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Analysis Guide

Southpointe January 2016

2600 ANSYS Drive

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Table of Contents

1. Introduction ............................................................................................................................................ 1

1.1. How the Program Automates a Cyclic Symmetry Analysis .................................................................. 1

1.2. The General Cyclic Symmetry Analysis Equations ............................................................................... 2

1.3. Commands Used in a Cyclic Symmetry Analysis ................................................................................. 2

2. Cyclic Modeling ....................................................................................................................................... 5

2.1. The Basic Sector ................................................................................................................................ 5

2.1.1. Mistuning Considerations ......................................................................................................... 6

2.2. Edge Component Pairs ..................................................................................................................... 6

2.2.1. CYCOPT Auto Detection Tolerance Adjustments for Difficult Cases ............................................ 6

2.2.2. Identical vs. Dissimilar Edge Node Patterns .............................................................................. 10

2.2.3. Unmatched Nodes on Edge-Component Pairs ........................................................................ 10

2.2.4. Identifying Matching Node Pairs ............................................................................................. 10

2.3. Modeling Limitations ...................................................................................................................... 10

2.4. Model Verification (Preprocessing) .................................................................................................. 11

3. Cyclic Symmetry Overview .................................................................................................................... 13

3.1. Understanding the Solution Architecture ........................................................................................ 13

3.1.1. The Duplicate Sector .............................................................................................................. 13

3.1.2. Coupling and Constraint Equations (CEs) ................................................................................ 13

3.1.3. Non-Cyclically Symmetric Loading .......................................................................................... 15

3.1.3.1. Specifying Non-Cyclic Loading ....................................................................................... 16

3.1.3.2. Plotting and Listing Non-Cyclic Boundary Conditions ..................................................... 17

3.1.3.3. Graphically Picking Non-Cyclic Boundary Conditions ...................................................... 17

3.2. Database Considerations After Obtaining the Solution .................................................................... 17

3.3. Model Verification ........................................................................................................................... 18

3.4. Postprocessing a Cyclic Symmetry Analysis ...................................................................................... 18

3.4.1. General Considerations .......................................................................................................... 18

3.4.2. Using the /CYCEXPAND Command .......................................................................................... 19

3.4.2.1. /CYCEXPAND Limitations ............................................................................................... 19

3.4.3. Result Coordinate System ....................................................................................................... 20

3.5. Comparing Cyclic Solutions ............................................................................................................. 20

4. Cyclic Symmetry Analyses ..................................................................................................................... 23

4.1. Modal Cyclic Symmetry Analysis ...................................................................................................... 23

4.1.1. Understanding Harmonic Index and Nodal Diameter .............................................................. 23

4.1.2. Stress-Free Modal Analysis ...................................................................................................... 25

4.1.3. Prestressed Modal Cyclic Symmetry Analysis ........................................................................... 25

4.1.4. Large-Deflection Prestressed Modal Cyclic Symmetry Analysis ................................................ 26

4.1.4.1. Large-Deflection Prestressed Modal Cyclic Symmetry Analysis with VT Accelerator .......... 27

4.1.5. Postprocessing a Modal Cyclic Symmetry Analysis ................................................................... 28

4.1.5.1. Real and Imaginary Solution Components ...................................................................... 28

4.1.5.2. Expanding the Cyclic Symmetry Solution ....................................................................... 28

4.1.5.3. Applying a Traveling Wave Animation to the Cyclic Model .............................................. 29

4.1.5.4. Phase Sweep of Repeated Eigenvector Shapes ............................................................... 29

4.1.5.5. Interference Diagram ..................................................................................................... 31

4.2. Harmonic Cyclic Symmetry Analysis ................................................................................................ 31

4.2.1. Full Harmonic Cyclic Symmetry Analysis ................................................................................. 32

4.2.1.1. Prestressed Full Harmonic Cyclic Symmetry Analysis ....................................................... 33

4.2.1.2. Postprocessing a Full Harmonic Cyclic Symmetry Analysis .............................................. 33

4.2.2. Mode-Superposition Harmonic Cyclic Symmetry Analysis ....................................................... 34

4.2.2.1. Perform a Static Cyclic Symmetry Analysis to Obtain the Prestressed State ...................... 35

4.2.2.2. Perform a Linear Perturbation Modal Cyclic Symmetry Analysis ...................................... 36

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Cyclic Symmetry Analysis Guide

4.2.2.3. Restart the Modal Analysis to Create the Desired Load Vector from Element Loads .......... 36

4.2.2.4. Obtain the Mode-Superposition Harmonic Cyclic Symmetry Solution ............................. 37

4.2.2.5. Including Mistuning Effects ............................................................................................ 38

4.2.2.5.1. Restarting a Mistuning Analysis for New Mistuning Values ..................................... 39

4.2.2.6. Modal Frequencies of the Reduced System .................................................................... 39

4.2.2.7. Review the Results ......................................................................................................... 39

4.2.2.7.1. Results Expansion to the Full 360° Model ............................................................... 40

4.2.2.7.2. Single Result vs. Frequency .................................................................................... 40

4.2.2.7.3. Specialized Results Calculations ............................................................................ 41

4.3. Static Cyclic Symmetry Analysis ....................................................................................................... 43

4.3.1. Postprocessing a Static Cyclic Symmetry Analysis .................................................................... 45

4.4. Linear Buckling Cyclic Symmetry Analysis ........................................................................................ 45

4.4.1. Postprocessing a Linear Buckling Cyclic Symmetry Analysis ..................................................... 46

4.5. Magnetic Cyclic Symmetry Analysis ................................................................................................. 46

5. Example Cyclic Symmetry Analyses ...................................................................................................... 49

5.1. Example Modal Cyclic Symmetry Analysis ........................................................................................ 49

5.1.1. Problem Description .............................................................................................................. 49

5.1.2. Problem Specifications ........................................................................................................... 49

5.1.3. Input File for the Analysis ....................................................................................................... 50

5.1.4. Analysis Steps ........................................................................................................................ 52

5.2. Example Buckling Cyclic Symmetry Analysis .................................................................................... 54

5.2.1. Problem Description .............................................................................................................. 54

5.2.2. Problem Specifications ........................................................................................................... 54

5.2.3. Input File for the Analysis ....................................................................................................... 55

5.2.4. Analysis Steps ........................................................................................................................ 58

5.2.5. Solve For Critical Strut Temperature at Load Factor = 1.0 .......................................................... 59

5.3. Example Full Harmonic Cyclic Symmetry Analysis ............................................................................ 61

5.3.1. Problem Description .............................................................................................................. 62

5.3.2. Problem Specifications ........................................................................................................... 62

5.3.3. Input File for the Analysis ....................................................................................................... 62

5.3.4. Analysis Steps ........................................................................................................................ 64

5.4. Example Mode-Superposition Harmonic Cyclic Symmetry Analysis with Mistuning .......................... 67

5.4.1. Problem Descriptions ............................................................................................................. 67

5.4.2. Finite Element Model of the Problem ...................................................................................... 68

5.4.3. Input File for the Analysis ....................................................................................................... 68

5.4.4. Analysis Steps ........................................................................................................................ 76

5.5. Example Magnetic Cyclic Symmetry Analysis ................................................................................... 83

5.5.1. Problem Description .............................................................................................................. 83

5.5.2. Problem Specifications ........................................................................................................... 84

5.5.3. Input file for the Analysis ........................................................................................................ 85

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List of Figures

1.1. Model of a Cyclically Symmetric Structure ............................................................................................... 1

2.1. A Basic Sector in a Cyclically Symmetric Structure .................................................................................... 5

2.2. Basic Sector Definition ............................................................................................................................ 6

2.3. Full Cyclic Model ..................................................................................................................................... 7

2.4. Cyclic Sector ........................................................................................................................................... 8

2.5. Successful Auto Detection with Default FACETOL = 15 Deg .................................................................... 8

2.6. Auto Detection Failure Due to Large Face Tolerance ................................................................................. 9

3.1. Connecting Low and High Edges of Basic and Duplicate Sectors ............................................................ 14

3.2. Cyclic Results Coordinate Systems with RSYS,SOLU ............................................................................... 20

4.1. Examples of Nodal Diameters (i) ............................................................................................................ 23

4.2. Process Flow for a Stress-Free Modal Cyclic Symmetry Analysis .............................................................. 25

4.3. Process Flow for a Prestressed Modal Cyclic Symmetry Analysis .............................................................. 26

4.4. Process Flow for a Large-Deflection Prestressed Modal Cyclic Symmetry Analysis ................................... 27

4.5. Traveling Wave Animation Example ....................................................................................................... 29

4.6. Interference Diagram ............................................................................................................................ 31

4.7. Process Flow for a Full Harmonic Cyclic Symmetry Analysis (Non-Cyclic Loading) .................................... 32

4.8. Process Flow for a Prestressed Full Harmonic Cyclic Symmetry Analysis ................................................. 33

4.9. Process Flow for a Prestressed Mode-Superposition Harmonic Cyclic Symmetry Analysis ........................ 35

4.10. CYCSPEC Frequency Response ............................................................................................................ 42

4.11. CYCSPEC Histogram Response ............................................................................................................. 43

4.12. Process Flow for a Static Cyclic Symmetry Analysis (Cyclic Loading) ...................................................... 44

4.13. Process Flow for a Static Cyclic Symmetry Analysis (Non-Cyclic Loading) ............................................... 44

4.14. Process Flow for a Linear Buckling Cyclic Symmetry Analysis ................................................................ 46

5.1. Example Modal Cyclic Symmetry Analysis Results .................................................................................. 54

5.2. Example Buckling Cyclic Symmetry Analysis Results ............................................................................... 59

5.3. Buckling Cyclic Symmetry Results: Load Factor Iterations ....................................................................... 59

5.4. Buckling Cyclic Symmetry Results: Load Factor Results Graph ................................................................ 61

5.5. Element Plot Showing Pressure Load on Sector 3 ................................................................................... 65

5.6. Contour Plot of Displacement Sum at Frequency of 866 HZ .................................................................... 66

5.7. Displacement Plot as a Function of Excitation Frequency ....................................................................... 67

5.8. Contour Plot of Amplitude Displacement Solution Along Z at Frequency 75 Hz ...................................... 78

5.9. Contour Nodal Plot of Equivalent Stress Solution at Frequency 75 Hz ..................................................... 79

5.10. CYCSPEC Frequency Response for Displacement Sum at Node 64 ........................................................ 80

5.11. CYCSPEC Histogram Response for Displacement Sum at Node 64 at Frequency 75 Hz ........................... 81

5.12. CYCSPEC Frequency Response for Displacement Sum at Node 64 After Restarting the Cyclic Mode-Su-

perposition Harmonic Analysis with Different Mistuning Parameters ............................................................ 82

5.13. CYCSPEC Histogram Response for Displacement Sum at Node 64 at Frequency 75 Hz After Restarting

the Cyclic Mode-Superposition Harmonic Analysis with Different Mistuning Parameters .............................. 83

5.14. Two-Phase Electric Machine - Full Model .............................................................................................. 84

5.15. Two-Phase Electric Machine - Half Model ............................................................................................. 84

5.16. Vector Plot of Cyclic Flux Density (B) - Half Model ................................................................................. 89

5.17. Contour Line Plot of Equipotentials - Half Model .................................................................................. 89

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List of Tables

3.1. Valid Non-Cyclically Symmetric Loads .................................................................................................... 15

5.1. Buckling Cyclic Symmetry: Load Factor Iteration Results ......................................................................... 61

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Chapter 1: Introduction

Cyclic symmetry modeling is an analysis tool used to simulate structures having a repetitive geometric

pattern in 360 degrees around an axis of symmetry. Common examples of cyclically symmetric structures

are domes, cooling towers, industrial chimneys, milling cutters, turbine blade disks, gears, fans, and

pump impellers. Figure 1.1: Model of a Cyclically Symmetric Structure (p. 1) shows a cyclically symmetric

hydrorotor.

If a structure exhibits cyclic symmetry, you can perform an automated static (p. 43), modal (p. 23),

harmonic (p. 31), buckling (p. 45), or magnetic (p. 46) analysis. Taking advantage of the repeatable

geometry, a cyclic symmetry analysis can vastly reduce model size and computational cost.

The following topics introducing you to cyclic symmetry analysis are available:

1.1. How the Program Automates a Cyclic Symmetry Analysis

1.2.The General Cyclic Symmetry Analysis Equations

1.3. Commands Used in a Cyclic Symmetry Analysis

A cyclic symmetry analysis conserves time and CPU resources and allows you to view analysis results

on the entire structure. The program automates cyclic symmetry analysis by:

• Solving for the behavior of a single symmetric sector (part of a circular component or assembly)

• Using the single-sector solution to construct the response behavior of the full circular component or assembly

(as a postprocessing step)

For example, by analyzing a single 10° sector of a 36-blade turbine wheel assembly, you can obtain the

complete 360° model solution via simple postprocessing calculations. Using twice the usual number of

degrees of freedom (DOFs) in this case, the single sector represents a 1/18 part of the model.

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Introduction

The general dynamic equation is:

where , , and are the mass, damping, and stiffness matrices, and is the external force

vector.

where is the transformation matrix, and and are harmonic indices displacement and

load quantities.

This set of uncoupled cyclic sector equations is solved while enforcing the compatibility boundary

conditions between the sectors.

For more information about the matrices, see Analysis of Cyclically Symmetric Structures in the Mech-

anical APDL Theory Reference.

The most important command in an automated cyclic symmetry analysis is CYCLIC, which initiates a

cyclic analysis and configures the database accordingly. The command automatically detects cyclic

symmetry model information such as edge components, the number of sectors, the sector angles, and

the corresponding cyclic coordinate system.

The ANTYPE command specifies the analysis type (for example, static, modal or buckling), and the

SOLVE command obtains the cyclic solution.

• /CYCEXPAND for graphically expanding displacements, stresses and strains of a cyclically symmetric model

(/PREP7 and /POST1)

• CYCPHASE for determining minimum and maximum possible modal result values from frequency couplets

during postprocessing (/POST1)

Depending upon the type of cyclic symmetry analysis that you want to perform and your specific needs,

it may be necessary to issue other commands. For example:

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Commands Used in a Cyclic Symmetry Analysis

• In a prestressed modal cyclic symmetry analysis (p. 25), you must issue the PSTRES,ON command during

the static portion of the analysis to calculate the prestress effects for the subsequent modal analysis. (The

PSTRES command is not needed if the linear perturbation analysis procedure is used.)

• During modal postprocessing, you may want to issue the ANCYC command to apply a traveling wave anim-

ation (p. 29) to your cyclic model.

The sections of this document describing various cyclic symmetry analyses mention such commands

as necessary. For more information, see Cyclic Symmetry Overview (p. 13).

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Chapter 2: Cyclic Modeling

This chapter describes how to set up a cyclic sector model, discusses important considerations for edge

component pairs, and shows how to verify the cyclically symmetric model.

2.1.The Basic Sector

2.2. Edge Component Pairs

2.3. Modeling Limitations

2.4. Model Verification (Preprocessing)

A cyclic symmetry analysis requires that you model a single sector, called the basic sector. A proper

basic sector represents one part of a pattern that, if repeated N times in cylindrical coordinate space,

yields the complete model, as shown:

A basic sector model that is cyclically symmetric can be defined in any global or user-defined cylindrical

coordinate system. (For information about creating a model, see the Modeling and Meshing Guide.)

The angle α (in degrees) spanned by the basic sector should be such that Nα = 360, where N is an integer.

The basic sector can consist of meshed or unmeshed geometry. The program allows user-defined

coupling and constraint equations (including those created by MPC contact) only on nodes that are

not on the low or high edges of the cyclic sector. (For more information about the cyclic sector's low

and high edges, see Edge Component Pairs (p. 6).)

