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MATERIAL BALANCE

EQUATION

By Trần Văn Xuân

2017

THE MATERIAL BALANCE EQUATION

The material-balance equation is the simplest expression of the conservation of mass in a reservoir.

The equation mathematically defines the

different

producing

mechanisms

and

effectively

relates

rock expansion

withdrawal.

the

reservoir

fluid

and

to

the

subsequent fluid

THE MATERIAL BALANCE EQUATION

The material balance equation (MBE) is one of

the basic

tools

of

reservoir

engineers

for

interpreting and predicting reservoir

performance. The MBE can be used to:

Estimate initial hydrocarbon volumes in place Predict future reservoir performance Predict ultimate hydrocarbon recovery under various types of primary driving mechanisms

THE MATERIAL BALANCE EQUATION

The equation can be written on volumetric basis as:

Initial volume = volume remaining + volume removed

Before deriving the material balance, it is convenient to

denote certain terms by symbols for brevity. The symbols

used conform where possible to the standard nomenclature

adopted by the Society of Petroleum Engineers.

THE MATERIAL BALANCE EQUATION

Symbols

Terms

P i

Initial reservoir pressure, psi

Δp

Change in reservoir pressure = pi p, psi

P b

Bubble point pressure, psi

N

Initial (original) oil in place, STB

N p

Cumulative oil produced, STB

W p

Cumulative water produced, bbl

G p

Cumulative gas produced, scf

R p

Cumulative gas-oil ratio, scf/STB

GOR

Instantaneous gas-oil ratio, scf/STB

R si

Initial gas solubility, scf/STB

R s

Gas solubility, scf/STB

THE MATERIAL BALANCE EQUATION

 

Symbols

Terms

B oi

Initial oil formation volume factor, bbl/STB

B o

Oil formation volume factor, bbl/STB

B gi

Initial gas formation volume factor, bbl/scf

B g

Gas formation volume factor, bbl/scf

 

W inj

Cumulative water injected, STB

 

G inj

Cumulative gas injected, scf

W e

Cumulative water influx, bbl

m

Ratio of initial gas-cap-gas reservoir volume to initial reservoir oil volume , bbl/bbl

G

Initial gas-cap gas, scf

V

f

Pore volume, bbl

THE MATERIAL BALANCE EQUATION

Symbols

Terms

  • c w

Water compressibility, psi1

  • c f

Formation (rock) compressibility, psi1

THE MATERIAL BALANCE EQUATION

p
p

DERIVATION OF THE OIL MBE

Let us define the following quantities:

N = the initial oil in place(STB) = V BO (*1-S wi )/B oi (1) The changing volume of oil Oil initial = NB oi Oil at pressure = (N-N p )B o The changing volume of oil = NB oi - (N-N p )B o

DERIVATION OF THE OIL MBE

Let us define the following quantities:

N = the initial oil in place(STB) = V BO (*1-S wi )/B oi (2) The changing volume of release gas Remaining release gas = original soluble gas remaining soluble gas cumulative produced gas = {[G+NR si ]- (N-Np)R s N p R p }B g Initial release gas = GB gi The changing volume of release gas = GB gi - {[G+NR si ]- (N-Np)R s N p R p }B g

THE MATERIAL BALANCE EQUATION

(3) The changing volume of water

Initial water = W Cumulative water produced = W p B w

Cumulative

water

influx = W e

Water expansion due to pressure drop = Wc w Δp The changing volume of water = - W e Wc w Δp +

W p B w

THE MATERIAL BALANCE EQUATION

(4) The changing volume porosity Initial water = V f S wi

Initial porosity = V f = initial oil + initial gas + initial water = NB oi + GB gi + V f S wi

=> V f = (NB oi + Gb gi )/(1-S wi )

The changing volume porosity = V f (V f V f c f Δp) = V f c f Δp

The changing volume of rock = - The changing volume porosity = V f c f Δp

THE MATERIAL BALANCE EQUATION

p
p

THE MATERIAL BALANCE EQUATION

Final formulation

THE MATERIAL BALANCE EQUATION Final formulation

Material Balance

Fluid Volumes

 Primary Gas Cap Initial Fluid Volumes at P i Oil + Original Dissolved Gas Fluid
Primary Gas Cap
Initial Fluid
Volumes
at P i
Oil + Original
Dissolved Gas
Fluid Expansions
P to P
i
Connate Water
Water
Influx
Pore Volume
Underground Withdrawals (rb)
=
Initial Pore
Volume
at P i
Expansion of Gas Cap (rb)
Pore Volume
Reduction
in Pore Volume
from P i to P
+ Expansion of Oil + Original Dissolved Gas (rb)
+ Connate Water Expansion (rb)
+ Water Influx (rb)
+ Decrease in Pore Volume (rb)
 

N

p

B

o

R

p

R

s

B

g

W B

p

w

 

F

   
 

= N

B

o

B

oi

N

R

si

R

s

B

g

mNB

oi

B

g

B

gi

- 1

c

NB

f

1

oi

(1

m)

S

w

p

c

w

S

w

 

NB

oi

(1

m)

 

p

W B

e

 
 

1

S

w

w

N

           

 

B

o

– B

oi

R

si

R

s

B

g

+ mB

 

oi

B

B

g

gi

- 1

B

oi

1

(1

S

w

m)

p

c

f

c

w

S

w

  W B

 

e

w

 

E o

 

E g

 

E f,w

 
 

F = N[E

o

+ mE

g

+ E

f,w

] +W B

e

w

N p   B o   R p  R s  B g

Havlena Odeh

Material Balance - Drive Indicators

Havlena-Odeh

Oil Zone

Gas Cap

Hydrocarbon

Water

Expansion Replacement

Expansion Replacement

Pore Volume Decrease &

Influx

Connate

Water Expansion

 

pore volume

water

 

oil exp

gas exp

change

influx

1

=

-------

+

  • --------- + ----------

+

--------

production

prod.

prod.

prod.

