! Apply bfe loads to Half Model coils

cmsel,s,COIL1
bfe,all,js,,,,i2
cmsel,s,COIL2
bfe,all,js,,,,i1
cmsel,s,COIL3
bfe,all,js,,,,(-i2)

!!! Apply cyclic - create cyclic model with two sectors

allsel
csys,0
cyclic,2

/solution

cycopt,hindex,odd ! Odd Symmetry for half model


solve
FINISH

/post1
/out

!!! Plot Out Result Plots

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Example Magnetic Cyclic Symmetry Analysis

/vscale,1,1,1
plvect,b,,,,VECT,ELEM,ON,0 ! See figure for B field plot.

!!! Plot Out Contour Line Plot of Equipotentials


plf2d

FINISH

Figure 5.16: Vector Plot of Cyclic Flux Density (B) - Half Model

Figure 5.17: Contour Line Plot of Equipotentials - Half Model

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