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- Starting methods of Induction motors
- 09 - Motor Acceleration
- Ch14
- Sensor Less SMC Observer
- indmach741
- 01658324
- Ee1251 Electrical Machines II
- intrdrdn_ee
- Basics of Squirrel Cage Induction Motor Design
- Yazdani's Notes on Induction Machines
- Induction motor
- electrical machine
- Harmonics induced noise in electrical machines
- 88305a
- [doi 10.1109_ESTS.2009.4906501] Vartanian, Robert; Toliyat, Hamid A. -- [IEEE 2009 IEEE Electric Ship Technologies Symposium (ESTS 2009) - Baltimore, MD, USA (2009.04.20-2009.04.22)] 2009 IEEE Electr.pdf
- 05674926.pdf
- ColchaI Starting methods.docx
- (794006897) motor de induccion.docx
- Exp-11.doc
- Model Amien to 2

Sie sind auf Seite 1von 109

S0= 3V0 · I0

P 0 = P 1 + P2

q

Q0 = S02 P02

V02

Rm ⇡

P0

V02

Xm ⇡

Q0

RT1 234, 5 + T1 (

=

RT2 234, 5 + T2 (

p

SRB= 3VRB · IRB

PRB = P1 + P2

q

2 2

QRB = SRB PRB

P0

RT ⇡ Re + Rr = 2

3IRB

QRB

XT ⇡ Xe + Xr = 2

3IRB

PRB

Rr ⇡ RT Re ⇡ 2

Re

3IRB

PR 3Rr 2 3Rr Vth2

Te (s) = = Ir = h i

!s !s s 2

!s s Rth + Rsr + Xth

2

s

Te (s ! 0) ! 3 V2

!s Rr th

3sn Vn2

Rr ⇡

!s Tn

Ze (Re , X e , Rr , X r , Rm , Xm , s) = Z e +Z r k Zm

Z e = Re + jX e

Z r = Rr + jX r

jXm · Rm

Zm = Rm k jXm =

Rm + jXm

n

!m

Xn ⇤

Zecal (si ) Zemed (si ) Zecal (si ) Zemed (si )

=

i=1 i Zemed (si ) i Zemed (si )

Zemed (si ) Si

Zecal (si ) Si

i i

n

= FT · F

h i

FT = f1⇤ (x,s1 ) f2⇤ (x,s2 ) · · · · · · fn⇤ (x,sn )

fi (x, si ) =

i Zemed (x, si )

h i

xT = Re X e Rr X r Rm Xm

G(x)

T T

@ @F(x) @F (x) @F (x)

= G(x) = FT (x)· + ·F(x) = 2 ·F(x) = 2·J(x)·F(x)

@x @x @x @x

J(x)

F(x) n⇥m

n m

⇥ ⇤ 1

4x = J(xk )T · J(xk ) · J(xk )T · F(xk )

k+1

xk+1 = xk + 4x

k 4x "

xk+1 = xk + ↵4x

F(xk+1 )

k+1

k

↵

↵4x

↵

k+1

↵4x

k

x

Re 0, 02 0, 02 0, 0 0, 02 0, 02

X e 0, 10 0, 1000 0, 0 0, 1000 0, 1

Rm 48, 0 50, 0012 1,0 50, 0012 50

Xm 3, 3 3, 0000 1, 0 3, 0000 3, 0

Rr 0, 0276 0, 0300 0, 0 0, 0300 0, 03

X r 0, 12 0, 1500 0, 0 0, 1500 0, 15

12 12 10

0, 275 1, 466 ⇥ 10 2, 9395 1, 476 ⇥ 10 1,799 ⇥ 10

Zent (Re , Xe , Rr , Xr , Rm , Xm , s) = Ze + Zr k Zm

Ze = Re + jX e

Rr1

s

Zr2

Z r = Rr1

+ jX r1

s

+ Zr2

Rr2

Zr2 = + jXr2

s

jXm · Rm

Zm = Rm k jXm =

Rm + jXm

Re 0, 02 0, 02 0, 02 0, 02 0, 02

X e 0, 10 0, 0927 0, 1 0, 0927 0, 1000

Rm 50, 0 50, 2697 40,0 50, 2697 50, 00

Xm 3, 0 3, 0071 5, 0 3, 0071 3, 0000

Rr1 0, 03 0, 0801 0, 04 0, 0801 0, 0800

Xr1 0, 1 0, 1079 0, 1 0, 1079 0, 1000

Rr2 0, 03 0, 0403 0, 01 0, 0403 0, 0400

Xr2 0, 15 0, 1510 0, 1 0, 1510 0, 1500

9 10 8

0, 0514 8, 7588 ⇥ 10 0, 9974 4, 9387 ⇥ 10 3, 1920 ⇥ 10

" # " #" # " # " # " #" #

ve Re 0 ie Le Ler d ie 0 0 ie

= + j ✓˙

vre 0 Rr ier Ler Lr dt ier Ler Lr ier

r n o

2 2⇡ 4⇡

x= xa + ej 3 xb + ej 3 xc

3

✓˙ = !m

vre = 0

✓ ◆

Rr Ler Ler

pier = j ✓˙ ier + j ✓˙ ie pie

Lr Lr Lr

✓ 2

◆ ✓ ◆ ✓ ◆

L L2er Rr

ve = Re + j ✓˙ er ie + Le pie + Ler j ✓˙ ier

Lr Lr Lr

pier

ier

✓ ◆ ✓ ✓ ◆◆ ✓ ◆

L2er Le ˙ L2er Rr

pve = Le 2

p ie + Re + Rr j ✓ Le pie + j ✓˙ (ve Re ie )

Lr Lr Lr Lr

⇣ ⌘

pve ˙ e = k1 p2 ie

j ✓v ˙ e + k2 pie

j ✓pi k3 j ✓i˙ er k4 ve + k5 ie

✓ ◆

L2er Le Rr Rr

k1 = Le ; k2 = Re + Rr ; k3 = Re ; k4 = ; k5 = Re

Lr Lr Lr Lr

k1 , k 2 , k 3 , k 4 k5

n

X

= [[fmed (ti , !mi )] [fcal (ti , !mi )]]t · [[fmed (ti , !mi )] [fcal (ti , !mi )]]

i=1

j ✓v

2 3

k1

6 7

h ⇣ ⌘ i6

6

k2 7

7

[fcal (ti , !mi )] = p2 ie ˙ e

j ✓pi pie j ✓i˙ er ve ie 6

6 k3 7 = [wi ] [k]

7

6 7

4 k4 5

k5

[k]

n

X

= [[hi ] [wi ] [k]]t · [[hi ] [wi ] [k]]

i=1

n

X n

X n

X

@

= 2 [[hi ] [wi ] [k]] = [0] ) [hi ] = [wi ] [k] )

@k i=1 i=1 i=1

n n

" n

#

X X X

[wi ]t [hi ] = [wi ]t [wi ] [k] = [wi ]t [wi ] [k] )

i=1 i=1 i=1

" n

# 1 n

X t

X

[k] = [wi ] [wi ] [wi ]t [hi ]

i=1 i=1

[k]

k2 k3 1 L2

R e = k 3 ; Le = ; Tr = ; er = Le k1

k4 k4 Lr

Ler Lr

[k]