If meshed, the basic sector may have matching (as shown in Figure 2.2: Basic Sector Definition (p. 6))

or unmatched lower and higher angle edges. Matching means that corresponding nodes exist on each

edge, offset geometrically by the sector angle α. The edges may be of any shape and need not be "flat"

in cylindrical coordinate space. For more information, see Identical vs. Dissimilar Edge Node Pat-

terns (p. 10).

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Cyclic Modeling

Z

Y

angle

Sector

X

CSYS =1

If mistuning is to be included in a harmonic analysis (see Mode-Superposition Harmonic Cyclic Symmetry

Analysis (p. 34)), the blade must be meshed such that the blade elements and the node interface sep-

arating the blade from the disk or the platform are readily separable. This can be accomplished by

either carefully crafting a mesh (if a brick mesh) or by slicing the geometry before meshing (especially

for a tet mesh). Note that the interface can exist at a location other than the blade-disk or blade-platform

interface, for example, just above the fillet.

The cyclic sector has two edges that align along the surfaces of cyclic symmetry. The edge having the

algebraically lower θ in the R-θ (cylindrical) coordinate system is called the low edge and the one having

the higher θ is called the high edge. The angle α between the two successive surfaces of cyclic symmetry

is called the sector angle.

When setting up a cyclic symmetry analysis, the CYCLIC command defines edge components automat-

ically, assigning them a default root name of “CYCLIC.”

Optionally, you can use the CYCLIC command to define the edges and the component names manually.

If you do so, you must specify a root name for the sector low- and high-edge components (line, area,

or node components). A root name that you specify can contain up to 11 characters. The naming con-

vention for each low- and high-edge component pair is either of the following:

name_mxxl, name_mxxh

(potentially matched node patterns)

name_uxxl, name_uxxh

(potentially unmatched node patterns)

The name value is the default (“CYCLIC”) or specified root name, and xx is the component pair ID

number (sequential, starting at 01).

If the CYCLIC command fails to auto-detect the edges of your cyclic sector, adjusting the ANGTOL

and/or FACETOL values of the CYCOPT command may help. The most effective way to correct auto-

detection is usually by changing the ANGTOL value; however, for more difficult cases from FEA models

you may need to change FACETOL to achieve auto detection.

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Edge Component Pairs

When using the CYCOPT command, face tolerance, or FACETOL, automatically defaults to 15 degrees.

Face tolerance applies only to auto-detection from node/element models that are already meshed, and

are not solid models. The default face tolerance will accommodate most models, unless they include

extreme angles or complex model geometry, both of which can cause surface nodes to be excluded.

This problem, and possible solutions are illustrated in this section using the cyclic model shown in

Figure 2.3: Full Cyclic Model (p. 7).

Figure 2.4: Cyclic Sector (p. 8) shows a cyclic sector from the model above. As you can see, this sector

model is leaning heavily in the circumferential direction. The low and high boundaries in this figure

have been auto detected correctly using the default FACETOL value of 15 deg. This successful auto

detection of these boundaries can be seen in Figure 2.5: Successful Auto Detection with Default FACETOL

= 15 Deg (p. 8).

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Cyclic Modeling

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Edge Component Pairs

If you reset the FACETOL values in the figure above from 15 degrees to 30 degrees, auto detection

fails because the logic treats the left and bottom sides of the sector as a single face, and the top and

right sides as a second large face. This is because the bottom-left edge and top-right edge of this

model both contain a dihedral angle greater than 150 degrees (180-30), but less than 165 degrees (180-

15). These large angles add to the possibility of auto-detection errors.

If you start with a model tilted more than the sector in Figure 2.5: Successful Auto Detection with Default

FACETOL = 15 Deg (p. 8), it may fail at the default tolerance of 15 degrees. This may require you to

reduce FACETOL to 10 or even 5 degrees to get a successful result.

A FACETOL value that is set too low can also result in failure. A FACETOL value that is too low can

cause edges not to be detected along element boundaries on smooth surfaces. The valid range of FA-

CETOL is model and mesh dependent, and may be dictated by a single edge shared between 2 elements.

Whenever auto detect fails for an element model, save the node groups for each element face that you

were working with as node components NPF_001, NPF_002, etc. for diagnostic purposes. Each node

component should represent exactly one face of the cyclic sector (cyclic boundary or not).

In Figure 2.6: Auto Detection Failure Due to Large Face Tolerance (p. 9) , NPF_001 is clearly too large.

As you can see from the nodes, the group has leaked across the lower left edge. This indicates that

FACETOL is too large for the given dihedral angle.

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Cyclic Modeling

Automated Matching

The AMESH and VMESH commands perform automated matching. All other meshing-operation

commands (for example, VSWEEP) do not.

If you specify a meshing operation other than AMESH or VMESH, ensure that node and element

face patterns match, if desired. The CYCLIC command output indicates whether each edge-com-

ponent pair has or can produce a matching node pair.

To ensure the most accurate solution, it is preferable to have identical node and element face patterns

on the low and high edges of the cyclic sector. If you issue the CYCLIC command before meshing the

cyclic sector (via the AMESH or VMESH command only), the mesh will have identical node and element

face patterns on the low and high edges if possible. In this case, all entities must be meshed together

using one meshing command.

The program allows dissimilar node patterns on the low and high edges of the cyclic sector, useful

when you have only finite-element meshes for your model but not the geometry data necessary to

remesh it to obtain identical node patterns. In such cases, it is possible to obtain solution (SOLVE) results,

although perhaps at the expense of accuracy. A warning message appears because results may be de-

graded near the cyclic sector edges.

Unmatched nodes on the low- and high-edge components produce approximate cyclic symmetry

solutions (as compared to matched-node cases). The program uses an unmatched-node algorithm

(similar to that of the CEINTF command) to connect dissimilar meshes.

In unmatched cases, the results exhibit discontinuity across segment boundaries when expanded (via

the /CYCEXPAND command). The discontinuity is an expected behavior; in the expansion process, the

low edge of sector 2 lies adjacent to the high edge of sector 1, and so on throughout the full 360°.

For information about expanding the solution results of a cyclic symmetry analysis, see Expanding the

Cyclic Symmetry Solution (p. 28).

To identify the matching node pairs, you can issue a *STATUS command to list the cyclic parameter

array Name_xref_n (where Name is the root name of the low- and high-edge components specified

via the CYCLIC command).

The cyclic parameter array is generated internally during element plotting with cyclic expansion activated

(/CYCEXPAND,,ON).

In the cyclic parameter array listing, the matching node pairs appear as a pair of node numbers with

the low-edge node number having a negative value.

The following limitations exist when defining a cyclic symmetry model:

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Model Verification (Preprocessing)

• Cyclic symmetry solution does not work for elements that have thermal and hydrostatic pressure degrees

of freedom.

– Superelement (MATRIX50)

• Birth and death of elements (EKILL and EALIVE) is not supported in a cyclic symmetry solution.

• A cyclic model generated while having solid model based cyclic edge components does not write cyclic

data to the .CDB file if CDWRITE is issued with Option = DB. A warning is issued that you must reissue

the CYCLIC command after a CDREAD of the model. You must also reissue any CYCOPT and CYCFREQ

commands previously issued, as they are not written during the CDWRITE operation in this case.

If the CYCLIC command's default automatic detection capability accepts your model for cyclic analysis,

the program will have already verified the following two essential conditions for a cyclic analysis:

• When your model rotates by the cyclic angle about the local Z axis of the cyclic coordinate system, the edges

identified as "low" occupy the same space as those identified by "high" prior to the rotation.

If you specify edge components and cyclic quantities manually, you must verify the two conditions

yourself.

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Chapter 3: Cyclic Symmetry Overview

The program solves for the full cyclically symmetric model using the basic sector model (p. 5) that

you have set up during preprocessing with the appropriate boundary conditions, loading, and any

coupling and constraint equations. For more information, see Cyclic Modeling (p. 5).

This chapter provides overview information for obtaining the solution to various types of cyclic symmetry

analyses and covers the following topics:

3.1. Understanding the Solution Architecture

3.2. Database Considerations After Obtaining the Solution

3.3. Model Verification

3.4. Postprocessing a Cyclic Symmetry Analysis

3.5. Comparing Cyclic Solutions

At the solution (SOLVE) stage of a cyclic symmetry analysis, the program applies the appropriate cyclic

symmetry boundary conditions for each harmonic index solution requested (via the CYCOPT command)

and solves. The program performs each harmonic index solution as a separate load step.

The following solution architecture topics are available for cyclic symmetry analysis:

3.1.1.The Duplicate Sector

3.1.2. Coupling and Constraint Equations (CEs)

3.1.3. Non-Cyclically Symmetric Loading

The architecture of the cyclic symmetry solution process depends upon how the compatibility and

equilibrium conditions of the cyclic sector are enforced in the matrix-solution process. The two most

common solution methods are Duplicate Sector and Complex Hermitian. For faster performance, the

program uses the Duplicate Sector method.

During the solution stage, the program generates a duplicate sector of elements at the same geometric

location as the basic sector (p. 5). (Duplicate sector creation occurs automatically and transparently.)

The program applies all loading, boundary conditions, and coupling and constraint equations present

on the basic sector (p. 5) to the duplicate sector.

The program enforces cyclic symmetry compatibility conditions for each harmonic index solution via

coupling and/or constraint equations (CEs) connecting the nodes on the low- and high-edge components

on the basic and duplicate sectors. The program deletes the coupling and/or constraint equations after

each harmonic index solution, preserving any internal coupling and constraint equations that you may

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Cyclic Symmetry Overview

have defined on the basic sector (p. 5) for subsequent analyses. The constraint equations for edge-

component nodes have the form shown in Equation 3.1 (p. 14).

Note

These internal CEs cannot be listed or viewed after a cyclic symmetry solution, except by

using the Option = CONV on the CELIST command.

During the solution stage of a cyclic symmetry analysis, the program automatically rotates the nodal

coordinate systems of all nodes on the low and high sector edges to be parallel with the cyclic coordinate

system.

Figure 3.1: Connecting Low and High Edges of Basic and Duplicate Sectors

(3.1)

where,

representing the number of sectors in 360°.)

= Sector angle ( )

= Vector of displacement and rotational degrees of freedom

represents the basic sector (p. 5) low side edge

represents the basic sector (p. 5) high side edge

represents the duplicate sector (p. 13) low side edge

represents the duplicate sector (p. 13) high side edge

The equation is a function of harmonic index k generating different sets of constraint equations for

each harmonic index. Therefore, for each harmonic index solution requested, the program creates the

appropriate constraint equations automatically, connects the edge-component nodes on basic sec-

tor (p. 5) A and duplicate sector (p. 13) B, and solves.

Constraint equations that tie together the low and high edges of your model are generated from the

low- and high-edge components, and nowhere else. You should verify that automatically detected

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Understanding the Solution Architecture

components are in the correct locations and that you are able to account for all components; to do so,

you can list (CMLIST) or plot (CMPLOT) the components.

Non-cyclic loading is applicable to static and full harmonic cyclic solutions. A load is non-cyclic when

it varies between sectors and involves at least one harmonic index greater than zero. Support is available

for cyclic analyses that have some combination of cyclic and non-cyclic loading.

The program considers the arbitrary forces acting on the full system as the sum of a finite number of

spatial Fourier harmonics. The program analyzes the structure for each spatial harmonic index by applying

constraint equations between the basic sector (p. 5) and duplicate sector (p. 13). For each spatial

Fourier harmonic, the program solves a corresponding equation, then expands and sums the calculated

harmonics of the response to give the response for each substructure. For more information, see Cyclic

Symmetry Transformations in the Mechanical APDL Theory Reference.

Load Type

Nodal Loads F, K FX, FY, and FZ HFLOW is blocked for

sector-restricted loading but

following can follow afterwards.

the

sector All other nodal loads are not

specifications supported for non-cyclic

(CYCOPT,LDSECT,n loading.

where

n > 0)

Surface SF, PRES CONV is blocked for

Loads SFA, sector-restriced loading but can

SFE, follow afterwards.

SFL

All other surface loads are not

following supported for non-cyclic

the loading.

sector

specifications

(CYCOPT,LDSECT,n

where

n > 0)

Inertia Loads ACEL, Applies to all sectors. (Not May require harmonic index 0

DOMEGA, affected by CYCOPT,LDSECT,n and/or 1 only.

CMDOMEGA, where n > 0.)

CMOMEGA,

OMEGA Default load in global X, Y, and

Z on all sectors.

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Cyclic Symmetry Overview

This section is applicable to static and full harmonic cyclic analyses only. For cyclic mode-superposition

harmonic analyses, non-cyclic loading is applied in a different manner. For more information, see Mode-

Superposition Harmonic Cyclic Symmetry Analysis (p. 34).

Specify non-cyclically symmetric loading via the LDSECT (load-on-sector) value on the CYCOPT command.

A value greater than 0 (the default, indicating that the loads are identical on all sectors) restricts sub-

sequently defined force loads and surface loads to the specified sector. The restriction remains in effect

until you change or reset it. Non-cyclic loads are placed in a special *DIM table using SECTOR as its

primary variable.

When non-cyclic loading applies, the program creates or modifies the required SECTOR tabular

boundary condition (BC) data to apply on the appropriate sector. Therefore, it is not necessary to ma-

nipulate tables for situations where the applied BC is not a function of other tabular BC variables such

as TIME, X, Y, Z, and so on.

If a SECTOR-varying table exists on an entity-BC combination (for example, node 17 FZ) and you enter

another value for the same entity-BC combination (perhaps specifying a different sector on which to

apply the load), the following conditions occur:

• The program modifies the existing table to accommodate the new specification.

• The table cannot reference any other independent variable (for example, TEMP). You must manually define

any BC table requiring more than one independent variable.

If a table exists for an entity-BC combination and you enter another table for the same entity-BC com-

bination, but the table does not reference SECTOR, the new table reference replaces the existing one.

During preprocessing, all tabular BC listings and plots referencing SECTOR will list the table names only.

During solution or postprocessing, all tabular BC listings and plots referencing SECTOR will list the values

per sector as they would be applied when solving (SOLVE).

Any tabular data X, Y, or Z variation applied to a cyclic model may not be applied in the same manner

in which such a variation would occur for an equivalent full model (the exception being a variation in

the axial direction). For example, if a tabular value of a nodal force is applied as function of the tabular

variable Y, the program applies it to the designated cyclic sectors using values based upon the Y values

of the basic sector (p. 5) only.

A given high-edge node is usually the same location in the structure as the corresponding low-edge

node of the adjacent sector; therefore, it is necessary to apply constraints consistently. Note that incon-

sistent constraints are impossible to satisfy if the solution remains cyclic. The results can be unpredictable.

If a high (or low)-edge DOF has a constant (non-tabular) constraint, and the corresponding low (or

high)-edge DOF is unconstrained, the program copies the constraint to the opposite edge. If a high (or

low)-edge DOF has a tabular constraint, and the corresponding low (or high)-edge DOF is unconstrained,

the program stops the solution with an error message. If a high-low corresponding pair of DOF are both

constrained in any manner, the program assumes that you have specified constraints in a consistent

manner.

One warning is issued the first time this is done for a given SOLVE operation.

Because edge nodes are rotated into the cyclic coordinate system during solution, any applied displace-

ments or forces on sector edges will be in the cyclic coordinate system.

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Database Considerations After Obtaining the Solution

CYCOPT,LDSECT,1 ! LOADS ON SECTOR 1 ONLY

SFL,ALL,PRES,10000

For DOF constraints, force loads, and body forces, any non-tabular load is cyclic. Any tabular load that

does not reference the variable SECTOR is cyclic. The program assumes any tabular load referencing

SECTOR to be non-cyclic (although it could be identical on all sectors).

