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Advances in Dairy Research Shokery et al.

, J Adv Dairy Res 2017, 5:2

DOI: 10.4172/2329-888X.1000179

Research Article OMICS International

Effect of Green Tea and Moringa Leave Extracts Fortification on the

Physicochemical, Rheological, Sensory and Antioxidant Properties of Set-Type
Enaam S Shokery, Mohamed G El-Ziney*, Asmaa H Yossef and Reda I Mashaly
Department of Dairy Science and Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, El-Shatby, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt
*Corresponding author: Mohamed G El-Ziney, Associate Professor of Dairy Science and Technology Department of Dairy Science and Technology, Faculty of
Agriculture, Alexandria University, PO Box 21454 Alexandria, Egypt, Tel: +20 3 5921675; E-mail:
Received date: 15 May, 2017; Accepted date: 08 June, 2017; Published date: 16 June, 2017
Copyright: © 2017 Shokery ES, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits
unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


The effects of co-production of green tea (Camellia sinensis L) or Moringa oleifera leaves extracts with set-type
yogurt on the physicochemical, rheological, and sensory and antioxidant properties of the produced bio-yoghurts
were investigated. Plant extracts were subjected to GC-MS analysis in order to identify the major compounds. The
analysis revealed the presence of 21 and 27 major compounds in green tea and moringa leaves extracts
respectively. Most of these compounds pose different biological roles. From the preliminary sensory study of testing
wide range (0.1-1.5%, w/w) of both plants extract in yoghurt trails it was concluded that the best chosen
concentrations were 1% and 0.9% of green tea and moringa extracts respectively. The chemical analysis of plain
and bio-yoghurts (green tea or moringa) showed no differences in composition in regard to proteins, fat, and total
solids as it were amounted to 3.75 ± 0.15%, 3.65 ± 0.03% and 14.45 ± 0.15% respectively. The pH decreased
during the production leveled to 4.60 ± 0.05 after incubation while it was not significantly changed during storage
whereas, titratable acidity showed invers relation increased to be 0.70 ± 0.02% after production and 1.1 ± 0.05% at
the end of storage. Fortification of both extracts at tested percentage did not exhibit any suppression effect against
starter culture meanwhile; both extracts had stimulated the growth. In general, syneresis values (%) showed to
increase in all the treatments up to 15 days of storage. The green tea found to improved syneresis as low values
were recorded in green tea yoghurt in compared to plain yoghurts and moringa yoghurts which showed the highest
syneresis values. No significant changes in viscosity and firmness between plain and plant fortified yoghurts were
observed meanwhile, addition of green tea extracts improved consistency. The color showed a significant difference
of color between different kinds of yoghurts. Addition of plant extracts significantly enhanced total phenolic content in
yoghurt by 100% moringa yoghurts and 244% green tea yoghurts compared to plain yoghurts thus reflected as
antioxidant (DPPH inhibition %) in yoghurt dramatically improved. Further, the effect of green tea and moringa
leaves extract on sensory attributes were also discussed.

Keywords: Green tea; Moringa oleifera; Yoghurt; phenolic content; Moringa oleifera is a drumstick tree of Moringaceae family, known
Antioxidants; Texture as sahinjan in Hindi; it is a local of India and now developed broadly in
numerous south eastern Asian regions. It's commonly considered as
Introduction wound healing, antitumor, antifertility, hypotensive, antipyretic, anti-
hepatotoxic, antiepileptic, anti-inflammatory, antiulcers, diuretic,
Milk is the main complete nourishment on the planet. Right now hypocholesterolemic, antifungal, antibacterial, anti-cardiovascular
researches have been aimed towards generation of functional foods agent, and reducing hyperglycemia [4,5].
that advance human health and prosperity [1]. Yogurt enhances the
diet quality by boosting the chances of approaching the recommended Medical advantages of medicinal herbs have attracted food
nutritional guidelines and improves lactose tolerance in individuals researchers to use it in designing novel functional dairy products and
suffer from hypolactasia. Consumption of yogurt can enhance immune evaluate their impact on product quality and consumer acceptability
modulation linked with a lowered incidence of diseases such as cancer, [6,7].
gastrointestinal disorders and allergic symptoms. This can improve The present investigation was thus carried out to identify the major
cytokine and antibody production and phagocytic and natural killer biologically active components in green tea and Moringa oleifera leaves
cell activities [2]. Green tea is produced using leaves of Camellia extracts using GC-MS. Also, yogurt was fortified with either leaves
sinensis that have experienced negligible oxidation during production. extract and their effects on physicochemical, rheological, sensory,
Many studies proposing that consistent tea consumption may have a antioxidant characteristics of bio-yoghurts were determined.
lower risk of creating coronary heart diseases and cancer. Polyphenols
found in tea are generally flavonoids which have anti-oxidative and
anti-carcinogenic effects. Furthermore, green tea showed to protect
skin from UV damage, control body weight and intestinal dysbiosis

J Adv Dairy Res, an open access journal Volume 5 • Issue 2 • 1000179

Citation: Shokery ES, El-Ziney MG, Yossef AH, Mashaly RI (2017) Effect of Green Tea and Moringa Leave Extracts Fortification on the
Physicochemical, Rheological, Sensory and Antioxidant Properties of Set-Type Yoghurt. J Adv Dairy Res 5: 179. doi:

Page 2 of 10

Materials and Methods and inoculated with starter culture as recommended by the
manufacturer. Green tea and moringa extracts were added to
Materials inoculated milk and poured into100-mL sterile plastic cups. The
incubation proceeded @ 43°C ± 0.5°C. After achieving a pH of 4.8 (4
The following ingredients used to manufacture yoghurt trails were hr), yogurts were cooled and stored @ 7°C for 15 days (Figure 1).
pasteurized/ homogenized milk 3.7% fat (Labanita, Co, Egypt), full
cream milk powder (FCMP; Arla, UK), skim milk powder (SMP;
Fonterra, New Zealand), whey protein concentrate (WPC, Altroika,
Turkey), stabilizer (Mefad, Egypt), gelatin (MashrQ, Brazil), green tea
(Ahmed Tea, Sri Lanka) and moringa leaves powder (Agriculture
Research center El Doki, Ministry of Agriculture, Egypt). Starter used
for manufacture of yoghurt was ThermophilicYoFlex® which
composed of Streptococcus thermophiles and Lactobacillus delbrueckii
subsp. bulgaricus cultures (Chr. Hansen, Denmark).

GC-MS analysis of green tea and Moringa leaves extracts: The dried
leaves were crushed in a blender and then extraction was performed in
1000 ml Erlenmeyer flasks by mixing (1 gm to 20 ml ethanol 80%).
Extraction is done in a water bath at a boiling point of ethanol for 2 hr.
The extract was evaporated in an oven at temperature of 50°C to obtain
concentrate. The concentrate was freeze dried to form granules [8].
Qualitative analysis of compounds in plant extracts was performed
with Thermo scientificTM TSQTM 8000 EVO Triple quadrupole GC
MS/MS. The mass spectrometer paird with the ThermoscientificTM
TRACETM 1300 GC Equipped with TG5MSGC column ; carrier gas
was helium with flow 1 ml/ min; 1 ml was injected ( split ratio1: 24);
injector temperature was 260°C; ion source was set at 200c transfer line
temperature 205°C. The mass spectrometer was operated in the
electron impact mode using 70ev electron energy. The mass rang m/z
33-500 was scanned. The identification of the peaks was based on
Willy9 and minilab, further, the spectra was determined on NIST5®.
Determination of minerals: Minerals (Fe, Mg and Ca) in plant
leaves were determined in ash samples using Atomic Absorption
Spectroscopy (Thermo® M series) according to AOAC [9]. The
determination was done by measuring the absorption of light by atoms
Figure 1: Set yoghurt manufacturing flowchart.
of the element reminds in the fundamental state when they are
illuminated by a suitable source of light. The measurement of light
intensity is made at a specific wavelength of the element to be Chemical analysis: Total solids and fat percent were determined
determined. according to [9] AOAC (2003). The changes in pH values were
Preparation of green tea and Moringa oleifera leaves extracts: The measured using pH meter (model 8417N, HANNA instrument). Total
plant derived aqueous extract used in this study was prepared in our protein was determined using Kjeldahl Semi-atomized (Foss model
laboratory according to Najgebauer-Lejko et al. [10] with some 8100 Dairy Analyzer, Denmark), total crud fibers were determined
modifications. One gram of plant leaf powder was mixed with 10 mL according to Joslyn [12].
of boiling dist. water and held for 5 min. The mixture was then filtered Microbiological analysis: The count of coliforms, yeast and molds
twice through cheese cloths then through Whatman® No. 40. Filtrated and monitoring of starter culture whether during production or at
extracts transferred into a sterile tube. The aqueous extract stock cooled storage was carried out on Violet Red agar (35°C), Dichloran
solution (100 mg/mL) was freshly prepared for each set of experiments Rose-Bengal chloramphenicol agar (25°C) and MRS agar (37°C)
and stored at 4°C for up to 5 days. respectively [13,14]. L-MRS and M17 agar were used to enumerate
Manufacturing of yogurts: Milk for yogurt preparation was lactobacilli and streptococci respectively. All media were prepared and
standardized using 500 g of fresh homogenized pasteurized milk, 64 g used according to the manufacturer instructions (Oxoid, Hampshire,
full cream milk powder (FCMP), 25 g skim milk powder (SMP), 10 g UK). The yeast and molds group were determined using surface
whey protein concentrate (WPC), 2.5 g stabilizer, 1 g gelatin and plating technique while all other microbial groups were enumerated
complete volume to 1 kg with sterile water (Figure 1). In fortified using the pour plating technique. Only L-MRS agar plats were
yoghurt trails stock plant extracts (10% w/w) were added to yoghurt incubated anaerobically using gas generating kit (Oxoid, Hampshire,
mix to obtain 1% and 0.9% (w/w) of green tea and moringa extract in UK).
the final products, respectively. The yoghurt treatments were prepared Rheological evaluation: Viscosity of yoghurt was analyzed using
using Vorwerk® Thermomix with a capacity of 1.5 liter (Vorwerk®, viscometer VR 3000 (Viscotech Hispania, El Vendrell, Spain). Texture
France). The mixture was heated at 95°C/10 min [11], cooled to 43°C

