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Jeddah

12th April 2011

Treated/tertiary Sewage Effluent (TSE)


for the District Cooling Industry
Facts, Challenges & Opportunities

Gerhard Bingel
Sr. Industry Development Manager MENA 1
Treated Sewage Effluent (TSE) 
Challenges and Opportunities in DC

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NALCO ‐ Global Presence
Solving Customer Problems On‐Site worldwide
North America Europe, Africa & Middle East Plant
Employees 4,790 Employees 3,015 Countries of
Plants 18 Plants 11 Operation

Asia/Pacific
Employees 2,285
Plants 13

Latin America
2008 Sales $411mm
Employees 1,680
Plants 6
70,000+ Customers
7,000+ Sales and Service Professionals

1928: 2008: 2009:


1966: 1999:
National Aluminate 3D TRASAR® technology wins U.S. Nalco joins UN Global
Nalco annual sales Suez acquires Nalco
Corporation founded Presidential Green Chemistry Award Compact and CEO
top $100 million
Water Mandate
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NALCO - a Service Company
Listening
Listening to
to our
our Customer’s
Customer’s needs
needs

Essential Expertise for Water, Energy and Air


•Water scarcity (recycling & reuse)
•Water quality (pretreatment)
•Energy efficiency (heat transfer)
•Water discharge (wastewater treatment)

Essential
Expertise •Improve oil reservoir use efficiency
for Water, •Produce in extreme environments
Energy •Treat “opportunity” crudes
and Air •Clean production water

•Remove sulphur and nitrogen oxides, mercury,


particulates
•Improve combustion efficiency
•Reduce Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions

Nalco, the logo, tagline, and 3D TRASAR are trademarks of Nalco Company. 4
©Nalco Company 2011
Innovation
Nalco Research and Development
Discovering new ways to treat the water used in
industrial processes which contribute to the
sustainable development of customer operations:
•Chemical solutions
•Non-chemical solutions
•Technology design
Nalco has over 500 research staff & spends over €100M
a year on R&D, resulting in more then 2000 patents

Nalco Customer
R&D Capabilities Sustainability
• Process Knowledge • Process optimization
• Chemical Products
• Energy reduction
• Equipment
• Water use optimization
• Analytical Services
• Reduction of emissions
• Automation

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Nalco’s Mission & Vision Statement

We Focus on Solutions Which Deliver Sustainability


Our Mission is to lead the industry in creating value for customers and Nalco through
differentiated services and technologies that save water and energy, enhance production
and improve air quality while reducing total costs of operation.

Our Vision is to earn customers for life & enhance the lives of our employees while protecting
the planet.

Nalco Holding Company is a member


of the Dow Jones Sustainability World Index

Nalco, the logo, tagline, and 3D TRASAR are trademarks of Nalco Company. 6
©Nalco Company 2011
What We Deliver to Our Customers We
We believe
believe in
in closing
closing the
the loop
loop

• Performance
– We optimize critical systems and
processes to minimize resource
consumption, emissions & waste
• Peace of Mind
– We quantify our Customers’ environmental
improvements and economic payback
• Measurable Results
– We communicate our results using a
measurement system called Environmental
Return on Investment (eROI)
Enhanced Asset Reliability
Competitive
Advantage
Decreased
ROI Total Cost
Of Operation
Minimized
Environmental Improved
Impact Operating
Health & Safety What Customers Receive
Concerns Efficiencies

Nalco, the logo, tagline, and 3D TRASAR are trademarks of Nalco Company. 7
©Nalco Company 2011
GCC  District Cooling  ‐ The Success Story

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District Cooling  ‐ Water Demand
The Industry Trend goes to Alternative Water sources
- away from Domestic water usage:
• TSE – Treated Sewage Effluent
• Sea Water Cooling
• Blow-down Recovery
• Zero Liquid Discharge

Calculations basis:
•5.5 m3/1000 TR.hr
•40% average load

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TSE production in GCC

People need comfort cooling and domestic water – and produce Waste water

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TSE as Makeup in DC – The PRO & CONs

