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PROBLEM 4.

1
Carson's Equations Homework

2.5' 4.5'
a c b

3.0'
Phase Conductors - 556,550/26/7
4.0'
GMRp := .0313

rp := .1859

n
Neutral Conductor - 4/0
25.0'
GMRn := .00814

rn := .592

4.1.1: Define phase positions


d := 0 + j ⋅ 29 d := 7 + j ⋅ 29 d := 2.5 + j ⋅ 29 d := 4 + j ⋅ 25
1 2 3 4

i := 1 .. 4 j := 1 .. 4
Compute distances between positions

D := d − d
i, j i j

Set diagonal terms of spacing matrix equal to conductor GMR, also define phase and neutral r

n := 1 .. 3 D := GMRp D := GMRn
n, n 4, 4

r := rp r := rn
n 4
Display spacing matrix

⎛⎜ 0.0313 7 2.5 5.6569 ⎞



D= ⎜ 7 0.0313 4.5 5 ⎟
⎜ 2.5 4.5 0.0313 4.272 ⎟
⎜ 5.6569 5 ⎟
⎝ 4.272 0.0081 ⎠

Plug into modified Carson's equations

:= .0953 + j ⋅ .12134⋅ ⎛⎜ ln⎛⎜ ⎞ + 7.934 ⎞ := r + .0953 + j ⋅ .12134⋅ ⎛⎜ ln⎛⎜ ⎞ + 7.934 ⎞


1 1
D ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟
zp zp
i, j i, i i D
⎝ ⎝ i, j ⎠ ⎠ ⎝ ⎝ i, i ⎠ ⎠

C:\Solutions 2011\Chapter 4\ 1
Display primitive impedance matrix

⎛⎜ 0.2812 + 1.383j 0.0953 + 0.7266j 0.0953 + 0.8515j 0.0953 + 0.7524j ⎞



0.0953 + 0.7266j 0.2812 + 1.383j 0.0953 + 0.7802j 0.0953 + 0.7674j ⎟
zp = ⎜
⎜ 0.0953 + 0.8515j 0.0953 + 0.7802j 0.2812 + 1.383j 0.0953 + 0.7865j ⎟
⎜ 0.0953 + 0.7524j ⎟
⎝ 0.0953 + 0.7674j 0.0953 + 0.7865j 0.6873 + 1.5465j ⎠

Partition primitive impedance matrix:


⎛ 0.2812 + 1.383j 0.0953 + 0.7266j 0.0953 + 0.8515j ⎞
zij := submatrix( zp , 1 , 3 , 1 , 3 ) zij = ⎜ 0.0953 + 0.7266j 0.2812 + 1.383j 0.0953 + 0.7802j ⎟
⎜ ⎟
⎝ 0.0953 + 0.8515j 0.0953 + 0.7802j 0.2812 + 1.383j ⎠
⎛ 0.0953 + 0.7524j ⎞
zin := submatrix( zp , 1 , 3 , 4 , 4 ) zin = ⎜ 0.0953 + 0.7674j ⎟
⎜ ⎟
⎝ 0.0953 + 0.7865j ⎠

znj := submatrix( zp , 4 , 4 , 1 , 3 ) znj = ( 0.0953 + 0.7524j 0.0953 + 0.7674j 0.0953 + 0.7865j )

znn := submatrix( zp , 4 , 4 , 4 , 4 ) znn = ( 0.6873 + 1.5465j )

Kron Reduction:
−1
zabc := zij − zin⋅ znn ⋅ znj

Display phase impedance matrix

⎛ 0.3375 + 1.0478j 0.1535 + 0.3849j 0.1559 + 0.5017j ⎞


zabc = ⎜ 0.1535 + 0.3849j 0.3414 + 1.0348j 0.158 + 0.4236j ⎟
⎜ ⎟
⎝ 0.1559 + 0.5017j 0.158 + 0.4236j 0.3465 + 1.0179j ⎠
4.1.2: Define symmetrical component transformation matrix
j ⋅ 120⋅ deg
a := 1 ⋅ e ⎛1 1 1 ⎞
⎜ 2 ⎟
A := ⎜ 1 a a ⎟
⎜ 2⎟
⎝1 a a ⎠
Transform phase impedance matrix to sequence impedance matrix

