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# p

S0= 3V0 · I0

P 0 = P 1 + P2

q
Q0 = S02 P02
V02
Rm ⇡
P0
V02
Xm ⇡
Q0
RT1 234, 5 + T1 (
=
RT2 234, 5 + T2 (

p
SRB= 3VRB · IRB

PRB = P1 + P2

q
2 2
QRB = SRB PRB
P0
RT ⇡ Re + Rr = 2
3IRB
QRB
XT ⇡ Xe + Xr = 2
3IRB

PRB
Rr ⇡ RT Re ⇡ 2
Re
3IRB
PR 3Rr 2 3Rr Vth2
Te (s) = = Ir = h i
!s !s s 2
!s s Rth + Rsr + Xth
2

s
Te (s ! 0) ! 3 V2
!s Rr th

3sn Vn2
Rr ⇡
!s Tn
Ze (Re , X e , Rr , X r , Rm , Xm , s) = Z e +Z r k Zm

Z e = Re + jX e

Z r = Rr + jX r

jXm · Rm
Zm = Rm k jXm =
Rm + jXm

n
!m

Xn   ⇤
Zecal (si ) Zemed (si ) Zecal (si ) Zemed (si )
=
i=1 i Zemed (si ) i Zemed (si )

Zemed (si ) Si

Zecal (si ) Si

i i

n
= FT · F

h i
FT = f1⇤ (x,s1 ) f2⇤ (x,s2 ) · · · · · · fn⇤ (x,sn )

## Zecal (x, si ) Zemed (x, si )

fi (x, si ) =
i Zemed (x, si )

h i
xT = Re X e Rr X r Rm Xm

G(x)

   T  T
@ @F(x) @F (x) @F (x)
= G(x) = FT (x)· + ·F(x) = 2 ·F(x) = 2·J(x)·F(x)
@x @x @x @x

J(x)
F(x) n⇥m
n m

⇥ ⇤ 1
4x = J(xk )T · J(xk ) · J(xk )T · F(xk )

k+1

xk+1 = xk + 4x

k 4x "
xk+1 = xk + ↵4x

F(xk+1 )
k+1
k

## (xk+1 ) = (xk + ↵4x) = F(xk + ↵4x) · FT (xk + ↵4x) = (↵)

↵4x

k+1

↵4x
k
x
Re 0, 02 0, 02 0, 0 0, 02 0, 02
X e 0, 10 0, 1000 0, 0 0, 1000 0, 1
Rm 48, 0 50, 0012 1,0 50, 0012 50
Xm 3, 3 3, 0000 1, 0 3, 0000 3, 0
Rr 0, 0276 0, 0300 0, 0 0, 0300 0, 03
X r 0, 12 0, 1500 0, 0 0, 1500 0, 15
12 12 10
0, 275 1, 466 ⇥ 10 2, 9395 1, 476 ⇥ 10 1,799 ⇥ 10
Zent (Re , Xe , Rr , Xr , Rm , Xm , s) = Ze + Zr k Zm

Ze = Re + jX e

Rr1
s
Zr2
Z r = Rr1
+ jX r1
s
+ Zr2
Rr2
Zr2 = + jXr2
s

jXm · Rm
Zm = Rm k jXm =
Rm + jXm
Re 0, 02 0, 02 0, 02 0, 02 0, 02
X e 0, 10 0, 0927 0, 1 0, 0927 0, 1000
Rm 50, 0 50, 2697 40,0 50, 2697 50, 00
Xm 3, 0 3, 0071 5, 0 3, 0071 3, 0000
Rr1 0, 03 0, 0801 0, 04 0, 0801 0, 0800
Xr1 0, 1 0, 1079 0, 1 0, 1079 0, 1000
Rr2 0, 03 0, 0403 0, 01 0, 0403 0, 0400
Xr2 0, 15 0, 1510 0, 1 0, 1510 0, 1500
9 10 8
0, 0514 8, 7588 ⇥ 10 0, 9974 4, 9387 ⇥ 10 3, 1920 ⇥ 10
" # " #" # " # " # " #" #
ve Re 0 ie Le Ler d ie 0 0 ie
= + j ✓˙
vre 0 Rr ier Ler Lr dt ier Ler Lr ier

## Te Tm = J ✓¨ + ↵ ✓˙ = Ler =m {ie · (ier )⇤ }

r n o
2 2⇡ 4⇡
x= xa + ej 3 xb + ej 3 xc
3
✓˙ = !m

vre = 0
✓ ◆
Rr Ler Ler
pier = j ✓˙ ier + j ✓˙ ie pie
Lr Lr Lr
✓ 2
◆ ✓ ◆ ✓ ◆
L L2er Rr
ve = Re + j ✓˙ er ie + Le pie + Ler j ✓˙ ier
Lr Lr Lr

pier
ier

✓ ◆ ✓ ✓ ◆◆ ✓ ◆
L2er Le ˙ L2er Rr
pve = Le 2
p ie + Re + Rr j ✓ Le pie + j ✓˙ (ve Re ie )
Lr Lr Lr Lr

⇣ ⌘
pve ˙ e = k1 p2 ie
j ✓v ˙ e + k2 pie
j ✓pi k3 j ✓i˙ er k4 ve + k5 ie

✓ ◆
L2er Le Rr Rr
k1 = Le ; k2 = Re + Rr ; k3 = Re ; k4 = ; k5 = Re
Lr Lr Lr Lr

k1 , k 2 , k 3 , k 4 k5
n
X
= [[fmed (ti , !mi )] [fcal (ti , !mi )]]t · [[fmed (ti , !mi )] [fcal (ti , !mi )]]
i=1

## [fmed (ti , !mi )] = pve ˙ e = [hi ]

j ✓v

2 3
k1
6 7
h ⇣ ⌘ i6
6
k2 7
7
[fcal (ti , !mi )] = p2 ie ˙ e
j ✓pi pie j ✓i˙ er ve ie 6
6 k3 7 = [wi ] [k]
7
6 7
4 k4 5
k5

[k]
n
X
= [[hi ] [wi ] [k]]t · [[hi ] [wi ] [k]]
i=1
 n
X n
X n
X
@
= 2 [[hi ] [wi ] [k]] = [0] ) [hi ] = [wi ] [k] )
@k i=1 i=1 i=1

n n
" n
#
X X X
[wi ]t [hi ] = [wi ]t [wi ] [k] = [wi ]t [wi ] [k] )
i=1 i=1 i=1
" n
# 1 n
X t
X
[k] = [wi ] [wi ] [wi ]t [hi ]
i=1 i=1

[k]
k2 k3 1 L2
R e = k 3 ; Le = ; Tr = ; er = Le k1
k4 k4 Lr

Ler Lr

[k]
Pn = 100 HP Vn = 460 V In = 154 A
Tn = 570 N m nn = 1,719 rpm cos n = 0, 91
Iarr = 594 A Tarr = 573 N m ⌘n = 87, 6 %
p=2 f = 60 Hz Tm = 1,114 N m
Y Jeje = 5 kg m2
SBASE = 123 kV A VBASE = 460 V IBASE = 154 A
s
TBASE = 682 N m tBASE = 27 ⇥ 10 3 s