Pn = 100 HP Vn = 460 V In = 154 A

Tn = 570 N m nn = 1,719 rpm cos n = 0, 91

Iarr = 594 A Tarr = 573 N m ⌘n = 87, 6 %

p=2 f = 60 Hz Tm = 1,114 N m

Y Jeje = 5 kg m2

SBASE = 123 kV A VBASE = 460 V IBASE = 154 A

!BASE = 188, 5 rad

s

TBASE = 682 N m tBASE = 27 ⇥ 10 3 s

!m (pu) 0 0, 5 1

ve (pu) 0,0000 j1,4142 0,8213 j1,1513 1,3372 j0,4602

pve 1,4142 j0,0000 1,1513 + j0,8213 0,4602 + j1,3372

ie 5,8091 j2,8707 1,9584 j5,5378 0,1281 j0,3696

pie 2,8707 j5,8091 5,5378 j1,9584 0,3696 j0,1281

p2 ie 5,8091 + j2,8707 1,9584 + j5,5378 0,1281 + j0,3696

[k]

k1 k2 k3 k4 k5

4

0,1952 0,0986 0,0548 0,0121 6,6308 ⇥ 10

Ler 2

Re Le Tr Lr

0,0548 3,6200 82,645 3,4248

Re Le Ler Lr Rr

0,0548 3,6200 3, 5210 3,6200 0, 0438

Tr

pie

ve ie e

ier

e

ee = (ve Re ie )

ˆt

e Le ie

e = Le ie + Ler ier = (ve Re ie ) dt ) ier =

Ler

0

pier

1 n o

0 = Rr ier +Ler pie +Lr pier j ˙ (Ler ie˙ + Lr ier✓) ) pier = ˙ r )ie

( Rr + j ✓L r

˙ er ie

Ler pie + j ✓L

Lr

pie

⇢ ✓ 2

◆

1 Le ˙ r ) + j ✓˙ Ler ˙ r) e

pie = L̂e ve Re ( Rr + j ✓L ie ( Rr + j ✓L

Lr Lr Lr

⇣ ⌘

L2er Rr ˙

ve Le Lr

pie ( Lr

+ j ✓) e

ie = h i

Re + Le

R

Lr r

j ✓˙L̂e

L2er

L̂e = Le Lr

n o {Rr , Le , Lr , Ler }

ve , ie , ✓˙

Re Re ve

ie e

pie

ie

N pie ie

N ✓

X ◆✓ ◆⇤

pie medida pie calculada pie medida pie calculada

pie =

i=1

pie medida pie medida

N ✓

X ◆✓ ◆⇤

ie medida ie calculada ie medida ie calculada

ie =

i=1

ie medida ie medida

200 hp 460 V

e

~ir

1 ⇣~ ⌘

ir = e Le ie

Ler

p e = ve Re ie

✓ ◆ ✓ ◆

Rr Le

0= j!m e +p e Rr j!m L̂e ie L̂e pie

Lr Lr

zin

✓ ◆

ve Le pie Rr e

zi (t) = = Re + Rr j!m L̂e + L̂e j!m

ie Lr ie Lr ie

Re 0, 0128 0,0128 0,0128

Rr 0, 07 0, 01 0, 070

Le 0, 0505 0, 08 0, 0345

Lr 0, 0505 0, 08 0, 0673

Ler 2, 5027 3 2, 4505

6

error 0 26 4, 48 ⇥ 10

Re 0, 0128 0,0128 0,0128

Rr 0, 07 0, 01 0, 071

Le 0, 0505 0, 08 0, 0056

Lr 0, 0505 0, 08 0, 0981

Ler 2, 5027 3 2, 4788

5

error 0 37, 7 1, 84 ⇥ 10

zi ve

ie e

!m J

k

Te = e ⇥ ie

Te

t0 J!s

k

ie

J k

Re 0,0128 0,0122 4,69 0,0128

Rr 0,0070 0,0076 8,57 0,0070 0,00

Ls 2,5532 2,7810 8,92 2,5602 0,27

Lr 2,5532 2,7728 8,60 2,5606 0,29

Lsr 2,5027 2,7265 8,94 2,5099 0,38

9 9

0,0000 3,8 ⇥ 10 3,8 ⇥ 10

Tr

p(t) = va ia + vb ib + vc ic

ia + ib + ic = 0

va + vb + vc = 0

v

i⇤

1

s = v · i⇤ = p(t) + jq(t) = va ia + vb ib + vc ic + p j [ia vbc + ib vca + ic vab ]

3

e

E

H E

H P

P

P

E

P

v

e

S=E⇥H

S

✓ ◆

VA

S=E⇥H

m2

˛ ˛ ˆ

S·ds = (E ⇥ H)·da = r · (E ⇥ H) · dv

s s v

da n̂

dv

ds

r · (E ⇥ H)

r · (E ⇥ H) = (r ⇥ E) · H E · (r ⇥ H)

@H

r⇥E= µ

@t

@E

r⇥H=J+✏

@t

D = ✏·E

B = µ·H

J = ·E

✓ ◆ ✓ ◆

@H @E

r · (E ⇥ H) = µ ·H E· J+✏

@t @t

✓ ◆

@H @E

= B· +D· +E·J

@t @t

E·J B· @H

@t

+D· @E

@t

✏ µ

✓ ◆

@ H·B E·D

r · (E ⇥ H) + + +E·J=0

@t 2 2

v

@ H·B E·D

´ ´ ´

v

r · (E ⇥ H) · dv + v @t 2

+ 2

· dv + v

E · J·dv = 0

@ H·B E·D

¸ ´ ´

s

(E ⇥ H)·da + @t v 2

+ 2

· dv + v

E · J·dv = 0

@

¸ ´ ´

s

S·da + @t v

U · dv + v

E · J·dv = 0

s S·da

¸

s

@

U · dv

´

@t v

s

E · J·dv

´

v

s

H·B E·D

U 2

+ 2

! ! !⇤

S = E⇥H

⇣! ! ⌘ ! ! ! !

r · E ⇥ H ⇤ = (r ⇥ E ) · H ⇤ E · (r ⇥ H ⇤ )

! !

r⇥ E = j!µ H

! !

r ⇥ H = J + j!✏ E

⇣! ! ⌘ h ! ! ! ! i

r· E ⇥H⇤ = (j!µ H) · H ⇤ + E · (J + j!✏ E )⇤

! !2 !2 !

r· S = j!µ H + j!✏ E + E · J⇤

✓ ◆

! !2 !2 ! !

r· S +j·! µ H +✏ E + E · J⇤ = 0

✓ ◆

! !2 ! 2 ! ⇤ !

ˆ ˆ ˆ

r · S · dv + j·! µ H +✏ E · dv + E · J · dv = 0

v v v

ˆ ✓ ◆

! !2 ! 2 !2 !

˛ ˆ

S · da +j · ! · µ H +✏ E · dv + E · dv = 0

s v

| {z } | {z } |v {z }

! q(t) p(t)

S (t)

s

p(t)

p

3Vlı́nea lı́nea Ilı́nea Q

p

S2 P2

DP F

T HD

S̃ = Ṽ I˜⇤ = V ej↵ · I e j

= V I ej(↵ )

= V I ej = P + jQ

! !

s (t) = !

v (t) · i (t)⇤ = (vx ix + vy iy ) + j (vy ix vx iy ) = p(t) + j · q(t)

p

abc 2/3

!

s (t) = p(t) + jq(t) = (va (t) ia (t) + vb (t) ib (t) + vc (t) ic (t))

p

3

+j 3

(vbc (t) ia (t) + vca (t) ib (t) + vab (t) ic (t))

p(t)

f p(t) = !

| s (t)|

!