Examples Drive Indicators:

Oil Expansion

PV

 

Water Influx

 

Oil Expansion

Pore Volume Decrease

WI

Strong Water Drive

Compaction Drive

Drive Indicators

Oil Expansion/ Production = fraction of voidagereplaced by oil zone

Gas Expansion/ Production = fraction of voidagereplaced by gas cap

Pore Volume Change/ Production = fraction of voidagereplaced by compactionand connate water expansion

Water Influx/ Production = Fraction of voidagereplaced by water influx

NE o

F

mNE g

F

NE f ,w

F

W e

F

Detailed Terms

F

E

o

E

g

E f,w

=

N p (B o + (R p - R s )B g )+W p B w

=

(B o - B oi ) + (R si -R s )B g

=

B oi (B g /B gi - 1)

=

(1 + m)B oi c t Δp

Underground Withdrawal (Voidage”)

m = GB gi /NB oi c t = (c w S w + c f )/(1 - S w )

Material Balance and Drive Indicators

Drive indicators (sum up to 1.0):

NE o

NmE g

F

Oil leg expansion

F

NE f ,w

Reduction in pore

W e B w

F

volume, and

F

connate water expansion

Gas cap

expansion

Aquifer influx

Collecting all terms, the Material Balance may be written as:

F  N E  mE  E  W o g f ,w e
F  N E  mE  E  W
o
g
f ,w
e

Material Balance and Drive Indicators

D = E o + mE g + E f,w

Material Balance and Drive Indicators D = E + mE + E Which is written as

Which is written as y = b + x. This would suggest that a

plot of F/D as the y coordinate and We/D as

the

x

coordinate would yield a straight line with slope equal to 1 and intercept equal to N.

Recovery Factors and Reservoir Drive Mechanism

Gulf of Mexico Example 100% 90% 80% Recovery Factor ~ 30% Recovery Factor ~ 50% 70%
Gulf of Mexico Example
100%
90%
80%
Recovery Factor ~ 30%
Recovery Factor ~ 50%
70%
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
Reservoir:
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

High Rock Compressibility:

Small Effective Aquifers:

~20-30 + microsips

  • Gas Expansion

  • Oil Expansion

  • Water Influx

  • Compaction

~ 5-10 x OIIP

Material Balance: Key Issues

Must

have

accurate

production

measurements (oil, water, gas) and long enough.

Estimates of average reservoir pressure (from formation pressure tests). Suites of PVT data (oil, gas, water). Reservoir properties: saturations, formation compressibility, etc;

Limitations

Limitations to reliable application of the material balance equation are both theoretical and practical.

Theoretical limitations are imposed by the following assumptions, which are necessary for a tractable methodology:

Oil and free gas in the reservoir are assumed to be in thermodynamic equilibrium.

PVT data, obtained from differential liberation, are assumed to replicate the liberation process in the field.

Free gas in the reservoir is assumed to have the same composition as free gas on the surface, differing only in volume, as expressed by the gas formation volume

factor.

Limitations

Practical limitations are imposed by data requirements and reservoir conditions. Data required for reliable application of the material balance equation include :

PVT analyses of fluid samples representative of initial reservoir conditions

accurate static bottom hole pressure history of key wells in the reservoir,

accurate monthly production data for oil, gas, and water,

depending

on

circumstances,

pore

volume

compressibility vs. net overburden pressure

Limitations

The accuracy requirements for pressure and production data usually exceed the routine needs for many field operations. Reservoir conditions that may limit the reliability of a material balance estimate include :

Strong water drive and/or a large initial gas cap may maintain reservoir pressure at nearly initial pressure.

Extensive reservoirs may have different areas at different stages of development and production. This may lead to wide variations in gas saturation and reservoir pressure that cannot

readily be averaged.

Extensive reservoirs with low values of kh/µ may make it difficult to determine the static bottom hole pressure reliably and often cause large areal variations in pressure that are

difficult to average.

Limitations

Very heterogeneous reservoirs with zones of high permeability interbedded with zones of low permeability, or highly fractured reservoirs, conditions under which the low-permeability zones, or the matrix blocks, usually pressure deplete slower than the high-

permeability zones, or the fractures, and it is

practically impossible to determine volumetrically

weighted average reservoir pressure.

Reservoirs with significant spatial variations in initial fluid properties, especially those with variations in

initial GOR and bubblepoint pressure, may preclude representing the accumulation with "average" fluid properties.

FUNDAMENTAL DATA FOR OIIP ESTIMATION

FUNDAMENTAL DATA FOR OIIP ESTIMATION Dữ liệu PVT Vùng phía Bắc: 21.84 MMstb Vùng phía Nam:

Dữ liệu PVT

FUNDAMENTAL DATA FOR OIIP ESTIMATION Dữ liệu PVT Vùng phía Bắc: 21.84 MMstb Vùng phía Nam:
Vùng phía Bắc: 21.84 MMstb Vùng phía Nam: 20.29 MMstb
Vùng phía
Bắc: 21.84
MMstb
Vùng phía
Nam: 20.29
MMstb
FUNDAMENTAL DATA FOR OIIP ESTIMATION Dữ liệu PVT Vùng phía Bắc: 21.84 MMstb Vùng phía Nam:

Tính chất chất lưu

FUNDAMENTAL DATA FOR OIIP ESTIMATION Dữ liệu PVT Vùng phía Bắc: 21.84 MMstb Vùng phía Nam:
FUNDAMENTAL DATA FOR OIIP ESTIMATION Dữ liệu PVT Vùng phía Bắc: 21.84 MMstb Vùng phía Nam:
FUNDAMENTAL DATA FOR OIIP ESTIMATION Dữ liệu PVT Vùng phía Bắc: 21.84 MMstb Vùng phía Nam:

Dữ liệu DST

FUNDAMENTAL DATA FOR OIIP ESTIMATION Dữ liệu PVT Vùng phía Bắc: 21.84 MMstb Vùng phía Nam:

Lịch sử khai thác mỏ

Lịch sử khai thác từng giếng

Example:

A combination-drive reservoir contains 10 MMSTB of oil initially in place. The ratio of the original gas-cap volume to the original oil volume, i.e., m, is estimated as 0.25. The initial reservoir pressure is 3000 psia at 150°F. The reservoir produced 1 MMSTB of oil, 1100 MMscf of 0.8 specific gravity gas, and 50,000 STB of water by the time the reservoir pressure dropped to 2800 psi. The following PVT is available:

The following data are also available:

S wi = 0.20 c w = 1.5×10 -6 psi -1 c f = 1 × 10 -6 psi -1 Calculate:

  • a. Cumulative water influx

  • b. Net water influx

  • c. Primary driving indexes at 2800 psi

Example: A combination-drive reservoir contains 10 MMSTB of oil initially in place. The ratio of the

Data:

Consider an associated oil reservoir with the following data:

Stock tank oil-initially-in-place, STOIIP (or N), 10 6 stb

100

Gas cap size, m

0.3

Aquifer size

unknown

4,000

Initial, average reservoir pressure, p i , psia Abandonment pressure, pa, psia

2,000

4,500

3,000

30

Initial, average aquifer pressure, psia

Final, average aquifer pressure, psia

Cumulative oil production, N p , 10 6 stb

Cumulative gas production (ratio), R p , scf/stb

2,500

0.50

Cumulative water production (water-cut)*

Average porosity, φ, fraction

0.10

Connate water saturation, S wc , fraction

0.20

Problem Statement:

Determine the drive indicators. What can you say about the measured water production?

What is your estimate of the aquifer size assuming a simple pot aquifer?

The MBE as an Equation of a Straight Line

An insight into the general MBE

Equation

Content

N p [B o + (R p R s ) B g ]

Represents the reservoir volume of

cumulative oil and gas produced.

 

[W e W p B w ]

Refers

to

the

net

water

influx that

is

retained in the reservoir.

 

[G inj B ginj +W inj B w ]

This pressure

 

maintenance term

represents cumulative fluid injection in the reservoir.

[mB oi (B g /B gi 1)]

Represents the net expansion of the gas cap that occurs with the production of N p stocktank barrels of oil (as expressed in bbl/STB of original oil in place).

The MBE as an Equation of a Straight Line

An insight into the general MBE

The MBE as an Equation of a Straight Line • An insight into the general MBE
The MBE as an Equation of a Straight Line • An insight into the general MBE

General Havlena and Odeh

F = N[E o + mE g + E f,w ] + (W e +W inj B w + G inj B ginj ) Havlena and Odeh examined several cases of varying reservoir types can be rearranged into the

form of a straight line. F = NE o

The Straight-Line Solution Method to the MBE

The applications of the straight-line form of the MBE in solving reservoir engineering problems are presented

next to illustrate the usefulness of this particular form.

Six cases of applications are presented:

  • Case 1: Determination of N in volumetric undersaturated reservoirs

  • Case 2: Determination of N in volumetric saturated reservoirs

  • Case 3: Determination of N and m in gas cap drive reservoirs

  • Case 4: Determination of N and Wein water drive reservoirs

  • Case 5: Determination of N, m, and We in combination drive reservoirs

  • Case 6: Determination of average reservoir pressure, p a

Case 1. Volumetric Undersaturated-Oil Reservoirs

Assuming no water or gas injection, the linear form of the MBE can be written as:

F = N [E o + mE g + E f,w ] +W e For a volumetric and undersaturated reservoir, the conditions associated with driving mechanism are:

W e = 0, since the reservoir is volumetric m = 0, since the reservoir is undersaturated

R s = R si = R p , since all produced gas is dissolved in the oil

Applying the above conditions on Equation gives:

F = N (E o + E f,w )

Case 1. Volumetric Undersaturated-Oil Reservoirs In general

NB

p

o

NB   (

p oi

 

B

o

B

)

oi

B

oi

( cS

ww

c )

f

1 S

w

  p  

The component describing the reduction in the hydrocarbon pore volume, due to the expansion of the

connate water and reduction in pore volume, cannot be

neglected for an undersaturated oil reservoir since the compressibilities c w and c f are generally of the same order of magnitude as the compressibility of the oil.

c

o

( B B

o

oi

)

B

oi

Case 1. Volumetric Undersaturated-Oil Reservoirs

Since there are only two fluids in the reservoir, oil and connate water, then the sum of the fluid saturations must

be 100% of the pore volume

=>

=>

NB

p

o

NB c

p oi

 

o

( cS c )

ww

f

1 S

w

  p  

NB

p

o

cS

o

o

(

cS c )

ww

f

NB

p oi

 

1 S

w

  p  

NB NB cp

p

o

oi e

c

e

cS cS c

o

o

ww

f

1 S

w

Case 1. Volumetric Undersaturated-Oil Reservoirs

Rearrange equation

Case 1. Volumetric Undersaturated-Oil Reservoirs Rearrange equation where N = initial oil in place, STB F

where N = initial oil in place, STB F = N p B o +W p B w E o = B o B oi

Case 1. Volumetric Undersaturated-Oil Reservoirs Rearrange equation where N = initial oil in place, STB F

Case 1. Volumetric Undersaturated-Oil Reservoirs

A linear plot of the underground withdrawal F vs. (E o +E f,w ) indicates that the field is producing under volumetric performance, i.e., no water influx, and

strictly by pressure depletion and fluid expansion.