## t (pu) 0 2,250 4,500

!m (pu) 0 0, 5 1
ve (pu) 0,0000 j1,4142 0,8213 j1,1513 1,3372 j0,4602
pve 1,4142 j0,0000 1,1513 + j0,8213 0,4602 + j1,3372
ie 5,8091 j2,8707 1,9584 j5,5378 0,1281 j0,3696
pie 2,8707 j5,8091 5,5378 j1,9584 0,3696 j0,1281
p2 ie 5,8091 + j2,8707 1,9584 + j5,5378 0,1281 + j0,3696

[k]

k1 k2 k3 k4 k5
4
0,1952 0,0986 0,0548 0,0121 6,6308 ⇥ 10
Ler 2
Re Le Tr Lr
0,0548 3,6200 82,645 3,4248
Re Le Ler Lr Rr
0,0548 3,6200 3, 5210 3,6200 0, 0438

Tr

pie
ve ie e

ier
e

ee = (ve Re ie )
ˆt
e Le ie
e = Le ie + Ler ier = (ve Re ie ) dt ) ier =
Ler
0

pier

1 n o
0 = Rr ier +Ler pie +Lr pier j ˙ (Ler ie˙ + Lr ier✓) ) pier = ˙ r )ie
( Rr + j ✓L r
˙ er ie
Ler pie + j ✓L
Lr

pie

## ve = Re ie + Le pie + Ler pier )

⇢ ✓ 2

1 Le ˙ r ) + j ✓˙ Ler ˙ r) e
pie = L̂e ve Re ( Rr + j ✓L ie ( Rr + j ✓L
Lr Lr Lr

⇣ ⌘
L2er Rr ˙
ve Le Lr
pie ( Lr
+ j ✓) e
ie = h i
Re + Le
R
Lr r
j ✓˙L̂e
L2er
L̂e = Le Lr

n o {Rr , Le , Lr , Ler }
ve , ie , ✓˙
Re Re ve
ie e

pie
ie

N pie ie
N ✓
X ◆✓ ◆⇤
pie =
i=1
pie medida pie medida

N ✓
X ◆✓ ◆⇤
ie =
i=1
ie medida ie medida

200 hp 460 V

e
~ir

1 ⇣~ ⌘
ir = e Le ie
Ler

p e = ve Re ie

✓ ◆ ✓ ◆
Rr Le
0= j!m e +p e Rr j!m L̂e ie L̂e pie
Lr Lr
zin

✓ ◆
ve Le pie Rr e
zi (t) = = Re + Rr j!m L̂e + L̂e j!m
ie Lr ie Lr ie
Re 0, 0128 0,0128 0,0128
Rr 0, 07 0, 01 0, 070
Le 0, 0505 0, 08 0, 0345
Lr 0, 0505 0, 08 0, 0673
Ler 2, 5027 3 2, 4505
6
error 0 26 4, 48 ⇥ 10
Re 0, 0128 0,0128 0,0128
Rr 0, 07 0, 01 0, 071
Le 0, 0505 0, 08 0, 0056
Lr 0, 0505 0, 08 0, 0981
Ler 2, 5027 3 2, 4788
5
error 0 37, 7 1, 84 ⇥ 10
zi ve
ie e

!m J
k

Te = e ⇥ ie

## Te = e ⇥ ie = Jp!m + Tm = Jp!m + k!m

Te
t0 J!s
k
ie
J k
Re 0,0128 0,0122 4,69 0,0128
Rr 0,0070 0,0076 8,57 0,0070 0,00
Ls 2,5532 2,7810 8,92 2,5602 0,27
Lr 2,5532 2,7728 8,60 2,5606 0,29
Lsr 2,5027 2,7265 8,94 2,5099 0,38
9 9
0,0000 3,8 ⇥ 10 3,8 ⇥ 10

Tr
p(t) = va ia + vb ib + vc ic

ia + ib + ic = 0

va + vb + vc = 0

v
i⇤

1
s = v · i⇤ = p(t) + jq(t) = va ia + vb ib + vc ic + p j [ia vbc + ib vca + ic vab ]
3
e
E
H E
H P
P
P

E
P

v
e

S=E⇥H

S
✓ ◆
VA
S=E⇥H
m2
˛ ˛ ˆ
S·ds = (E ⇥ H)·da = r · (E ⇥ H) · dv
s s v

da n̂

dv
ds

r · (E ⇥ H)

r · (E ⇥ H) = (r ⇥ E) · H E · (r ⇥ H)

@H
r⇥E= µ
@t

@E
r⇥H=J+✏
@t

D = ✏·E
B = µ·H
J = ·E

✓ ◆ ✓ ◆
@H @E
r · (E ⇥ H) = µ ·H E· J+✏
@t @t
✓ ◆
@H @E
= B· +D· +E·J
@t @t
E·J B· @H
@t
+D· @E
@t
✏ µ

✓ ◆
@ H·B E·D
r · (E ⇥ H) + + +E·J=0
@t 2 2
v

@ H·B E·D
´ ´ ´
v
r · (E ⇥ H) · dv + v @t 2
+ 2
· dv + v
E · J·dv = 0

@ H·B E·D
¸ ´ ´
s
(E ⇥ H)·da + @t v 2
+ 2
· dv + v
E · J·dv = 0

@
¸ ´ ´
s
S·da + @t v
U · dv + v
E · J·dv = 0

s S·da
¸

s
@
U · dv
´
@t v

s
E · J·dv
´
v
s

H·B E·D
U 2
+ 2

! ! !⇤
S = E⇥H
⇣! ! ⌘ ! ! ! !
r · E ⇥ H ⇤ = (r ⇥ E ) · H ⇤ E · (r ⇥ H ⇤ )

! !
r⇥ E = j!µ H

! !
r ⇥ H = J + j!✏ E

⇣! ! ⌘ h ! ! ! ! i
r· E ⇥H⇤ = (j!µ H) · H ⇤ + E · (J + j!✏ E )⇤

! !2 !2 !
r· S = j!µ H + j!✏ E + E · J⇤

✓ ◆
! !2 !2 ! !
r· S +j·! µ H +✏ E + E · J⇤ = 0

✓ ◆
! !2 ! 2 ! ⇤ !
ˆ ˆ ˆ
r · S · dv + j·! µ H +✏ E · dv + E · J · dv = 0
v v v

ˆ ✓ ◆
! !2 ! 2 !2 !
˛ ˆ
S · da +j · ! · µ H +✏ E · dv + E · dv = 0
s v
| {z } | {z } |v {z }
! q(t) p(t)
S (t)

s
p(t)

## p(t) = va (t) ia (t) + vb (t) ib (t) + vc (t) ic (t)

p
3Vlı́nea lı́nea Ilı́nea Q

p
S2 P2

DP F
T HD

S̃ = Ṽ I˜⇤ = V ej↵ · I e j
= V I ej(↵ )
= V I ej = P + jQ

! !
s (t) = !
v (t) · i (t)⇤ = (vx ix + vy iy ) + j (vy ix vx iy ) = p(t) + j · q(t)

p
abc 2/3
!
s (t) = p(t) + jq(t) = (va (t) ia (t) + vb (t) ib (t) + vc (t) ic (t))

p
3
+j 3
(vbc (t) ia (t) + vca (t) ib (t) + vab (t) ic (t))

p(t)
f p(t) = !
| s (t)|

!
S
Tr

= 0; ˙ = 0
s(t) = v(t) ⇤ i(t)⇤ = vd idd + vq idq + j vq idd vd idq

im

✓ ◆ ✓ ◆
did diq L2 ˙ iq im + id dim
p= Re i2e + L̂e id + iq + er
dt dt Lr dt
✓ ◆ ✓ ◆
˙ diq did L2 ˙ id im + iq dim
2
q = L̂e ie + L̂e id iq + er
dt dt Lr dt