S

Tr

= 0; ˙ = 0

s(t) = v(t) ⇤ i(t)⇤ = vd idd + vq idq + j vq idd vd idq

im

✓ ◆ ✓ ◆

did diq L2 ˙ iq im + id dim

p= Re i2e + L̂e id + iq + er

dt dt Lr dt

✓ ◆ ✓ ◆

˙ diq did L2 ˙ id im + iq dim

2

q = L̂e ie + L̂e id iq + er

dt dt Lr dt

(t)

= 0; ˙ = 0 Lr

Ler

im

die dim

ve = Re ie + L̂e + Ler )

dt dt

ˆt

j

(ve Re ie ) d⌧ L̂e ie = Ler im = me = mr +j mi

0

ˆt ✓ ◆

L2er

mr = (ver Re ier ) d⌧ Le ier

Lr

0

ˆt ✓ ◆

L2er

mi = (vei Re iei ) d⌧ Le iei

Lr

0

q

2 2

m = mr + mi

mr mi mi

cos = ; sen = ; tan =

m m mr

d m

dt

t0

⇣ ⌘ ⇣ ⌘

mr vei Re iei L̂e piei mi ver Re ier L̂e pier

˙=

2

m

✓˙

im

" # 2 ⇣ ⌘ 32 3

L2er ˙ iq im Re

p i2e id didtd + iq

=4 ⇣ ⌘ Lr

56 7

4 L̂e 5

q 0 id didtq iq didtd + ˙ i2e ˙ i2

d

Ler

j

id + j iq = e (ier + j ier )

iq 1 i 1

Tr = ⇣ ⌘ t q⇣ ⌘

im ˙ ✓˙ id ˙ ✓˙

iq ie

ie

id iq

q q

q = ˙ L̂e i2e ) L̂e = 2

=

!e ie !m i2e

⇣ ⌘ Re i2e p

p = Re ˙ Ler i2e ) Ler =

!e i2e

L̂e

8 2

<q = ˙ L̂ i2 + ˙ i2 Ler q1 ˙1 L̂e i2 ˙1 ˙ 1 q 2 ˙ 2 q1

1 1 e e1 1 d Lr e1

2 ) = ) L̂e =

:q = ˙ L̂ i2 + ˙ i2 Ler q2 ˙2 L̂e i2 ˙2 ˙1 ˙2 i2 2

ie1

2 2 e e2 2 d Lr e2 e2

2

Ler

Lr

v

u

Re i2e )2

2

Ler 1 u u1 + ⇣(p

= ⌘2

Lr ˙ i2 t ˙ L̂e i2

e q e

Re

Tr

iq 1 (p Re i2e ) 1

Tr = ⇣ ⌘=⇣ ⌘⇣ ⌘

id ˙ ✓˙ q ˙ L̂e i2 ˙ ✓˙

e

!m ve ie im ˙

Re

Le

L2er

Lr

Tr

Re

Le

L2er

Lr

Tr

3 2 Rr 3 Vth2 Rr 3 Vth2 s

Te = I = h it si s ! 0

!e r s !e s Rr

+ Rth

2 2

+ Xth !e Rr

s

Rr

Rm

Xm

1 1

I

2 n

I

3 n

1

I

4 n

Rr Xm

Rth Xth

Ir

Vth Vth

Im = Ien Im = In ] cos (f p) =⇣ ⌘

jXm Rth + Rsnr + jXth

Rth Xth

Ve1,2 Re + j!e Le j!e Mer Ie1,2

= Rr1,2

Vr1,2 j!e Mer s1,2

+ j!e Lr1,2 Ir1,2

⇢

1 2 Rr1 2 Rr2

Te = Ir1 Ir2

!e s1 s2

!e !m !e + !m

s1 = ; s2 = ; s1 + s2 = 2

!e !e

1 2

jX e j!e (Le Mer )

jX r j!e (Lr Mer )

=⇠

Rr (s1 ) cosh (2⇠) cos (2⇠)

=

L r (s1 ) 2⇠ cosh (2⇠) cos (2⇠)

r

s2 !e µ0 r

⇠ t hranura

2

hranura

Vab Vbc Vca

↵

Va Vb Vc

✓ ◆

1 Vab2 Vbc2 Vca2

= cos

2Vbc Vca

✓ ◆

1 Vbc

↵ = sin sin

Vab

✓ ◆

1 Vca

= sin sin

Vab

q

1

Va = 2 (Vca2 + Vab2 ) Vbc2

3

q

1

Vb = 2 (Vbc2 + Vab2 ) Vca2

3

q

1

Vc = 2 (Vbc2 + Vca2 ) Vab2

3

2 3 2 32 3 2 32 3 2 3

V0 1 1 1 Va 1 1 1 Va 0

6 7 16 2 76 7 16 2 76 j ( ↵+ ⇡) 7 6 7 j 2⇡

4 V1 5 = 4 1 a a 5 4 Vb 5 = 4 1 a a 5 4 Vb e 2 5 = 4 V1 ej⇣1 5 ; a = e 3

3 3 ↵+

V2 1 a2 a Vc 1 a2 a Vc ej (↵+ 2 2⇡ )

V2 ej⇣2

8

h± !e !m h± ⌥ (1 s1 ) <h = 6m + 1, m = 0, 1, 2, . . .

+

sh± = = ; donde :

h± !e h± :h = 6m 1, m = 0, 1, 2, . . .

n

X

Te = ±Teh± = T1 T5 + T7 T11 + T13 ···

h=0

v

u n q

uX

Ie = t 2

I2h 1 = I12 + I32 + I52 + I72 + I92 + I11

2 2

+ I13

h=1

Vm (n) = 1 (Rth (n 1) + j Xth (n 1)) In

Vm Vm (n)

I0 (n) = =

Zm Rm (n 1) k jXm

Ir = Ien I0 (n)

Tn sn

Rr (n) =

|Ir (n)|2

|Vm (n)|2

Pn Rr (n)

sn

|Ir (n)|2 Rm (n)

Rth (n) =

|Ien |2

p |Vm (n)|2

Q(n) = 1 f p2n

Xm

2Q(n)

Xth (n) t

|Ir (n)|2 + |Ien |2

✓ ◆ ✓ ◆ ✓ ◆

2 Xth (n) Rth (n) Rm (n)

" = k1 1 + k2 1 + k1 1

Xth (n 1) Rth (n 1) Rm (n 1)

k1 k2 k3

" "max t 10 3

3

"max = 10

Rth Rr Rm Xth Xm

4Pper

nop (rpm) Carga ( %) ⌘op ( %) Pper (W ) 4Pper (W )

1778 75, 15 86, 53 2262, 8 296, 3

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ENERGY CONVERSION, VOL. 18, NO. 2, JUNE 2003 271

Estimation Techniques

Hamid A. Toliyat, Senior Member, IEEE, Emil Levi, Senior Member, IEEE, and Mona Raina, Student Member, IEEE

electric machine in high performance drive applications. Control

schemes of such drives require an exact knowledge of at least

some of the induction motor parameters. Any mismatch between

the parameter values used within the controller and actual

parameter values in the motor leads to a deterioration in the drive

performance. Numerous methods for induction machine online

and offline parameter estimation have been developed exclusively

for application in high performance drives. This paper aims at

providing a review of the major techniques used for the induction

motor parameter estimation. The paper is illustrated throughout

with experimental and simulation examples, related to various

parameter estimation techniques.