Case 1. Volumetric Undersaturated-Oil Reservoirs • A linear plot of the underground withdrawal F vs. (

Case 1. Volumetric Undersaturated-Oil Reservoirs

Example: The Virginia Hills Beaverhill Lake Field is a volumetric undersaturated reservoir. Volumetric calculations indicate the reservoir contains 270.6 MMSTB of oil initially in place. The initial reservoir pressure is 3685 psi. The following additional data is available:

S wi = 24%, c w = 3.62 × 10 6 psi 1 c f = 4.95 × 10 6 psi 1 B w = 1.0 bbl/STB, p b = 1500 psi,

The field production and PVT data are

summarized below

Case 1. Volumetric Undersaturated-Oil Reservoirs • Example: The Virginia Hills Beaverhill Lake Field is a volumetric

Case 1. Volumetric Undersaturated-Oil Reservoirs

Example: The Nameless Field is an undersaturated-oil reservoir.

The crude oil system and rock type indicate that the reservoir is highly compressible. The available reservoir and production data

are given below:

S wi = 25% Φ = 20% Area = 1000acres h = 70ft T = 150 o F Bubble-point pressure = 3500 psia Calculate the cumulative oil production at 3900 psi. The PVT data show that the oil formation volume factor is equal to 1.938 bbl/STB at 3900 psia.

Case 1. Volumetric Undersaturated-Oil Reservoirs • Example: The Nameless Field is an undersaturated-oil reservoir. The crude

Case 1. Volumetric Undersaturated-Oil Reservoirs

EXERCISE SOLUTION GAS DRIVE; UNDERSATURATED OIL RESERVOIR

Determine the fractional oil recovery, during depletion down to bubble point pressure, for the reservoir whose PVT parameters

are listed c w = 3.0 × 10 -6 psi -1 p i = 4000 psi p b = 3330 psi

S wc = .20

c f = 8.6 × 10 -6 psi -1

B oi = 1.2417 rb/stb

B ob = 1.2511 rb/stb

Cho câu hỏi trắc nghiệm (2 câu) % trước Np sau dựa N, co, ce.

Case 2. Volumetric Saturated-Oil Reservoirs

Simplified to give an identical form to F = N (E o + E f,w ) F in terms of Bo F = N p [B o + (R p R s )B g ] + W p B w Eo in terms of Bo E o = (B o B oi ) + (R si R s )B g

Case 2. Volumetric Saturated-Oil Reservoirs • Simplified to give an identical form to F = N

Case 2. Volumetric Saturated-Oil Reservoirs

Example: A volumetric undersaturated oil reservoir has a bubble point pressure of 4500. The initial reservoir pressure is 7150 psia and the volumetric calculations indicate the reservoir contains 650 MMSTB of oil initially in place.

S wi = 43% B w = 1.0 bbl/STB

c w = 3 × 10 6 psi 1

c f = 3.3 × 10 6 psi 1

Case 2. Volumetric Saturated-Oil Reservoirs • Example: A volumetric undersaturated oil reservoir has a bubble point

Case 2. Volumetric Saturated-Oil Reservoirs

The reservoir described will be produced down to an bandonment pressure of 900 psia. 1) Determine an expression for the recovery at abandonment as a

function of the cumulative gas oil ratio Rp. What do you conclude

from the nature of this relationship?

2) Derive an expression for the free gas saturation in the reservoir at abandonment pressure.

Case 2. Volumetric Saturated-Oil Reservoirs • The reservoir described will be produced down to an bandonment

Case 2. Volumetric Saturated-Oil Reservoirs

Case 2. Volumetric Saturated-Oil Reservoirs

Case 3: Gas cap drive reservoirs

For a reservoir in which the expansion of the gas cap gas is the predominant driving mechanism, the effect of

water and pore compressibilities as a contributing

driving mechanism can be considered negligible as compared to that of the high compressibility of the gas.

The Havlena and Odeh material balance can be expressed as:

F = N[E o + mE g ]

E g = B oi [(B g /B gi ) 1]

Case 3: Gas cap drive reservoirs • For a reservoir in which the expansion of the

Case 3: Gas cap drive reservoirs

There are three possible unknowns in F = N[E o + mE g ] N is unknown, m is known m is unknown, N is known N and m are unknown Unknown N, known m Equation indicates that a plot of F versus (E o +mE g ) on a Cartesian scale would produce a straight line through the origin with a slope of N

Case 3: Gas cap drive reservoirs There are three possible unknowns in F = N[E +
Case 3: Gas cap drive reservoirs There are three possible unknowns in F = N[E +

Case 3: Gas cap drive reservoirs

Unknown m, known N can be rearranged as an equation of straight line

Case 3: Gas cap drive reservoirs • Unknown m, known N can be rearranged as an

This relationship shows that a plot of the term (F/N

E o ) vs. E g would produce a straight line with a slope of

m.

Case 3: Gas cap drive reservoirs • Unknown m, known N can be rearranged as an

Case 3: Gas cap drive reservoirs

N and m are unknown If there is uncertainty in both the values of N and m, Equation can be re-expressed as:

Case 3: Gas cap drive reservoirs • N and m are unknown If there is uncertainty

A plot of F/Eo versus Eg/Eo should then be linear with intercept N and slope mN.

Case 3: Gas cap drive reservoirs • N and m are unknown If there is uncertainty

Example: The production history and the PVT data of a gas-cap-drive reservoir are given below:

The initial gas solubility Rsi is 975 scf/STB. Estimate the initial oil and gas in place.