−1
zseq := A ⋅ zabc⋅ A

C:\Solutions 2011\Chapter 4\ 2
Display sequence impedance matrix

⎛ 0.6534 + 1.907j −0.0321 + 0.0159j 0.0256 + 0.0115j ⎞


zseq = ⎜ 0.0256 + 0.0115j 0.186 + 0.5968j 0.0723 − 0.0059j ⎟
⎜ ⎟
⎝ −0.0321 + 0.0159j −0.0723 − 0.006j 0.186 + 0.5968j ⎠
4.1.3: Define netural transformation matrix

−1
tn := −znn ⋅ znj tn = ( −0.4292 − 0.1291j −0.4373 − 0.1327j −0.4476 − 0.1373j )

PROBLEM 4.2

7.0'
a c
Phase Conductors: 336,400 26/7 ACSR
3.0'

4.0' GMRp := .0244

rp := .306

n Neutral Conductor: 4/0 6/1 ACSR

25.0' GMRn := .00814

rn := .592

Define phase positions

d := 0 + j ⋅ 29 d := 7 + j ⋅ 29 d := 4 + j ⋅ 25
1 2 3
Compute distances between positions

i := 1 .. 3 j := 1 .. 3 D2 := d − d
i, j i j

Set diagonal terms of distance matrix equal to GMR of conductors

n := 1 .. 3 D2 := GMRp D2 := GMRn
n, n 3, 3

r := rp r := rn
n 3
Display spacing matrix

⎛ 0.0244 7 5.6569 ⎞
D2 = ⎜ 7 0.0244 5 ⎟
⎜ ⎟
⎝ 5.6569 5 0.0081 ⎠

C:\Solutions 2011\Chapter 4\ 3
Plug into Carson's Equations

:= .0953 + j ⋅ .12134⋅ ⎛⎜ ln⎛⎜ ⎞ + 7.934 ⎞ := r + .0953 + j ⋅ .12134⋅ ⎛⎜ ln⎛⎜ ⎞ + 7.934 ⎞


1 1
D2 ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟
zp2 zp2
i, j i, i i D2
⎝ ⎝ i, j ⎠ ⎠ ⎝ ⎝ i, i ⎠ ⎠
Display primitive impedance matrix

⎛ 0.4013 + 1.4133j 0.0953 + 0.7266j 0.0953 + 0.7524j ⎞


zp2 = ⎜ 0.0953 + 0.7266j 0.4013 + 1.4133j 0.0953 + 0.7674j ⎟
⎜ ⎟
⎝ 0.0953 + 0.7524j 0.0953 + 0.7674j 0.6873 + 1.5465j ⎠
Partition matrices:
⎛ 0.4013 + 1.4133j 0.0953 + 0.7266j ⎞
zij := submatrix( zp2 , 1 , 2 , 1 , 2 ) zij = ⎜ ⎟
⎝ 0.0953 + 0.7266j 0.4013 + 1.4133j ⎠

⎛ 0.0953 + 0.7524j ⎞
zin := submatrix( zp2 , 1 , 2 , 3 , 3 ) zin = ⎜ ⎟
⎝ 0.0953 + 0.7674j ⎠

znj := submatrix( zp2 , 3 , 3 , 1 , 2 ) znj = ( 0.0953 + 0.7524j 0.0953 + 0.7674j )

znn := submatrix( zp2 , 3 , 3 , 3 , 3 ) znn = ( 0.6873 + 1.5465j )

Kron Reduce:
−1
zac := zij − zin⋅ znn ⋅ znj

Display reduced impedance matrix

⎛ 0.4576 + 1.078j 0.1535 + 0.3849j ⎞


zac = ⎜ ⎟
⎝ 0.1535 + 0.3849j 0.4615 + 1.0651j ⎠

Define phase impedance matrix according to phases present

⎛ zac1 , 1 0 zac1 , 2 ⎞
⎜ ⎟
z2abc := ⎜ 0 0 0 ⎟
⎜ zac 0 zac ⎟
⎝ 2, 1 2, 2 ⎠

Display final phase impedance matrix

⎛ 0.4576 + 1.078j 0 0.1535 + 0.3849j ⎞


z2abc = ⎜ 0 0 0 ⎟
⎜ ⎟
⎝ 0.1535 + 0.3849j 0 0.4615 + 1.0651j ⎠

C:\Solutions 2011\Chapter 4\ 4
−1
txn := −znn ⋅ znj txn = ( −0.4292 − 0.1291j −0.4373 − 0.1327j )

tn := txn( 1, 1
0 txn
1, 2 ) tn = ( −0.4292 − 0.1291j 0 −0.4373 − 0.1327j )