J Adv Dairy Res, an open access journal Volume 5 • Issue 2 • 1000179

Citation: Shokery ES, El-Ziney MG, Yossef AH, Mashaly RI (2017) Effect of Green Tea and Moringa Leave Extracts Fortification on the
Physicochemical, Rheological, Sensory and Antioxidant Properties of Set-Type Yoghurt. J Adv Dairy Res 5: 179. doi:

Page 3 of 10

profile analysis (TPA) was carried out according to the method of Inhibition % = �DPPH − �Sample /�DPPH × 100
Sanchez and Perez, [15] using the Texture Analyzer TA.XT plus (Stable
Micro Systems, UK). The operating conditions consisted of: back Where: ADPPH is sample control absorbance (DPPH solution);
extrusion Rig 35 mm, disc probe max recommended load 2 kg, ASample is sample absorbance. Radical scavenging capacity was
temperature 5°C, contact force 1 gm, post-test speed 10.0 mm/s and expressed as mg ascorbic acid equivalents per 100 g sample (AAE
distance 5 mm. The following parameters were calculated: viscosity mg/100 g sample). The IC50 value is define as the sample concentration
(cp), firmness (g), consistency (g/s), cohesiveness (ratio). Firmness and (mg/ml) contained mg AAE give 50% inhibition of DPPH free radicals.
cohesiveness were related with, respectively, maximum and minimum
force obtained during extrusion of the yogurt sample through the Sensory evaluation: Sensory evaluation was carried out by a panel
annular gap between the probes and jar wall, whereas consistency and consisting of 10-15 yoghurt graders, including staff members and
index of viscosity are defined as the, respectively, positive and negative assistants at the Faculty of Agriculture, Alexandria University and
area of the force vs. time curve. Cohesiveness indicates the resistance specialists in the field of dairy. Each panel member assessed the
of the sample to withdrawal from the extrusion disc being lifted; yoghurts separately; using the hedonic scale method as described by
consistency indicates the thickness of the sample. Measurement of Bodyfelt et al. [19] taking into account the evaluation of color,
syneresis in samples was carried out using the Siphon method as appearance, flavor, smell and overall which were scored 1-10 point
described by Amatayakul el al. [16]. Syneresis percent was calculated hedonic scale (1-2=extremely poor, 3-4=poor, 5-6=fair, 7-8=good,
using the following formula 9-10=excellent).

whey lost Statistical analysis

Syneresis (%) = sample weight × 100
The obtained data were presented as mean ± standard deviation and
Color subjected to ANOVA to evaluate the effect of plant extracts addition
and storage time. The test of significance was determined on the basis
The color reflectance measurement was determined using of Duncan’s test at p<0.05 probability using the SPSS statistics® 13
UltraScan VIS (HunterLab, VA, USA) following the operating software.
instructions of the manufacturer. The following parameters were
defined: L* (lightness; ranging from black (0) to white (100)), a* (red
saturation index; +a*=red, -a*=green) and b* (yellow saturation index; Results and Discussion
+b*=yellow, -b*=blue). The equipment was calibrated against a stander
2 (L=99.43, a=-0.11 and b=0.04) at the beginning of determination. Chemical composition of green tea and moringa leaves
Total phenolics content and antioxidant activity: The total phenolic
content in plant extracts or fortified yoghurts was determined by using Table 1 represents the chemical analysis of green tea and Moringa
the Folin-Ciocalteu assay (FCA) according to Lim et al. [17]. The total oleifera leaves powder. Data indicated that green tea leaves powder
phenolic content was expressed as mg Gallic acid Equivalents (GAE contains less protein, higher total fiber, less calcium and ferric than
mg/ 100 g sample). Moringa oleifera leaves powders. Similar gross composition of green
tea was reported by Adnan et al. [20]. Varied range of minerals
Antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH according to Brand-
concentrations were observed in five types of Japanese green tea [21].
Williams et al. [18]. A portion of sample (0.3 mL) was added to DPPH
The results of moringa chemical composition leaves agree with those of
(2.7 mL; 0.1 mmoL). After 30 min of incubation in the dark, the
Moyo et al. [22] and Ogbe and Affiku [23].
absorbance was measured at 517 nm. Antioxidant inhibition percent
was calculated from the following equation:


Plant leaves pH Minerals (mg/100 gm)

pH Total Fibers (%) Fat (%) Protein (%) Moisture (%)
Fe Mg Ca

Green tea 5.81 ± 0.1 22.0 ± 0.1 0 12 ± 0.02 3.57 ± 0.03 5.81 ± 0.1 3.5 ± 0.02 54 ± 0.1 360 ± 0

Moringa 4.8 ± 0.2 11.28 ± 0.05 1.9 ± 0.02 24.7 ± 0.02 8.81 ± 0.01 4.8 ± 0.2 24.5 ± 0.1 59 ± 0.01 450 ± 0

Table 1: Chemical analysis of green tea and Moringa oleifera leaves powder.