*DIM,S1PRES,TABLE,5,1,1,SECTOR

*SET,S1PRES(1,0,1),1,2,3,4,5

*SET,S1PRES(1,1,1),10000,0,0,0,0 ! PRESSURE ON SECTOR 1 ONLY

SFL,ALL,PRES,%S1PRES%

When combined with other independent variables, SECTOR can be in positions 1, 2, or 3 only. Other

independent variables operate as they do for non-cyclic data. (Think of X, Y, and Z as “ghost” coordinates,

behaving as though all sectors have been modeled with actual nodes and elements.)

CYCOPT,LDSECT,3

F,10,UX,value ! Apply a load (value) on node 10 at sector 3

...

FDELE,10,UX ! Delete the load on node 10 at sector 3

You can plot non-cyclic boundary conditions (BCs) on the sector on which the BC (F, D, SF) is applied.

By expanding (p. 28) the cyclic sector model plot to the full 360 degrees (via the /CYCEXPAND com-

mand), you can view a BC on the sector on which it is applied.

Issue BC-listing commands FLIST, DLIST, and SFLIST to list non-cyclic BCs. The list indicates the value

of the BC and the sector on which it is applied.

You can use graphical picking via the GUI to apply non-cyclic BCs on any sector. The graphical picking

option is available after expanding (p. 28) the cyclic model (/CYCEXPAND). Applicable BCs are:

BCs applied by graphical picking ignore the current CYCOPT,LDSECT setting when cyclic expansion

(/CYCEXPAND) is active. When cyclic expansion is not active, BCs are applied to the sector specified by

CYCOPT,LDSECT (or all sectors if CYCOPT,LDSECT,ALL).

The mathematical characteristics of a cyclic symmetry solution require that displacement BCs (D, DK,

DL, DA) apply to all sectors.

At the conclusion of the cyclic symmetry solution, exit the solution processor via the FINISH command.

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Cyclic Symmetry Overview

If you intend to exit the program at this point (before postprocessing), save the database (Jobname.DB).

The saved database allows you to perform postprocessing on the analysis results at a later time.

The cyclic solution reports the number of constraint equations generated for each harmonic index

solution and information about how they were created. The information should match what you already

know about the analysis model; if not, try to determine the reason for the discrepancy. The following

extracts (from a batch output file or an interactive output window) are typical:

NUMBER OF CONSTRAINT EQUATIONS GENERATED = 124

(USING THE MATCHED NODES ALGORITHM --

MAX NODE LOCATION ERROR NEAR ZERO)

Meaning: 124 constraint equations are created, used, and then deleted to enforce cyclic symmetry

conditions between the low- and high-edge nodes. Every node on the low edge is precisely matched

to a corresponding node on the high edge, representing the best possible situation.

NUMBER OF CONSTRAINT EQUATIONS GENERATED = 124

(USING THE MATCHED NODES ALGORITHM --

MAX NODE LOCATION ERROR = 0.73906E-02)

Meaning: 124 constraint equations are created, used, and then deleted to enforce cyclic symmetry

conditions between the low- and high-edge nodes. Every node on the low edge is matched to a corres-

ponding node on the high edge within the current tolerance setting, but not all matches are precise.

The largest position mismatch is 0.0073906.

NUMBER OF CONSTRAINT EQUATIONS GENERATED = 504

(USING THE UNMATCHED NODES ALGORITHM)

Meaning: 504 constraint equations are created, used, and then deleted to enforce cyclic symmetry

conditions between the low- and high-edge nodes. At least one node on the low edge does not match

any node on the high edge within the current tolerance setting, so the program uses the unmatched

nodes algorithm.

This section describes how to perform postprocessing on the solution results obtained from a cyclic

symmetry analysis. The following topics are available:

3.4.1. General Considerations

3.4.2. Using the /CYCEXPAND Command

3.4.3. Result Coordinate System

If you exited the program after obtaining the cyclic symmetry solution, use the database (Jobname.DB)

that you saved for postprocessing. For more information, see Database Considerations After Obtaining

the Solution (p. 17).

The real (basic sector (p. 5)) and imaginary (duplicate sector (p. 13)) parts of the solution reside in the

results file. However, the solution does not yet represent the actual displacements, stresses, or reaction

forces for any part of the actual structure.

Listing or plotting the sector results causes the program to issue a warning message such as PLNSOL

is displaying the unprocessed real and imaginary parts of this cyclic

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18 of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Postprocessing a Cyclic Symmetry Analysis

symmetry solution. Furthermore, the basic (p. 5) and duplicate sectors (p. 13) overplot each

other if displayed, providing yet another indication that a problem exists.

The /CYCEXPAND command is used to expand the cyclic symmetry results to the full 360° model (or

a portion thereof ). The command does not modify the geometry, nodal displacements or element

stresses stored in the database. Issue the command to expand your basic sector (p. 5) model and obtain

the full 360° model displacement, stress, or strain response.

After the expansion, you can plot (PLESOL or PLNSOL) or print (PRNSOL) the results. Other commands

(such as NSEL and NSORT) continue to operate on the unprocessed real and imaginary parts of the

solution.

Using the cyclic symmetry solution of the basic (p. 5) and duplicate sectors (p. 13) (illustrated in Fig-

ure 3.1: Connecting Low and High Edges of Basic and Duplicate Sectors (p. 14)), the /CYCEXPAND

command combines the solutions from the two sectors by performing computations on the selected

load step (specified via the SET command) to combine the results of the two sectors. The program uses

the following response equation for the full structure or assembly:

(3.2)

where,

= Response of the full structure or assembly (displacement, stress, or strain) for sector number

n

= Basic sector (p. 5) solution

= Duplicate sector (p. 13) solution

= Sector number for response expansion -- n = 1,2,3,…,N

= Harmonic index (p. 23) -- (0,1,2,…,N / 2) when N is even, (0,1,2,…,(N-1) / 2) when N is odd. N is

an integer representing the number of sectors in 360°.

= Sector angle ( )

• Only PLNSOL, PRNSOL (plot and print of nodal solution, respectively), and PLESOL (plot of element solution)

are supported after /CYCEXPAND. All other postprocessing commands operate on unprocessed real and

imaginary parts of the solution.

• Postprocessing a nodal solution on a selected set of nodes (for example, on nodal components defined by

CM) is not supported after /CYCEXPAND. Select the attached elements (ESLN) to postprocess a selected

set.

• For magnetic cyclic symmetry analyses, the /CYCEXPAND command produces contour plots, but not vector

plots.

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Cyclic Symmetry Overview

• The AVRES command with Opt = FULL is not supported after the /CYCEXPAND command is issued.

• Contour plots (PLNSOL or PLESOL) will not show the displaced shape (that is, the displacements will not

be added to the coordinates) if RSYS,SOLU is active.

Result Coordinate System

Results are displayed or printed in the currently active results coordinate system (RSYS). For RSYS,SOLU,

the result is in the nodal coordinate system of the base sector, and it is rotated to the expanded sector’s

location, as demonstrated in Figure 3.2: Cyclic Results Coordinate Systems with RSYS,SOLU (p. 20).

Care must be taken when interpreting RSYS,SOLU (especially averaged nodal stress and strain) results

when the solution coordinate systems are not in the cyclic cylindrical system. Using RSYS,SOLU can be

useful when you want to track sliding motion along a contact interface or a stress in a single crystal

alloy. Note that /POST26 only works in the RSYS,SOLU system.

In a typical design procedure, you may want to make small changes to you model and compare the

solutions you obtain from the new model to solutions from the original model. The RSTMAC command

performs MAC calculations to compare the basic and duplicate nodal solutions from two results files

(.RST or .RSTP).

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Comparing Cyclic Solutions

• If nodes and/or elements are selected (using the NSEL and/or ESEL commands), the results of the mapping

and/or the interpolation will show differences. If you want to perform the MAC calculation on a part of the

model, you can use the ESEL command, but ensure you select the elements of the basic sector as well as

those of the duplicate sector. All the selected element nodes must also be selected (NSLE).

• The modes obtained after a modal analysis for a cyclic symmetric structure are repeated when the harmonic

index is greater than zero. In this case, the MAC values table is merged to allow solutions matching. This

merging consists of summing and averaging the MAC values of the repeated frequencies.

This procedure is described fully in Comparing Nodal Solutions From Two Models or From One Model

and Experimental Data (RSTMAC) in the Basic Analysis Guide.

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22 of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Chapter 4: Cyclic Symmetry Analyses

This chapter provides specific information for obtaining the solution to various types of cyclic symmetry

analyses and covers the following topics:

4.1. Modal Cyclic Symmetry Analysis

4.2. Harmonic Cyclic Symmetry Analysis

4.3. Static Cyclic Symmetry Analysis

4.4. Linear Buckling Cyclic Symmetry Analysis

4.5. Magnetic Cyclic Symmetry Analysis

Cyclic symmetry modal analyses currently support only the Block Lanczos, PCG Lanczos, Supernode,

and Subspace methods (MODOPT).

This section describes harmonic indices in relation to modal cyclic symmetry analyses and provides in-

formation necessary for solving several types of modal analyses:

4.1.1. Understanding Harmonic Index and Nodal Diameter

4.1.2. Stress-Free Modal Analysis

4.1.3. Prestressed Modal Cyclic Symmetry Analysis

4.1.4. Large-Deflection Prestressed Modal Cyclic Symmetry Analysis

4.1.5. Postprocessing a Modal Cyclic Symmetry Analysis

To understand the process involved in a modal cyclic symmetry analysis, it is necessary to understand

the concepts of harmonic indices and nodal diameters.

The nodal diameter refers to the appearance of a simple geometry (for example, a disk) vibrating in a

certain mode. Most mode shapes contain lines of zero out-of-plane displacement which cross the entire

disk, as shown in these examples:

For a complicated structure exhibiting cyclic symmetry (for example, a turbine wheel), lines of zero

displacement may not be observable in a mode shape.

The harmonic index is an integer that determines the variation in the value of a single DOF at points

spaced at a circumferential angle equal to the sector angle. For a harmonic index equal to nodal dia-

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Cyclic Symmetry Analyses

meter , the function describes the variation. This definition allows a varying number of

waves to exist around the circumference for a given harmonic index, provided that the DOF at points

separated by the sector angle vary by . For example, a harmonic index of 0 and a 60° sector

produce modes with 0, 6, 12, ... , 6 waves around the circumference.

The nodal diameter is the same as the harmonic index in only some cases. The solution of a given

harmonic index may contain modes of more than one nodal diameter.

The following equation represents the relationship between the harmonic index and nodal diameter

for a model consisting of sectors:

(4.1)

where = 0, 1, 2, 3, ...,

For example, if a model has seven sectors ( = 7) and the specified harmonic index = 2, the program

solves for nodal diameters 2, 5, 9, 12, 16, 19, 23, ....

The following table illustrates Equation 4.1 (p. 24), showing how the harmonic index, nodal diameter

and number of sectors relate to one another:

Harmonic

Index Nodal Diameter (d)

(k)

0 0 N N 2N 2N ...

1 1 N-1 N+1 2N - 1 2N + 1 ...

2 2 N-2 N+2 2N - 2 2N + 2 ...

3 3 N-3 N+3 2N - 3 2N + 3 ...

4 4 N-4 N+4 2N - 4 2N + 4 ...

... ... ... ... ... ... ...

N/2

is

even)

(N - 1) /

2

(N - 1) / (N + 1) / (3N - 1) (3N + 1) (5N - 1)

...

(N 2 2 /2 /2 /2

is

odd)

Note

To avoid confusion, be aware that in some references mode refers to harmonic index as

defined here and nodal diameter describes the actual number of observable waves around

the structure.

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Modal Cyclic Symmetry Analysis

Harmonic Index in an Electromagnetic Analysis For electromagnetic analyses, only the EVEN and

ODD harmonic index settings (see the CYCOPT command) are valid (for symmetric and antisymmetric

solutions, respectively).

Using VT Accelerator You can use the Variational Technology Accelerator (VT Accelerator) to speed

up the solve time needed to sweep over the range of values of the harmonic index. To activate VT Ac-

celerator, issue CYCOPT,VTSOL prior to solving. You can use VT Accelerator only with matched node

pattern sectors in a modal cyclic symmetry analysis. You will see the most significant speed up for

models with a large number of sectors and/or a large number of eigenvalues. The benefit of using VT

Accelerator is realized only when solving for more than five harmonic indices. In addition, the level of

performance improvement realized with VT Accelerator may also be dependent upon the problem.

Solving for less than five harmonic indices prevents a solution and displays an error message.

The following flowchart illustrates the process involved in a stress-free modal cyclic symmetry analysis.

Figure 4.2: Process Flow for a Stress-Free Modal Cyclic Symmetry Analysis

A modal cyclic symmetry analysis allows only cyclically symmetric applied boundary conditions. Ei-

gensolutions are performed, looping on the number of harmonic indices specified (via the CYCOPT

command) at each load step.

The number of modes specified on the MXPAND command are the number of modes extracted per

harmonic index.

The process for a prestressed modal cyclic symmetry analysis is essentially the same as that for a stress-

free case (p. 25), except that a static solution is necessary to calculate the prestress in the basic sec-

tor (p. 5). The prestress state of the sector may be from a linear static or a large-deflection nonlinear

static analysis. The following flowchart illustrates the process involved in a prestressed modal cyclic

symmetry analysis.

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Cyclic Symmetry Analyses

Figure 4.3: Process Flow for a Prestressed Modal Cyclic Symmetry Analysis

The modal cyclic symmetry solution occurs after the static cyclic symmetry solution. The modal solution

uses the same low- and high-edge components defined in the static cyclic analysis stage (via the CYCLIC

command). The analysis yields the eigenvectors of the structure in the prestressed state.

Geometric nonlinearity occurs when the deflections are large enough to cause significant changes in

the geometry of the structure. In such cases, the equations of equilibrium must account for the deformed

configuration. When a nonlinearity is present, the program uses an iterative process to obtain the

solution.

To calculate the frequencies and mode shapes of a deformed structure, you can perform a prestressed

modal analysis (using the linear perturbation solution method) of cyclic structures after first performing

a large-deflection (NLGEOM,ON) static analysis. Other nonlinearities such as frictional contact may also

be included.

The prestress effects are automatically accounted for in the linear perturbation modal analysis procedure.

To obtain the cyclic symmetry modal solutions of a deformed structure, follow these steps:

1. Perform a nonlinear static solution with the prestress load. Use the RESCONTROL command to define the

necessary restart files. Non-cyclic loading cannot be applied.

2. Restart the previous static solution from the desired load step and substep.

3. Issue the PERTURB command to define the analysis type, material behavior to be used, contact status

(ContKey = CURRENT, STICKING, or BONDED) and load values to be retained from the previous static

solution (LoadControl = ALLKEEP, INERKEEP, PARKEEP, or NOKEEP).

4. Modify the behavior of individual contact pairs, as needed, using the CNKMOD command.

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Modal Cyclic Symmetry Analysis

6. Issue the MODOPT and MXPAND commands to specify the modal analysis option.

Note

During the SOLVE,ELFORM (Step 5), the coordinates of the model are updated to account

for the large deflections of the static analysis. Any subsequent nodal coordinate listings and

geometry plots will be in this updated state.

The flowchart below illustrates the process involved in a large-deflection prestressed modal cyclic

symmetry analysis.

Figure 4.4: Process Flow for a Large-Deflection Prestressed Modal Cyclic Symmetry Analysis

For detailed information about the linear perturbation analysis procedure, see Linear Perturbation

Analysis in the Structural Analysis Guide. In addition, Example 9.4: Contact Status Control in a Linear

Perturbation Modal Analysis in that same document provides a complete example input listing for a

linear perturbation cyclic symmetry modal analysis.

erator

Specify the VT Accelerator method (CYCOPT,VTSOL) in the block solution to solve a linear perturbed

cyclic symmetry modal analysis with the VT Accelerator method.

/solu

csys,0

antype,0 ! Perform Static analysis.