Index Terms—Induction motor drives, parameter offline identi-

fication, parameter online estimation, vector control.

oriented reference frames in detuned operation, caused by a parameter

ac machine control method that is widely used in high

performance industrial applications of electric drives. In the

mismatch. Because the commanded reference frame does not coincide with the

actual one, decoupled rotor flux and torque control does not take place.

case of an induction machine, rotor flux oriented (RFO) control flux contains both - and -axis component, leading to a loss

requires an accurate value of at least some of the motor of decoupled flux and torque control. Performance of the drive

parameters in order to yield robust control. Which parameters therefore deteriorates from the desired. In order to avoid such

are required depends on the applied RFO control scheme. If a situation, it is necessary to provide the vector controller with

the applied parameter values within the control system do accurate induction motor parameter values. These parameters

not match the actual values in the motor, detuned operation have to be obtained somehow from measurements, during ini-

results. Impact of parameter variations on various vector control tialization of the drive. Since any vector controlled induction

schemes has been studied in detail in the past and extensive motor drive is inverter fed, numerous tests based on an inverter

discussions are available in many books [1]–[5]. supply have been developed in recent past for determination

A vector controlled induction motor can be used within a of the required parameter values [4]–[7]. Such methods are

torque drive, a speed drive, or a position drive. The type of the further on called “offline parameter identification methods.”

drive that exhibits the highest sensitivity to the incorrect param- In addition, numerous possibilities exist nowadays to update

eter values is the torque drive. Although the motor parameter the parameter values during the drive operation [3]–[7]. The

variations affect the speed control applications too, existence techniques that enable parameter adaptation during the drive

of the PI speed controller considerably reduces negative con- operation are further on termed “online parameter estimation

sequences of the parameter detuning. methods.”

Induction motor parameters change with temperature, fre- The aim of this paper is to provide a review of the major tech-

quency, and saturation. The consequence of any mismatch niques used for the induction motor offline and online parameter

between the parameter values used in the controller and those identification and estimation, respectively.

in the motor is that the actual rotor flux position does not coin-

cide with the position assumed by the controller. The situation II. INDUCTION MOTOR PARAMETERS

is illustrated in Fig. 1, [4]. This means that the actual rotor

The parameters that may need to be identified offline or

tracked online depend on the vector control scheme under

Manuscript received January 21, 2002.

H. A. Toliyat and M. Raina are with the Department of Electrical En- consideration. If the drive operates with the constant rated

gineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-3128 USA flux reference, the required parameters will be some or all of

(e-mail: toliyat@ee.tamu.edu; Mona@ee.tamu.edu). the following: rated magnetizing inductance, stator resistance,

E. Levi is with the School of Engineering, Liverpool John Moores University,

Liverpool, L3 3AF, U.K. (e-mail: e.levi@livjm.ac.uk). rotor resistance, and stator/rotor leakage inductance or transient

Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TEC.2003.811719 stator inductance. If the drive operates with a variable flux

0885-8969/03$17.00 © 2003 IEEE

272 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ENERGY CONVERSION, VOL. 18, NO. 2, JUNE 2003

reference (optimal efficiency drives, operation in the field single-phase ac excitation is the rotor time constant identifica-

weakening region, etc.), magnetizing curve will usually be tion method of [25]. It is based on trial-and-error and essentially

required as well. Finally, if the drive controller includes some does not require any computations.

kind of compensation of the iron losses (that may be especially Some of the offline identification procedures surveyed so far

important for torque drives in electric or hybrid vehicles), one enable identification of the machine’s magnetizing curve in ad-

will need to know the variation of the equivalent iron loss resis- dition to other rated parameter values. Such is the case for the

tance with operating frequency [8]. The most important offline methods described in [13], [15], [21]–[23]. It should be noted

identification and online parameter estimation techniques are that the requirement for magnetizing curve identification often

reviewed in the remainder of this paper. adds to the complexity of the commissioning procedure since

more than one test needs to be performed. A significant step

forward in this sense is the method of [26], where magnetizing

III. OFFLINE PARAMETER IDENTIFICATION TECHNIQUES

curve is identified at standstill using only one test with single-

It is often the case in practice that one manufacturer supplies phase ac supply. Other possibilities of the magnetizing curve

the inverter with a vector controller, while the machine comes identification for self-commissioning purposes have been ex-

from another manufacturer. It is then not possible to set the pa- plored in [27]–[30].

rameters of the controller in advance and these have to be set If the conditions of the commissioning are less stringent, the

onsite, once when the inverter is connected to the machine. Such drive may be allowed to rotate for the purposes of parameter

a situation has led to the development of the so-called self-com- identification. A whole array of additional parameter determi-

missioning procedures for vector controlled induction machines nation methods opens up in this case. For example, an extremely

[9], [10]. The main idea behind this concept is that the controller simple procedure for rotor time constant tuning [31] is based on

automatically determines all of the parameters of an induction the tests performed while the machine is rotating. The drive is

machine, required for vector control. The automated procedure operated in the torque mode for the purposes of the rotor time

of testing and calculation is done following the first enabling of constant tuning, with rated rotor flux reference. An alternating

the controller. As the induction machine may already be cou- square-wave torque reference is applied at certain speed of rota-

pled to a load, the tests aimed at self-commissioning have to tion. If the rotor time constant value used in the controller is cor-

identify the required parameters at standstill. The identification rect, the actual torque is an alternating square-wave as well, so

is therefore performed with single-phase supply to the machine. that the speed response follows a triangular function. If the rotor

In principle, two types of excitation may be applied—dc or ac. time constant setting is not correct, situation of Fig. 1 results

The one ideal for true self-commissioning is dc. From applied and the actual torque response is not the same as the torque ref-

dc voltage and resulting dc steady state current, one finds the erence. Speed response then deviates from triangular. An exper-

value of the stator resistance. Determination of the remaining imental illustration of this trial-and-error method of rotor time

parameters is then based most frequently on transient current re- constant tuning is given in Fig. 2.

sponse that follows application of the dc voltage. Self-commis- Standard no-load test and locked rotor test may be performed

sioning schemes that rely on this approach are those described with a PWM inverter supply if the commissioning situation al-

in [11]–[16]. lows for such testing. Parameters that are calculated are the same

The methods regarded as suitable for commissioning but as those obtained with sinusoidal supply, provided that the cal-

inappropriate for self-commissioning are those that either culations are based on the fundamental components [32]. This

require some special conditions to be satisfied during the feature is exploited in [33], where the parameters are identi-

commissioning (for example, the machine is allowed to rotate) fied using the dc, no-load and the pseudo-locked rotor tests. A

or they require substantially more complicated mathematical method for pseudo-locked rotor test is presented since the me-

processing of the measurement results, when compared to chanical locking of the rotor is undesirable in any onsite com-

the self-commissioning methods. For example, procedures missioning scenario.

described in [17]–[19] are all based on some tests with Identification of the machine’s magnetizing curve becomes

single-phase supply to the machine. However, the method a simple and straightforward task if the machine is allowed

described in [17] involves application of pseudo-random to rotate under no-load conditions during the onsite commis-

binary-sequence voltage excitation and requires an adaptive sioning. By defining the magnetizing curve’s analytical approx-

observer. The procedure of [18] relies on maximum likelihood imation in a suitable functional form and by performing a series

method to obtain transfer function parameters. A step voltage is of steady state fundamental harmonic voltage measurements in

applied at the stator terminals and the stator voltage and stator the field weakening region, it becomes possible to determine

current responses are recorded. The Laplace transformation the correct magnetizing curve approximation purely by visual

is used to get the transfer function along with the maximum inspection of the measurement results [34]. An experimental

likelihood estimation. The method of [19] requires application illustration of this method is given in Fig. 3, where measured

of the recursive least squares algorithm, this being the same as line-to-line fundamental voltage component is shown, together

for the procedure of [20]. with the reconstructed magnetizing curve.