• Example: The production history and the PVT data of a gas-cap-drive reservoir are given below:

Example: Reliable volumetric calculations on a well

developed gas cap drive reserve show the flowing results:

N = 736 MMSTB, G = 320 Bscf

p i = 2808 psia,

B oi = 1. 39 bbl/STB

B gi = 0. 000919 bbl/STB, R si = 755 scf/STB The production history in terms of parameter F and the PVT data are given below: Estimate the gasoil volume ratio m and compare with the calculated value

Example: Reliable volumetric calculations on a well developed gas cap drive reserve show the flowing results:

Example: The following data are available on a gas-cap-

drive reservoir

Example: The following data are available on a gas-cap- drive reservoir • Calculate the initial oil

Calculate the initial oil and free gas volumes.

The size of the gas cap is uncertain with the best estimate, based on geological information, giving the

value of m = 0.4. Is this figure confirmed by

the

production and

pressure

history? If

not, what

is

the

correct value of m?

Case 4: Water drive reservoirs

In a water drive reservoir, identifying the type of the aquifer and characterizing its properties are perhaps the most challenging tasks involved in conducting a reservoir engineering study. F = N(E o + mE g + E f,w ) + W e Dake (1978) pointed out that the term E f,w can frequently be neglected in water drive reservoirs. The reservoir has not an initial gas cap Equation can be further reduced to:

F = NE o +

W e

Case 4: Water drive reservoirs • In a water drive reservoir, identifying the type of the

Case 4: Water drive reservoirs

Several

water

including:

influx

models

have

been

described

in

the pot aquifer model; the Schilthuis steady-state method; the van Everdingen and Hurst model.

Case 4: Water drive reservoirs

the pot aquifer model Assume that the water influx could be properly described

by using the simple pot aquifer model as described by

Equation

W e = (c w + c f )W i f (p i p)

Case 4: Water drive reservoirs ● the pot aquifer model Assume that the water influx could

r a = radius of the aquifer, ft r e = radius of the reservoir, ft h = thickness of the aquifer, ft φ = porosity of the aquifer θ = encroachment angle c w = aquifer water compressibility, psi 1 c f = aquifer rock compressibility, psi 1 W i = initial volume of water in the aquifer, bbl

Case 4: Water drive reservoirs

the pot aquifer model Radial aquifer geometries

Example: Calculate the cumulative water influx that result from a pressure drop of 200 psi at the oilwater contact with an encroachment angle of

  • 80 .

The reservoiraquifer system is

characterized by the following properties:

Case 4: Water drive reservoirs ● the pot aquifer model Radial aquifer geometries Example: Calculate the
Case 4: Water drive reservoirs ● the pot aquifer model Radial aquifer geometries Example: Calculate the
Case 4: Water drive reservoirs ● the pot aquifer model Radial aquifer geometries Example: Calculate the

Case 4: Water drive reservoirs

W e = KΔp where the water influx constant K represents the combined pot aquifer properties as:

K = (c w + c f )W i f

Case 4: Water drive reservoirs W = K Δ p where the water influx constant K

plot of the term F/E o as a function of Δp/E o would yield a straight line with an intercept of N and slope of K

Case 4: Water drive reservoirs W = K Δ p where the water influx constant K

Case 4: Water drive reservoirs

If a gas gap with a known value of m exists, Equation can be expressed in the following linear form:

Case 4: Water drive reservoirs • If a gas gap with a known value of m

This form indicates that a plot of the term F/(E o + mE g ) as a function of Δp/(E o + mE g ) would yield a straight line with an intercept of N and slope of K.

Case 4: Water drive reservoirs The Steady-State Model in the MBE

Schilthuis (1936) proposed that for an aquifer that is flowing under the steady-state flow regime, the flow behavior could be described by Darcys equation. The rate of water influx e w can then be determined by applying Darcys equation:

Case 4: Water drive reservoirs • The Steady-State Model in the MBE • Schilthuis (1936) proposed

e w = rate of water influx, bbl/day k = permeability of the aquifer, md

h = thickness of the aquifer, ft

r a = radius of the aquifer, ft r e = radius of the reservoir, ft t = time, days

Case 4: Water drive reservoirs • The Steady-State Model in the MBE • Schilthuis (1936) proposed

Case 4: Water drive reservoirs The Steady-State Model in the MBE

Example The data given in is used in this example:

p i = 3500psi,

p = 3000psi,

Q o = 32000STB/day

B o = 1.4bbl/STB GOR = 900scf/STB R s = 700scf/STB

B g = 0.00082bbl/scf

Q w = 0

B w = 1.0bbl/STB

Calculate the Schilthuis water influx constant.

Case 4: Water drive reservoirs • The Steady-State Model in the MBE Example The data given

Case 4: Water drive reservoirs The Steady-State Model in the MBE

The steady-state aquifer model as proposed by Schilthuis

is given by

Case 4: Water drive reservoirs • The Steady-State Model in the MBE The steady-state aquifer model

We = cumulative water influx, bbl C = water influx constant, bbl/day/psi t = time, days p i = initial reservoir pressure, psi p = pressure at the oilwater contact at time t, psi

Case 4: Water drive reservoirs The Steady-State Model in the MBE

Case 4: Water drive reservoirs • The Steady-State Model in the MBE

Case 4: Water drive reservoirs The Steady-State Model in the MBE

Example: The pressure history of a water drive oil

reservoir is given below:

Case 4: Water drive reservoirs • The Steady-State Model in the MBE Example: The pressure history

The aquifer is under a steady-state flowing condition

with

an

estimated

bbl/day/psi.

water

influx

constant

of

130

Given the initial reservoir pressure is 3500 psi, calculate the cumulative water influx after 100, 200, 300, and 400 days using the steady-state model.

Case 4: Water drive reservoirs

The Steady-State Model in the MBE Combine the equation F = NE o + W e =>

Case 4: Water drive reservoirs • The Steady-State Model in the MBE Combine the equation F
Case 4: Water drive reservoirs • The Steady-State Model in the MBE Combine the equation F

Plotting F/Eo vs.