## i2e = i2d + i2q

(t)
= 0; ˙ = 0 Lr
Ler
im

die dim
ve = Re ie + L̂e + Ler )
dt dt
ˆt
j
(ve Re ie ) d⌧ L̂e ie = Ler im = me = mr +j mi
0

ˆt ✓ ◆
L2er
mr = (ver Re ier ) d⌧ Le ier
Lr
0

ˆt ✓ ◆
L2er
mi = (vei Re iei ) d⌧ Le iei
Lr
0
q
2 2
m = mr + mi
mr mi mi
cos = ; sen = ; tan =
m m mr

d m
dt
t0
⇣ ⌘ ⇣ ⌘
mr vei Re iei L̂e piei mi ver Re ier L̂e pier
˙=
2
m

✓˙
im

" # 2 ⇣ ⌘ 32 3
L2er ˙ iq im Re
p i2e id didtd + iq
=4 ⇣ ⌘ Lr
56 7
4 L̂e 5
q 0 id didtq iq didtd + ˙ i2e ˙ i2
d
Ler

j
id + j iq = e (ier + j ier )

iq 1 i 1
Tr = ⇣ ⌘ t q⇣ ⌘
im ˙ ✓˙ id ˙ ✓˙
iq ie
ie
id iq

q q
q = ˙ L̂e i2e ) L̂e = 2
=
!e ie !m i2e
⇣ ⌘ Re i2e p
p = Re ˙ Ler i2e ) Ler =
!e i2e

L̂e

8 2
<q = ˙ L̂ i2 + ˙ i2 Ler q1 ˙1 L̂e i2 ˙1 ˙ 1 q 2 ˙ 2 q1
1 1 e e1 1 d Lr e1
2 ) = ) L̂e =
:q = ˙ L̂ i2 + ˙ i2 Ler q2 ˙2 L̂e i2 ˙2 ˙1 ˙2 i2 2
ie1
2 2 e e2 2 d Lr e2 e2
2
Ler
Lr
v
u
Re i2e )2
2
Ler 1 u u1 + ⇣(p
= ⌘2
Lr ˙ i2 t ˙ L̂e i2
e q e

Re

Tr

iq 1 (p Re i2e ) 1
Tr = ⇣ ⌘=⇣ ⌘⇣ ⌘
id ˙ ✓˙ q ˙ L̂e i2 ˙ ✓˙
e
!m ve ie im ˙

Re
Le
L2er
Lr
Tr
Re
Le
L2er
Lr
Tr
3 2 Rr 3 Vth2 Rr 3 Vth2 s
Te = I = h it si s ! 0
!e r s !e s Rr
+ Rth
2 2
+ Xth !e Rr
s

Rr

Rm
Xm
1 1
I
2 n
I
3 n
1
I
4 n

Rr Xm
Rth Xth

Ir

Vth Vth
Im = Ien Im = In ] cos (f p) =⇣ ⌘
jXm Rth + Rsnr + jXth

Rth Xth

## " # " #" #

Ve1,2 Re + j!e Le j!e Mer Ie1,2
= Rr1,2
Vr1,2 j!e Mer s1,2
+ j!e Lr1,2 Ir1,2

1 2 Rr1 2 Rr2
Te = Ir1 Ir2
!e s1 s2

!e !m !e + !m
s1 = ; s2 = ; s1 + s2 = 2
!e !e
1 2

## j!e Mer jXm

jX e j!e (Le Mer )
jX r j!e (Lr Mer )

## Rr (s2 ) sinh (2⇠) + sin (2⇠)

=⇠
Rr (s1 ) cosh (2⇠) cos (2⇠)

## L r (s2 ) 3 sinh (2⇠) sin (2⇠)

=
L r (s1 ) 2⇠ cosh (2⇠) cos (2⇠)
r
s2 !e µ0 r
⇠ t hranura
2
hranura
Vab Vbc Vca

Va Vb Vc

✓ ◆
1 Vab2 Vbc2 Vca2
= cos
2Vbc Vca
✓ ◆
1 Vbc
↵ = sin sin
Vab
✓ ◆
1 Vca
= sin sin
Vab
q
1
Va = 2 (Vca2 + Vab2 ) Vbc2
3
q
1
Vb = 2 (Vbc2 + Vab2 ) Vca2
3
q
1
Vc = 2 (Vbc2 + Vca2 ) Vab2
3
2 3 2 32 3 2 32 3 2 3
V0 1 1 1 Va 1 1 1 Va 0
6 7 16 2 76 7 16 2 76 j ( ↵+ ⇡) 7 6 7 j 2⇡
4 V1 5 = 4 1 a a 5 4 Vb 5 = 4 1 a a 5 4 Vb e 2 5 = 4 V1 ej⇣1 5 ; a = e 3
3 3 ↵+
V2 1 a2 a Vc 1 a2 a Vc ej (↵+ 2 2⇡ )
V2 ej⇣2

8
h± !e !m h± ⌥ (1 s1 ) <h = 6m + 1, m = 0, 1, 2, . . .
+
sh± = = ; donde :
h± !e h± :h = 6m 1, m = 0, 1, 2, . . .

n
X
Te = ±Teh± = T1 T5 + T7 T11 + T13 ···
h=0
v
u n q
uX
Ie = t 2
I2h 1 = I12 + I32 + I52 + I72 + I92 + I11
2 2
+ I13
h=1
Vm (n) = 1 (Rth (n 1) + j Xth (n 1)) In

Vm Vm (n)
I0 (n) = =
Zm Rm (n 1) k jXm

Ir = Ien I0 (n)

Tn sn
Rr (n) =
|Ir (n)|2

|Vm (n)|2
Pn Rr (n)
sn
|Ir (n)|2 Rm (n)
Rth (n) =
|Ien |2
p |Vm (n)|2
Q(n) = 1 f p2n
Xm

2Q(n)
Xth (n) t
|Ir (n)|2 + |Ien |2

## PR (n) = Pper (n) Rth (n) |Ien |2 Rr |Ir (n)|2

✓ ◆ ✓ ◆ ✓ ◆
2 Xth (n) Rth (n) Rm (n)
" = k1 1 + k2 1 + k1 1
Xth (n 1) Rth (n 1) Rm (n 1)
k1 k2 k3
"  "max t 10 3

3
"max = 10
Rth Rr Rm Xth Xm

4Pper

## 28\ 41, 3 31\ 158, 2 31\ 284, 4 29,9 1, 95 6, 52 %

nop (rpm) Carga ( %) ⌘op ( %) Pper (W ) 4Pper (W )
1778 75, 15 86, 53 2262, 8 296, 3
IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ENERGY CONVERSION, VOL. 18, NO. 2, JUNE 2003 271

## A Review of RFO Induction Motor Parameter

Estimation Techniques
Hamid A. Toliyat, Senior Member, IEEE, Emil Levi, Senior Member, IEEE, and Mona Raina, Student Member, IEEE

## Abstract—An induction motor is the most frequently used

electric machine in high performance drive applications. Control
schemes of such drives require an exact knowledge of at least
some of the induction motor parameters. Any mismatch between
the parameter values used within the controller and actual
parameter values in the motor leads to a deterioration in the drive
performance. Numerous methods for induction machine online
and offline parameter estimation have been developed exclusively
for application in high performance drives. This paper aims at
providing a review of the major techniques used for the induction
motor parameter estimation. The paper is illustrated throughout
with experimental and simulation examples, related to various
parameter estimation techniques.
Index Terms—Induction motor drives, parameter offline identi-
fication, parameter online estimation, vector control.