GC-MS analysis of green tea leaves beverage and food taste and it has impact on heath as antioxidant,
anti-inflammatory, anti-atherosclerosis and antimicrobial agents.
Table 2 illustrates the 21 identified phytochemical compounds by Other different classes of organic compounds at low concentration
GC-MS in water-ethanol extract of green tea leaves powder. The most included ester (#4), pyridine (#7), ketone (#12), and sugar (#17) were
abundant compounds were 2,3-dihydroxysuccinic acid; DL-tartaric detected as shown in Table 2. Similar results were also reported by
acid (50%), 2-bromotetradecanoic acid; myristic acid (8.7%), 5á- Ganesh and Vennila [24] and Afzal et al. [25]. Changes in extraction
androstan-16-one, storied (4%), 2,6-dichloro-1,5-napthoquinone; phase resulted in different spectrum. The GC-MS analysis of liquid
quinone (3.44%), acetyl-iso-codeine; alkaloids (2.72%) and layer of extracted Japanese green tea leaves using water-methanol-
octadecatrienoic acid; linolenic acid (2%). These compounds improve

J Adv Dairy Res, an open access journal Volume 5 • Issue 2 • 1000179

Citation: Shokery ES, El-Ziney MG, Yossef AH, Mashaly RI (2017) Effect of Green Tea and Moringa Leave Extracts Fortification on the
Physicochemical, Rheological, Sensory and Antioxidant Properties of Set-Type Yoghurt. J Adv Dairy Res 5: 179. doi:

Page 4 of 10

chloroform (1:2.5:1) led to identify seventy-one compounds, including

sugars, amino acids, and organic acids [26].

# Compound MW Area %

1 2-Bromotetradecanoic acid 306 8.7

2 2,3-Dihydroxysuccinic acid 150 50.94

3 5á-Androstan- 16-one,cyclic ethylenemercaptole 350 4.01

4 Benzeneacetic acid,á,4- bis [(trimethylsilyl)oxy]-, trimethylsilyl ester 384 1.54

5 3-Formyl-N-methyl-9- [phenylethynyl] dibenzo [2,3-a : 5,6-a] (1,4)-thiazine 341 3.23

6 9,12,15-Octadecatrienoic acid,2-[(trimethylsilyl)oxy]-1- [[(trimethylsilyl) oxy]methyl ester, (Z,Z,Z)- 496 2

7 3-Pyridinecarboxylic acid,2,7,10-tris(acetyloxy)-l,la, 597 1.22


8 Acetyl-Iso-Codeine 343 2.72

9 4,8-Bis(2-propylamino)-2,6-dichloro-1,5-naphthoquinone 340 3.44

10 Dimethoxy glycerol docosyl ether 460 1.96

11 9-Acetoxy-1-methyl-8-propyl-3,6-diazahomoadamantane 266 1.17

12 Deoxyherqueinone 356 2.11

13 βN-acetylneuramic ME ester-2-ME-7,9-ME-boronate- 3,8-Ditms 505 1.48

14 6-Amino-5-cyano-4-(5-cyano-2,4-dimethyl-IH-pyrrol-3-yl)-2-methyl-4H- pyran-3-carboxylic acid ethyl ester 326 1.04

15 Int-1-phenyl-1-(2-amino-4-methylphenyl)ethylene 209 2.18

Acetic acid, 3-acetoxy-6-(2-cyanovinyl)-3a,6-dimethyl-2,3,3a,4,5,5a,6,9,9a,9b-decahydro- 1

16 385 2.32
Hcyclopenta[a]naphthalene-7-ylmethyl ester

17 á-D-Galactopyranoside, methy12,3-bis-O-(trimethlsilyl)-,cyclic butylboronate 404 1.77

2,4-Octadienoic acid, 9a-(acetyloxy)-1a,1b,4,4a,5,7a,7b,8,9,9a-decahydro-4a,7b-dihydroxy-3-(hydroxymethl)-1,1,6,8-

18 528 1.56

19 Glycine,N-[(3á,5á, 7á, 12á)-24-oxo-3,7,12-tris[(trimethylsilyl)oxy]cholan- 24-yl]-, methylester 695 1.82

20 1,2-Bis[1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-3,6- diazahomoadamantantydene-9]hydrazine 416 1.59

21 4,6-Dimethyl-3’acetoxy-2-benzylidene coumaran 3-one 308 1.08

Table 2: Identified major phytochemical compounds by GC/MS/MS in water/ ethanol extract of green tea leaves powder.

GC-MS analysis of Moringa oleifera leaves [28]. In the present study, the presence of various classes of bioactive
chemical constituents in ethanolic extract was confirmed. It is
The main constitutes of Moringa oleifera leaves extracts are shown currently pertinent to recognize the possible role of these constituent
in Table 3. The GC-MS results indicated the presence of 27 compounds substances in the therapeutic properties credited to the moringa. In
with different concentration. The constituent compounds in the leave clinical trial fatty acids included lauric acid (dodecanoic), palmitic acid
extract are steroidal compounds, long chain aliphatic carboxylic acids (teradecanoic), myristic (hxadecanoic) and stearic (octadecanoic) acid
(saturated and unsaturated) and their derivatives including alcohols, showed potential antibacterial and antifungal effects [29]. DL
aldehyde and in addition benzene carboxylic acid ester, flavone and glyceraldehyde showed potential as carcinogenic agent. It was found to
carotenoid compounds. The major compounds found were dl- be more active against Ehrlich ascites tumor [30]. Steroid compounds
Glyceraldehyde; glycerol; trios monosaccharide (12%), Estra- have a similar structure in basic and are extremely specific [31].
1,3,5(10)-trien-17á-ol; steroid (11%), and pregn-5-en-20-one; steroid Alkaloids, such as Uleine, play an important role as AChE inhibitors
(2.26%). Solvent system used in extraction process can affect the [32]. Application of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors is the
organic compound profile. A portion of 16 compounds were identified primary treatment for Alzheimer's disease [33]. Moringa leaves
in methanolic extract. These compounds comprise mainly contain different pyrrole formula (Table 3 #22). A pyrrole is a basic
hydrocarbons, fatty acids, alcohols, esters and phenols [27]. Extraction chemical structure that is used in the formation of hem, which makes
in ethyl acetate identified 28 compounds. This analysis revealed to bloodred. Several derivatives of carotenoids have detected. The
contain the presence of linalool oxide, upiol, adenine, palmitic acid