The second possible excitation for parameter identification Another magnetizing curve identification procedure is

at standstill is single-phase ac. Standstill frequency response described in [35]. It relies on the signals that are already

test forms in this case the basis for the parameter identifica- present within the drive controller (stator currents and the dc

tion [21]–[24]. A particularly interesting procedure based on link voltage), so that additional measurements are not required.

TOLIYAT et al.: A REVIEW OF RFO INDUCTION MOTOR PARAMETER ESTIMATION TECHNIQUES 273

parameter of the inverse magnetizing curve per-unit analytical approximation

and reconstructed magnetizing curve

(2.3-kW machine, field-weakening starts at 1150 r/min; results taken from

[34]). The correct value is since it gives the flattest voltage behavior

in the field-weakening region.

in indirect vector controller: speed response to alternating square-wave torque

command with correct rotor time constant and with 1.7 times correct rotor time

constant (0.75-kW machine). Speed response is a triangular function of time

when the rotor time constant is correctly set (upper figure). The method was

originally proposed in [31] and the results shown are from [4].

precise acquisition of the magnetizing curve, robust against

the stator resistance variation, and the inverter lock-out time.

The algorithm does not require any test signals. It is sufficient

to perform the measurements during running of the unloaded

motor at around 100 r/min. Performing measurements at such a

low speed enables the impact of iron and mechanical losses on

identification accuracy to be minimized. This, in turn, enables

accurate identification down to 10% of the rated magnetizing

flux, including the point of infliction. An illustration of the

results of the procedure of [35] is given in Fig. 4.

Some other approaches to the magnetizing curve identifica-

tion, described in [36]–[38] are more involved and therefore less

suitable for onsite commissioning of the drive. Method of [36]

performs identification at standstill and only current measure-

ments are needed. However, all the three phases of the machine Fig. 4. Experimentally identified magnetizing curve and magnetizing

inductance (100 r/min, no-load conditions, 7-kW machine, method of [35]).

are energized and standstill condition is achieved by means of

closed loop speed control. The method requires that the vector

controlled induction motor is coupled to a controllable load and It is worth noting that offline magnetizing curve (or magne-

is therefore not suitable for onsite commissioning. Similar con- tizing inductance) identification suffices for saturation compen-

clusion applies to the broad-band excitation method [37], which sation schemes and that identification of dynamic (differential)

requires injection of multiple frequency supply into the ma- inductance is usually not required. However, there are methods

chine’s stator terminals. Method of [38], although apparently that enable identification of the dynamic inductance as well, for

very accurate, is rarely applicable in practice since it requires example [37] and [39].

that the neutral point of the stator star connected winding is Compensation of iron losses in vector controlled induction

accessible. machines usually requires knowledge of the equivalent iron loss

274 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ENERGY CONVERSION, VOL. 18, NO. 2, JUNE 2003

the fundamental frequency [8]. The equivalent iron loss resis-

tance can be identified during the drive commissioning using

the procedure outlined in [40]. A series of no-load tests are

performed at various fundamental frequencies, using the same

PWM voltage source inverter that will be subsequently used for

the normal drive operation. Fundamental harmonic input power

needs to be measured, mechanical losses are separated from

the fundamental iron losses using the customary no-load test

procedure, and equivalent iron loss resistance is eventually cal-

culated. The procedure requires that rotation is permitted and

that no-load condition is available. An illustration of the ex-

perimental results related to fundamental iron loss component

and the corresponding equivalent iron loss resistance is given

in Fig. 5. Tests at standstill, which would enable identification

of the equivalent iron loss resistance, do not seem to exist at

present.

It should be noted that accuracy of parameter determination in

all offline identification techniques depends on the sample rate

selection, quantization errors, resolution and accuracy of sen-

sors, etc. [41]. Identified parameter values will therefore always

Fig. 5. Fundamental component of the iron loss identified using the procedure

be characterized with certain error margin. The major problem of [40] and the corresponding equivalent iron loss resistance (4-kW machine).

encountered in offline parameter identification at standstill is

undoubtedly the inverter lock-out time and nonlinearity, which

make the accurate parameter determination on the basis of re-

constructed voltages very difficult without prior knowledge of

the inverter voltage drop characteristics [42]. A technique for

overcoming this problem has recently been proposed, based on

recursive least squares [43].

Further important works describing various approaches to

self-commissioning and commissioning are those of [44]–[55].

The major effort has been put into development of rotor time

constant (rotor resistance) online estimation methods. Due to

a huge number of proposed solutions of very different nature,

these are further classified into four subgroups.

This group of methods encompasses all of the cases where

online identification is based on the measured response to a de- Fig. 6. Rotor inductance and rotor resistance identification using the method

liberately injected test signal or an existing characteristic har- of [57] (simulation results).

monic in the voltage/current spectrum [56]–[66]. Stator currents

and/or voltages of the motor are sampled and the parameters are that the strong second harmonic torque pulsation is induced due

derived from the spectral analysis of these samples. In the case to the interaction of positive and negative rotating components

of spectral analysis, a perturbation signal is used because under of MMF.

no-load conditions of the induction motor, the rotor induced cur- In [57], an online estimation technique is proposed, based on

rents and voltages become zero, so slip frequency becomes zero, the – model in the frequency domain. The -axis component

and hence, the rotor parameters cannot be estimated. In [56] and of the injected negative sequence component is kept at zero, so

[57], the disturbance to the system is provided by injecting nega- that the machine torque is undisturbed. The -axis component

tive sequence components. An online technique for determining affects the flux of the machine. FFT is used to analyze the

value of the rotor resistance by detecting the negative sequence currents and voltages and the fundamental components of the

voltage is proposed in [56]. Special precautions need to be taken sampled spectral values are used to determine the parameters.

to circumvent the torque-producing action when an induction Average speed is used for the identification of parameters.

motor, equipped with this system, is used as a torque drive; oth- The simulation results, obtained using this method, for rotor

erwise, the outer loop might prevent the perturbation from being resistance and rotor inductance identification are given in Fig. 6

injected into the system. The main drawback of this method is [57].

TOLIYAT et al.: A REVIEW OF RFO INDUCTION MOTOR PARAMETER ESTIMATION TECHNIQUES 275

In [58], an attempt to create online tests similar to the no-load An extended Luenberger observer (ELO) for joint state and

and full-load tests is made. In [59], a pseudo-random binary se- parameter estimation was developed in [77]–[79]. In [78] and

quence signal is used for perturbation of the system by injecting [79], the authors have provided a comparison of the operation

it into the -axis and correlating with -axis stator current re- of the ELO and the EKF. In [78], a deterministic approach to

sponse. The sign of correlation gives the direction for rotor time designing the ELO with joint online estimation of motor states

constant updating. This method however does not work satisfac- and parameters is presented. In [79], Du and Brdys implemented

torily under light loads. In [60], a sinusoidal perturbation is in- the scheme using three different full-order ELOs. The first ELO

jected into the flux producing stator current component channel. was used for rotor time constant and rotor flux estimation. The

Though rotor resistance can be estimated under any load and second one was used for shaft speed and rotor flux estima-

speed condition, the cost is high due to the installation of two tion and the third for shaft speed, load torque, and rotor flux

flux search coils. estimation.