## I. INTRODUCTION Fig. 1. Illustration of commanded – and actual – rotor flux

oriented reference frames in detuned operation, caused by a parameter

## F IELD oriented (or vector) control is the most popular

ac machine control method that is widely used in high
performance industrial applications of electric drives. In the
mismatch. Because the commanded reference frame does not coincide with the
actual one, decoupled rotor flux and torque control does not take place.

case of an induction machine, rotor flux oriented (RFO) control flux contains both - and -axis component, leading to a loss
requires an accurate value of at least some of the motor of decoupled flux and torque control. Performance of the drive
parameters in order to yield robust control. Which parameters therefore deteriorates from the desired. In order to avoid such
are required depends on the applied RFO control scheme. If a situation, it is necessary to provide the vector controller with
the applied parameter values within the control system do accurate induction motor parameter values. These parameters
not match the actual values in the motor, detuned operation have to be obtained somehow from measurements, during ini-
results. Impact of parameter variations on various vector control tialization of the drive. Since any vector controlled induction
schemes has been studied in detail in the past and extensive motor drive is inverter fed, numerous tests based on an inverter
discussions are available in many books [1]–[5]. supply have been developed in recent past for determination
A vector controlled induction motor can be used within a of the required parameter values [4]–[7]. Such methods are
torque drive, a speed drive, or a position drive. The type of the further on called “offline parameter identification methods.”
drive that exhibits the highest sensitivity to the incorrect param- In addition, numerous possibilities exist nowadays to update
eter values is the torque drive. Although the motor parameter the parameter values during the drive operation [3]–[7]. The
variations affect the speed control applications too, existence techniques that enable parameter adaptation during the drive
of the PI speed controller considerably reduces negative con- operation are further on termed “online parameter estimation
sequences of the parameter detuning. methods.”
Induction motor parameters change with temperature, fre- The aim of this paper is to provide a review of the major tech-
quency, and saturation. The consequence of any mismatch niques used for the induction motor offline and online parameter
between the parameter values used in the controller and those identification and estimation, respectively.
in the motor is that the actual rotor flux position does not coin-
cide with the position assumed by the controller. The situation II. INDUCTION MOTOR PARAMETERS
is illustrated in Fig. 1, [4]. This means that the actual rotor
The parameters that may need to be identified offline or
tracked online depend on the vector control scheme under
H. A. Toliyat and M. Raina are with the Department of Electrical En- consideration. If the drive operates with the constant rated
gineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-3128 USA flux reference, the required parameters will be some or all of
(e-mail: toliyat@ee.tamu.edu; Mona@ee.tamu.edu). the following: rated magnetizing inductance, stator resistance,
E. Levi is with the School of Engineering, Liverpool John Moores University,
Liverpool, L3 3AF, U.K. (e-mail: e.levi@livjm.ac.uk). rotor resistance, and stator/rotor leakage inductance or transient
Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TEC.2003.811719 stator inductance. If the drive operates with a variable flux
272 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ENERGY CONVERSION, VOL. 18, NO. 2, JUNE 2003

reference (optimal efficiency drives, operation in the field single-phase ac excitation is the rotor time constant identifica-
weakening region, etc.), magnetizing curve will usually be tion method of [25]. It is based on trial-and-error and essentially
required as well. Finally, if the drive controller includes some does not require any computations.
kind of compensation of the iron losses (that may be especially Some of the offline identification procedures surveyed so far
important for torque drives in electric or hybrid vehicles), one enable identification of the machine’s magnetizing curve in ad-
will need to know the variation of the equivalent iron loss resis- dition to other rated parameter values. Such is the case for the
tance with operating frequency [8]. The most important offline methods described in [13], [15], [21]–[23]. It should be noted
identification and online parameter estimation techniques are that the requirement for magnetizing curve identification often
reviewed in the remainder of this paper. adds to the complexity of the commissioning procedure since
more than one test needs to be performed. A significant step
forward in this sense is the method of [26], where magnetizing
III. OFFLINE PARAMETER IDENTIFICATION TECHNIQUES
curve is identified at standstill using only one test with single-
It is often the case in practice that one manufacturer supplies phase ac supply. Other possibilities of the magnetizing curve
the inverter with a vector controller, while the machine comes identification for self-commissioning purposes have been ex-
from another manufacturer. It is then not possible to set the pa- plored in [27]–[30].
rameters of the controller in advance and these have to be set If the conditions of the commissioning are less stringent, the
onsite, once when the inverter is connected to the machine. Such drive may be allowed to rotate for the purposes of parameter
a situation has led to the development of the so-called self-com- identification. A whole array of additional parameter determi-
missioning procedures for vector controlled induction machines nation methods opens up in this case. For example, an extremely
[9], [10]. The main idea behind this concept is that the controller simple procedure for rotor time constant tuning [31] is based on
automatically determines all of the parameters of an induction the tests performed while the machine is rotating. The drive is
machine, required for vector control. The automated procedure operated in the torque mode for the purposes of the rotor time
of testing and calculation is done following the first enabling of constant tuning, with rated rotor flux reference. An alternating
the controller. As the induction machine may already be cou- square-wave torque reference is applied at certain speed of rota-
pled to a load, the tests aimed at self-commissioning have to tion. If the rotor time constant value used in the controller is cor-
identify the required parameters at standstill. The identification rect, the actual torque is an alternating square-wave as well, so
is therefore performed with single-phase supply to the machine. that the speed response follows a triangular function. If the rotor
In principle, two types of excitation may be applied—dc or ac. time constant setting is not correct, situation of Fig. 1 results
The one ideal for true self-commissioning is dc. From applied and the actual torque response is not the same as the torque ref-
dc voltage and resulting dc steady state current, one finds the erence. Speed response then deviates from triangular. An exper-
value of the stator resistance. Determination of the remaining imental illustration of this trial-and-error method of rotor time
parameters is then based most frequently on transient current re- constant tuning is given in Fig. 2.
sponse that follows application of the dc voltage. Self-commis- Standard no-load test and locked rotor test may be performed
sioning schemes that rely on this approach are those described with a PWM inverter supply if the commissioning situation al-
in [11]–[16]. lows for such testing. Parameters that are calculated are the same
The methods regarded as suitable for commissioning but as those obtained with sinusoidal supply, provided that the cal-
inappropriate for self-commissioning are those that either culations are based on the fundamental components [32]. This
require some special conditions to be satisfied during the feature is exploited in [33], where the parameters are identi-
commissioning (for example, the machine is allowed to rotate) fied using the dc, no-load and the pseudo-locked rotor tests. A
or they require substantially more complicated mathematical method for pseudo-locked rotor test is presented since the me-
processing of the measurement results, when compared to chanical locking of the rotor is undesirable in any onsite com-
the self-commissioning methods. For example, procedures missioning scenario.
described in [17]–[19] are all based on some tests with Identification of the machine’s magnetizing curve becomes
single-phase supply to the machine. However, the method a simple and straightforward task if the machine is allowed
described in [17] involves application of pseudo-random to rotate under no-load conditions during the onsite commis-
binary-sequence voltage excitation and requires an adaptive sioning. By defining the magnetizing curve’s analytical approx-
observer. The procedure of [18] relies on maximum likelihood imation in a suitable functional form and by performing a series
method to obtain transfer function parameters. A step voltage is of steady state fundamental harmonic voltage measurements in
applied at the stator terminals and the stator voltage and stator the field weakening region, it becomes possible to determine
current responses are recorded. The Laplace transformation the correct magnetizing curve approximation purely by visual
is used to get the transfer function along with the maximum inspection of the measurement results [34]. An experimental
likelihood estimation. The method of [19] requires application illustration of this method is given in Fig. 3, where measured
of the recursive least squares algorithm, this being the same as line-to-line fundamental voltage component is shown, together
for the procedure of [20]. with the reconstructed magnetizing curve.
The second possible excitation for parameter identification Another magnetizing curve identification procedure is
at standstill is single-phase ac. Standstill frequency response described in [35]. It relies on the signals that are already
test forms in this case the basis for the parameter identifica- present within the drive controller (stator currents and the dc
tion [21]–[24]. A particularly interesting procedure based on link voltage), so that additional measurements are not required.
TOLIYAT et al.: A REVIEW OF RFO INDUCTION MOTOR PARAMETER ESTIMATION TECHNIQUES 273