Case 4: Water drive reservoirs • The Steady-State Model in the MBE Combine the equation F

results

in

a

straight

line

with

an

intercept that represents the initial oil-

in-place N and a slope that describes the water influx constant C

Case 4: Water drive reservoirs The Steady-State Model in the MBE

Case 4: Water drive reservoirs The unsteady-state model in the MBE

The van Everdingen and Hurst unsteady-state model is

given by:

Case 4: Water drive reservoirs • The unsteady-state model in the MBE The van Everdingen and

With

B = 1.119φc t r 2 e hf

Everdingen and Hurst presented the dimensionless water influx W eD as a function of the dimensionless time t D and dimensionless radius r D that are given by:

Case 4: Water drive reservoirs • The unsteady-state model in the MBE The van Everdingen and

t = time, days k = permeability of the aquifer, md φ = porosity of the aquifer μ w = viscosity of water in the aquifer, cp r a = radius of the aquifer, ft r e = radius of the reservoir, ft c w = compressibility of the water, psi 1

Case 4: Water drive reservoirs The unsteady-state model in the MBE

Case 4: Water drive reservoirs • The unsteady-state model in the MBE

Case 4: Water drive reservoirs The unsteady-state model in the MBE

Case 4: Water drive reservoirs • The unsteady-state model in the MBE

Case 4: Water drive reservoirs The unsteady-state model in the MBE

Case 4: Water drive reservoirs • The unsteady-state model in the MBE Dimensionless water influx WeD

Dimensionless water influx WeD for infinite aquifer

Case 4: Water drive reservoirs The unsteady-state model in the MBE

Example: Calculate the water influx at the end of 1, 2, and

5 years into a circular reservoir with an aquifer of infinite

extent, i.e., r eD = . The initial and current reservoir pressures are 2500 and 2490 psi, respectively. The reservoir aquifer system has the following properties.

Case 4: Water drive reservoirs • The unsteady-state model in the MBE Example: Calculate the water

Case 4: Water drive reservoirs

The unsteady-state model in the MBE Combine equation

Case 4: Water drive reservoirs • The unsteady-state model in the MBE Combine equation
Case 4: Water drive reservoirs • The unsteady-state model in the MBE Combine equation

Case 5: Combination drive reservoirs

This relatively complicated case involves the determination of the following three unknowns:

Initial oil in place, N Size of the gas cap, m Water influx, W e The general MBE that includes these three unknowns is given by Equation F = N(E o +mE g )+W e Where the variables constituting the above expressions are defined by F = N p [B o + (R p R s ) B g ] + W p B w = N p [B t + (R p R s ) B g ] + W p B w E o = (B o + B oi ) + (R si R s ) B g = B t + B ti E g = B oi [(B g /B gi ) 1]

Case 5: Combination drive reservoirs Havlena and Odeh differentiated Equation with respect

to pressure and rearranged the resulting equation to

eliminate m, to give:

Case 5: Combination drive reservoirs • Havlena and Odeh differentiated Equation with respect to pressure and

in which the reversed primes denote derivatives with respect to pressure. That is:

Case 5: Combination drive reservoirs • Havlena and Odeh differentiated Equation with respect to pressure and

Case 5: Combination drive reservoirs plot of the left-hand side of Equation versus the second

term on the right for a selected aquifer model should, if

the choice is correct, provide a straight line with unit

slope whose intercept on the ordinate gives the initial oil in-place N. After having correctly determined N and We,

Equation can be solved directly for m, to give:

Case 5: Combination drive reservoirs • plot of the left-hand side of Equation versus the second

Case 6: Average reservoir pressure To gain any understanding of the behavior of a reservoir

with free gas, e.g., solution gas drive or gas cap drive, it is

essential that every effort be made to determine reservoir pressures with accuracy. F = N (E o + mE g )

Step 1. Select the time at which the average reservoir pressure is to be determined and obtain the corresponding production data, i.e., Np, Gp, and Rp.

Step 2. Assume several average reservoir pressure values and determine the left-hand side F of Equation above at each assumed pressure. That is:

F = Np[Bo + (Rp Rs)Bg] + WpBw

Case 6: Average reservoir pressure

Step

3.

Using the same assumed average reservoir

pressure values of step 2, calculate the right-hand side

(RHS) of

RHS = N[Eo + mEg]

Step 4. Plot the left- and right-hand sides of the MBE, as calculated in steps 2 and 3, on Cartesian paper as a

function of assumed average pressure. The point of

intersection gives the average reservoir pressure that corresponds to the selected time of step 1. An illustration of the graph is shown in Figure

Step 5: Repeat steps 1 through 4 to estimate reservoir pressure at each selected depletion time.

Case 6: Average reservoir pressure

Case 6: Average reservoir pressure

Case 6: Average reservoir pressure

Example. You have the following data on an oil reservoir

Case 6: Average reservoir pressure Example . You have the following data on an oil reservoir

The field has been on production for 1120 days, and has produced 800 000 STB of oil and 60 000 STB of water. Water and formation compressibilities are estimated to be 3 × 10 6 and 3 × 10 6 psi 1 , respectively. Calculate the original oil-in-place.

Case 6: Average reservoir pressure

Case 6: Average reservoir pressure

Case 6: Average reservoir pressure

Case 6: Average reservoir pressure

Case 6: Average reservoir pressure

Case 6: Average reservoir pressure

4.1. CS LÝ THUYẾT PP CBVC VÀ CƠ SỞ DỮ LIỆU CHO QUÁ TRÌNH ĐÁNH GIÁ OIIP

PP CBVC truyền thống

  • - Sử dụng độ tăng thể tích (∆V) độ chênh áp (∆P). N = FIP * (1-S w ) / B o FIP = ∆V / (∆P * C t ) C t = C f + S w *C w + (1 - S w ) * C o

 
  • - Xác định phạm vi ảnh hưởng (vùng huy động) của giếng.