J Adv Dairy Res, an open access journal Volume 5 • Issue 2 • 1000179

Citation: Shokery ES, El-Ziney MG, Yossef AH, Mashaly RI (2017) Effect of Green Tea and Moringa Leave Extracts Fortification on the
Physicochemical, Rheological, Sensory and Antioxidant Properties of Set-Type Yoghurt. J Adv Dairy Res 5: 179. doi:

Page 5 of 10

antioxidant role of carotenoids is reviewed as a potent antioxidant, in 9,12,15-Octadecatrienoic acid,2,3-bis[(trimethylsilyl)oxy]

protecting human body against oxidative stress that may result in 27 496 1.3
propyl ester, (Z,Z,Z)-
degenerative diseases [34].
Table 3: Identified major phytochemical compounds by GC/MS/ MS in
# Compound MW Area %
water/ ethanol extract of Moringa oleifera leaves powder.
1 Estra- 1,3,5(10)-trien-17á-ol 256 11
Chemical analysis of yoghurt
2 dl-Glyceraldehyde 90 12
The chemical analysis of milk yoghurt mixture used throughout the
3 Torosaflavone B 430 1.55
study revealed the presence of 14.45 ± 0.15% total solid, 3.75 ± 0.15%
4 Azafrin 426 1.48 protein, and 3.65 ± 0.03% fat. Mean values of pH, acidity and freezing
point of the mixture were 6.66 ± 0.01, 0.19 ± 0.01% and 0.693 ± 0.01,
9,12,15-Octadecatrienoic acid , 2-[(trimethylsilyl)oxy]-1-
496 1.4 respectively. There were no significant differences found among trails
[ [(trimethylsilyl) oxy] methyl]ethyl ester, (Z,Z,Z)-
(P<0.5). No changes in the total solid, protein and fat were observed in
.psi.,.-Carotene, 3,3’,4’,4’,tetradehydro- 1,1’- dimethoxy- yoghurt treatments during the storage (15 d @ 7°C). The pH was
6 624 1.1
2,2’-dioxo- decreased during incubation reached 4.60 ± 0.05 after incubation while
it changed but not significantly during storage. The titratable acidity of
368 2.26 yoghurt showed inverse relationship to pH as it was increased to be
0.70 ± 0.02% at day one and continued to increase to level to 1.1 ±
2,7-Diphenly-1,6-dioxopyridazino[4,5-2’,3’] pyrrolo[4’5’-
355 1.7 0.05% at the end of storage.

Acetic acid, 3-acetoxy-6-(2-cyanovinyl)-3a,6- Microbiological quality of yoghurt

9 dimethyl-2,3,3a,4,5,5a,6,9,9a,9b- 385 1.1
decahydro-1Hcyclopenta[a]naphthalen-7-lmethyl ester The counts of coliforms and yeast and molds in yoghurt trails were
found to be <10 cfu/g and reminded so even after 15 days of storage.
10 5,7,9(11)-Androstatriene,3-hydroxy-17-oxo- 284 1.24

á-D-Glucopyranoside, methy12- (acetylamino)-2-deoxy-3 Effect of green tea and moringa leaves on starter culture
11 331 1.6
-O-(trimethylsilyl)-, cyclic methylboronate
Figure 2a and 2b show that fortification of yoghurt either with green
489 1.2
tea or moringa extract had a little stimulated effect, but not significant
oxa-4-azabutane-1,4-diyl)]-, diacetate on the growth of starter cultures. On the other hand, the pH was
Benzoic acid,2,4- bis[(trimethylsilyl)oxy]-,trimethylsilyl
gradually decreased from 6.5 to 4.80 during the fermentation period (4
13 370 0.7 hr) in all trails. Moreover, no significant differences were detected
among treatments. At the end of storage the pH values were gradually
1,1,3,3,5,5,7,7,9,9,11,11,13,13,-tetradecamethyl decrease up to 4.3, 4.31 and 4.28 in control, green tea and moringa
14 504 1
yoghurts, respectively. Also, no significant differences were observed
9,12,15-Octadecatrienoic acid, 2,3-bis among treatments. Starter numbers (log10 cfu/g) were increased during
15 496 1.3
[(trimethylsilyl)oxy]propyl ester, (Z,Z,Z)- fermentation and it were gradually decreased during storage period at
the same trend among all trails. At the end of fermentation the starter
339 0.7 count in the green tea treatment (log10 8.98) was higher than the
moringa (log10 8.91) and plain yoghurts (log10 8.9). At the end of
17 1-Pentene, 1,3-diphenyl-1-(trimethylsilyloxy)- 310 1.6 storage, the starter count in the treatments were higher than log10 7
with a highest level in green tea yogurts followed by moringa then
18 Uleine, 1,13-dihydro-13-hydroxy- 266 1.6
plain yoghurts. In agreement with our findings Najgebauer-Lejko et al.
19 Dihydrositsirikine 356 1.33 [10] observed that the green tea infusion in yoghurt showed a positive
effect on the count of L. bulgaricus and S. thermophiles in compared
Benzoicacid, 4-methyl-, [methoxycarycarbonyl)phenyl] with the plain yoghurts, with no significant differences between the
20 284 1.4
methyl ester
types and levels of tea used. Moreover, the addition of green tea
21 Stearic acid, 3-(octadecyloxy)propyl ester (CAS) 594 1.1 powder (0.5%) did not significantly influence the growth and survival
of starter during production and refrigerated storage of yoghurts [35].
22 3,5-Diphenyl-2-(3’,4’-dimethoxyphenyl)-pyrrole 355 1.2 This indicates the effect of the added plant formula which might
23 1h-pyrrol-3,4-diacetic acid 341 1.2 enhance beneficial consequence to the functional products. In case of
moringa in yoghurt, it is found that the addition of moringa leaves
24 2,4,8,10-Tetradecapenteanoic acid 606 2.8 powder (0.5%) during yoghurt manufacture did not alter the
acidification profile of yoghurt this reflects that the starter was not
25 2-Morpholinoethanesulfonic acid 437 1.5
affected by the fortification [36].
Benzoic acid, 4(1-hydroxy-3-phenl1-2propynyl)-, ethyl
26 341 1.1