## Fig. 3. Measured fundamental stator voltage for different settings of the

parameter of the inverse magnetizing curve per-unit analytical approximation
and reconstructed magnetizing curve
(2.3-kW machine, field-weakening starts at 1150 r/min; results taken from
[34]). The correct value is since it gives the flattest voltage behavior
in the field-weakening region.

## Fig. 2. An experimental trial-and-error method of rotor time constant tuning

in indirect vector controller: speed response to alternating square-wave torque
command with correct rotor time constant and with 1.7 times correct rotor time
constant (0.75-kW machine). Speed response is a triangular function of time
when the rotor time constant is correctly set (upper figure). The method was
originally proposed in [31] and the results shown are from [4].

## A special identification function, proposed in [35], ensures

precise acquisition of the magnetizing curve, robust against
the stator resistance variation, and the inverter lock-out time.
The algorithm does not require any test signals. It is sufficient
to perform the measurements during running of the unloaded
motor at around 100 r/min. Performing measurements at such a
low speed enables the impact of iron and mechanical losses on
identification accuracy to be minimized. This, in turn, enables
accurate identification down to 10% of the rated magnetizing
flux, including the point of infliction. An illustration of the
results of the procedure of [35] is given in Fig. 4.
Some other approaches to the magnetizing curve identifica-
tion, described in [36]–[38] are more involved and therefore less
suitable for onsite commissioning of the drive. Method of [36]
performs identification at standstill and only current measure-
ments are needed. However, all the three phases of the machine Fig. 4. Experimentally identified magnetizing curve and magnetizing
inductance (100 r/min, no-load conditions, 7-kW machine, method of [35]).
are energized and standstill condition is achieved by means of
closed loop speed control. The method requires that the vector
controlled induction motor is coupled to a controllable load and It is worth noting that offline magnetizing curve (or magne-
is therefore not suitable for onsite commissioning. Similar con- tizing inductance) identification suffices for saturation compen-
clusion applies to the broad-band excitation method [37], which sation schemes and that identification of dynamic (differential)
requires injection of multiple frequency supply into the ma- inductance is usually not required. However, there are methods
chine’s stator terminals. Method of [38], although apparently that enable identification of the dynamic inductance as well, for
very accurate, is rarely applicable in practice since it requires example [37] and [39].
that the neutral point of the stator star connected winding is Compensation of iron losses in vector controlled induction
accessible. machines usually requires knowledge of the equivalent iron loss
274 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ENERGY CONVERSION, VOL. 18, NO. 2, JUNE 2003

## resistance for the fundamental harmonic, which is a function of

the fundamental frequency [8]. The equivalent iron loss resis-
tance can be identified during the drive commissioning using
the procedure outlined in [40]. A series of no-load tests are
performed at various fundamental frequencies, using the same
PWM voltage source inverter that will be subsequently used for
the normal drive operation. Fundamental harmonic input power
needs to be measured, mechanical losses are separated from
the fundamental iron losses using the customary no-load test
procedure, and equivalent iron loss resistance is eventually cal-
culated. The procedure requires that rotation is permitted and
that no-load condition is available. An illustration of the ex-
perimental results related to fundamental iron loss component
and the corresponding equivalent iron loss resistance is given
in Fig. 5. Tests at standstill, which would enable identification
of the equivalent iron loss resistance, do not seem to exist at
present.
It should be noted that accuracy of parameter determination in
all offline identification techniques depends on the sample rate
selection, quantization errors, resolution and accuracy of sen-
sors, etc. [41]. Identified parameter values will therefore always
Fig. 5. Fundamental component of the iron loss identified using the procedure
be characterized with certain error margin. The major problem of [40] and the corresponding equivalent iron loss resistance (4-kW machine).
encountered in offline parameter identification at standstill is
undoubtedly the inverter lock-out time and nonlinearity, which
make the accurate parameter determination on the basis of re-
constructed voltages very difficult without prior knowledge of
the inverter voltage drop characteristics [42]. A technique for
overcoming this problem has recently been proposed, based on
recursive least squares [43].
Further important works describing various approaches to
self-commissioning and commissioning are those of [44]–[55].

## IV. ONLINE ROTOR TIME CONSTANT ESTIMATION TECHNIQUES

The major effort has been put into development of rotor time
constant (rotor resistance) online estimation methods. Due to
a huge number of proposed solutions of very different nature,
these are further classified into four subgroups.

## A. Spectral Analysis Techniques

This group of methods encompasses all of the cases where
online identification is based on the measured response to a de- Fig. 6. Rotor inductance and rotor resistance identification using the method
liberately injected test signal or an existing characteristic har- of [57] (simulation results).
monic in the voltage/current spectrum [56]–[66]. Stator currents
and/or voltages of the motor are sampled and the parameters are that the strong second harmonic torque pulsation is induced due
derived from the spectral analysis of these samples. In the case to the interaction of positive and negative rotating components
of spectral analysis, a perturbation signal is used because under of MMF.
no-load conditions of the induction motor, the rotor induced cur- In [57], an online estimation technique is proposed, based on
rents and voltages become zero, so slip frequency becomes zero, the – model in the frequency domain. The -axis component
and hence, the rotor parameters cannot be estimated. In [56] and of the injected negative sequence component is kept at zero, so
[57], the disturbance to the system is provided by injecting nega- that the machine torque is undisturbed. The -axis component
tive sequence components. An online technique for determining affects the flux of the machine. FFT is used to analyze the
value of the rotor resistance by detecting the negative sequence currents and voltages and the fundamental components of the
voltage is proposed in [56]. Special precautions need to be taken sampled spectral values are used to determine the parameters.
to circumvent the torque-producing action when an induction Average speed is used for the identification of parameters.
motor, equipped with this system, is used as a torque drive; oth- The simulation results, obtained using this method, for rotor
erwise, the outer loop might prevent the perturbation from being resistance and rotor inductance identification are given in Fig. 6
injected into the system. The main drawback of this method is [57].
TOLIYAT et al.: A REVIEW OF RFO INDUCTION MOTOR PARAMETER ESTIMATION TECHNIQUES 275