Advantages Disadvantages
• Co$t reduction • Water chemistry/quality
– Municipal compared to direct  – Corrosive
TSE gives a factor 5‐6 in cost  – Formation deposits
reduction – Microbiology
– Polished TSE around 1,5‐2 • Fluctuations in Quality
• Availability • Acceptance
– Domestic demand too high
• System Adaptation 
• Sustainability issue
requirements
• Allows water cooling in 
regions of water scarcity • TSE supply issue
>> higher energy efficiency • CAPEX Investment
• Legislation compliance for Polishing option

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Treated Sewage Effluent as Makeup in DC

2 Ways how to utilize TSE as makeup

Direct TSE ‐> cost 18‐30% of DEWA Polished TSE ‐>  cost 50% of 
DEWA
• No CAPEX needed
• CAPEX approx. 7 AED/m3
• No equipment foot print 
and operation needed • WT plant & maintenance 
• COC 3‐5 – medium water needed
• Higher Chemical cost and  • COC 8‐10 – low water 
Automation needed but concentrate 
• Possible discharge issue  discharge
of CT blow down • Low chemical cost but 
• Potential microbio issue  corrosion inhib. needed
when un‐treated • Possible discharge issue 
– as concentrate needs 
to be discharged as well
• UF – RO best practice 12
Facts About use of TSE as Make Up Water

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Issues using TSE  in Cooling Systems

Mechanical

SScc
sio

aall
rro

ee
Co

BioFouling
BioFouling Operational

Chemical

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Typical TSE Quality

Dubai Saudi/Qatar Discharg


2007 ‐ 2010 TSE e Limits
pH 7.2 – 7.6 7.0‐7,8 6 – 9
Conductivity µS/cm 1500 ‐ 2000 700‐1700 4000
Total Dissolved Solids 1000 ‐ 1500 400‐1200 1750
Total Hardness 150 – 200 100‐300 n/a
Chlorides (Cl¯) 250 – 360  100‐400 n/a
M‐Alkalinity  190 – 220 50‐250 n/a
Sodium (Na) 180 – 250

Sulfates (SO4) 100 – 140 60‐200 400


Phosphate (PO4) 7– 17 0,5‐20 30
Ammonium 14 – 30 0,5‐28 20
Total suspended Solids < 5 3‐6 10
Chemical Oxygen Demand < 50 20‐40 150
Biological Oxygen Demand < 10 <5 10

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TSE Challenges
• Corrosion Æ High concentration agressive anions like 
Chlorides, Sulphates and Ammonia
– Online corrosion monitoring and control of a combination of 
patented inhibitors and copper protection with Trasar®
– Ammonia elimination
>>>  CHILLER Manufacturers limits need to be adopted!!

• Deposits Æ High concentration of Phosphate + Hardness
– Online deposit/scale tendency monitoring and patented 
dispersant for calcium‐phosphate precipitates

• Microbiology Æ Health Issues and Slime formation
– Bioactivity monitoring and Biocontrol program
– TSE Storage tank preservation
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How to meet the Discharge Limits

At Cycles = 3, Dilution water = 50 to 100% of System Blow Down
!
If Dilution is made by fresh Water, TSE will save ~70% of Fresh Water …

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Direct TSE vs. Polished TSE – The FINANCIALS
• DC system 10.000 TR – 6800m3/h RR, 61,8 m3/h evaporation
DEWA @ 6 COC
Treatment cost 311.770
Water consumption m3 649.116 A  cost factor of 3‐5 for
Cost per M3 8,8 DEWA ‐ direct TSE
Total water cost 5.712.220
TCO 6.023.992
TSE POLISHED @ 10 COC
Treatment cost 183.139
Water consumption m3 601.023
Cost per M3 4 *not incl. CAPEX for RO/UF ~+3
Total water cost 2.404.094
TCO 2.587.233 + 1.803070 = 3,6 M
TSE 100% @ 3.8 COC
Treatment cost 813.245
Water consumption m3 734.088
Cost per M3 1.2
Total water cost 880.905
TCO 1.694.151
All in AED TSE Polished TSE 100%
SAVINGS to DEWA 3.436.758 4.329.841 Approximately a cost factor of 2
SAVINGS to TSE Polished - 893.082 is between Direct ‐ Polished TSE
Plus CAPEX for UF/RO