PP RLT (Material Balance

  • - Chỉ áp dụng vào gđ thăm dò và gđ đầu khai thác.

Alternative Method - Reservoir Limit Test)

  • - Sử dụng lưu lượng (q) và độ giảm áp (m) N = (0.041659 * Q * B o / m * C t ) * (1 - S w )

 

F = N(E o + E f,w ) + W e B w

Tank Model

  • - Xét giao điểm của đồ thị trục tung để tìm N.

 
  • - Giả định kết quả N, W -> tính P r

Aquifer Fitting

  • - Matching P r và P thực (PP bình phương cực tiểu).

Phần mềm MatBal

  • - Matching các loại vỉa và các dạng tầng nước đáy khác nhau dựa vào lịch sử khai thác.

4.1. LÝ THUYẾT PP CBVC VÀ CƠ SỞ DỮ LIỆU CHO QUÁ TRÌNH ĐÁNH GIÁ OIIP

4.1. LÝ THUYẾT PP CBVC VÀ CƠ SỞ DỮ LIỆU CHO QUÁ TRÌNH ĐÁNH GIÁ OIIP

Dữ liệu PVT

4.1. LÝ THUYẾT PP CBVC VÀ CƠ SỞ DỮ LIỆU CHO QUÁ TRÌNH ĐÁNH GIÁ OIIP
Vùng phía Bắc: 21.84 MMstb Vùng phía Nam: 20.29 MMstb
Vùng phía
Bắc: 21.84
MMstb
Vùng phía
Nam: 20.29
MMstb
4.1. LÝ THUYẾT PP CBVC VÀ CƠ SỞ DỮ LIỆU CHO QUÁ TRÌNH ĐÁNH GIÁ OIIP

Tính chất chất lưu

4.1. LÝ THUYẾT PP CBVC VÀ CƠ SỞ DỮ LIỆU CHO QUÁ TRÌNH ĐÁNH GIÁ OIIP
4.1. LÝ THUYẾT PP CBVC VÀ CƠ SỞ DỮ LIỆU CHO QUÁ TRÌNH ĐÁNH GIÁ OIIP
4.1. LÝ THUYẾT PP CBVC VÀ CƠ SỞ DỮ LIỆU CHO QUÁ TRÌNH ĐÁNH GIÁ OIIP

Dữ liệu DST

4.1. LÝ THUYẾT PP CBVC VÀ CƠ SỞ DỮ LIỆU CHO QUÁ TRÌNH ĐÁNH GIÁ OIIP

Lịch sử khai thác mỏ

Lịch sử khai thác từng giếng

4.2. PHƯƠNG TRÌNH TỔNG QUÁT

Khi khai thác vỉa, trạng thái cân bằng ban đầu bị phá vỡ, một trạng thái cân bằng mới được thành lập biểu hiện bằng sự thay đổi thể tích vỉa. Sự thay đổi áp suất vỉa tạo ra các quá trình biến đổi sau:

  • 1. Sự giãn nở của mũ khí (A)

  • 2. Sự giãn nở của khí hòa tan ban đầu sinh ra do giảm áp (B)

  • 3. Sự co giãn của dầu (C)

  • 4. Sự giãn nở của đất đá nước dư

(D)

  • 5. Sự xâm nhập của nước đáy (E)

Sự cân bằng vật chất được biểu thị như sau:

Theå tích

 

Theå

 

Theå tích

chaát löu

tích

chaát löu

taïi choã

=

chaát löu

+

coøn laïi

ban ñaàu

ñaõ khai

trong

thaùc

væa

Thể tích chất lưu còn lại trong vỉa = (A) + (B) + (C) + (D) +(E)

Đối với sự giãn nở của chất lưu ta xét từng trường hợp

Đối với vỉa hoàn toàn chứa khí (non associated gas): sự giãn nở của chất lưu đơn thuần sự giãn nở của khí.

Đối với vỉa dầu chưa bão hòa khí (không có khí- unsaturated oil): sự giãn nở của dầu và khí hòa tan.

Đối với vỉa dầu bão hòa khí (luôn có khí-saturated oil): sự giãn nở của chất lưu chủ yếu sự giãn nở của dầu, của khí và khí hòa tan.

Chú ý: Nếu vỉa nước thành hệ (đáy, rìa) thì cần tính đến sự giãn nở của nước vỉa.

4.2.1. Thiết lập phương trình cân bằng vật chất

4.2.1.1. Lượng thu hồi

Thể tích dầu lấy ra khỏi vỉa

N p .B o

N p : Tổng thể tích dầu đã được khai thác B o : Hệ số thể tích thành hệ dầu sau khi khai thác

Thể tích khí tự do lấy ra khỏi vỉa Thể tích khí tự do = Tổng thể tích khí khai thác – Thể tích khí hòa tan tách thoát khỏi dầu trong quá trình khai thác.