In [58], an attempt to create online tests similar to the no-load An extended Luenberger observer (ELO) for joint state and
and full-load tests is made. In [59], a pseudo-random binary se- parameter estimation was developed in [77]–[79]. In [78] and
quence signal is used for perturbation of the system by injecting [79], the authors have provided a comparison of the operation
it into the -axis and correlating with -axis stator current re- of the ELO and the EKF. In [78], a deterministic approach to
sponse. The sign of correlation gives the direction for rotor time designing the ELO with joint online estimation of motor states
constant updating. This method however does not work satisfac- and parameters is presented. In [79], Du and Brdys implemented
torily under light loads. In [60], a sinusoidal perturbation is in- the scheme using three different full-order ELOs. The first ELO
jected into the flux producing stator current component channel. was used for rotor time constant and rotor flux estimation. The
Though rotor resistance can be estimated under any load and second one was used for shaft speed and rotor flux estima-
speed condition, the cost is high due to the installation of two tion and the third for shaft speed, load torque, and rotor flux
flux search coils. estimation.
Solutions described in [61]–[63] all belong to the same In the case of joint state and parameter estimation, ELO turns
category. A very different approach is the one described in out to be the advantageous solution. Since the induction motor is
[64]–[66], where rotor slot harmonics in stator current are a nonlinear system, the observations from the EKF at individual
tracked and used for online updating of the rotor time constant. time instants do not lead to an overall optimal observation. For
the ELO, there is a great deal of flexibility in choosing the gain,
B. Observer-Based Techniques unlike the EKF and the rate of convergence can be tuned without
In [67], Loron and Laliberté describe the motor model and adversely affecting the steady state accuracy of the observer.
the development and tuning of an extended Kalman filter (EKF) The main advantage of the ELO over the EKF is that the ob-
for parameter estimation during normal operating conditions server performance can be greatly enhanced by simply adjusting
without introducing any test signals. The proposed method re- the gain matrix for rapid convergence of the estimates, which
quires terminal and rotor speed measurements and is useful for gives an unbiased estimation in the case of the ELO.
autotuning an indirect field-oriented controller or an adaptive The major problems related to EKF and ELO applications are
direct field-oriented controller. In [68], Zai, DeMarco, and Lipo computational intensity and the fact that all the inductances are
propose a method for detection of the inverse rotor time con- treated as constants in the motor equations. In order to improve
stant using the EKF by treating the rotor time constant as the the accuracy of the EKF-based rotor resistance identification, it
fifth state variable along with the stator and rotor currents. This is suggested in [68], [70], and [73] to simultaneously identify
is similar to a previously mentioned method that injected per- the magnetizing inductance. Another possibility of improving
turbation in the system, except that in this case, the perturbation the accuracy is the inclusion of the iron loss into the model [72].
is not provided externally. Instead, the wide-band harmonics
contained in a PWM inverter output voltage serve as an excita- C. Model Reference Adaptive System-Based Techniques
tion. This method works on the assumption that when the motor
The third major group of online rotor resistance adaptation
speed changes, the machine model becomes a two-input/two- methods is based on principles of model reference adaptive
output time-varying system with superimposed noise input. The control. This is the approach that has attracted most of the
drawbacks are that this method assumes that all other parame- attention due to its relatively simple implementation require-
ters are known and the variation in the magnetizing inductance ments. The basic idea is that one quantity can be calculated in
can introduce large errors into the rotor time constant estima- two different ways. The first value is calculated from references
tion. The application of the EKF for slip calculation for tuning inside the control system. The second value is calculated from
an indirect field oriented drive is proposed in [69]. Using the measured signals. One of the two values is independent of the
property that in the steady state the Kalman gains are asymptot- rotor resistance (rotor time constant). The difference between
ically constant for constant speeds, the Riccati difference equa- the two is an error signal, whose existence is assigned entirely
tion is replaced by a look-up table that makes the system much to the error in rotor resistance used in the control system. The
simpler. The disadvantage is that, although the complexity of error signal is used to drive an adaptive mechanism (PI or I
the Riccati equation is reduced, the full-order EKF is computa- controller) which provides correction of the rotor resistance.
tionally very intensive as compared to the reduced order-based Any method that belongs to this group is based on utilization
systems. of the machine’s model and its accuracy is therefore heavily
In [70], an online estimation of rotor resistance and the mag- dependent on the accuracy of the applied model. The number
netizing inductance, using continuous form of the Kalman filter of methods that belong to this group is vast [80]–[100] and
is proposed, though the actual estimation is done offline using they primarily differ with respect to which quantity is selected
the discrete form of the KF. For using the KF online, it is im- for adaptation purposes. Reactive power-based method is not
portant to estimate the magnetizing inductance accurately as an dependent on stator resistance at all and is probably the most
inaccurate magnetizing inductance gives improper value of the frequently applied approach [80]–[85]. A method based on
rotor time constant. The method is based on the assumption that special criterion function, derived again from stator voltage
since the value of the magnetizing inductance follows the motor and current measurement, is described in [86]. Next, air gap
flux level, the magnetizing inductance can be estimated along power can be selected as the quantity on which adaptation
with the rotor resistance and the rotor time constant using the is based [87], [88]. The reference air gap power is calcu-
KF. Other solutions, based on the Kalman filter, are those de- lated from reference torque and frequency values, while the
scribed in [71]–[76]. actual one has to be calculated from measured input power
276 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ENERGY CONVERSION, VOL. 18, NO. 2, JUNE 2003