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Cyclic Symmetry Analyses

rescontrol,define,all,1 ! Enable the file writing in multiframe restart

nsub,10,10,10 ! Number of substeps = 10

solve

finish

/solu

antype,static,restart,,,perturb ! Perform a static restart with perturb

! from the last substep of the previous static solve

perturb,modal,,,allkeep ! Set the analysis options for perturbed modal analysis

solve,elform

outres,all,all

modopt,lanb,10

mxpand,10

cycopt,hindx,0,6,1 ! Solve harmonic indices ranging from 0 through 6

cycopt,vtsol,yes ! Turn on the VT accelerator method

solve

finish

A cyclic symmetry solution typically has multiple load step results depending upon the harmonic in-

dex (p. 23) solutions requested. The SET,LIST command will list the harmonic indices solved and the

frequencies within each harmonic index. Use SET,LIST,,,,,,,ORDER to list the frequencies themselves in

numerical order.

To transform the real and imaginary cyclic symmetry solution results to the actual structure solution,

three postprocessing (/POST1) commands are available:

• /CYCEXPAND

• EXPAND

• CYCPHASE

Note

The CYCPHASE command uses full model graphics (/GRAPHICS,FULL) to compute peak

values. Because of this, there may be slight differences between max/min values obtained

with CYCPHASE, and those obtained via /CYCEXPAND (/GRAPHICS,POWER).

For information about /CYCEXPAND and EXPAND command usage, see Expanding the Cyclic Symmetry

Solution (p. 28). For information about CYCPHASE command usage, see Phase Sweep of Repeated Ei-

genvector Shapes (p. 29).

This section describes the capabilities of the /CYCEXPAND and EXPAND commands and explains their

differences. Use the commands to expand the solution results of your cyclic symmetry analysis to the

full model.

The /CYCEXPAND command does not modify the geometry, nodal displacements, or element stresses

stored in the database. For more details, see Using the /CYCEXPAND Command (p. 19).

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Modal Cyclic Symmetry Analysis

The EXPAND command offers an alternate method for displaying the results of a modal cyclic symmetry

analysis. It is a specification command that causes a SET operation to transform and expand the data

it is reading before storing it in the database. If you request two or more sector repetitions, the command

creates additional nodes and elements to provide space for the extra results. After the expanded results

are stored in the database, you can plot (PLESOL or PLNSOL), print (PRNSOL). You can also process

them as you would those for a non-cyclic analysis, in cases where you may wish to process results in a

manner unsupported by the /CYCEXPAND command. Care should be taken in such cases as the database

can become very large, negating the inherent model size advantage of a cyclic symmetry analysis.

Caution

After you have completed a modal cyclic symmetry analysis, you can apply an animated traveling wave

to the cyclic model by issuing the ANCYC command (which uses /CYCEXPAND functionality). The

traveling wave capability applies only to modal cyclic symmetry analyses. For more information, see

the description of the ANCYC command in the Command Reference.

Figure 4.5: Traveling Wave Animation Example (p. 29) illustrates the ANCYC command's effect. To view

the input file used to create the model shown, see Example Modal Cyclic Symmetry Analysis (p. 49).

The following demo is presented as an animated GIF. View online if you are reading the PDF version of the

help. Interface names and other components shown in the demo may differ from those in the released

product.

In a modal cyclic symmetry analysis (p. 23), repeated eigenfrequencies are obtained at solutions corres-

ponding to harmonic indices k, greater than 0 and less than N/2. The repeated modes are a consequence

of the cyclically symmetric geometry of the structure or assembly being modeled by the cyclic sector.

The eigenvector shapes corresponding to the repeated eigenfrequencies are non-unique. That is, for

the repeated eigenfrequencies fi = fi+1, the mode shapes corresponding to fi and fi+1 can be linearly

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Cyclic Symmetry Analyses

combined to obtain a mode shape that is also a valid mode shape solution for the frequencies fi and

fi+1. A valid linear combination of the eigenvectors is:

(4.2)

where,

Ui and Ui+1 = Eigenvectors corresponding to fi and fi+1, respectively

The orientation of the combined mode shape U will be along a nodal diametral line that is neither

along that of Ui nor Ui+1. Because the full structure may have stress-raising features (such as bolt holes),

determining the eigenvector orientation that causes the most severe stresses, strains, or displacements

on the structure or assembly is critical.

To determine the peak value of stress, strain or displacement in the full structure or assembly, it is ne-

cessary to calculate U at all possible angular orientations ϕ in the range of 0 through 360°. In the gen-

eral postprocessor, the CYCPHASE command performs the computational task.

Because c1 and c2 are arbitrary constants, the CYCPHASE calculation rewrites Equation 4.2 (p. 30) as

follows:

(4.3)

Using the cyclic symmetry expansion of Equation 3.2 (p. 19) in Equation 4.3 (p. 30), the simplified phase-

sweep equation that operates on the cyclic sector solution (rather on the computation-intensive full-

structure expression in Equation 4.3 (p. 30)) is:

(4.4)

A phase sweep using the CYCPHASE command provides information about the peak values of stress,

strain and/or displacement components and the corresponding phase angle values. Using the phase

angle value further, you can expand the mode shape at that phase angle to construct the eigenvector

shape that produces the peak stress, strain and/or displacement. The expansion expression with the

phase angle used by the /CYCEXPAND command is:

(4.5)

where

n = 1,2,3,...,N

Example:

To determine the eigenvector orientation that causes the highest equivalent stress, perform a phase

sweep on the stress via the CYCPHASE,STRESS command. Obtain a summary of the phase sweep via

the CYCPHASE,STAT command to determine the value of ϕ at which maximum equivalent stress occurred.

You can shift the mode shape to that angle via the /CYCEXPAND,,PHASEANG command and plot the

expanded mode shape via the PLNSOL,S,EQV command.

Note

The CYCPHASE command uses full model graphics (/GRAPHICS,FULL) to compute peak

values. Because of this, there may be slight differences between max/min values obtained

with CYCPHASE, and those obtained via /CYCEXPAND (/GRAPHICS,POWER).

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Harmonic Cyclic Symmetry Analysis

The interference diagram, generated using the PLZZ command, plots the cyclic modal frequencies

versus the harmonic index (or nodal diameter). If the rotational speed is provided (or known from a

prior prestressing step using linear perturbation, see Prestressed Modal Cyclic Symmetry Analysis (p. 25)),

the speed line is superimposed on the diagram. This is also known as a SAFE diagram or a ZZENF diagram

[1], and indicates potential frequencies where resonance may occur.

Figure 4.6: Interference Diagram (p. 31) illustrates an interference diagram with the speed line and two

additional speed lines enveloping the primary speed line.

1. Singh, M.P., Vargo, J.J., Schiffer, D.M., Dello, J.D.,“SAFE Diagram - a design and reliability tool for turbine

blading”, Dresser-Rand, Wellsville, NY

Two harmonic analysis (forced response) methods are available for cyclic structures: full (p. 32) and

mode-superposition harmonic analysis (p. 34). The advantages of the full method are:

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Cyclic Symmetry Analyses

• You do no need to choose frequencies and mode shapes that adequately represent the response.

• The non-cyclic loading can be arbitrary and may be applied to any sector.

Only engine order loading (traveling wave excitation) is supported in a mode-superposition analysis.

Cyclic loading is a special case of engine order loading where the engine order is equal to zero.

While engine order excitation is a non-cyclic load, no other forms of non-cyclic loads are supported.

Cyclic or non-cyclic loading may be applied in a full harmonic cyclic analysis.

The flowchart below illustrates the process involved in a harmonic cyclic symmetry analysis with non-

cyclic loading.

Figure 4.7: Process Flow for a Full Harmonic Cyclic Symmetry Analysis (Non-Cyclic Loading)

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Harmonic Cyclic Symmetry Analysis

The process for solving a prestressed harmonic cyclic symmetry analysis is essentially the same as a

stress free case, except that a static solution is necessary to calculate the prestress in the basic sector.

The prestress state of the sector may be from a linear static or a large-deflection nonlinear static analysis.

Non-cyclic loading cannot be applied in the static solution.

The linear perturbed harmonic cyclic symmetric analysis is supported for the following methods: AUTO,

FULL, VT (see HROPT command).

Cyclic or non-cyclic loading may be applied in a prestressed full harmonic cyclic analysis.

The flowchart below illustrates the process of a harmonic cyclic symmetry analysis with non-cyclic

loading.

Figure 4.8: Process Flow for a Prestressed Full Harmonic Cyclic Symmetry Analysis

If cyclic expansion via the /CYCEXPAND command is active, the PLNSOL and PRNSOL commands have

summation of all required harmonic index solutions by default.

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Cyclic Symmetry Analyses

In a full harmonic analysis with non-cyclic loading, all applicable harmonic index solutions are computed

and saved in the results file as load step results.

A SET,LIST command lists the range of load step numbers in the group containing each solution. Each

load step post data header contains the first, last, and count of load steps from the given SOLVE com-

mand, as shown:

***** INDEX OF DATA SETS ON RESULTS FILE *****

SET TIME/FREQ LOAD STEP SUBSTEP CUMULATIVE HRM-INDEX GROUP

1 1.0000 1 1 1 0 1-3

2 2.0000 2 1 2 1 1-3

3 3.0000 3 1 3 2 1-3

4 1.0000 1 1 1 0 4-6

5 2.0000 2 1 2 1 4-6

6 3.0000 3 1 3 2 4-6

...

The SET command establishes which SOLVE load step group should display. Summation via /CYCEXPAND

is automatic. Plots and printed output show the summation status.

With /CYCEXPAND turned on, the results are expanded at each load step and then combined to plot

the full solution as a complete sum. For example, in a four sector model where the harmonic index

results 0 through 2 are available in the results file, the plot command PLNSOL will display the results

as STEP=1 THRU=3 COMPLETE SUM.

Accumulation occurs at the first applicable PLNSOL or PRNSOL command. After accumulation, the last

load step number of the current group becomes the new current load step number.

The mode-superposition method sums factored mode shapes (obtained from a modal analysis) to cal-

culate the harmonic response. The procedure (in the most general case) consists of these steps:

4. Restart the modal analysis to create the desired load vector from any element loads (for example, pressures)

5. Obtain the mode-superposition harmonic cyclic symmetry solution, including mistuning effects if desired.

The following flowchart illustrates the process involved in a prestressed mode-superposition harmonic

cyclic symmetry analysis. For a non-prestressed solution, you may skip step 2, so that step 3 becomes

a stress-free modal analysis (p. 25).

The first step, building the cyclic model, is described in Cyclic Modeling (p. 5). The remaining steps

are described below.

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Harmonic Cyclic Symmetry Analysis

Figure 4.9: Process Flow for a Prestressed Mode-Superposition Harmonic Cyclic Symmetry Analysis

4.2.2.1. Perform a Static Cyclic Symmetry Analysis to Obtain the Prestressed State

Static Cyclic Symmetry Analysis (p. 43) describes how to obtain the static solution that will compute

the prestressing. In the static analysis:

• You must use the cyclic option (CYCOPT,MSUP,ON) before the first static SOLVE

• If you wish to apply real or imaginary pressure loading in the downstream harmonic solution, you must

define the SURF154 elements at this stage to facilitate the load application. These elements must be defined

before the CYCLIC command is issued.

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Cyclic Symmetry Analyses

This step is outlined in Large-Deflection Prestressed Modal Cyclic Symmetry Analysis (p. 26), and has

the following restrictions and guidelines:

• You must use MXPAND to write the modes to the results file.

• The frequency range on MXPAND is ignored. Specify the frequency range using the MODOPT command

instead.

• Be sure to extract all the modes that may contribute to the harmonic response. As a general guideline,

modes contributing to the harmonic response will fall in the range ½Ω to 2Ω, where Ω is the harmonic fre-

quency (HARFRQ) used in the subsequent harmonic solution. If mistuned, a range of ½Ω to 5Ω is recom-

mended.

An even number of modes (per harmonic index) is always computed. If you specify an odd number of

modes on the MODOPT command, it is increased by 1. Only the base sector solution is stored on the

.MODE and .RST files, so they are significantly smaller than the non-mode-superposition modal files

(CYCOPT,MSUP,OFF).

If you are performing a stress-free modal analysis (p. 25), make sure you use the cyclic option (CY-

COPT,MSUP,ON). You may use ANPRES to animate the pressure loading at the specified engine order

(CYCFREQ,EO).

4.2.2.3. Restart the Modal Analysis to Create the Desired Load Vector from Element

Loads

If you need to apply harmonically varying elements loads (for example, pressures), specify them in the

modal analysis. The program ignores the loads for the modal solution, but calculates a load vector and

writes it to the mode shape file (Jobname.MODE). You can also generate multiple load vectors. The

load vectors created can then be scaled and used in the harmonic solution. For more information, see

Modal Analysis Restart in the Basic Analysis Guide. The following limitations apply:

• You may not introduce additional elements (such as SURF154) to facilitate application of the loads. You

must apply the loads directly to the existing base elements and nodes. Specify any load elements in the

static step (or prior to the modal solution if there is no prestressing step required) before the CYCLIC com-

mand is issued.

• Nodal loads (F) can be applied directly in the harmonic analysis if desired, rather than creating a modal load

vector.

• Specify THEXPAND,OFF to ignore the thermal loads in the load vector generation.

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Harmonic Cyclic Symmetry Analysis

It is possible to skip this step and add the loads directly in the prior modal analysis step. If you choose

to skip this step, only one modal load vector can be generated.

You may use the /MAP processor to map pressure loads from a CFD analysis, and from a CFX Transient

Blade Row analysis in particular, to use in the harmonic analysis. See Unidirectional Pressure Mapping:

CFD to Mechanical APDL in the Coupled-Field Analysis Guide.

In this step, the program uses mode shapes extracted by the modal solution to calculate the harmonic

response. The following requirements apply:

• The database must contain the same model from which the modal solution was obtained.

• The range of modes on the HROPT command is ignored. All the modes from the modal analysis are con-

sidered.

• Tabular loading with respect to frequency is not supported in the cyclic symmetry mode-superposition

harmonic solution. Only tabular loading with respect to location is supported.

• When using the NSUBST command, the NSBMX, NSBMN, and Carry arguments are not supported.

• Apply the required load on the base sector. Only nodal forces and the load vector created in the modal

analysis are valid. Use the LVSCALE command to apply the load vector from the modal solution. Note that

all loads from the modal analysis are scaled, including forces and pressures. To avoid load duplication, delete

any loads that were applied in the modal analysis.

• Specify the engine order of the excitation (CYCFREQ,EO). Typically, the engine order is simply a count of

the number of stators, combustion nozzles, etc., that cause the disturbance. All loads from the modal solution

and nodal loads that are applied during a given load step will be applied as engine order loads. The program

computes the “aliased” engine order (including its sign) internally. An engine order excitation typically occurs

due to circumferential disturbances in the flow field, for instance from upstream stators or vanes.

• Specify the number of harmonic solutions to be calculated (NSUBST). The solutions (or substeps) will be

evenly spaced within the specified frequency range (HARFRQ). For example, if you specify 10 solutions in

the range 30 to 40 Hz, the program will calculate the response at 31, 32, 33, ..., 39, and 40 Hz. No response

is calculated at the lower end of the frequency range.

• Damping in some form should be specified; otherwise, the response will be infinity at the resonant frequencies.

ALPHAD and BETAD result in a frequency-dependent damping ratio, whereas DMPRAT specifies a constant

damping ratio to be used at all frequencies. DMPSTR specifies a constant structural damping coefficient.

MDAMP cannot be used to specify a modal damping ratio. See Damping in the Structural Analysis Guide for

further details.

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Cyclic Symmetry Analyses

• Aerodynamic coupling (aero coupling) may also be specified to include the effects of the fluid media on the

blade vibration (CYCFREQ,AERO)

The modal coordinates (the factors to multiply each mode by) are written to the file Jobname.RFRQ,

and no output controls apply. The modal coordinates can be plotted in POST1 using the PLMC command.