PROBLEM 4.3

Phase & Neutral conductors: 1/0 6/1 ACSR

GMRp := .00446
5.0'
rp := 1.12
0.5'

n GMRn := GMRp rn := rp

25.0'

Define phase positions:

d1 := 0 + j ⋅ 30 d1 := .5 + j ⋅ 25
1 2

i := 1 .. 2 j := 1 .. 2

Compute distance between conductors

D1 := d1 − d1 D1 := GMRp r := rp
i, j i j i, i i
Display distance matrix

⎛ 0.0045 5.0249 ⎞
D1 = ⎜ ⎟
⎝ 5.0249 0.0045 ⎠

Plug into Carson's Equations

:= .0953 + j ⋅ .12134⋅ ⎛⎜ ln⎛⎜ ⎞ + 7.934 ⎞ := r + .0953 + j ⋅ .12134⋅ ⎛⎜ ln⎛⎜ ⎞ + 7.934 ⎞


1 1
D1 ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟
zp1 zp1
i, j i, i i D1
⎝ ⎝ i, j ⎠ ⎠ ⎝ ⎝ i, i ⎠ ⎠
Display primitive impedance matrix

⎛ 1.2153 + 1.6195j 0.0953 + 0.7668j ⎞


zp1 = ⎜ ⎟
⎝ 0.0953 + 0.7668j 1.2153 + 1.6195j ⎠
C:\Solutions 2011\Chapter 4\ 5
Kron Reduce: n := 1 .. 1 m := 1 .. 1

zp1 ⋅ zp1
n, 2 2, m
z1 := zp1 − z1 = ( 1.3292 + 1.3475j )
n, m n, m zp1
2, 2

Define and display phase impedance matrix for phase b

⎛⎜ 0 0 0 ⎞⎟ ⎛0 0 0⎞
z1abc := ⎜ 0 z11 , 1 0 ⎟ z1abc = 0 1.3292 + 1.3475j 0 ⎟

⎜ ⎟
⎜0 0 0⎟ ⎝0 0⎠
⎝ ⎠ 0

PROBLEM 4.4 - Windmil


Solution
Figure 4.14

Figure 4.15

C:\Solutions 2011\Chapter 4\ 6
Figure 4.16

C:\Solutions 2011\Chapter 4\ 7
PROBLEM 4.5 4'

a 2'
b
250,000 CM AA
2'
c 2' GMR := .0171 r := .41
n
i := 1 .. 4 j := 1 .. 4

25'

Define conductor positions:

d := 0 + j ⋅ 0 d := −4 − j ⋅ 2 d := 0 − j ⋅ 4 d := −4 − j ⋅ 6
1 2 3 4

C:\Solutions 2011\Chapter 4\ 8
Define spacing matrix:

D := d − d D := GMR
i, j i j i, i

⎛⎜ 0.0171 4.4721 4 7.2111 ⎞



D= ⎜ 4.4721 0.0171 4.4721 4 ⎟
⎜ 4 4.4721 0.0171 4.4721 ⎟
⎜ 7.2111 4 ⎟
⎝ 4.4721 0.0171 ⎠

Plug into Carson's equations

:= .0953 + j ⋅ .12134⋅ ⎛⎜ ln⎛⎜ ⎞ + 7.934 ⎞


1
zp ⎟ ⎟ zp := zp +r
i, j D i, i i, i
⎝ ⎝ i, j ⎠ ⎠
Display primitive impedance matrix

⎛⎜ 0.5053 + 1.4564j 0.0953 + 0.781j 0.0953 + 0.7945j 0.0953 + 0.723j ⎞⎟


0.0953 + 0.781j 0.5053 + 1.4564j 0.0953 + 0.781j 0.0953 + 0.7945j ⎟
zp = ⎜
⎜ 0.0953 + 0.7945j 0.0953 + 0.781j ⎟
0.5053 + 1.4564j 0.0953 + 0.781j
⎜ 0.0953 + 0.723j ⎟
⎝ 0.0953 + 0.7945j 0.0953 + 0.781j 0.5053 + 1.4564j ⎠