J Adv Dairy Res, an open access journal Volume 5 • Issue 2 • 1000179

Citation: Shokery ES, El-Ziney MG, Yossef AH, Mashaly RI (2017) Effect of Green Tea and Moringa Leave Extracts Fortification on the
Physicochemical, Rheological, Sensory and Antioxidant Properties of Set-Type Yoghurt. J Adv Dairy Res 5: 179. doi:

Page 6 of 10

reflect the effect of plant source and species, extraction procedure or

differences in total solids of the yogurts. In the present study moringa
extract was more acidic with a higher calcium and fiber content than
green tea extract (Table 1) these factors my influence the yoghurt curd
tension caused higher syneresis.

Time (days)
Plain yoghurt Green tea yoghurt Moringa yoghurt

1 1.99 ± 0.14b,B 1.805 ± 0.007b,B 2.87 ± 0.024c,A

5 2.365 ± 0.049b,B 2.215 ± 0.021c,B 3.25 ± 0.070b,A

15 2.98 ± 0.028a,B 2.8 ± 0.014a,C 3.795 ± 0.021a,A

Mean values of n=3 ± Standard Deviation. a-cMeans followed by different

superscript letters in each column indicate significant differences at p<0.05. A-
CMeans followed by different superscript letters in each row indicate significant

differences at p<0.05.

Table 4: Effect of the addition of green tea or moringa leaves extract to

yoghurt on the syneresis during storage.

The addition of fiber increased syneresis in low-fat yoghurts [41]

while calcium concentration is considered one of the main factors
could affect syneresis [42]. There is no information on the literature
concerning the effect of moringa extract on syneresis in yoghurts and

Texture analysis
The textural features of yoghurt samples are presented in Table 5.
The apparent viscosity of yogurt treatments did not show a significant
difference (p<0.05) at the beginning or at the end of storage as
compared with plain yoghurt (control). In except of green tea yoghurt,
refrigerated storage has not affected the initial viscosity of plain and
moringa yoghurts. It is reported the addition of 2% green tea extract in
yoghurt decreased apparent viscosity [39]. These observations indicate
Figure 2: Developing of pH and starter counts during yoghurt that the effect of plant extracts is plant type and concentration
fermentation (a) and storage (b) without and with fortification with dependent. Table 5 revealed that in fresh yoghurt firmness values did
green tea (1%) or moringa (0.9%) leaves extract. not also alter by the addition of either plant extract. No significant
change in the firmness was observed during storage up to 15 days in
plain and moringa yoghurt while it decreased in green tea yoghurt.
Izadi et al. [43] found that yoghurt added phytosterol (β-sitosterol) had
Effect on syneresis
a higher firmness compared to control. The results in Table 5 show that
Generally in all the treatments, syneresis values (%) showed to the consistency (g.s) of plain and moringa yoghurts were lower than
increase up to 15 days of storage (Table 4). These results are in those of green tea yoghurt. However, the consistency had not changed
agreement with those reported by Ramirez-Santiago et al. [37] and Rao in green tea yoghurts during storage it is increased in plain and
[38] who found that the syneresis increased with the extent of moringa yoghurts.
refrigerated storage yoghurt supplemented with either plant extracts
gave a contradiction pattern of syneresis. The green tea yoghurts had a Color analysis
lower syneresis values compared to plain yoghurt whereas the addition
of moringa leaves extract resulting in increasing syneresis (p<0.05). Table 6 illustrates color reflectance values of plain (control), green
Amirdivani and Baba [39] observed the same effect of green tea extract tea and moringa yoghurts. Color measurement showed a significant
(2%) on yoghurt syneresis which they explained by the shorter time for difference of color between different kinds of yoghurts.
green tea yogurts than plain yogurts to reach pH 4.5 and this may Supplementation with plant extracts, L* values decreased while b*
result in the reduction in whey separation as compared to plain yogurt. values increased, demonstrating that fortified yoghurts were darker
Moreover, Donmez et al. [40] suggested that the effect of green tea and yellowish compared to plain yoghurts. The analysis of a* values
extract on the syneresis rate was concentration dependent. The extract showed contradictory effect between green tea and moringa yoghurts
decreased syneresis rate when it was added at 0.02%, but it caused an whereas the former was redder and the latter was greenish compare to
increase when added at 2%. These differences between results might plain yoghurt.