Solutions described in [61]–[63] all belong to the same In the case of joint state and parameter estimation, ELO turns

category. A very different approach is the one described in out to be the advantageous solution. Since the induction motor is

[64]–[66], where rotor slot harmonics in stator current are a nonlinear system, the observations from the EKF at individual

tracked and used for online updating of the rotor time constant. time instants do not lead to an overall optimal observation. For

the ELO, there is a great deal of flexibility in choosing the gain,

B. Observer-Based Techniques unlike the EKF and the rate of convergence can be tuned without

In [67], Loron and Laliberté describe the motor model and adversely affecting the steady state accuracy of the observer.

the development and tuning of an extended Kalman filter (EKF) The main advantage of the ELO over the EKF is that the ob-

for parameter estimation during normal operating conditions server performance can be greatly enhanced by simply adjusting

without introducing any test signals. The proposed method re- the gain matrix for rapid convergence of the estimates, which

quires terminal and rotor speed measurements and is useful for gives an unbiased estimation in the case of the ELO.

autotuning an indirect field-oriented controller or an adaptive The major problems related to EKF and ELO applications are

direct field-oriented controller. In [68], Zai, DeMarco, and Lipo computational intensity and the fact that all the inductances are

propose a method for detection of the inverse rotor time con- treated as constants in the motor equations. In order to improve

stant using the EKF by treating the rotor time constant as the the accuracy of the EKF-based rotor resistance identification, it

fifth state variable along with the stator and rotor currents. This is suggested in [68], [70], and [73] to simultaneously identify

is similar to a previously mentioned method that injected per- the magnetizing inductance. Another possibility of improving

turbation in the system, except that in this case, the perturbation the accuracy is the inclusion of the iron loss into the model [72].

is not provided externally. Instead, the wide-band harmonics

contained in a PWM inverter output voltage serve as an excita- C. Model Reference Adaptive System-Based Techniques

tion. This method works on the assumption that when the motor

The third major group of online rotor resistance adaptation

speed changes, the machine model becomes a two-input/two- methods is based on principles of model reference adaptive

output time-varying system with superimposed noise input. The control. This is the approach that has attracted most of the

drawbacks are that this method assumes that all other parame- attention due to its relatively simple implementation require-

ters are known and the variation in the magnetizing inductance ments. The basic idea is that one quantity can be calculated in

can introduce large errors into the rotor time constant estima- two different ways. The first value is calculated from references

tion. The application of the EKF for slip calculation for tuning inside the control system. The second value is calculated from

an indirect field oriented drive is proposed in [69]. Using the measured signals. One of the two values is independent of the

property that in the steady state the Kalman gains are asymptot- rotor resistance (rotor time constant). The difference between

ically constant for constant speeds, the Riccati difference equa- the two is an error signal, whose existence is assigned entirely

tion is replaced by a look-up table that makes the system much to the error in rotor resistance used in the control system. The

simpler. The disadvantage is that, although the complexity of error signal is used to drive an adaptive mechanism (PI or I

the Riccati equation is reduced, the full-order EKF is computa- controller) which provides correction of the rotor resistance.

tionally very intensive as compared to the reduced order-based Any method that belongs to this group is based on utilization

systems. of the machine’s model and its accuracy is therefore heavily

In [70], an online estimation of rotor resistance and the mag- dependent on the accuracy of the applied model. The number

netizing inductance, using continuous form of the Kalman filter of methods that belong to this group is vast [80]–[100] and

is proposed, though the actual estimation is done offline using they primarily differ with respect to which quantity is selected

the discrete form of the KF. For using the KF online, it is im- for adaptation purposes. Reactive power-based method is not

portant to estimate the magnetizing inductance accurately as an dependent on stator resistance at all and is probably the most

inaccurate magnetizing inductance gives improper value of the frequently applied approach [80]–[85]. A method based on

rotor time constant. The method is based on the assumption that special criterion function, derived again from stator voltage

since the value of the magnetizing inductance follows the motor and current measurement, is described in [86]. Next, air gap

flux level, the magnetizing inductance can be estimated along power can be selected as the quantity on which adaptation

with the rotor resistance and the rotor time constant using the is based [87], [88]. The reference air gap power is calcu-

KF. Other solutions, based on the Kalman filter, are those de- lated from reference torque and frequency values, while the

scribed in [71]–[76]. actual one has to be calculated from measured input power

276 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ENERGY CONVERSION, VOL. 18, NO. 2, JUNE 2003

link power can be measured instead of the machine’s input

power. In both cases, the accuracy of the method is heavily

undermined by the need to estimate stator loss (and inverter

losses if dc link power is measured). Other possibilities include

selection of torque [83], [89], rotor back emf [90], [91], rotor

flux magnitude [83], rotor flux -, and -components [92],

stored magnetic energy [93], product of stator -axis current

and rotor flux [94], stator fundamental rms voltage [95], stator

-axis or -axis voltage components [94], or stator -axis cur-

rent component [96]. There are a couple of common features

that all of the methods of this group share. First, rotor resis- Fig. 7. Experimental recording of the operation of the rotor resistance

tance adaptation is usually operational in steady-states only adaptation in indirect rotor flux oriented induction machine, using the method

and is then disabled during transients. Thus, the adaptation of [86] (scales: time—10 s/div, error function—0.5 p.u./div, rotor resistance

estimate—0.4 p.u./div; 0.75-kW machine). Figure provided courtesy of the

can be based on steady-state model of the machine. Second, author, Dr. S.N. Vukosavic.

in the vast majority of cases, stator voltages are required for

calculation of the adaptive quantity and they have either to be

measured or reconstructed from the inverter firing signals and Other methods of online rotor resistance adaptation, that do

measured dc link voltage. Third, in most cases, identification not belong to any of the three main groups, are reviewed next.

does not work at zero speed and at zero load torque. Finally,

identification heavily relies on the model of the machine, in D. Other Methods

which, most frequently, all of the other parameters are treated There exist a number of other possibilities for online rotor

as constants. This is at the same time the major drawback of resistance (rotor time constant) adaptation, such as those de-

this group of methods. Indeed, an analysis of the parameter scribed in [105]–[107]. For example, the method of [107] does

variation influence on accuracy of rotor resistance adaptation

not require either a special test signal or complex computations.

[101] shows that when rotor flux magnitude method is applied

It is based on a special switching technique of the current regu-

and actual leakage inductances deviate by 40% from the values

lated PWM inverter, which allows measurement of the induced

used in the adaptation, rotor resistance is estimated with such

voltage across the disconnected stator phase. The rotor time con-

an error that the response of the drive becomes worse than with

stant is then identified directly from this measured voltage and

no adaptation at all. Similar study, with very much the same

measured stator currents. The technique provides up to six win-

conclusions, is described in [102] where parameter sensitivity

dows within one electric cycle to update the rotor time constant,

is examined for -axis stator voltage method, -axis stator

which is sufficient for all practical purposes. A simulation il-

voltage method, air gap power method, and reactive power

lustration of the method is given in Fig. 8, where estimated and

method.