= N p .(R p - R s ). B g

Trong đó:

N p : Trữ lượng dầu khai thác cộng dồn, stb B g : Hệ số thể tích thành hệ của khí sau khi khai thác, rb/stb R p : Tỷ số của khí khai thác/ dầu khai thác, scf/stb R s : Tỷ số khí hòa tan/ dầu, sau khi khai thác, scf/stb

4.2.1.2. Sự tác động của các thành phần trong vỉa (ở đk vỉa)

4.2.1.2. Sự tác động của các thành phần trong vỉa (ở đk vỉa )

Sơ đồ hình thái vỉa

Sơ đồ hình thái vỉa

4.3. PHƯƠNG TRÌNH TUYẾN TÍNH D. HAVLENA VÀ A.ODEH

4.3 . PHƯƠNG TRÌNH TUYẾN TÍNH D. HAVLENA VÀ A.ODEH
4.3 . PHƯƠNG TRÌNH TUYẾN TÍNH D. HAVLENA VÀ A.ODEH

Trường hợp 1: Vỉa chỉ bao gồm hoàn toàn dầu, không có mũ khí và nước đáy (m = 0; W e = 0)

Trường hợp 1 : Vỉa chỉ bao gồm hoàn toàn dầu, không có mũ khí và

Trường hợp 2: Vỉa dầu có mũ khí, không có nước đáy (W e = 0)

Trường hợp 2 : Vỉa dầu có mũ khí, không có nước đáy (W = 0)

Trường hợp 3: Vỉa dầu không có mũ khí, có nước đáy xâm nhập (m = 0)

Trường hợp 3 : Vỉa dầu không có mũ khí, có nước đáy xâm nhập (m

Trường hợp 4: Vỉa dầu vừa có mũ khí vừa có nước đáy xâm nhập

Trường hợp 4 : Vỉa dầu vừa có mũ khí vừa có nước đáy xâm nhập

4.4. MÔ HÌNH NƯỚC XÂM NHẬP (tự đọc) & PHƯƠNG PHÁP XÁC ĐỊNH LƯỢNG NƯỚC XÂM NHẬP VÀO VỈA

4.4.1. Nước xâm nhập trong cả vỉa dầu và khí

4.4 . MÔ HÌNH NƯỚC XÂM NHẬP ( tự đọc) & PHƯƠNG PHÁP XÁC ĐỊNH LƯỢNG

4.4.2. Thuyết nưc xâm nhp trng thái

không

ổn

định

của

Hurst

Van

Everdingen

 
4.4 . MÔ HÌNH NƯỚC XÂM NHẬP ( tự đọc) & PHƯƠNG PHÁP XÁC ĐỊNH LƯỢNG

4.4.2.1. Tầng nước đáy giới hạn

4.4.2.1.1. Tầng nước đáy dạng tròn

4.4.2.1. Tầng nước đáy có giới hạn 4.4.2.1.1. Tầng nước đáy dạng tròn

4.4.2.1.2. Tầng nước đáy dạng tuyến tính (linear)

L : chiều dài của tầng nước đáy (tính từ ranh giới tầng nước đáy – vỉa)

w, h : bề rộng, bề dày của tầng nước đáy

4.4.2.2. Tầng nước đáy không giới hạn

4.4.2.2. Tầng nước đáy không giới hạn

4.4.3. Phương pháp tính gần đúng lượng nước xâm nhập của Fetkovitchs

Phương trình dòng chảy

4.4.3. Phương pháp tính gần đúng lượng nước xâm nhập của Fetkovitchs Phương trình dòng chảy

Phương trình cân bằng vật chất cho

tầng nước đáy đơn giản

4.4.3. Phương pháp tính gần đúng lượng nước xâm nhập của Fetkovitchs Phương trình dòng chảy

Phương trình cân bằng vật chất tương đương

4.4.3. Phương pháp tính gần đúng lượng nước xâm nhập của Fetkovitchs Phương trình dòng chảy
4.4.3. Phương pháp tính gần đúng lượng nước xâm nhập của Fetkovitchs Phương trình dòng chảy

4.4.3. Phương pháp tính gần đúng lượng nước xâm nhập của Fetkovitchs Phương trình dòng chảy

4.4.3. Phương pháp tính gần đúng lượng nước xâm nhập của Fetkovitchs Phương trình dòng chảy
4.4.3. Phương pháp tính gần đúng lượng nước xâm nhập của Fetkovitchs Phương trình dòng chảy






Giá trị chỉ số sản phẩm của tầng nước đáy J phụ thuộc vào cả hình dạng của tầng nước đáy lẫn điều kiện dòng chảy

Giá trị chỉ số sản phẩm của tầng nước đáy J phụ thuộc vào cả hình

Ngoài ra, đối với vỉa có hình dạng không tương xứng với hình dạng của tầng nước đáy thì ta có thể dùng mô hình theo Dietz để tính J ở điều kiện dòng tựa ổn định:

Ngoài ra, đối với vỉa có hình dạng không tương xứng với hình dạng của tầng

4.4.4. Công thức tính gần đúng lượng nước xâm nhập của Carter - Tracy

4.4.4 . Công thức tính gần đúng lượng nước xâm nhập của Carter - Tracy

4.5. CÁC PHƯƠNG THỨC TIẾP CẬN KHI ĐÁNH GIÁ OIIP THÂN DẦU MÓNG BẰNG MBE

PHƯƠNG THỨC

BẢN CHẤT

 
  • - Sử dụng độ tăng thể tích (∆V) đchênh áp (∆P).

N = FIP * (1-S w ) / B o

PP CBVC truyền thống

FIP = ∆V / (∆P * C t )

C t = C f + S w *C w + (1 - S w ) * C o

 
  • - Xác định phạm vi ảnh hưởng (vùng huy động) của giếng.

PP RLT (Material Balance

  • - Chỉ áp dụng Trong GĐ thăm dò và GĐ đầu khai thác.

Alternative Method -

  • - Sử dụng lưu lượng (q) và độ giảm áp (m)

Reservoir Limit Test)

N = (0.041659 * Q * B o / m * C t ) * (1 - S w )

 

F = N(E o + E f,w ) + W e B w

Tank Model

  • - Xét giao điểm của đồ thị trục tung để tìm N.

 
  • - Giả định kết quả N, W -> tính P r

Aquifer Fitting

  • - Matching P r và P thực (PP bình phương cực tiểu).

Phần mềm MatBal

  • - Matching các loại vỉa và các dạng tầng nước đáy khác nhau dựa vào lịch sử khai thác.