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Global Experience with TSE
The Water treatment company with a long track record on direct TSE use

• US Æ North Carolina University and other campuses

• California Æ Refineries

• UK Æ Power stations

• Middle East Æ District Cooling in UAE and Saudi
– Dubai Festival City since 2007
– KKIA Riyad International Airport  2010
– DAFZA Dubai Airport Freezone 2010
– Projects in progress: KAFD, Madinat Jumeira, Palm DC, DA, 
Emicool, EMPOWER, AUH university, etc.
– Other GCC countries follow soon with DC development

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Case History 1 – DFC (Al Futtaim Eng.)
TSE as Makeup in District Cooling

• District Cooling System in Dubai – 35.000 TR 
• Annual average of 12.000‐20.000 TR
• Copper enhanced tubes chiller – YORK
• DC plant works at 0,87‐1,0 KWh/TR total plant
• Changed from DEWA water to TSE water as 
MU
• Implementation started in June 2007 with 
small percentages of TSE
• Evaluation of the parameters resulted in 100% 
unpolished TSE as make‐up in January 2009 till 
present 20
DFC – TSE Water Qualities

Analysis Make-up Cooling Water


Calcium (ppm Ca) 32 110
Chloride (ppm) 270 1000
Sulphate (ppm) 100 550
Conductivity (uS/cm) 1510 4770
O-Phosphate (ppm) 10 30
Ammonium (ppm) 28 14

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Stepwise Implementation of TSE
• Installation of 3D TRASAR®
• Blending TSE with DEWA
– 25% TSE
– 42% TSE
– 50% TSE
– 75% TSE
– 100 TSE
• Interpretation of data
– Change of setpoints of chemicals
– Decrease blowdown rate (Increase conductivity)
• Visual Inspection of Chiller
• Corrosion rates On‐line and via coupons
• Tube wall thickness measurement – Eddy current

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Case History DFC ‐ UAE

DEWA vs TSE for 12.000 TR Chiller System with 6 CT

100% DEWA – 1 CT 100% TSE – 1 CT


• Cost : 9.9 AED/m3 • Cost : 1.32 AED/m3
• CoC  : 7.0 • CoC : 3.0
• MU  : 29.2 m3/hr • MU : 37.6 m3/hr
• BD : 4.6 m3/hr • BD : 12,5 m3/hr
• DD* : 0 m3/hr • DD* : 12.5 m3/hr 
• WC**: 2,532,340 AED • WC** : 579,316 AED
• pH : No Control • pH : controlled
• 1 or 2 drum program • 3 drum program

Savings per Cooling tower


~ 255,000 m3/Y of fresh Water = 4400 people equvivalent
~ 2 million AED/Year

*DD = Discharge Dilution, to meet the discharge limits


**WC = Water Cost Annually

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Test Results

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Test Results – Corrosion Rates

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Corrosion Rates
• Additional corrosion coupons in the outlet of the Chiller at highest
temperature. We analyzed 2 periods of 80 days and 92 days

Copper Mild Steel SS316

15/11 – 02/02 15/11 – 02/02 115/11 – 07/05


• No measurable corrosion • General corrosion 0,5 mpy • No measurable corrosion
• Slight pitting corrosion with
depth of 0.06 mm
04/02 – 07/05 04/02 – 07/05
• No measurable corrosion • General corrosion 0,4 mpy
• No localized corrosion

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Inspection of Chiller May 2009 and 2010
• No Slime formation visible – no increased approach

• No Scale formation visible – no de‐scaling or brushing needed

• No Corrosion visible – on inspection and corrosion rate < 1 mpy
• Edit Current – Cu tubes wall thickness measurement – 0,3% replaced
from 2000 tubes only 6 showed more than 10% loss after > 18 months with TSE
Customer confirmed results were better than in previous period with DEWA water and 
below typical standard replacement values

• All data was recorded to have statistical process control capabilities

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Conclusion by DFC – Al Futtaim Eng.
• Using proper monitoring and control makes it possible to use
water qualities that otherwise cause severe problems.