Due to high sensitivity of the model-based methods to other actual rotor time constant are shown. The updating is performed

parameter variation effects, it is desirable to account for at least only twice (rather than six times) during one electrical cycle.

some of these in the process of rotor resistance adaptation. Another possibility, opened up by the recent developments

Variation of the magnetizing inductance with saturation is for in the area of artificial intelligence (AI), is the application of

this reason sometimes taken into account, so that the accu- artificial neural networks for the online rotor time constant

racy of rotor resistance identification is improved [84], [86], (rotor resistance) adaptation. Such a possibility is explored

[103], [104]. The other drawback of this group of methods, in [108]–[112]. The other AI technique that can be utilized

impossibility of adaptation at zero speed and zero load torque, for online rotor time constant adaptation is the fuzzy logic

is successfully eliminated in certain cases. For example, the [113]–[120].

schemes of [86] and [96] are operational at zero speed and at Recent emphasis on sensorless vector control has led to a de-

light loads although they do fail at zero load. velopment of a number of schemes for simultaneous rotor speed

Operation of a MRAS rotor resistance adaptation scheme is and rotor time constant online estimation, that are applicable in

illustrated in Fig. 7 by means of experimentally recorded traces. conjunction with the appropriate speed estimation model-based

The method based on special criterion function of [86], which algorithms [121]–[134]. These methods of rotor time constant

enables rotor resistance adaptation at zero speed and under light estimation belong in vast majority of cases to one of the groups

loading conditions, is implemented. The error function, which already reviewed in this section.

serves as the input into the PI controller, is shown together with An excellent review of the rotor resistance compensation

the rotor resistance estimate in per unit (i.e., ratio of rotor re- schemes, available at the time, is the one of [135].

sistance in the controller to the actual one in the machine). The

drive operates at zero speed with 0.2 per unit load torque. The V. ONLINE ESTIMATION OF STATOR RESISTANCE

adaptation mechanism operation is illustrated for step variation

of rotor resistance used in the controller, of 50 . As can be An industrially accepted standard for sensored rotor flux ori-

seen from Fig. 7, rotor resistance adaptation works well as the ented control has become the indirect rotor flux oriented control

resistance in the controller always returns, after the introduced (IRFOC), which does not require the knowledge of the stator re-

disturbances, to the previous value (i.e., to ). sistance. Since the rotor time constant is of crucial importance

TOLIYAT et al.: A REVIEW OF RFO INDUCTION MOTOR PARAMETER ESTIMATION TECHNIQUES 277

account for main flux saturation is rather involved and the

final form depends on the selected set of state space variables

[164]–[166]. However, if one is interested only in modifying

the rotor flux estimators or the indirect vector controller in such

a way that the main flux saturation is compensated, then this

task can be accomplished in a relatively simple way, because

all of the estimators and the indirect vector controller are based

on the reduced order models of an induction machine [1],

[167]–[170]. Very much the same applies to the utilization of a

full order observer for rotor flux estimation, provided that the

Fig. 8. Estimated and actual rotor time constant using the procedure of

[107]. The estimate is updated twice per electrical cycle, on the basis of the observer is constructed using stator current and rotor flux –

measurement of the voltage across a disconnected phase. axis components as state space variables [171]. In all of these

cases, knowledge of the induction machine’s magnetizing curve

is a prerequisite, since this characteristic has to be incorporated

for decoupled flux and torque control in IRFOC, the major ef-

into the control system. Magnetizing curve has therefore to be

fort was directed toward development of online techniques for

identified offline during the commissioning of the drive.

rotor time constant identification, as shown by the review in Sec-

The other existing approaches to online magnetizing induc-

tion IV. The situation has however dramatically changed with

tance estimation are predominantly based on standard – axis

the advent of sensorless vector control, which requires rotor

machine model and they do not require a-priori knowledge of

speed estimation. Vast majority of speed estimation techniques the magnetizing curve. Such is the situation with methods re-

are based on the induction machine model and involve the stator ported in [103], [172]–[178]. While the estimation is sufficiently

resistance as a parameter in the process of speed estimation. An good in steady state, it is usually of limited accuracy during tran-

accurate value of the stator resistance is of utmost importance sients, since the schemes are based on the induction machine

in this case for correct operation of the speed estimator in the model that accounts for the main flux saturation in a very ap-

low speed region. If stator resistance is detuned, large speed es- proximate way (only through continuous variation of the steady

timation errors and even instability at very low speeds result. It state magnetizing inductance). A couple of theoretical/ simula-

is for this reason that online estimation of stator resistance has tion attempts were made recently to apply AI techniques (ANNs

received considerable attention during the last decade, as wit- and FL) in the estimation of the saturated magnetizing induc-

nessed by a large number of publications devoted to this subject tance [179], [180].

[136]–[163]. The other driving force behind the increased in- Online magnetizing inductance estimation is illustrated in

terest in online stator resistance estimation was the introduction Fig. 9 for a model-based method, described in [181], which

of direct torque control (DTC), which in its basic form relies requires knowledge of the magnetizing curve of the machine.

on estimation of stator flux from measured stator voltages and An experimental recording of the start-up transient, with

currents. The accuracy of DTC, especially in the low frequency set speed of 1350 r/min, is shown. The machine is initially

region, therefore heavily depends on the knowledge of the cor- premagnetized and the field weakening operation starts at

rect stator resistance value. 650 r/min by means of the IRFOC scheme described in [34].

In general, methods of stator resistance estimation are sim- The magnetizing inductance exhibits substantial variation, from

ilar to those utilized for rotor time constant (rotor resistance) unsaturated value in premagnetized state to rated saturated

estimation and include application of observers, extended value and then back toward unsaturated value as the speed of

Kalman filters, model reference adaptive systems, and artificial rotation in the field weakening region increases.

intelligence. Rotor leakage flux saturation can be included in the model of

the machine by making rotor leakage inductance a variable pa-

rameter, dependent on the rotor current. Frequency-related vari-

VI. ONLINE COMPENSATION OF SATURATION AND IRON LOSS

ation of rotor parameters can be accounted for by representing

In contrast to temperature-related resistance variation that is the rotor winding with two branches. A scheme with air gap

slow, change in machine’s inductances is very rapid. Compen- flux oriented control, that includes both compensation of rotor

sation of such variations is therefore most easily accomplished leakage flux saturation and frequency dependent variation of

by means of modified nonlinear machine models that account rotor parameters, derived from a modified induction machine

for the variable degree of saturation and invariably ask for the model that accounts for both of these phenomena, is described in

knowledge of an appropriate magnetizing curve. Compensation detail in [182]–[184]. It is demonstrated in [182]–[184] that, for

of main flux saturation, that will simultaneously yield online the chosen machine in which both of these effects are severely

magnetizing inductance estimation, requires that the basic ma- pronounced, vector control scheme derived from such a mod-

chine model is modified in such a way that the nonlinearity of ified model provides superior performance when compared to

the magnetizing curve is accounted for. The standard assump- the performance obtainable with vector control scheme based on

tion is that leakage flux and main flux components of the stator the constant parameter model. It is worth noting that the scheme

and rotor flux can be treated independently. It is assumed fur- of [182]–[184] additionally compensates for main flux satura-

ther on that leakage inductances are constants and that only main tion as well. The intrinsic difficulty in implementation of such

flux saturates. a vector control scheme is that the number of rotor parameters

278 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ENERGY CONVERSION, VOL. 18, NO. 2, JUNE 2003

and they have therefore to be identified offline, during the drive

commissioning. However, since all of the parameters inevitably

vary during the drive operation, it is often desirable to improve

the performance of the drive by adding an online parameter esti-

mator. Such a situation has led to development of a large number

of offline parameter identification and online parameter estima-

tion methods during the last two decades. An attempt is made in

this paper to review the existing methods and to provide a com-

prehensive bibliography on the subject.