Note

non-cyclic mode-superposition harmonic solution. The solution is expanded automatically

during postprocessing. Therefore, OUTRES has no effect during the solution.

Small mistuning effects (on the order of a few percent) may be included in the analysis by introducing

blade-to-blade variations in the stiffness (frequency) of each blade. Mistuning is based on the Component

Mode Mistuning methodology (see Mistuning in the Mechanical APDL Theory Reference), which requires

the elements making up the blade and the interface nodes between these elements and the rest of the

sector model to be in an element and nodal component (CM) respectively. Use the CYCFREQ,BLADE

command option to provide this information, as well as how many blade modes to include and their

frequency range. For blades with shrouds, the nodes on the shroud boundaries should also be in the

node component (if the shroud interfaces are modeled as stuck).

The mistuning parameters are provided in an array parameter of size N x 1, where N is the number of

blades. Each row represents the deviation in stiffness of each blade n from the nominal value

used in the modal cyclic symmetry analysis. Equivalently, the stiffness deviation may

be expressed in terms of each blade's natural frequency deviation squared, , where is the

nominal (tuned) blade frequency and is the mistuned frequency of blade n.

where denotes the Young's modulus only in the case where there are no prestress effects. In the

presence of prestress, the nominal stiffness is updated, and then mistuning is applied.

You may also mistune each of the individual blade frequencies, in which case the provided array para-

meter would be N x M, where each column is for the M blade frequencies (from the CYCFREQ,BLADE

specification), and each entry corresponds to that blade’s frequency deviation squared,

, where the subscript i refers to the ith frequency of blade n (such that the array

location (n,i) contains this value). Use the CYCFREQ,MIST command to provide this array name.

Note

The first step of the harmonic solution is to internally perform a Linear Perturbation Substruc-

ture analysis (see Second Phase - Substructure Generation Pass in the Structural Analysis

Guide) in order to generate the nominal (tuned) blade frequencies.

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Harmonic Cyclic Symmetry Analysis

Once you have performed a mistuning analysis, you may restart the analysis for a new set of mistuning

parameters using CYCFREQ,RESTART,MIST. The previously generated files Jobname.MODE, Job-

name.FULL, Jobname_blade.*, and Jobname*.MATR must be available. If you are restarting in a

new session, you must set the Jobname to that of the original run. The restart will reuse the previously

generated matrices of the reduced order model to efficiently process the new mistuning values. You

can only change the mistuning parameters when using this type of restart. All other changes, such as

a new force or damping are ignored. This type of restart can only be performed by exiting the current

mistuning solution using FINISH and re-entering the solution phase using /SOLU and then calling the

desired CYCFREQ,RESTART command.

Any postprocessing desired for a given mistuning run must be done before running any subsequent

restart analyses.

It is often useful to compute the modal frequencies once the aerodynamic coupling (CYCFREQ,AERO)

and/or the mistuning effects (CYCFREQ,MIST) are incorporated. The CYCFREQ,MODAL,ON option

computes these and outputs their values to the output file (the harmonic solution is not performed).

Modal frequencies are written to the output file, but no other postprocessing is available for this modal

solve.

If aerodynamic coupling is included, the frequency solution is complex, with the imaginary term being

the frequency (in Hertz) and the real term the stability value. If the stability value is negative (and the

modal damping ratio positive), the frequency is stable (no flutter). If the stability value is positive (and

the modal damping ratio negative), the frequency is unstable (flutter).

Postprocessing a cyclic mode-superposition harmonic analysis is different than postprocessing a cyclic

harmonic analysis without mode-superposition both in the commands used and in what is being per-

formed internally. Instead of doing a solution expansion pass, in a cyclic mode-superposition analysis

the "expansion" of the modal coordinates on the file Jobname.RFRQ to the base sector displacements,

stresses, and strains, and to the full 360° model, occurs during postprocessing. In order to postprocess

a cyclic mode-superposition analysis, the following files are required:

• A modal results file must be available containing the modes that are to be included in the harmonic solve.

If the analysis does not have linear perturbation, the file is Jobname.RST. If the analysis does have linear

perturbation, the file needed is Jobname.RSTP.

Note

Jobname.RST contains the results from the static solution and Jobname.RSTP contains

results from the modal solution. It is important to use the Jobname.RSTP file for post-

processing the harmonic solve when the analysis is linear pertubation cyclic mode-super-

position harmonic analysis.

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Cyclic Symmetry Analyses

Various postprocessing methods exist to query and view the results, depending on your needs. You

can view the results of the expanded model using the /CYCEXPAND feature. You can also pick a node

or element of interest in a given sector, and print or plot the result across all frequencies. Additionally,

you can query the results for a set of nodes across all frequencies and across all sectors to develop a

table of maximum responses. Refer to Input File for the Analysis (p. 68) and Analysis Steps (p. 76) for

an example input showing the postprocessing commands and the postprocessing steps for this type

of analysis.

The various methods to postprocess this type of analysis are discussed in detail below:

4.2.2.7.1. Results Expansion to the Full 360° Model

4.2.2.7.2. Single Result vs. Frequency

4.2.2.7.3. Specialized Results Calculations

In /POST1, specify the modal results file (RST if there is no linear perturbation; RSTP if there is linear

perturbation) and the harmonic modal coordinate file (RFRQ) using the CYCFILES command. You may

then use the SET command to retrieve the harmonic solution of interest, followed by the /CYCEXPAND

command. You may then plot and list the desired displacement, stress, and strain quantities. For more

information, see Postprocessing a Cyclic Symmetry Analysis (p. 18).

Caution

If you do not use the CYCFILES command, you will be postprocessing the modal solution.

• You can perform a phase angle sweep to extract the maximum value (displacement, stress, or strain; com-

ponents or derived) at every node (/CYCEXPAND,,PHASEANG,SWEEP).

• You can extract the amplitude of the response (SRSS of the real or imaginary solution) at every node

(/CYCEXPAND,,PHASEANG,AMPLITUDE).

set to 1 and AVRES,,FULL is not supported.

• For equivalent strain output (EPEL, EQV), you should supply an effective Poisson’s ratio (AVPRIN).

Note

/CYCEXPAND,,PHASEANG,SWEEP and CYCCALC average the nodes first, then do the amplitude

or phase sweep calculations. LCOPER,,,CPXMAX (used for phase sweep of non-cyclic harmonic

solutions) does the phase sweep first, then averages the nodes.

If you computed harmonic solutions at several frequency points, you can also use /POST26 to obtain

graphs of displacement versus frequency, stress versus frequency, and so on for any sector. First, define

the variables in which the result items of interest (displacements, stresses, reaction forces, etc.) are to

be stored (NSOL, ESOL, RFORCE, etc.) on the base sector. Use the RCYC command to compute the

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Harmonic Cyclic Symmetry Analysis

harmonic solution on the sector you select. The files Jobname.RST (or Jobname.RSTP if linear per-

turbation is present) and Jobname.RFRQ must be present.

Note

For ANSOL, RCYC averages the modal stresses first at the requested node then sums the

modes to get the harmonic solution. /CYCEXPAND and CYCCALC sum the modes first then

average. For coarse meshes, this can lead to the solutions not matching.

Finding where a maximum result occurs in the model, and in which sector, at what frequency, and

when during a cycle of motion (phase sweep) is difficult especially when mistuning is considered. You

can extract tables of displacement, stress, and/or strain data for all computed harmonic solutions and

for all sectors using CYCSPEC and CYCCALC. The extracted data can be plotted using PLCFREQ and

PLCHIST.

• The location at which to evaluate the results. This may be a single node or a node component, for example,

containing the blade fillet. For stresses and strains, only corner nodes are processed.

• The result item and component to evaluate, such as the principal stress value S1.

The CYCSPEC command may be repeated to build a table of results for evaluation. For shell and layered

elements, the results are at the SHELL and LAYER location respectively. For EPEL,EQV, the results are

based on the EFFNU value on the AVPRIN command. The controls active when the CYCCALC command

is issued determine the result values. If results at another SHELL/LAYER location are desired, issue the

new SHELL/LAYER command and then reissue the CYCCALC command.

The CYCCALC command evaluates the specifications and returns a table of results for each specification.

The table has rows for each frequency, and columns for each sector. The table entries are the maximum

result in the given set of nodes for each frequency and sector. Three additional columns are provided:

the maximum of all the sectors, at which node it occurs, and in which sector the node resides as shown

below:

Maximum amplitude value UZ for nodes in component BLADENODES RSYS= 0

Max Max Max

Frequency Value Node# Sector# Sector 1 Sector 2 Sector 3

2950.0 0.53347E-06 13204 11 0.48773E-06 0.50390E-06 0.50472E-06

2951.0 0.45341E-06 13204 11 0.41385E-06 0.42812E-06 0.42898E-06

2952.0 0.38796E-06 13204 11 0.35423E-06 0.36670E-06 0.36715E-06

2953.0 0.33509E-06 13204 11 0.30708E-06 0.31775E-06 0.31732E-06

2954.0 0.29342E-06 13204 11 0.27113E-06 0.27998E-06 0.27820E-06

All the specified nodes, items, and components will be evaluated for all sectors and the maximum

amplitude value output. For combined stresses or strains (1, 2, 3, or EQV) or displacement vector sum

(SUM), a 360° phase sweep is performed at each location to determine the maximum.

The individual tables are written to either the output file or to a text file. If outputting to a text file, you

can chose either a formatted file or a comma-separated value (CSV) file for ready processing in a

spreadsheet or statistical program.

The results may be graphed. PLCFREQ plots the requested specification versus frequency, one curve

for each sector as shown in Figure 4.10: CYCSPEC Frequency Response (p. 42).

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Cyclic Symmetry Analyses

PLCHIST plots a histogram of the requested specification at the requested frequency, one bar for each

sector as shown in Figure 4.11: CYCSPEC Histogram Response (p. 43).

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Static Cyclic Symmetry Analysis

The values in the table may also be retrieved using *GET or *VGET (Entity = CYCCALC).

For cyclically symmetric loading, support is available for linear static and large-deflection nonlinear

static solution options. Cyclically symmetric loading implies any load applied on the cyclic sector rep-

resenting a loading pattern that is repetitive at sector angle increments around the 360° structure.

The following flowchart illustrates the process involved in a static (linear or large-deflection) cyclic

symmetry analysis with cyclic loading.

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Cyclic Symmetry Analyses

Figure 4.12: Process Flow for a Static Cyclic Symmetry Analysis (Cyclic Loading)

Only a harmonic index zero solution is valid for a static solution with cyclic loading.

For non-cyclically symmetric loading, the program supports linear static analysis only. The following

flowchart illustrates the process involved in a static cyclic analysis with non-cyclic loading.

Figure 4.13: Process Flow for a Static Cyclic Symmetry Analysis (Non-Cyclic Loading)

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Linear Buckling Cyclic Symmetry Analysis

If cyclic expansion via the /CYCEXPAND command is active, the PLNSOL and PRNSOL commands have

summation of all required harmonic index solutions by default.

In a full harmonic analysis with non-cyclic loading, all applicable harmonic index solutions are computed

and saved in the results file as load step results.

A SET,LIST command lists the range of load step numbers in the group containing each solution. Each

load step post data header contains the first, last, and count of load steps from the given SOLVE com-

mand, as shown:

***** INDEX OF DATA SETS ON RESULTS FILE *****

SET TIME/FREQ LOAD STEP SUBSTEP CUMULATIVE HRM-INDEX GROUP

1 1.0000 1 1 1 0 1-3

2 2.0000 2 1 2 1 1-3

3 3.0000 3 1 3 2 1-3

4 1.0000 1 1 1 0 4-6

5 2.0000 2 1 2 1 4-6

6 3.0000 3 1 3 2 4-6

...

The SET command establishes which SOLVE load step group should display. Summation via /CYCEXPAND

is automatic. Plots and printed output show the summation status.

With /CYCEXPAND turned on, the results are expanded at each load step and then combined to plot

the full solution as a complete sum. For example, in a four sector model where the harmonic index

results 0 through 2 are available in the results file, the plot command PLNSOL will display the results

as STEP=1 THRU=3 COMPLETE SUM.

Accumulation occurs at the first applicable PLNSOL or PRNSOL command. After accumulation, the last

load step number of the current group becomes the new current load step number.

The process for a linear buckling analysis is essentially the same as that for a prestressed modal cyclic

symmetry analysis (p. 25), with the exception that buckling options (ANTYPE,BUCKLE and BUCOPT,LANB)

are necessary to calculate buckling loads and the corresponding buckled mode shapes. The following

flowchart illustrates the process involved in an eigenvalue buckling cyclic symmetry analysis.

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Cyclic Symmetry Analyses

Figure 4.14: Process Flow for a Linear Buckling Cyclic Symmetry Analysis

The linear perturbation procedure is not supported for cyclic symmetry buckling analyses.

A cyclic symmetry solution typically has multiple load step results depending upon the harmonic index

solutions requested. The SET,LIST command lists the harmonic indices solved and the buckling load

multipliers within each harmonic index. Use SET,LIST,,,,,,,ORDER to list the buckling load multipliers in

ascending order.

Use the /CYCEXPAND command to expand the cyclic symmetry results to the full 360° model, see Using

the /CYCEXPAND Command (p. 19).

Most magnetic analysis problems can be defined with flux parallel and/or flux normal boundary condi-

tions. With problems such as electrical machines, however, cyclic boundary conditions best represent

the periodic nature of the structure and excitation, and have the advantage of being able to use a less

computation-intensive partial model, rather than a full model.

You can analyze only one sector of the full model to take advantage of this kind of symmetry. The full

model consists of as many sectors as the number of poles. In Example Magnetic Cyclic Symmetry Ana-

lysis (p. 83), the number of sectors is two; the analysis can be done on a half model.

The cyclic boundary condition is between matching degrees of freedom on corresponding symmetry

faces. The studied sector is bounded by two faces called the low edge and high edge, respectively. In

Figure 5.15: Two-Phase Electric Machine - Half Model (p. 84), the low edge face is the y = 0, x >= 0

plane; the high edge is the y = 0, x <= 0 plane.

The simplest case is when the node-matching interface of the low edge is the same as the high edge.

In this case, for every node, there is one and only one matching node on the high edge; moreover the

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Magnetic Cyclic Symmetry Analysis

pertinent geometry and connectivity are the same. In this case, the cyclic boundary condition for the

edge formulation could be formulated as

The analysis could be carried out on a 360/p sector (where p is the number of poles), in which case the

cyclic condition would be:

In Example Magnetic Cyclic Symmetry Analysis (p. 83), the ODD model is smaller and thus more prac-

tical. For some problems, depending on geometry and excitation, EVEN symmetry may be more practical.

The program supports both ODD and EVEN cyclic symmetry.

In a more general case, the mesh on the low and high end may be different. In this case, more general

cyclic symmetry conditions can be established by interpolation on the pertinent faces. The program

handles this process automatically via the CYCLIC command.

The geometry of the low- and high-end cyclic faces may be more general than a simple plane surface.

Thus, for example, a skewed slot of an electric machine may constitute the cyclic sector modeled.

• Cyclic conditions can be restricted to specific degrees of freedom (DOFs) via the DOF option. DOF re-

strictions may be useful, for example, in cases involving circuit-/voltage-fed solenoidal edge elements

.

• By default, plotting displays the partial solution only. To see the full model solution, issue the /CYCEX-

PAND command. For magnetic cyclic symmetry, the /CYCEXPAND command produces contour plots

but not vector plots.

Figure 4.12: Process Flow for a Static Cyclic Symmetry Analysis (Cyclic Loading) (p. 44) shows the process

for a cyclic symmetry analysis. The process is virtually identical for a magnetic cyclic symmetry analysis;

simply disregard the step for a large-deflection solution.