J Adv Dairy Res, an open access journal Volume 5 • Issue 2 • 1000179

Citation: Shokery ES, El-Ziney MG, Yossef AH, Mashaly RI (2017) Effect of Green Tea and Moringa Leave Extracts Fortification on the
Physicochemical, Rheological, Sensory and Antioxidant Properties of Set-Type Yoghurt. J Adv Dairy Res 5: 179. doi:

Page 7 of 10

Parameter (s) Time (days)
Plain yoghurt Green tea yoghurt Moringa yoghurt

1 20236 ± 189.50a,A 20201 ± 19.79b,A 19809 ± 132.93a,A

Viscosity (cp) 5 20533 ± 128.69a,A 20400 ± 33.94b,A 20224 ± 108.89a,A

15 20712 ± 678.82a,A 20699 ± 106.06a,A 20319 ± 165.46a,A

1 329 ± 11.31a,A 319 ± 1.41b,A 313 ± 19.79a,A

Firmness (g) 5 338 ± 7.07a,A 329 ± 4.24ab,A 326 ± 1.41a,A

15 347 ± 4.24a,A 340 ± 7.07a,A 339 ± 5.65a,A

1 8687 ± 9.89c,B 8995 ± 98.99a,A 8914 ± 35.35c,AB

Consistency (g.s) 5 9210 ± 42.42b,B 9266 ± 247.48a,A 9210 ± 42.42b,B

15 9629 ± 85.55a,A 9632 ± 43.84a,A 9558 ± 69.29a,B

Mean values of n=3 ± Standard Deviation. a-cMeans followed by different superscript letters in each column indicate significant differences at p<0.05. A-BMeans

followed by different superscript letters in each row indicate significant differences at p<0.05.

Table 5: Rheological consistent of yoghurt fortified with green tea or moringa leaves extract during storage period.

Color values 2.61 g chlorogenic acid equivalent/ 100 g dry weight [47] while lower
Treatments results were also found [48].
L* a* b*
Total phenols (mg
Plain yoghurt 88.24 ± 0.05a -0.30 ± 0.01b 11.29 ± 0.04b DPPH Radical
gallic acid IC 50
Sample scavenging activity
equivalents; GAE/ (µg/ml)
(Inhibition %)
Green tea yoghurt 83.40 ± 0.10c -0.05 ± 0.02c 13.99 ± 0.11a 100g)

Moringa yoghurt 86.19 ± 0.04b -0.37 ± 0.01a 13.82 ± 0.02a Green tea extracts 0.064 ±
712.12 ± 4.10a 95.50 ± 0.98a
(10%) 0.00d
a*- negative and positive values indicate, respectively, green and red.
b*- negative and positive values indicate, respectively, blue and yellow color. Moringa extract 0.065 ±
280.65 ± 3.05b 81.30 ± 1.60b
L*=Lightness on a scale from o (blank) to 100 white. (9%) 0.00d
Mean values of n=3 ± Standard Deviation. a-cMeans followed by different
superscript letters in each column indicate significant differences at p<0.05. Plain yoghurt 1732.99 ±
9.00 ± 0.16e 54.70 ± 0.565d
(control) 0.47a

Table 6: Color values of the fortified yoghurt supplemented with green 554.20 ±
Green tea Yoghurt 31.86 ± 0.34c 80.60 ± 0.99b,c
tea or moringa leave extracts at day one. 7.07c

In agreement Najgebauer-Lejko et al. [44] reported that the addition 937 ±

Moringa yoghurt 18.31 ± 0.32d 78.00 ± 0.85c
of tea infusion to yoghurt significantly and in a concentration
dependent manner lowered the lightness while a* shifted to positive Mean values of n=3 ± Standard Deviation. a-dMeans followed by different
range with higher values of b* color parameter. In raw and cooked superscript letters in each column indicate significant differences at p<0.05.
patties added of green tea powder increased intensity of red color [45].
The yoghurt produce with the addition of moringa in powder were Table 7: Phenolic content and antioxidant properties of moringa and
darker, reddish and yellowish compared to present results [36]. green tea water leave extracts, plain yoghurt and yoghurts
supplemented with plant leave extracts day one.
Phenolic content and antioxidant activity
The plain yoghurt contained only 9.00 GAE/ 100 g while,
Data in Table 7 represent the phenolic content and antioxidant fortification with green tea or moringa extracts had increased
properties of green tea and moringa leave extracts and their yoghurt. significantly the total phenolics by 254% and 103% respectively. In
The total phenols (mg gallic acid equivalents GAE /100 g) was higher comparable with the present results, Najgebauer-Lejko et al. [10] found
in green tea extract (712.12 GAE /100 g) followed by moringa extract that the level of tea polyphenols in green tea yoghurts ranged from 36.7
(280.65 GAE/ 100 g). In a study on 51 kinds of herbal and tea infusions to 111.7 mg GAE in 100 g and was concentration dependent.
made in China were measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu method it is
found that the total phenolic contents varied from 0.32 to 13.95 g gallic In DPPH assay green tea and Moringa oleifera leaves extracts
acid equivalent /100 g [46]. It is reported that decoction of dried leaves reduced DPPH radicals significantly as compared to the control
by boiling with distilled water resulted in total phenols amounted to (p<0.05) while the effect of green tea was superior than moringa (Table
7). In regard to IC50, the green tea and moringa extracts showed very
closer value of 64 and 65 µg/ml, respectively. Addition of extracts in