Partition matrices
⎛ 0.5053 + 1.4564j 0.0953 + 0.781j 0.0953 + 0.7945j ⎞
zij := submatrix( zp , 1 , 3 , 1 , 3 ) zij = ⎜ 0.0953 + 0.781j 0.5053 + 1.4564j 0.0953 + 0.781j ⎟
⎜ ⎟
⎝ 0.0953 + 0.7945j 0.0953 + 0.781j 0.5053 + 1.4564j ⎠

⎛ 0.0953 + 0.723j ⎞
zin := submatrix( zp , 1 , 3 , 4 , 4 ) zin = ⎜ 0.0953 + 0.7945j ⎟
⎜ ⎟
⎝ 0.0953 + 0.781j ⎠

znj := submatrix( zp , 4 , 4 , 1 , 3 ) znj = ( 0.0953 + 0.723j 0.0953 + 0.7945j 0.0953 + 0.781j )

znn := submatrix( zp , 4 , 4 , 4 , 4 ) znn = ( 0.5053 + 1.4564j )

Kron reduction
−1
zabc := zij − zin⋅ znn ⋅ znj

Phase impedance matrix

C:\Solutions 2011\Chapter 4\ 9
⎛ 0.5301 + 1.1123j 0.1269 + 0.4037j 0.1256 + 0.4236j ⎞
zabc = ⎜ 0.1269 + 0.4037j 0.5448 + 1.0429j 0.1333 + 0.3743j ⎟
⎜ ⎟
⎝ 0.1256 + 0.4236j 0.1333 + 0.3743j 0.5418 + 1.0565j ⎠

Sequence impedance matrix

⎛ 0.7961 + 1.8717j −0.0164 + 0.0327j 0.0029 + 0.0352j ⎞


z012 = ⎜ 0.0029 + 0.0352j 0.0078 − 0.0054j ⎟
−1
z012 := A ⋅ zabc⋅ A 0.4103 + 0.67j
⎜ ⎟
⎝ −0.0164 + 0.0327j −0.0072 − 0.0052j 0.4103 + 0.67j ⎠

PROBLEM 4.6

Conductor data: 250,000 CM AA

GMR := .0171 r := .41

Compute geometric distances

i := 1 .. 4 j := 1 .. 4

( )
3
GMDp := D ⋅D ⋅D GMDp = 4.3089
1, 2 2, 3 3, 1
1

( )
3
GMDn := D ⋅D ⋅D GMDn = 5.0527
1, 4 2, 4 4, 3

Compute primitive impedance terms:

i := 1 .. 3 j := 1 .. 3

:= .0953 + j ⋅ .12134⋅ ⎛⎜ ln⎛⎜ ⎞ + 7.934 ⎞


1
zp
i, j ⎟ ⎟
⎝ ⎝ GMDp ⎠ ⎠

:= r + .0953 + j ⋅ .12134⋅ ⎛⎜ ln⎛⎜ ⎞ + 7.934 ⎞


1
zp
i, i ⎟ ⎟
⎝ ⎝ GMR ⎠ ⎠

:= .0953 + j ⋅ .12134⋅ ⎛⎜ ln⎛⎜ ⎞ + 7.934 ⎞


1
zp ⎟ ⎟ zp := zp
i, 4 4, j j, 4
⎝ ⎝ GMDn ⎠ ⎠

:= r + .0953 + j ⋅ .12134⋅ ⎛⎜ ln⎛⎜ ⎞ + 7.934 ⎞


1
zp
4, 4 ⎟ ⎟
⎝ ⎝ GMR ⎠ ⎠
Display primitive impedance matrix

C:\Solutions 2011\Chapter 4\ 10
⎛⎜ 0.5053 + 1.4564j 0.0953 + 0.7855j 0.0953 + 0.7855j 0.0953 + 0.7661j ⎞

0.0953 + 0.7855j 0.5053 + 1.4564j 0.0953 + 0.7855j 0.0953 + 0.7661j ⎟
zp = ⎜
⎜ 0.0953 + 0.7855j 0.0953 + 0.7855j 0.5053 + 1.4564j 0.0953 + 0.7661j ⎟
⎜ 0.0953 + ⎟
⎝ 0.7661j 0.0953 + 0.7661j 0.0953 + 0.7661j 0.5053 + 1.4564j ⎠