Magnetic cyclic boundary conditions can be applied to the following element types:

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Chapter 5: Example Cyclic Symmetry Analyses

The following example cyclic symmetry analyses are available:

5.1. Example Modal Cyclic Symmetry Analysis

5.2. Example Buckling Cyclic Symmetry Analysis

5.3. Example Full Harmonic Cyclic Symmetry Analysis

5.4. Example Mode-Superposition Harmonic Cyclic Symmetry Analysis with Mistuning

5.5. Example Magnetic Cyclic Symmetry Analysis

analysis types and recommendations, can be found in Centrifugal Impeller Analysis Using Cyclic Symmetry

and Linear Perturbation in the Technology Demonstration Guide. This case also includes an example of

the Mode-Superposition Harmonic Cyclic Symmetry Analysis (p. 34) usage.

Simple examples of cyclic symmetry analysis can also be found in the Mechanical APDL Verification

Manual:

This example modal cyclic symmetry analysis (p. 23) presents a simplified ring-strut-ring structure used

in many rotating-machinery applications.

5.1.1. Problem Description

5.1.2. Problem Specifications

5.1.3. Input File for the Analysis

5.1.4. Analysis Steps

The component is a simplified fan inlet case for a military aircraft engine. As part of the design process

for the assembly, you must determine the vibration characteristics (natural frequencies and mode

shapes) of the inlet case.

The geometric properties for this analysis are as follows:

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Example Cyclic Symmetry Analyses

Poisson's ratio (υ) = 0.3

Density = 1e-4

All applicable degrees of freedom are used for the cyclic symmetry edge-component pairs. The first six

mode shapes for all applicable harmonic indices are requested.

Use this input file (named cyc_symm.inp) to perform the example modal cyclic symmetry analysis.

The file contains the complete geometry, material properties and solution options for the finite element

model.

! Modal Cyclic Symmetry Analysis Example

! Ring-Strut-Ring Configuration

! STEP #1

! Start an interactive session

! STEP #2

! Read in this input file: cyc_symm.inp

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Example Modal Cyclic Symmetry Analysis

finish

/clear

r1=5

r2=10

d1=2

nsect=24

alpha_deg=360/nsect

alpha_rad=2*acos(-1)/nsect

/view,1,1,1,2

/plopts,minm,0

/plopts,date,0

/pnum,real,1

/number,1

/prep7

csys,1

k,1,0,0,0

k,2,0,0,d1

k,3,r1,0,0

k,4,r1,0,d1

l,3,4

arotat,1,,,,,,1,2,alpha_deg/2

k,7,r2,0,0

k,8,r2,0,d1

l,7,8

arotat,5,,,,,,1,2,alpha_deg/2

arotat,2,,,,,,1,2,alpha_deg/2

arotat,6,,,,,,1,2,alpha_deg/2

a,5,6,10,9

mshkey,1

et,1,181

r,1,0.20

r,2,0.1

mp,ex,1,10e6

mp,prxy,1,0.3

mp,dens,1,1e-4

esize,0.5

asel,,,,1,4

aatt,,1

asel,,,,5

aatt,,2

allsel

finish

/solution

antype,modal

modopt,lanb,6

mxpand,6,,,yes

dk,5,uz,0

finish

aplot

/prep7

/eof

! STEP #3

! Configure the database for a cyclic symmetry analysis

cyclic

! STEP #4

! Mesh the areas

amesh,all

! STEP #5

! Turn on cyclic symmetry graphical expansion

/cycexpand,,on

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Example Cyclic Symmetry Analyses

! STEP #6

! Plot the elements

eplot

! STEP #7

! List the cyclic status

cyclic,status

! STEP #8

! List the cyclic solution option settings

cycopt,status

! STEP #9

! Solve the modal cyclic symmetry analysis

/solution

solve

! STEP #10

! Specify global cylindrical as the results coordinate system

/post1

rsys,1

! STEP #11

! Read results for "load step 1 - substep 4 - harmonic index 0"

set,2,6

! STEP #12

! Plot the tangential displacement contour

plns,u,y

! STEP #13

! Read results for "load step 13 - substep 1 - harmonic index 12"

set,13,1

! STEP #14

! Plot the tangential displacement contour

plns,u,y

! STEP #15

! Read results for "load step 2 - substep 5 - harmonic index 1"

set,2,5

! STEP #16

! Plot the tangential displacement contour

plns,u,y

The following table describes the input listing and the steps involved in the example modal cyclic

symmetry analysis in more detail.

1. Start an interactive session. ---

2. Read the input file: cyc_symm.inp /INPUT,CYC_SYMM.INP

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Example Modal Cyclic Symmetry Analysis

3. Specify a cyclic symmetry analysis and configure the database CYCLIC

accordingly.

4. Mesh the areas. AMESH,ALL

5. Activate cyclic symmetry graphical expansion. /CYCEXPAND,,ON

6. Plot the elements. EPLOT

7. List the cyclic status. CYCLIC,STATUS

8. List the cyclic solution option settings. CYCOPT,STATUS

9. Solve the modal cyclic symmetry analysis. /SOLU

SOLVE

10. Specify the global cylindrical coordinate system. /POST1

RSYS,1

11. Read results for “load step 1 - substep 4 - harmonic index 0.” SET,2,6

12. Plot the tangential displacement contour. PLNSOL,U,Y

Executing this step causes the struts of the assembly to bend “in

phase.”

13. Read results for “load step 13 - substep 1 - harmonic index 12.” SET,13,1

14. Plot the tangential displacement contour. PLNSOL,U,Y

Executing this step causes the struts of the assembly to bend “out

of phase.”

15. Read results for “load step 2 - substep 5 - harmonic index 1.” SET,2,5

16. Plot the tangential displacement contour. PLNSOL,U,Y

----

Your results should match those shown in Figure 5.1: Example

Modal Cyclic Symmetry Analysis Results (p. 54).

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Example Cyclic Symmetry Analyses

Note

Mode shape values may vary slightly depending on your computer system.

To view a traveling wave animation of your model, issue the ANCYC,24,,0.1 command. For more inform-

ation, see Applying a Traveling Wave Animation to the Cyclic Model (p. 29).

This example buckling cyclic symmetry analysis (p. 45) presents a simplified ring-strut-ring structure

used in many rotating-machinery applications.

5.2.1. Problem Description

5.2.2. Problem Specifications

5.2.3. Input File for the Analysis

5.2.4. Analysis Steps

5.2.5. Solve For Critical Strut Temperature at Load Factor = 1.0

The object is a simplified structure that experiences a thermal load emanating outward from the center.

The inner ring is kept at a constant 600° F temperature and the outer ring is kept at a constant 0° F. A

linear eigenvalue buckling analysis determines when the struts will buckle as the temperature in the

struts increases from 100° F to 500° F.

The geometric properties for this analysis are as follows:

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Example Buckling Cyclic Symmetry Analysis

Density = 1e-4

Coefficient of thermal expansion (α) = 5e-5

Young's modulus (E) = 10e6 (at 0° F)

Young's modulus (E) = 4e6 (at 600° F)

The Young's modulus value varies linearly between 0 and 600° F. All applicable degrees of freedom

(DOFs) are used for the cyclic symmetry edge-component pairs. The first six mode shapes for all applicable

harmonic indices are requested.

Use this input file (named buck_cyc_sym.inp) to perform the buckling cyclic symmetry analysis

example. The file contains the complete geometry, material properties and solution options for the finite

element model.

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Example Cyclic Symmetry Analyses

! Ring-Strut-Ring Configuration

! STEP #1

! Start an interactive session

! STEP #2

! Read in the input file: buck_cyc_sym.inp

r1=5

r2=15

d1=4

nsect=6

alpha_deg=360/nsect

alpha_rad=2*acos(-1)/nsect

/view,1,1,1,2

/plopts,minm,0

/plopts,date,0

/pnum,real,1

/number,1

/prep7

csys,1

k,1,0,0,0

k,2,0,0,d1

k,3,r1,0,0

k,4,r1,0,d1

l,3,4

arotat,1,,,,,,1,2,alpha_deg/2

k,7,r2,0,0

k,8,r2,0,d1

l,7,8

arotat,5,,,,,,1,2,alpha_deg/2

arotat,2,,,,,,1,2,alpha_deg/2

arotat,6,,,,,,1,2,alpha_deg/2

a,5,6,10,9

mshkey,1

et,1,181

r,1,0.20

r,2,0.1

mptemp,1,0

mptemp,2,600

mpdata,ex,1,1,10e6

mpdata,ex,1,2,4e6

mp,prxy,1,0.3,0.0

mp,dens,1,1e-4

mp,alpx,1,5e-5

tref,0

esize,1.0

asel,,loc,x,r1

bfa,all,temp,600

asel,a,loc,x,r2

aatt,,1

asel,inve

bfa,all,temp,100

aatt,,2

allsel

amesh,all

lsel,,loc,z,d1/2

lsel,r,loc,y,alpha_deg/2

ksll

nslk

nrotate,all

dk,all,uz,0

dk,all,uy,0

allsel

finish

aplot

/prep7

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Example Buckling Cyclic Symmetry Analysis

/eof

! STEP #3

! Configure the database for a cyclic symmetry analysis

cyclic

! STEP #4

! Turn on cyclic symmetry graphical expansion

/cycexpand,,on

! STEP #5

! Plot the elements

eplot

! STEP #6

! List the cyclic status

cyclic,status

! STEP #7

! List the cyclic solution option settings

cycopt,status

! STEP #8

! Specify static analysis type with prestress effects

/solution

antype,static

pstres,on

! STEP #9

! Solve the prestress static analysis

solve

! STEP #10

! Specify buckling analysis type

finish

/solution

antype,buckle

! STEP #11

! Specify buckling analysis options

bucopt,lanb,3

! STEP #12

! Specify mode expansion options

mxpand,3,,,yes

! STEP #13

! Solve the buckling analysis

solve

! STEP #14

! Read results for the smallest load factor

finish

/post1

set,first,,,,,,,order

! STEP #15

! Plot the buckled mode shape

plnsol,u,sum

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Example Cyclic Symmetry Analyses

The following table describes the input listing and the steps involved in the example buckling cyclic

symmetry analysis in more detail.

1. Start an interactive session. ---

2. Read in the input file: buck_cyc_sym.inp /INPUT,buck_cyc_sym.inp

3. Specify a cyclic symmetry analysis and configure the database CYCLIC

accordingly.

4. Activate cyclic symmetry graphical expansion. /CYCEXPAND,,ON

5. Plot the elements. EPLOT

6. List the cyclic status. CYCLIC,STATUS

7. List the cyclic solution option settings. CYCOPT,STATUS

8. Specify a static analysis type with prestress effects. /SOLU

ANTYPE,STATIC

PSTRES,

ON

9. Solve the prestress static analysis. SOLVE

10. Specify a buckling analysis type. FINISH

/SOLU

ANTYPE,BUCKLE

11. Specify buckling analysis options BUCOPT, LANB, 3

12. Specify mode expansion options. MXPAND, 3, , , YES

13. Solve the buckling analysis. SOLVE

14. Read the results from the smallest load factor. (This should FINISH

correspond to the smallest frequency.) /POST1

SET, FIRST ,

,,,,,,

ORDER

15. Plot the buckled mode shape. PLNSOL, U, SUM

----

analysis. Your results should match those shown in

Figure 5.2: Example Buckling Cyclic Symmetry Analysis

Results (p. 59).

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Example Buckling Cyclic Symmetry Analysis

You can automatically solve for the critical strut temperature by iterating on the variable loads until

the eigenvalue becomes 1.0 (or nearly 1.0 within some tolerance). The iterations ensure that the eigen-

value solution does not factor the stress stiffness matrix from the constant loads. The following flowchart

illustrates the process:

Use the /PREP7 portion of the previous input file (buck_cyc_sym.inp) to construct your model.

After defining the model parameters--but before activating cyclic symmetry--define the arrays and the

programming operations, as follows:

*dim,Tstrut,array,10

*dim,Tfact,array,10

*do,I,1,10

/prep7

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Example Cyclic Symmetry Analyses

*if,I,eq,1,then

Tstrut(I)=100

*else

Tstrut(I)=Tstrut(I-1)*Tfact(I-1)

cyclic,undouble

*endif

asel,,real,,2

bfa,all,temp,Tstrut(I)

allsel

After you have defined the iterative parameters, proceed with the cyclic symmetry portion of the ana-

lysis:

cyclic

/cycexpand,,on

eplot

cyclic,status

cycopt,status

/solution

antype,static

pstres,on

solve

finish

/solution

antype,buckle

bucopt,lanb,3

mxpand,3,,,yes

solve

finish

/post1

set,first,,,,,,,order

plnsol,u,sum

*get,loadmult,active,,set,freq

Tfact(I)=loadmult

*enddo

The program then plots the data to determine the critical strut temperature:

*dim,data,table,10,2

data(0,1)=1

data(0,2)=2

*do,I,1,10

data(I,0)=I

data(I,1)=Tstrut(I)

data(I,2)=Tfact(I)

*enddo

/AXLAB,X,Strut Temperature

/AXLAB,Y,Load Factor

/GROPT,DIVX,5

/GROPT,DIVY,5

/XRANGE,100,200

/YRANGE,0.9,1.4

/GTHK,CURVE,1

/GMARKER,1,3

*VPLOT,data(1,1),data(1,2)

The eigenvalues (frequencies) calculated for the buckling analysis represent the buckling load factors.

The eigenvalues represent load factors for all applied loads.

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Example Full Harmonic Cyclic Symmetry Analysis

1 100.00 1.3039

2 130.39 1.1845

3 154.44 1.0972

4 169.45 1.0461

5 177.27 1.0206

6 180.91 1.0089

7 182.52 1.0038

8 183.21 1.0016

9 183.50 1.0007

10 183.62 1.0003

Figure 5.4: Buckling Cyclic Symmetry Results: Load Factor Results Graph

This section introduces the harmonic cyclic symmetry analysis capability with an example problem. The

example presents a simplified ring-strut-ring structure used in many rotating-machinery applications.

5.3.1. Problem Description

5.3.2. Problem Specifications

5.3.3. Input File for the Analysis

5.3.4. Analysis Steps

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Example Cyclic Symmetry Analyses

The component is a simplified fan inlet case for a military aircraft engine. As part of the design process

for the assembly, the harmonic response characteristics of the inlet case may be investigated, as shown

in this example.

The geometric and material properties used for the harmonic cyclic analysis are the same as used in

Example Modal Cyclic Symmetry Analysis (p. 49).

All applicable degrees of freedom are used for the cyclic symmetry edge-component pairs. The harmonic

response to a pressure load applied on the assembly is computed.

Use the input file given below (named harm_cyc_symm.inp) to perform the example harmonic

cyclic symmetry analysis. The file contains the complete geometry, material properties and solution

options for the finite element model.