## and estimated stator losses in the machine. Alternatively, dc

power. In both cases, the accuracy of the method is heavily
undermined by the need to estimate stator loss (and inverter
losses if dc link power is measured). Other possibilities include
selection of torque [83], [89], rotor back emf [90], [91], rotor
flux magnitude [83], rotor flux -, and -components [92],
stored magnetic energy [93], product of stator -axis current
and rotor flux [94], stator fundamental rms voltage [95], stator
-axis or -axis voltage components [94], or stator -axis cur-
rent component [96]. There are a couple of common features
that all of the methods of this group share. First, rotor resis- Fig. 7. Experimental recording of the operation of the rotor resistance
tance adaptation is usually operational in steady-states only adaptation in indirect rotor flux oriented induction machine, using the method
and is then disabled during transients. Thus, the adaptation of [86] (scales: time—10 s/div, error function—0.5 p.u./div, rotor resistance
estimate—0.4 p.u./div; 0.75-kW machine). Figure provided courtesy of the
can be based on steady-state model of the machine. Second, author, Dr. S.N. Vukosavic.
in the vast majority of cases, stator voltages are required for
calculation of the adaptive quantity and they have either to be
measured or reconstructed from the inverter firing signals and Other methods of online rotor resistance adaptation, that do
measured dc link voltage. Third, in most cases, identification not belong to any of the three main groups, are reviewed next.
does not work at zero speed and at zero load torque. Finally,
identification heavily relies on the model of the machine, in D. Other Methods
which, most frequently, all of the other parameters are treated There exist a number of other possibilities for online rotor
as constants. This is at the same time the major drawback of resistance (rotor time constant) adaptation, such as those de-
this group of methods. Indeed, an analysis of the parameter scribed in [105]–[107]. For example, the method of [107] does
variation influence on accuracy of rotor resistance adaptation
not require either a special test signal or complex computations.
[101] shows that when rotor flux magnitude method is applied
It is based on a special switching technique of the current regu-
and actual leakage inductances deviate by 40% from the values
lated PWM inverter, which allows measurement of the induced
used in the adaptation, rotor resistance is estimated with such
voltage across the disconnected stator phase. The rotor time con-
an error that the response of the drive becomes worse than with
stant is then identified directly from this measured voltage and
no adaptation at all. Similar study, with very much the same
measured stator currents. The technique provides up to six win-
conclusions, is described in [102] where parameter sensitivity
dows within one electric cycle to update the rotor time constant,
is examined for -axis stator voltage method, -axis stator
which is sufficient for all practical purposes. A simulation il-
voltage method, air gap power method, and reactive power
lustration of the method is given in Fig. 8, where estimated and
method.
Due to high sensitivity of the model-based methods to other actual rotor time constant are shown. The updating is performed
parameter variation effects, it is desirable to account for at least only twice (rather than six times) during one electrical cycle.
some of these in the process of rotor resistance adaptation. Another possibility, opened up by the recent developments
Variation of the magnetizing inductance with saturation is for in the area of artificial intelligence (AI), is the application of
this reason sometimes taken into account, so that the accu- artificial neural networks for the online rotor time constant
racy of rotor resistance identification is improved [84], [86], (rotor resistance) adaptation. Such a possibility is explored
[103], [104]. The other drawback of this group of methods, in [108]–[112]. The other AI technique that can be utilized
impossibility of adaptation at zero speed and zero load torque, for online rotor time constant adaptation is the fuzzy logic
is successfully eliminated in certain cases. For example, the [113]–[120].
schemes of [86] and [96] are operational at zero speed and at Recent emphasis on sensorless vector control has led to a de-
light loads although they do fail at zero load. velopment of a number of schemes for simultaneous rotor speed
Operation of a MRAS rotor resistance adaptation scheme is and rotor time constant online estimation, that are applicable in
illustrated in Fig. 7 by means of experimentally recorded traces. conjunction with the appropriate speed estimation model-based
The method based on special criterion function of [86], which algorithms [121]–[134]. These methods of rotor time constant
enables rotor resistance adaptation at zero speed and under light estimation belong in vast majority of cases to one of the groups
serves as the input into the PI controller, is shown together with An excellent review of the rotor resistance compensation
the rotor resistance estimate in per unit (i.e., ratio of rotor re- schemes, available at the time, is the one of [135].
sistance in the controller to the actual one in the machine). The
drive operates at zero speed with 0.2 per unit load torque. The V. ONLINE ESTIMATION OF STATOR RESISTANCE
adaptation mechanism operation is illustrated for step variation
of rotor resistance used in the controller, of 50 . As can be An industrially accepted standard for sensored rotor flux ori-
seen from Fig. 7, rotor resistance adaptation works well as the ented control has become the indirect rotor flux oriented control
resistance in the controller always returns, after the introduced (IRFOC), which does not require the knowledge of the stator re-
disturbances, to the previous value (i.e., to ). sistance. Since the rotor time constant is of crucial importance
TOLIYAT et al.: A REVIEW OF RFO INDUCTION MOTOR PARAMETER ESTIMATION TECHNIQUES 277

## Derivation of the complete dynamic – axis models that

account for main flux saturation is rather involved and the
final form depends on the selected set of state space variables
[164]–[166]. However, if one is interested only in modifying
the rotor flux estimators or the indirect vector controller in such
a way that the main flux saturation is compensated, then this
task can be accomplished in a relatively simple way, because
all of the estimators and the indirect vector controller are based
on the reduced order models of an induction machine [1],
[167]–[170]. Very much the same applies to the utilization of a
full order observer for rotor flux estimation, provided that the
Fig. 8. Estimated and actual rotor time constant using the procedure of
[107]. The estimate is updated twice per electrical cycle, on the basis of the observer is constructed using stator current and rotor flux –
measurement of the voltage across a disconnected phase. axis components as state space variables [171]. In all of these
cases, knowledge of the induction machine’s magnetizing curve
is a prerequisite, since this characteristic has to be incorporated
for decoupled flux and torque control in IRFOC, the major ef-
into the control system. Magnetizing curve has therefore to be
fort was directed toward development of online techniques for
identified offline during the commissioning of the drive.
rotor time constant identification, as shown by the review in Sec-
The other existing approaches to online magnetizing induc-
tion IV. The situation has however dramatically changed with
tance estimation are predominantly based on standard – axis
the advent of sensorless vector control, which requires rotor
machine model and they do not require a-priori knowledge of
speed estimation. Vast majority of speed estimation techniques the magnetizing curve. Such is the situation with methods re-
are based on the induction machine model and involve the stator ported in [103], [172]–[178]. While the estimation is sufficiently
resistance as a parameter in the process of speed estimation. An good in steady state, it is usually of limited accuracy during tran-
accurate value of the stator resistance is of utmost importance sients, since the schemes are based on the induction machine
in this case for correct operation of the speed estimator in the model that accounts for the main flux saturation in a very ap-
low speed region. If stator resistance is detuned, large speed es- proximate way (only through continuous variation of the steady
timation errors and even instability at very low speeds result. It state magnetizing inductance). A couple of theoretical/ simula-
is for this reason that online estimation of stator resistance has tion attempts were made recently to apply AI techniques (ANNs
received considerable attention during the last decade, as wit- and FL) in the estimation of the saturated magnetizing induc-
nessed by a large number of publications devoted to this subject tance [179], [180].
[136]–[163]. The other driving force behind the increased in- Online magnetizing inductance estimation is illustrated in
terest in online stator resistance estimation was the introduction Fig. 9 for a model-based method, described in [181], which
of direct torque control (DTC), which in its basic form relies requires knowledge of the magnetizing curve of the machine.
on estimation of stator flux from measured stator voltages and An experimental recording of the start-up transient, with
currents. The accuracy of DTC, especially in the low frequency set speed of 1350 r/min, is shown. The machine is initially
region, therefore heavily depends on the knowledge of the cor- premagnetized and the field weakening operation starts at
rect stator resistance value. 650 r/min by means of the IRFOC scheme described in [34].
In general, methods of stator resistance estimation are sim- The magnetizing inductance exhibits substantial variation, from
ilar to those utilized for rotor time constant (rotor resistance) unsaturated value in premagnetized state to rated saturated
estimation and include application of observers, extended value and then back toward unsaturated value as the speed of
Kalman filters, model reference adaptive systems, and artificial rotation in the field weakening region increases.
intelligence. Rotor leakage flux saturation can be included in the model of
the machine by making rotor leakage inductance a variable pa-
rameter, dependent on the rotor current. Frequency-related vari-
VI. ONLINE COMPENSATION OF SATURATION AND IRON LOSS
ation of rotor parameters can be accounted for by representing
In contrast to temperature-related resistance variation that is the rotor winding with two branches. A scheme with air gap
slow, change in machine’s inductances is very rapid. Compen- flux oriented control, that includes both compensation of rotor
sation of such variations is therefore most easily accomplished leakage flux saturation and frequency dependent variation of
by means of modified nonlinear machine models that account rotor parameters, derived from a modified induction machine
for the variable degree of saturation and invariably ask for the model that accounts for both of these phenomena, is described in
knowledge of an appropriate magnetizing curve. Compensation detail in [182]–[184]. It is demonstrated in [182]–[184] that, for
of main flux saturation, that will simultaneously yield online the chosen machine in which both of these effects are severely
magnetizing inductance estimation, requires that the basic ma- pronounced, vector control scheme derived from such a mod-
chine model is modified in such a way that the nonlinearity of ified model provides superior performance when compared to
the magnetizing curve is accounted for. The standard assump- the performance obtainable with vector control scheme based on
tion is that leakage flux and main flux components of the stator the constant parameter model. It is worth noting that the scheme
and rotor flux can be treated independently. It is assumed fur- of [182]–[184] additionally compensates for main flux satura-
ther on that leakage inductances are constants and that only main tion as well. The intrinsic difficulty in implementation of such
flux saturates. a vector control scheme is that the number of rotor parameters
278 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ENERGY CONVERSION, VOL. 18, NO. 2, JUNE 2003