The attention is at first focused on self-commissioning and

commissioning techniques that serve the purpose of the offline

parameter identification at the stage of the drive initialization.

Available methods for induction motor equivalent circuit param-

eter identification are reviewed, along with the possibilities for

the magnetizing curve and equivalent iron loss resistance deter-

mination. Since an accurate value of the rotor time constant is

of utmost importance for tuned operation of the vast majority

of vector controlled induction motor drives, a substantial space

is further devoted to the methods that enable online rotor time

constant estimation. This is followed by discussion of the online

Fig. 9. Online estimated magnetizing inductance and speed of rotation for stator resistance estimation methods, since the exact knowledge

the accleration transient of a loaded machine, using the method of [181]. Field of the stator resistance is of paramount importance in a number

weakening starts at 650 r/min.

of sensorless vector and direct torque control schemes.

In contrast to the resistance variations that are slow, varia-

that have to be determined during the commissioning is now five tions in the magnetizing inductance and iron loss are rapid and

rather than two. One possibility is to use finite element calcu- are therefore most easily compensated by utilizing a modified

lations, as suggested in [182]. Alternatively, a series of locked vector controller, that is developed using an appropriately mod-

rotor tests, executed for different current values at various oper- ified motor model (that accounts for the flux saturation and/or

ating frequencies, can be used to experimentally identify offline iron loss) as the starting point. Methods aimed at online estima-

the parameters of this modified model. tion and compensation of the magnetizing inductance variation

Compensation of iron loss is nowadays almost exclusively and the iron loss are surveyed in the last section of the paper.

done using the model-based approach, which consists of de- The paper is illustrated throughout with numerous experi-

velopment of a modified vector control scheme on the basis mental and simulation results, related to different offline param-

of a machine’s model that takes into account the existence of eter identification and online parameter estimation techniques,

the iron loss. Iron loss is represented within the machine model taken from various publications of the authors.

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TOLIYAT et al.: A REVIEW OF RFO INDUCTION MOTOR PARAMETER ESTIMATION TECHNIQUES 283

[195] S. D. Wee, M. H. Shin, and D. S. Hyun, “Stator-flux-oriented control of Hamid A. Toliyat (S’87–M’91–SM’96) received the

induction motor considering iron loss,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. Ph.D. degree in electrical engineering from the Uni-

48, pp. 602–608, June 2001. versity of Wisconsin-Madison in 1991.

[196] S. Shinnaka, “Proposition of new mathematical models with stator core Currently, he is an Associate Professor in the

loss factor for induction motor,” Elect. Eng. Japan, vol. 134, no. 1, pp. Department of Electrical Engineering at Texas A&M

64–75, 2001. University, College Station. Dr. Toliyat is an Editor

[197] M. Abdel-Salam, S. Abou-Shadi, and Y. Sayed, “Analysis of induction of IEEE TRANS. ENERGY CONVERSION, an Associate

motors fed from constant current source taking core-loss and satura- Editor of IEEE TRANS.POWER ELECTRONICS, and

tion into consideration,” Elect. Mach. Power Syst., vol. 27, no. 6, pp. a member of the Editorial Board of Electric Power

581–599, 1999. Components and Systems Journal. His main research

[198] J. Jung, K. Nam, C. Han, J. Chung, and D. Ahn, “A new vector control interests and experience include multiphase variable

scheme considering iron loss for electric vehicle induction motors,” in speed drives, fault diagnosis of electric machinery, analysis and design of

electrical machines, and sensorless variable speed drives. He has published

Proc. IEEE Ind. Applicat. Soc. Annu. Meeting, 1997, pp. 439–444.

over 150 technical papers in these fields. He is actively involved in presenting

[199] W. Choi, D. W. Chung, and S. K. Sul, “Implementation of field oriented

short courses and consulting in his area of expertise to various industries.

induction machine considering iron losses,” in Proc. IEEE Appl. Power

He has received the Texas A&M Select Young Investigator Award in 1999,

Electron. Conf., 1996, pp. 375–379. Eugene Webb Faculty Fellow Award in 2000, NASA Space Act Award in 1999,

[200] T. Noguchi and D. Hiraishi, “Core loss compensation of direct field- and the Schlumberger Foundation Technical Award in 2000 and 2001. He is also

oriented induction motor incorporating robust parameter identification,” Vice-Chairman of IEEE-IAS Electric Machines Committee, and is a member

in Proc. IEEE Ind. Electron. Soc. Annu. Meeting, 1999, pp. 1409–1414. of Sigma Xi. He is the recipient of the 1996 IEEE Power Eng. Society Prize

[201] S. Shinnaka, “Proposition of new mathematical models with core loss Paper Award for his paper on the Analysis of Concentrated Winding Induction

factor for controlling AC motors,” in Proc. IEEE Ind. Electron. Soc. Machines for Adjustable Speed Drive Applications—Experimental Results.

Annu. Meeting, 1998, pp. 297–302.

[202] T. Noguchi, P. Nakmahachalasint, and N. Watanakil, “Precise torque

control of induction motor with on-line parameter identification in con-

sideration of core loss,” in Proc. Power Conversion Conf., 1997, pp. Emil Levi (S’89–M’92–SM’99) was born in 1958 in

113–118. Zrenjanin, Yugoslavia. He received the Diploma de-

[203] C. Millet, D. Leroux, Y. Li, B. Feuvrie, and C. Bergmann, “Modern gree from the University of Novi Sad, Yugoslavia,

automatic tools for an identification and a field-oriented control design and the M.Sc. and Ph.D. degrees in electrical engi-

of an induction machine: A no linear decoupling structure,” in Proc. neering from the University of Belgrade, Yugoslavia,

in 1982, 1986, and 1990, respectively.

IEEE Power Electron. Specialists Conf., 1997, pp. 1486–1492.

Currently, he is Professor of Electric Machines

[204] M. Hasegawa, H. Yamasaki, S. Doki, and S. Okuma, “Compensation of

and Drives in the School of Engineering at Liverpool

stator iron loss of vector-controlled induction motor using robust flux

John Moores University, Liverpool, U.K. In 1982,

observer,” Elect. Eng. Japan, vol. 137, no. 3, pp. 59–66, 2001. he joined the Department of Electrical Engineering

[205] V. Valouch, “Induction motor field-oriented controller, respecting iron at the University of Novi Sad, where he became

losses,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Symp. Ind. Electron., 1995, pp. 668–673. Assistant Professor in 1991. He joined Liverpool John Moores University,

[206] H. Rasmussen, P. Vadstrup, and H. Borsting, “Rotor field oriented con- U.K., in May 1992 as a Senior Lecturer. From 1995 till 2000, he was a Reader

trol with adaptive iron loss identification,” in Proc. IEEE Ind. Applicat. in Electrical Power Engineering. His main areas of research interest are

Soc. Annu. Meeting, 1999, pp. 1253–1258. modeling and simulation of electric machines, control of high performance

[207] A. Dittrich, “Model based identification of the iron loss resistance of drives, and power electronic converters. He has published over 130 papers,

an induction machine,” in Proc. Inst. Elect. Eng. Conf. Power Electron. including more than 30 papers in major international journals.

Variable Speed Drives, 1998, pp. 500–503.

in electrical engineering from the University of

Madras, India. She is currently pursuing the M.Sc.

degree in electrical engineering at Texas A&M

University, College Station.

She is currently with Novellus Systems, Inc., San

Jose, CA. Her research interests are in the fields of

power electronics and motor drives and they include

the parameter estimation of induction motors.

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