• Water use minimization possible with good water treatment


and On-Line MONITORING

• Data recording and Trending important


Operators need to be involved and in control of the system

• DFC operates all systems except Standby chiller on 100%


TSE at a COP of 0,87KWh/TR

• Total Savings compared to DEWA

– 1.953.024 AED per year ($ 532.000) for 1


cooling tower connected to 2 chillers with 5000 TR

– Saves 1.2 M m3 water (21500 people supply)


& over 9 Million AED

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Case History – Ryiadh Airport
SAUDI Oger ‐ KKIA

• DC system – 35 m3/h max. evaporation 
• Copper tubes – TSE 600‐800 µS/cm – COC4.5‐5
– TH: 150 ‐ Cl: 100 ppm – PO4: 0,5 ppm – NH4: 2 ppm

• Changed from RO permeate to direct TSE 
water
• Implementation started in June 2010 with 
100% TSE trial – from own WWTP
• Corrosion < 5 mpy on steel
• No Scale, slight silt fouling easy removed by 
backwashing >> Side stream filter recommended
• 3 month trial evaluation resulted in full 
implementation of unpolished TSE in 
December 2010 by KKIA quality assurance
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Case History KKIA – Saudi Arabia

RO permeate vs TSE

100% RO 100% TSE 
• Cost : 10.5 SAR/m3 • Cost : 1 SAR/m3
• CoC  : 16 • CoC : 5.0
• MU  : 36.8 m3/hr • MU : 43.5 m3/hr
• MU : 321,900 m3 RO • MU : 381,000 m3 TSE
• BD : 2.5 m3/hr • BD : 9 m3/hr
• WC* : 3,219,300 SAR • WC* : 385,950 SAR
• WT cost : 304,500 SAR • WT cost : 850,000 SAR
• 1 or 2 drum program • 3 drum program

Savings
~ 321,900 m3/Y of fresh Water = 5700 people equvivalent
TCO reduction of 2,288,000 SAR/Year
*WC = Water Cost Annually

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3D TRASAR ® – Key to a TSE success story
HIGH
•Expect to Reduce TCO
System Efficiency

•Reduce Environmental Footprints


•Longer Equipment Life
•No Operational Problems
•Higher Efficiency

HIGH
Total cost of Operation (TCO)

Detect – System Stresses


Determines – Action Plans
Delivers – On-line and real time results

More than 15,000 units of 3D Trasar ® currently deployed globally


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Managing Variable Stress Cost‐Effectively

“Safe” control
…but costly

Time
“Average” control
Like a stopped clock
- only right when
it crosses the stress

System Stress
Line

Control
Measures stress and
adjusts set point
continuously

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3D TRASAR Technology
• Detect
– System Variability
– Changing  Parameters
• Determine
– Compares Current Conditions to the standard
– Takes appropriate corrective response
– Expert Assistence/surveilance 24/7  ‐ Nalco 360
• Deliver
– Measurable Results (corrosion rates, scale/bio 
index)
– Save Water and Energy
– Assures Environmental Compliance
– Contributes to Sustainable Development

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3D TRASAR – what it does

• Measures directly System condition & needs 
via important KPIs
• On‐line Monitoring of:
• Scaling tendency – NSI
• Corrosion rates  – NCM
• Bioactivity ‐ NBI 
• Real time Demand based Treatment control – Adaptive
• Monitors and controls Corrosion/Scale Inhibitors On‐Line
• Full alarm and communication capabilities (Web, SMS, mobile)
• Alerts site personnel and Nalco during upset conditions
• Trends critical data on your customized extranet website 
• Three months data recording for full statistical process 
control
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3D TRASAR®
Monitoring and Control
Measured and logged parameters
• pH
• ORP
• Conductivity – Blow‐down
• Corrosion rate Steel and Copper
• Temperature
• Turbidity
• Inert Trasar (Corrosion inhibitor)
• Scaling Tendency (Dispersant)
• Fouling fluorometer cell
• Bio Index
• Analoge input signals
• Flow switch
• Timers of the biocides
• Alarm history
• Remote and plant access
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Introduction NALCO 360

Nalco 360™ Service provides 
Peace of Mind

that your CT water system is being 
monitored by a team of Nalco Experts, 
24 hours a day, 7 days a week.  

w ay
Gate
GSM
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Via

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TSE as Make Up Water
Conclusion

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Thank You

» QUESTIONS !

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