## rameters. Parameter values are used within the drive controller

and they have therefore to be identified offline, during the drive
commissioning. However, since all of the parameters inevitably
vary during the drive operation, it is often desirable to improve
the performance of the drive by adding an online parameter esti-
mator. Such a situation has led to development of a large number
of offline parameter identification and online parameter estima-
tion methods during the last two decades. An attempt is made in
this paper to review the existing methods and to provide a com-
prehensive bibliography on the subject.
The attention is at first focused on self-commissioning and
commissioning techniques that serve the purpose of the offline
parameter identification at the stage of the drive initialization.
Available methods for induction motor equivalent circuit param-
eter identification are reviewed, along with the possibilities for
the magnetizing curve and equivalent iron loss resistance deter-
mination. Since an accurate value of the rotor time constant is
of utmost importance for tuned operation of the vast majority
of vector controlled induction motor drives, a substantial space
is further devoted to the methods that enable online rotor time
constant estimation. This is followed by discussion of the online
Fig. 9. Online estimated magnetizing inductance and speed of rotation for stator resistance estimation methods, since the exact knowledge
the accleration transient of a loaded machine, using the method of [181]. Field of the stator resistance is of paramount importance in a number
weakening starts at 650 r/min.
of sensorless vector and direct torque control schemes.
In contrast to the resistance variations that are slow, varia-
that have to be determined during the commissioning is now five tions in the magnetizing inductance and iron loss are rapid and
rather than two. One possibility is to use finite element calcu- are therefore most easily compensated by utilizing a modified
lations, as suggested in [182]. Alternatively, a series of locked vector controller, that is developed using an appropriately mod-
rotor tests, executed for different current values at various oper- ified motor model (that accounts for the flux saturation and/or
ating frequencies, can be used to experimentally identify offline iron loss) as the starting point. Methods aimed at online estima-
the parameters of this modified model. tion and compensation of the magnetizing inductance variation
Compensation of iron loss is nowadays almost exclusively and the iron loss are surveyed in the last section of the paper.
done using the model-based approach, which consists of de- The paper is illustrated throughout with numerous experi-
velopment of a modified vector control scheme on the basis mental and simulation results, related to different offline param-
of a machine’s model that takes into account the existence of eter identification and online parameter estimation techniques,
the iron loss. Iron loss is represented within the machine model taken from various publications of the authors.
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tion into consideration,” Elect. Mach. Power Syst., vol. 27, no. 6, pp. a member of the Editorial Board of Electric Power
581–599, 1999. Components and Systems Journal. His main research
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scheme considering iron loss for electric vehicle induction motors,” in speed drives, fault diagnosis of electric machinery, analysis and design of
electrical machines, and sensorless variable speed drives. He has published
Proc. IEEE Ind. Applicat. Soc. Annu. Meeting, 1997, pp. 439–444.
over 150 technical papers in these fields. He is actively involved in presenting
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short courses and consulting in his area of expertise to various industries.
induction machine considering iron losses,” in Proc. IEEE Appl. Power
He has received the Texas A&M Select Young Investigator Award in 1999,
Electron. Conf., 1996, pp. 375–379. Eugene Webb Faculty Fellow Award in 2000, NASA Space Act Award in 1999,
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oriented induction motor incorporating robust parameter identification,” Vice-Chairman of IEEE-IAS Electric Machines Committee, and is a member
in Proc. IEEE Ind. Electron. Soc. Annu. Meeting, 1999, pp. 1409–1414. of Sigma Xi. He is the recipient of the 1996 IEEE Power Eng. Society Prize
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factor for controlling AC motors,” in Proc. IEEE Ind. Electron. Soc. Machines for Adjustable Speed Drive Applications—Experimental Results.
Annu. Meeting, 1998, pp. 297–302.
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control of induction motor with on-line parameter identification in con-
sideration of core loss,” in Proc. Power Conversion Conf., 1997, pp. Emil Levi (S’89–M’92–SM’99) was born in 1958 in
113–118. Zrenjanin, Yugoslavia. He received the Diploma de-
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automatic tools for an identification and a field-oriented control design and the M.Sc. and Ph.D. degrees in electrical engi-
of an induction machine: A no linear decoupling structure,” in Proc. neering from the University of Belgrade, Yugoslavia,
in 1982, 1986, and 1990, respectively.
IEEE Power Electron. Specialists Conf., 1997, pp. 1486–1492.
Currently, he is Professor of Electric Machines
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and Drives in the School of Engineering at Liverpool
stator iron loss of vector-controlled induction motor using robust flux
John Moores University, Liverpool, U.K. In 1982,
observer,” Elect. Eng. Japan, vol. 137, no. 3, pp. 59–66, 2001. he joined the Department of Electrical Engineering
[205] V. Valouch, “Induction motor field-oriented controller, respecting iron at the University of Novi Sad, where he became
losses,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Symp. Ind. Electron., 1995, pp. 668–673. Assistant Professor in 1991. He joined Liverpool John Moores University,
[206] H. Rasmussen, P. Vadstrup, and H. Borsting, “Rotor field oriented con- U.K., in May 1992 as a Senior Lecturer. From 1995 till 2000, he was a Reader
trol with adaptive iron loss identification,” in Proc. IEEE Ind. Applicat. in Electrical Power Engineering. His main areas of research interest are
Soc. Annu. Meeting, 1999, pp. 1253–1258. modeling and simulation of electric machines, control of high performance
[207] A. Dittrich, “Model based identification of the iron loss resistance of drives, and power electronic converters. He has published over 130 papers,
an induction machine,” in Proc. Inst. Elect. Eng. Conf. Power Electron. including more than 30 papers in major international journals.
Variable Speed Drives, 1998, pp. 500–503.

## Mona Raina (S’00) received the Bachelor’s degree

in electrical engineering from the University of
Madras, India. She is currently pursuing the M.Sc.
degree in electrical engineering at Texas A&M
University, College Station.
She is currently with Novellus Systems, Inc., San
Jose, CA. Her research interests are in the fields of
power electronics and motor drives and they include
the parameter estimation of induction motors.