J Adv Dairy Res, an open access journal Volume 5 • Issue 2 • 1000179

Citation: Shokery ES, El-Ziney MG, Yossef AH, Mashaly RI (2017) Effect of Green Tea and Moringa Leave Extracts Fortification on the
Physicochemical, Rheological, Sensory and Antioxidant Properties of Set-Type Yoghurt. J Adv Dairy Res 5: 179. doi:

Page 8 of 10

yoghurt elevated the inhibition% to be 80.6% for green tea yoghurts (10%) and evaluated by panelists to choose the best concertation this
and 78% for moringa yoghourts in compared to 54% of plain yoghurts. resulted in applying of 1 and 0.9% of green tea and moringa extract
Higher values of inhibition% were reported when yoghurt was respectively. The preliminary results revealed that the threshold choice
produced by direct acidification without starter inoculation and 2% of was to apply 1% green tea and 0.9% moringa. Sensory evaluation of the
green tea extract was added [48]. In similar manner the IC50 of green yoghurt samples are presented in Table 8 and Figure 3.
tea yoghurts was lower than moringa yoghurts with a biggest value
noticed in plain yoghurts.

Sensory evaluation
In the preliminary study yoghurts were made using plant extract
ranged from 0.5-1.5% (w/w) intervals of 0.1% using a stock extract

Parameter (s) Time (days)
Plain yoghurt Green tea yoghurt Moringa yoghurt

1 9.20 ± 0.36a,A 7.17 ± 0.68a,B 8.45 ± 0.41a,A

15 8.20 ± 0.60a,A 6.80 ± 0.7a,B 7.41 ± 1.14a,A

1 9.60 ± 0.40a,A 6.67 ± 0.41a,B 6.67 ± 0.42a,B

15 8.30 ± 0.54a,A 5.86 ± 1.04a,B 5.91 ± 0.54a,B

1 9.00 ± 0.51a,A 6.73 ± 0.86a,B 6.62 ± 0.51a,B

15 8.45 ± 0.41a,A 5.80 ± 0.79a,B 5.89 ± 0.42a,B

1 9.15 ± 0.44a,A 7.1 ± 0.91a,B 8.02 ± 1.44a,A

15 8.10 ± 0.65a,A 6.61 ± 0.82a,B 6.27 ± 0.65b,B

1 9.15 ± 0.4a,A 7.23 ± 1.16a,B 6.88 ± 1.01a,B

Overall acceptability
15 8.19 ± 0.67a,A 6.00 ± 0.97a,B 5.91 ± 0.48a,B

Mean values of n=3 ± Standard Deviation. a-bMeans followed by different superscript letters in each column indicate significant differences at p<0.05. A-BMeans

followed by different superscript letters in each row indicate significant differences at p<0.05

Table 8: Sensory evaluation of fortified yoghurt with green tea or moringa leaves extracts.

In general, sensory attributes grouped the yoghurt treatments into

two groups, plain yoghurts with highest scores placed in group one
while green tea and moringa yoghurts came in the second group.
However, appearance and smell of moringa yoghurts received excellent
marks equal to plain yoghurts at day one. Meanwhile, both fortified
yoghurts gained a good score level. It was clear that appearance, color,
overall acceptability were affected by the brightness of the product as
control yoghurts had a highest score than the rest treatments either
fresh or after storage. Sensory scores for all parameters after 15 days of
storage of all yoghurts were equal as first day while there were no
significant differences (p>0.05). Varied results have been reported
dependent on the culture type and green tea concentration. The
sensory results of bio-yoghurts mix with green tea infusion at different
concentrations (5%, 10% and 15%) showed no significant differences
between the sensory notes received bio-yoghurts while acidophilus
milk scored lower values [49]. Higher sensory scores reported from
Malaysian tasters’ who preferred green tea yoghurts more than control
[39]. In regard to moringa and in agreement with our results Madukwe
et al. [50] reported that color of the control was preferred over
Figure 3: Sensory analysis profile of plain, green tea and moringa
Moringa beverage. Addition of banana with moringa leaves powder in
yoghurt was resulted in comparable score with control while moringa
yoghurt alone was not appreciated [51]. On the contrary Hassan et al.

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Citation: Shokery ES, El-Ziney MG, Yossef AH, Mashaly RI (2017) Effect of Green Tea and Moringa Leave Extracts Fortification on the
Physicochemical, Rheological, Sensory and Antioxidant Properties of Set-Type Yoghurt. J Adv Dairy Res 5: 179. doi:

Page 9 of 10

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Physicochemical, Rheological, Sensory and Antioxidant Properties of Set-Type Yoghurt. J Adv Dairy Res 5: 179. doi:

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