! STEP #1

! Start an interactive session

! STEP #2

! Read in this input file: harm_cyc_symm.inp

finish

/clear

r1=5

r2=10

d1=2

nsect=24

alpha_deg=360/nsect

alpha_rad=2*acos(-1)/nsect

/view,1,1,1,2

/plopts,minm,0

/plopts,date,0

/pnum,real,1

/number,1

/prep7

csys,1

k,1,0,0,0

k,2,0,0,d1

k,3,r1,0,0

k,4,r1,0,d1

l,3,4

arotat,1,,,,,,1,2,alpha_deg/2

k,7,r2,0,0

k,8,r2,0,d1

l,7,8

arotat,5,,,,,,1,2,alpha_deg/2

arotat,2,,,,,,1,2,alpha_deg/2

arotat,6,,,,,,1,2,alpha_deg/2

a,5,6,10,9

mshkey,1

et,1,181

r,1,0.20

r,2,0.1

mp,ex,1,10e6

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Example Full Harmonic Cyclic Symmetry Analysis

mp,prxy,1,0.3

mp,dens,1,1e-4

esize,0.5

asel,,,,1,4

aatt,,1

asel,,,,5

aatt,,2

allsel

dk,5,all,0

aplot

/prep7

!/eof

! STEP #3

! Configure the database for a cyclic symmetry analysis

cyclic

! STEP #4

! Mesh the areas

amesh,all

! STEP #5

! Turn on cyclic symmetry graphical expansion

/cycexpand,,on

! STEP #6

! Plot the elements

eplot

! STEP #7

! List the cyclic status

cyclic,status

! STEP #8

! List the cyclic solution option settings

cycopt,status

fini

! STEP #9

! Solve the harmonic cyclic symmetry analysis

/solution

! Specify harmonic analysis option and frequency sweep values

antype,harmic

hropt,full

harfrq,860,878

nsub,9

asel,s,area,,2

asel,a,area,,4

! Loading to be applied on sector number 3

cycopt,ldsect,3

sfa,all,,pres,-124

asel,all

solve

fini

! STEP #10

! Go to database results post processor

/post1

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Example Cyclic Symmetry Analyses

set,list

! STEP #11

! Read results for "substep 3 - excitation freq. of 866 HZ"

set,,3

plns,u,sum,1

fini

! STEP #12

! Go to time/freq. history postprocessor

/post26

! STEP #13

! Store X and Y disp. of node #34 on sector #3"

nsol,2,34,U,x,UX_34,3

nsol,3,34,U,y,UY_34,3

! STEP #14

! Plot UX and UY disp. of node #34 as a function of freq.

plvar,2,3

The following table describes the input listing and the steps involved in the example harmonic cyclic

symmetry analysis in detail.

1. Start an interactive session. ---

2. Read the input file: harm_cyc_symm.inp. /INPUT,HARM,CYC_SYMM.INP

3. Specify a cyclic symmetry analysis and configure CYCLIC

the database accordingly.

4. Mesh the areas. AMESH,ALL

5. Activate cyclic symmetry graphical expansion. /CYCEXPAND,,ON

6. Plot the elements. Figure 5.5: Element Plot EPLOT

Showing Pressure Load on Sector 3 (p. 65)

shows an element plot showing pressure load

on sector 3.

7. List the cyclic status. CYCLIC,STATUS

8. List the cyclic solution option settings. CYCOPT,STATUS

9. Solve the harmonic cyclic symmetry analysis /SOLU

with non-cyclic loading.

SOLVE

CYCOPT,LDSECT

10. Enter database results postprocessor. /POST1

11. Read results for sub step 3 – Frequency = 866. SET,1,3

12. Plot the displacement sum contour. PLNSOL,U,SUM

Figure 5.6: Contour Plot of Displacement Sum

at Frequency of 866 HZ (p. 66) shows a contour

plot of displacement sum at frequency = 866

HZ.

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Example Full Harmonic Cyclic Symmetry Analysis

14. Store nodal data from results file for node 34, NSOL,2,34,u,x,UX_34,3

sector 3.

NSOL,3,34,u,y,UY_34,3

15. Plot frequency versus displacement. Plot at node PLVAR,2,3

34. Figure 5.7: Displacement Plot as a Function

of Excitation Frequency (p. 67) shows the

displacement plot as a function of the excitation

frequency.

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Example Cyclic Symmetry Analyses

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Example Mode-Superposition Harmonic Cyclic Symmetry Analysis with Mistuning

with Mistuning

This example problem details the procedure to perform cyclic mode-superposition harmonic analysis

with mistuning. The example presents a simplified bladed disc model.

5.4.1. Problem Descriptions

5.4.2. Finite Element Model of the Problem

5.4.3. Input File for the Analysis

5.4.4. Analysis Steps

A circular disc with attached blade is modeled and meshed with SOLID185 elements. A temperature-

dependent material model is used for disc and blade elements. The blade and disc are connected by

means of bonded contact using CONTA173 and TARGE170 elements. The disc is constrained along the

inner radius. The model is prestressed with thermal load (BF) and rotational velocity (OMEGA). Mode-

superposition harmonic analysis is then performed on this prestressed model using the linear perturb-

ation procedure with out-of-plane force load acting as the harmonically varying load. The stiffness

mistuning parameters are defined for each blade using CYCFREQ,BLADE. The cyclic mode-superposition

harmonic analysis is restarted to perform the analysis with different mistuning parameters using CYC-

FREQ,RESTART,MIST.

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Example Cyclic Symmetry Analyses

If you remove the mistuning commands (steps 15, 16 and 17) from this example problem you are left

with a standard mode-superposition harmonic cyclic symmetry analysis.

Use the input file given below to perform the example mode-superposition harmonic cyclic symmetry

analysis.

/filnam,example

/prep7

keyopt,1,2,3 ! simplified enhanced strain formulation

type,1

TREF, 75.00000

MPTEMP, 1, 75.00000, 200.00000, ! Temperature-dependent material model

MPDATA, EX, 1, 1,.3364959E+08, .3348502E+08

MPDATA,NUXY, 1, 1,.3000000E+00, .3000000E+00

MPDATA,ALPX, 1, 1,.7391837E-05, .7399809E-05

MPDATA,DENS, 1, 1,.8391600E+00, .8391600E+00

csys,11

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Example Mode-Superposition Harmonic Cyclic Symmetry Analysis with Mistuning

cylind,2,5,0,1,0,60 ! Disc

cylind,5,8,.25,.75,20,40 ! Blade

esize,1

type,1

mat,1

cyclic ! Create cyclic symmetry model (6 sectors)

vmesh,all

allsel,all

et,4,conta173 ! CONTA173

et,5,targe170 ! TARGE170

keyopt,4,12,5 ! Bonded

keyopt,4,5,1 ! Close the gap

keyopt,4,9,1 ! Exclude gap or offset

r,4

type,4

real,4

asel,s,area,,10

nsla,s,1

esurf ! Form contact elements

type,5

real,4

asel,s,area,,3

nsla,s,1

esurf ! Form target elements

allsel,all

vsel,s,volume,,2

eslv,s

esel,r,ename,,185

cm,bladeelem,elem ! Create components with blade elements

allsel,all

cmsel,s,bladeelem,elem

nsle,s

nsel,r,loc,x,5

cm,interface,node ! Create node component to define interface between blade and disc

cmsel,s,bladeelem,elem

nsle,s

nsel,r,loc,z,.75

cm,pressurenodes,node ! Create node component on pressure side

allsel,all

nsel,s,loc,x,2

d,all,all,0 ! Constrain inner radius

allsel,all

/show,png,rev

/view,1,1,1,1

eplot

/show,close

nsel,s,loc,x,8

nsel,r,loc,z,.75

cm,load1,node ! Defining node component for harmonic loading

allsel,all

nrotate,all

finish

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Example Cyclic Symmetry Analyses

/solu

antype,static

rescontrol,define,all,1 ! Write restart files for all load steps and substeps

nlgeom,on

autots,on

nsubs,10,100,1

time,1.0

*get,nnodes,node,0,count

nd=0

*do,i,1,nnodes ! Define a radially-varying temperature profile

nd=ndnext(nd) ! Next selected node having node number greater than 0

tt=100-(100-75)*(8-nx(nd))/(8-2)

bf,nd,temp,tt ! Apply thermal pre-stress load

*enddo

allsel,all

cycopt,msup,1 ! Needed to perform subsequent MSUP analysis

solve ! 1st load step

time,2.0

omega,0,0,3000*2*3.14159265/60 ! Rotational velocity (3000 RPM)

solve ! 2nd load step

finish

/post1

set,last

/cycexpand,,on

/show,png,rev

/view,1,1,1,1

plnsol,u,sum ! Plotting USUM from static solve

plnsol,s,eqv ! Plotting SEQV from static solve

/show,close

finish

/solu

antype,,restart,,,perturb ! Restart from last load step and last substep

perturb,modal,,,parkeep ! Perform LP modal solve, delete all loads except displacement constraints

solve,elform

omega,0,0,0

bfdele,all,all

modopt,lanb,1000,0,500 ! Extract modes from 0-500

mxpand,,,,yes

solve ! Perform LP modal solve

finish

/solu

antype,modal,restart ! Restarting the modal solve

f,load1,fz,-10e3 ! Harmonic force load

solve

finish

/post1

file,,rstp

set,list,,,,,,,order ! Modal frequencies

/show,png,rev

/yrange,0,200

plzz ! Plot cyclic modal frequencies vs Harmonic Indices

/show,close

/yrange,default

finish

/solu

antype,harmonic ! Perform harmonic analysis

hropt,msup,,,yes ! MSUP harmonic, write modal coordinates to MCF file

outres,all,all

harfrq,65,85 ! Excitation frequency range

nsubs,20

cycfreq,eo,1 ! Engine order of excitation = 1

fdele,load1,fz

lvscale,1.0,1.0 ! Scaling the load from modal solve

dmpstr,0.25 ! Structural damping

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Example Mode-Superposition Harmonic Cyclic Symmetry Analysis with Mistuning

kbc,1

*dim,kmist,array,6,1

kmist(1,1)=0.02,-0.015,0.03,-0.022,0.013,0.01 ! Mistuning parameters for each blade

cycfreq,blade,interface,bladeelem,20 ! Defining blade element component and interface nodes

cycfreq,mist,k,kmist ! Stiffness mistunning

solve

finish

/post1

cycfiles,,rstp,,

rsys,solu

/show,png,rev

plmc,1,10 ! Plot modal coordinates from MSUP for SET,1,10 (real)

plmc,1,10,,1 ! Plot modal coordinates from MSUP for SET,1,10 (Imaginary)

plmc,1,10,,,1,1 ! Plot modal coordinates from MSUP for SET,1,10 (real) for HI=1

plmc,1,10,,1,1,1 ! Plot modal coordinates from MSUP for SET,1,10 (Imaginary) for HI=1

/show,close

esel,s,ename,,185

nsle,s,1

avprin,,0.33

/cycexpand,,on

/show,png,rev

/view,1,1,1,1,

plnsol,u,x

*get,uxmaxr,plnsol,0,max

plnsol,u,y

*get,uymaxr,plnsol,0,max

plnsol,u,z

*get,uzmaxr,plnsol,0,max

plnsol,s,eqv

*get,seqvmaxr,plnsol,0,max

plnsol,epel,eqv

*get,epeleqvmaxr,plnsol,0,max

plnsol,u,x

*get,uxmaxi,plnsol,0,max

plnsol,u,y

*get,uymaxi,plnsol,0,max

plnsol,u,z

*get,uzmaxi,plnsol,0,max

plnsol,s,eqv

*get,seqvmaxi,plnsol,0,max

plnsol,epel,eqv

*get,epeleqvmaxi,plnsol,0,max

set,1,10

/cycexpand,,phaseang,360 ! Amplitude

plnsol,u,z

*get,uzmaxa,plnsol,0,max

plnsol,s,x

*get,sxmaxa,plnsol,0,max

plnsol,epel,x

*get,epelxmaxa,plnsol,0,max

plnsol,s,eqv

*get,seqvmaxs,plnsol,0,max

plnsol,epel,eqv

*get,epeleqvmaxs,plnsol,0,max

allsel,all

/show,close

/cycexpand,,default

finish

/post26

file,,rstp

numvar,30

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Example Cyclic Symmetry Analyses

nsol,2,64,u,z,uz1 ! UZ at node 64

rcyc,5,2,1,uzsector1

rcyc,6,2,2,uzsector2

rcyc,7,2,3,uzsector3

rcyc,8,2,4,uzsector4

rcyc,9,2,5,uzsector5

rcyc,10,2,6,uzsector6

ansol,3,52,s,x,sx1 ! SX at node 52

rcyc,11,3,1,sxsector1

rcyc,12,3,2,sxsector2

rcyc,13,3,3,sxsector3

rcyc,14,3,4,sxsector4

rcyc,15,3,5,sxsector5

rcyc,16,3,6,sxsector6

rcyc,17,4,1,epelxsector1

rcyc,18,4,2,epelxsector2

rcyc,19,4,3,epelxsector3

rcyc,20,4,4,epelxsector4

rcyc,21,4,5,epelxsector5

rcyc,22,4,6,epelxsector6

/show,png,rev

plvar,5,6,7,8,9,10

plvar,11,12,13,14,15,16

plvar,17,18,19,20,21,22

/show,close

finish

/post1

cycfiles,,rstp

set

cycspec,,64,u,z ! UZ at node 64

cycspec,,52,s,x ! SX at node 52

cycspec,,64,epel,3 ! EPEL3 at node 64

cycspec,,pressurenodes,s,1 ! max S1 in pressurenodes

cycspec,,64,epel,x ! EPELX at node 64

cycspec,,52,s,eqv ! SEQV at node 52

cycspec,,64,epel,eqv ! EPELEQV at node 64

cycspec,,64,u,sum ! USUM at node 64

cycspec,list

! specifications defined by CYCSPEC command

/com, Plot the frequeny response for the CYCSPEC specifications for all sectors

/show,png,rev

plcfreq,1

plcfreq,2

plcfreq,3

plcfreq,4

plcfreq,5

plcfreq,6

plcfreq,7

plcfreq,8

/com, Plot the histogram of frequency response for each sector for given CYCSPEC specification

plchist,1,10

plchist,2,10

plchist,3,10

plchist,4,10

plchist,5,10

plchist,6,10

plchist,7,10

plchist,8,10

/show,close

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Example Mode-Superposition Harmonic Cyclic Symmetry Analysis with Mistuning

*get,s1_node,cyccalc,4,freq,10,secnode ! Retrieve the node number at which maximum S1 CYCCALC result occur for

*get,s1_sector,cyccalc,4,freq,10,secnum ! Retrieve the sector number at which maximum S3 CYCCALC result occur fo

*stat,uz_10

*stat,sx_10

*stat,epel3_10

*stat,s1_10

*stat,s1_node

*stat,s1_sector

*stat,epelx_10

*stat,seqv_10

*stat,epeleqv_10

finish

/com, --------------------------------------

/com, Restarting the cyclic MSUP harmonic

/com, analysis with different mistuning

/com, values

/com, --------------------------------------

/out,scratch

/solu

cycfreq,restart,mist

*dim,kmist,array,6,1

kmist(1,1)=0.025,-0.015,0.025,-0.022,0.014,0.02 ! Mistuning parameters for each blade

solve

save

finish

/post1

cycfiles,,rstp,,

rsys,solu

esel,s,ename,,185

nsle,s,1

avprin,,0.33

/cycexpand,,on

/show,png,rev

/view,1,1,1,1,

plnsol,u,x

*get,uxmaxr,plnsol,0,max

plnsol,u,y

*get,uymaxr,plnsol,0,max

plnsol,u,z

*get,uzmaxr,plnsol,0,max

plnsol,s,eqv

*get,seqvmaxr,plnsol,0,max

plnsol,epel,eqv

*get,epeleqvmaxr,plnsol,0,max

plnsol,u,x

*get,uxmaxi,plnsol,0,max

plnsol,u,y

*get,uymaxi,plnsol,0,max

plnsol,u,z

*get,uzmaxi,plnsol,0,max

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Example Cyclic Symmetry Analyses

plnsol,s,eqv

*get,seqvmaxi,plnsol,0,max

plnsol,epel,eqv

*get,epeleqvmaxi,plnsol,0,max

set,1,10

/cycexpand,,phaseang,360 ! Amplitude

plnsol,u,z

*get,uzmaxa,plnsol,0,max

plnsol,s,x

*get,sxmaxa,plnsol,0,max

plnsol,epel,x

*get,epelxmaxa,plnsol,0,max

plnsol,s,eqv

*get,seqvmaxs,plnsol,0,max

plnsol,epel,eqv

*get,epeleqvmaxs,plnsol,0,max

allsel,all

/show,close

/out,

/com, *****************************

/com, Real Solution

/com,

/com, From FULL 360 degree model

/com,

/com, UX = 0.030986

/com, UZ = 0.421651

/com, SEQV = 590406

/com, EPELEQV = 0.01715

/com, *****************************

qacomp,'uxmaxr',0.030986,2

qacomp,'uzmaxr',0.421652,5

qacomp,'seqvmaxr',590406,2

qacomp,'epeleqvmaxr',0.01715,2

/com, *****************************

/com, Imaginary Solution

/com,

/com, From FULL 360 degree model

/com,

/com, UX = 0.031084

/com, UY = 0.012545

/com, UZ = 0.434993

/com, SEQV = 627737

/com, EPELEQV = 0.018234

/com, *****************************

qacomp,'uxmaxi',0.031084,2

qacomp,'uymaxi',0.012545,2

qacomp,'uzmaxi',0.434993,2

qacomp,'seqvmaxi',627737,2

qacomp,'epeleqvmaxi',0.018234,2

/com, *****************************

/com, Amplitude Solution

/com,

/com, From FULL 360 degree model

/com,

/com, UZ = 0.470124

/com, SX = 577714

/com, EPELX = 0.016764

/com, *****************************

qacomp,'uzmaxa',0.470124,2

qacomp,'sxmaxa',577714,2

qacomp,'epelxmaxa',0.016764,2

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Example Mode-Superposition Harmonic Cyclic Symmetry Analysis with Mistuning

/com, *****************************

/com, Phaseangle solution

/com,

/com, From FULL 360 degree model

/com,

/com, SEQV = 630383

/com, EPELEQV = 0.018311

/com, *****************************

qacomp,'seqvmaxs',630383,2

qacomp,'epeleqvmaxs',0.018311,2

/cycexpand,,default

finish

/post26

file,,rstp

numvar,30

nsol,2,64,u,z,uz1 ! UZ at node 64

rcyc,5,2,1,uzsector1

rcyc,6,2,2,uzsector2

rcyc,7,2,3,uzsector3

rcyc,8,2,4,uzsector4

rcyc,9,2,5,uzsector5

rcyc,10,2,6,uzsector6

ansol,3,52,s,x,sx1 ! SX at node 52

rcyc,11,3,1,sxsector1

rcyc,12,3,2,sxsector2

rcyc,13,3,3,sxsector3

rcyc,14,3,4,sxsector4

rcyc,15,3,5,sxsector5

rcyc,16,3,6,sxsector6

rcyc,17,4,1,epelxsector1

rcyc,18,4,2,epelxsector2

rcyc,19,4,3,epelxsector3

rcyc,20,4,4,epelxsector4

rcyc,21,4,5,epelxsector5

rcyc,22,4,6,epelxsector6

/show,png,rev

plvar,5,6,7,8,9,10

plvar,11,12,13,14,15,16

plvar,17,18,19,20,21,22

/show,close

finish

/post1

cycfiles,,rstp

set

cycspec,,64,u,z ! UZ at node 64

cycspec,,52,s,x ! SX at node 52

cycspec,,64,epel,3 ! EPEL3 at node 64

cycspec,,pressurenodes,s,1 ! max S1 in pressurenodes

cycspec,,64,epel,x ! EPELX at node 64

cycspec,,52,s,eqv ! SEQV at node 52

cycspec,,64,epel,eqv ! EPELEQV at node 64

cycspec,,64,u,sum ! USUM at node 64

cycspec,list

! specifications defined by CYCSPEC command

/com, Plot the frequeny response for the CYCSPEC specifications for all sectors

/show,png,rev

plcfreq,1

plcfreq,2

plcfreq,3

plcfreq,4

plcfreq,5

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Example Cyclic Symmetry Analyses

plcfreq,6

plcfreq,7

plcfreq,8

/com, Plot the histogram of frequency response for each sector for given CYCSPEC specification

plchist,1,10

plchist,2,10

plchist,3,10

plchist,4,10

plchist,5,10

plchist,6,10

plchist,7,10

plchist,8,10

/show,close

*get,s1_node,cyccalc,4,freq,10,secnode ! Retrieve the node number at which maximum S1 CYCCALC result occur for

*get,s1_sector,cyccalc,4,freq,10,secnum ! Retrieve the sector number at which maximum S3 CYCCALC result occur fo

/out,

*stat,uz_10

*stat,sx_10

*stat,epel3_10

*stat,s1_10

*stat,s1_node

*stat,s1_sector

*stat,epelx_10

*stat,seqv_10

*stat,epeleqv_10

finish

The following table describes the input lines and the steps involved in the example mode-superposition

harmonic cyclic symmetry analysis in detail.

1. Build cyclic symmetry disc-blade model with temperature CYCLIC

dependent material properties assigned to both the disc and blade

MP

2. Mesh the volumes VMESH

3. Define bonded contact between disc and blade using CONTA173 ET

and TARGE170 elements

ESURF

4. Create components for blade elements and interface nodes betweenCM

blade and disc

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Example Mode-Superposition Harmonic Cyclic Symmetry Analysis with Mistuning

5. Define boundary conditions to constrain the inner radius of the D

disc

6. Perform non-linear static solve with thermal load and rotational NLGEOM

st

velocity loading. Specify CYCOPT,MSUP,1 before the 1 static solve

to generate files needed to perform downstream CYCOPT

mode-superposition analysis

BF

OMEGA

7. Restart the non-linear static analysis to perform linear perturbation ANTYPE,,RESTART

modal analysis

PERTURB

8. Perform modal solve using Block-Lanczos eigensolver MODOPT,LANB

SOLVE

9. Restart modal analysis to define load vectors to be used in the ANTYPE,MODAL,RESTART

downstream harmonic analysis

F

10. Postprocess modal frequencies and plot the cyclic modal /POST1

frequencies versus harmonic indices

SET,LIST

PLZZ

11. Perform mode-superposition harmonic analysis for an excitation ANTYPE,HARMONIC

frequency range of 65 Hz - 85 Hz; request 20 harmonic solutions

be calculated HROPT,MSUP

HARFRQ

NSUBST

12. Specify the engine order of excitation CYCFREQ,EO,1

13. Scale the load vector from the modal solve LVSCALE

14. Define structural damping DMPSTR

15. Define the array to specify mistuning paramaters *DIM

16. Define blade information required for mistuning analysis CYCFREQ,BLADE

17. Define mistuning parameters CYCFREQ,MIST

18. Perform mode-superposition harmonic solve SOLVE

19. Specify the files to postprocess the cyclic symmetry CYCFILES

mode-superposition harmonic analysis

20. Postprocess real set, imaginary set, amplitude, and phase sweep SET

solution

/CYCEXPAND

21. Enter time history postprocessing to calculate cyclic /POST26

mode-superposition harmonic result for a specified node/element

and sectors. NSOL

ANSOL

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Example Cyclic Symmetry Analyses

RCYC

22. Enter general postprocessing to calculate sector results /POST1

CYCSPEC

CYCCALC

23. Plot the frequency response for the CYCSPEC specifications PLCFREQ

PLCHIST

24. Repeat steps 17-23 with new mistuning values by restarting the CYCFREQ,RESTART,MIST

cyclic mode-superposition harmonic analysis

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Example Mode-Superposition Harmonic Cyclic Symmetry Analysis with Mistuning

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Example Cyclic Symmetry Analyses

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Example Mode-Superposition Harmonic Cyclic Symmetry Analysis with Mistuning

Figure 5.11: CYCSPEC Histogram Response for Displacement Sum at Node 64 at Frequency 75 Hz

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Example Cyclic Symmetry Analyses

Figure 5.12: CYCSPEC Frequency Response for Displacement Sum at Node 64 After Restarting the

Cyclic Mode-Superposition Harmonic Analysis with Different Mistuning Parameters

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Example Magnetic Cyclic Symmetry Analysis

Figure 5.13: CYCSPEC Histogram Response for Displacement Sum at Node 64 at Frequency 75 Hz

After Restarting the Cyclic Mode-Superposition Harmonic Analysis with Different Mistuning

Parameters

This magnetic cyclic symmetry analysis (p. 46) uses a model of a simplified electrical machine where

the model size can be reduced via cyclic boundary conditions.

5.5.1. Problem Description

5.5.2. Problem Specifications

5.5.3. Input file for the Analysis

Figure 5.14: Two-Phase Electric Machine - Full Model (p. 84) shows a typical example, the full model of

a 2-phase electrical machine.

In the full model, flux parallel boundary conditions can be formulated at the outer surface of the stator

frame. If only phase A were excited, the magnetic flux would point in the y direction at x=0 plane; flux

parallel condition could be formulated at the x=0 plane, allowing an analysis on a half model in the

x>=0 space. Similarly, if only phase B were excited, the magnetic flux would have only x component

on the y=0 plane; again, flux parallel could be applied to a half model in the y>=0 plane.

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Example Cyclic Symmetry Analyses

Typically, however, both coils are excited, and no flux parallel conditions could be formulated over the

x=0 or y=0 planes. However, due to the cyclic nature of the field, the field pattern repeats itself after

180 degrees. In particular, on the y=0 plane:

By(x) = By(-x)

A similar pattern can be observed in Figure 5.15: Two-Phase Electric Machine - Half Model (p. 84), where

the flux lines (equi vector potential lines) are plotted:

Az(x) = - Az(-x)

In this example, the field has a two pole pattern. In general, there are 2p poles; the repetition would

take place after 180/p degrees.

y Coil phase B+

Rotor

Flux tangential BC

+ x

B

+ +

B

+ +

Coil phase A+

Air gap

Coil phase B-

y

Flux tangential BC

+

x

Periodic BC

The material properties for this analysis are as follows:

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Example Magnetic Cyclic Symmetry Analysis

Use this input file to perform the example magnetic cyclic symmetry analysis. This file contains the

complete geometry, material properties, and solution options for the finite element model. Magnetic

cyclic symmetry commands of particular interest are preceded by the comment:

!!! Apply Cylic

/title,Cyclic Symmetry Model for EMAG Analysis (Dual Coils with Iron Yoke)

/com

/com ***** Quarter Symmetry Model Expanded to Half Then to Full *****

/com

/com

/com

/nopr

/out,scratch

_geomgen=1

p=1 ! Use for number of quarter sectors

! (i.e. 1 = 1 90deg sector, 2 = 2 sectors in 90deg)

alpha=22.5/p ! angle up to the end of first coil

beta=alpha+(45/p) ! angle from coil1 to coil2

gamma=beta+(22.5/p) ! angle from beginning of coil2 to end of sector

r1=3

r2=4.5

r3=5

r4=7

r5=11

ncoil=(4*p)

i1=1

i2=2

*dim,alpha1,,ncoil

*dim,alpha2,,ncoil

*dim,current,,ncoil

*dim,coilname,string,ncoil

coilname(1) = 'coil1'

coilname(2) = 'coil2'

coilname(3) = 'coil3'

coilname(4) = 'coil4'

*do,i,1,ncoil

alpha2(i) = alpha + (i-1)*(90/p)

*enddo

ii=0

*do,i,1,p

ii = ii + 1

current(ii) = i2

ii = ii + 1

current(ii) = i1

ii = ii + 1

current(ii) = -i2

ii = ii + 1

current(ii) = -i1

*enddo

/prep7

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Example Cyclic Symmetry Analyses

PCIRC,r1, ,0,alpha,

PCIRC,r1, ,0,beta

PCIRC,r1, ,0,gamma

PCIRC,r2, ,0,alpha

PCIRC,r2, ,0,beta

PCIRC,r2, ,0,gamma

PCIRC,r3, ,0,alpha

PCIRC,r3, ,0,beta

PCIRC,r3, ,0,gamma

PCIRC,r4, ,0,alpha

PCIRC,r4, ,0,beta

PCIRC,r4, ,0,gamma

PCIRC,r5, ,0,alpha

PCIRC,r5, ,0,beta

PCIRC,r5, ,0,gamma

AOVLAP,ALL

! IRON

MP,MURX,1,1000

MP,RSVX,1,9.579E-8

! AL

MP,MURX,2,1

MP,RSVX,2,2.65E-8

! Copper

MP,MURX,3,1

MP,RSVX,3,1.74E-8

! Air

MP,MURX,4,1

MP,RSVX,4,0

! Iron Core

CSYS,1 ! Enter Cylindrical Mode

ASEL,S,LOC,X,0,r1

CM,Inner_Iron,AREA

AATT,1,,1,

! Al Core

ASEL,S,LOC,X,r1,r2

CM,Outer_AL,AREA

AATT,2,,1,

! Air Gap

ASEL,S,LOC,X,r2,r3

CM,AIR,AREA

AATT,4,,1

! Coil 1

ASEL,S,LOC,X,r3,r4

ASEL,R,LOC,Y,0,alpha

CM,COIL1,AREA

AATT,3,,1

! Coil 2

ASEL,S,LOC,X,r3,r4

ASEL,R,LOC,Y,beta,gamma

CM,COIL2,AREA

AATT,3,,1

! Iron Yoke

ASEL,S,LOC,X,r3,r4

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Example Magnetic Cyclic Symmetry Analysis

ASEL,R,LOC,Y,alpha,beta

ASEL,A,LOC,X,r4,r5

CM,YOKE,AREA

AATT,1,,1

ALLSEL

CSYS,0 ! Enter Cartesian Mode

MSHKEY,1

CSYS,1

LSEL,S,LOC,Y,0

LSEL,A,LOC,Y,gamma

LESIZE,ALL,,,6,,1,,,1,

CMSEL,S,Inner_Iron

AMESH,ALL

CMSEL,S,Outer_AL

AMESH,ALL

CMSEL,S,Air

AMESH,ALL

CMSEL,S,Coil1

AMESH,ALL

CMSEL,S,Coil2

AMESH,ALL

CMSEL,S,Yoke

AMESH,ALL

ALLSEL

CSYS,0

!! Create HALF model from QUARTER model

arsym,x,all

/prep7

save,magtest,db ! save half model for cyclic

nummrg,all

csys,1

nsel,s,loc,x,r5

CM,extnode,NODE

*do,i,1,ncoil

asel,s,loc,x,r3,r4

asel,r,loc,y,alpha1(i),alpha2(i)

esla,s

cm,coilname(i),element

bfe,all,js,,,,current(i)

*enddo

csys,0

allsel

cmsel,s,extnode

d,all,az,0

d,all,temp,25

allsel

FINISH

/solu

/out,scratch

antype,static

allsel

solve

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Example Cyclic Symmetry Analyses

FINISH

/post1

plvect,b,,,,VECT,ELEM,ON,0

FINISH

parsav,all

/clear,nostart

resume,magtest,db ! Resume half Model

parres,new

!! Delete Bottom half of model and all loading attatched to bottom nodes

/prep7

allsel

nummrg,all

csys,1

nsel,s,loc,x,r5

D,all,az,0 ! AZ = 0 on outside nodes of arc

D,all,temp,25

! Coil 1

ASEL,S,LOC,X,r3,r4

ASEL,R,LOC,Y,0,alpha

esla,s

CM,COIL1,ELEMENT

! Coil 2

ASEL,S,LOC,X,r3,r4

ASEL,R,LOC,Y,beta,(180-beta)

esla,s

CM,COIL2,ELEMENT

! Coil 3

ASEL,S,LOC,X,r3,r4

ASEL,R,LOC,Y,(180-alpha),180

esla,s

CM,COIL3,ELEMENT

cmsel,s,COIL1

bfe,all,js,,,,i2

cmsel,s,COIL2

bfe,all,js,,,,i1

cmsel,s,COIL3

bfe,all,js,,,,(-i2)

allsel

csys,0

cyclic,2

/solution

solve

FINISH

/post1

/out

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Example Magnetic Cyclic Symmetry Analysis

/vscale,1,1,1

plvect,b,,,,VECT,ELEM,ON,0 ! See figure for B field plot.

plf2d

FINISH

Figure 5.16: Vector Plot of Cyclic Flux Density (B) - Half Model

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of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 89

Release 17.0 - © SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information

90 of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.