Partition matrices
⎛ 0.5053 + 1.4564j 0.0953 + 0.7855j 0.0953 + 0.7855j ⎞
zij := submatrix( zp , 1 , 3 , 1 , 3 ) zij = ⎜ 0.0953 + 0.7855j 0.5053 + 1.4564j 0.0953 + 0.7855j ⎟
⎜ ⎟
⎝ 0.0953 + 0.7855j 0.0953 + 0.7855j 0.5053 + 1.4564j ⎠

⎛ 0.0953 + 0.7661j ⎞
zin := submatrix( zp , 1 , 3 , 4 , 4 ) zin = ⎜ 0.0953 + 0.7661j ⎟
⎜ ⎟
⎝ 0.0953 + 0.7661j ⎠

znj := submatrix( zp , 4 , 4 , 1 , 3 ) znj = ( 0.0953 + 0.7661j 0.0953 + 0.7661j 0.0953 + 0.7661j )

znn := submatrix( zp , 4 , 4 , 4 , 4 ) znn = ( 0.5053 + 1.4564j )

Kron reduction
−1
zabc := zij − zin⋅ znn ⋅ znj

Display phase impedance matrix

⎛ 0.5387 + 1.0712j 0.1287 + 0.4003j 0.1287 + 0.4003j ⎞


zabc = ⎜ 0.1287 + 0.4003j 0.5387 + 1.0712j 0.1287 + 0.4003j ⎟
⎜ ⎟
⎝ 0.1287 + 0.4003j 0.1287 + 0.4003j 0.5387 + 1.0712j ⎠

Sequence impedance matrix

⎛ 0.7961 + 1.8717j 0 0 ⎞
z012 := A
−1
⋅ zabc⋅ A z012 = ⎜ 0 0.41 + 0.6709j 0 ⎟
⎜ ⎟
⎝ 0 0 0.41 + 0.6709j ⎠

Using Equation 4.81 and 4.82

(zp1 , 4)
2

z00 := zp + 2 ⋅ zp − 3⋅ z00 = 0.7961 + 1.8717j


1, 1 1, 2 zp
4, 4

⎛ GMDp ⎞
z11 := r + j ⋅ .12134⋅ ln⎜ ⎟ z11 = 0.41 + 0.6709j
⎝ GMR ⎠

C:\Solutions 2011\Chapter 4\ 11
z00
z00 := z00 = 0.1508 + 0.3545j ohms/1000 ft.
5.28

z11
z11 := z11 = 0.0777 + 0.1271j ohms/1000 ft.
5.28

z22 := z11 z22 = 0.0777 + 0.1271j ohms/1000 ft.

PROBLEM 4.7

2'

n
2' Phase conductor is 350,000 AA: GMRp := .0214 rp := .294

b 2' Neutral conductor is 250,000 AA: GMRn := .0171 rn := .41


a 2'
d := 0 + j ⋅ 0 d := 0 + j ⋅ 2 d := 0 − j ⋅ 2 d := −2 + j ⋅ 4
c 1 2 3 4

i := 1 .. 4 j := 1 .. 4 r := rp r := rn
i 4
25'
D := d − d D := GMRp D := GMRn
i, j i j i, i 4, 4

Display spacing matrix:

⎛⎜ 0.0214 2 2 4.4721 ⎞

D= ⎜ 2 0.0214 4 2.8284 ⎟
⎜ 2 4 0.0214 6.3246 ⎟
⎜ 4.4721 2.8284 6.3246 0.0171 ⎟
⎝ ⎠
Plug into Carson's equations

:= .0953 + j ⋅ .12134⋅ ⎛⎜ ln⎛⎜ ⎞ + 7.934 ⎞


1
zp ⎟ ⎟ zp := zp +r
i, j D i, i i, i i
⎝ ⎝ i, j ⎠ ⎠

Display primitive impedance matrix

⎛⎜ 0.3893 + 1.4292j 0.0953 + 0.8786j 0.0953 + 0.8786j 0.0953 + 0.781j ⎞



0.0953 + 0.8786j 0.3893 + 1.4292j 0.0953 + 0.7945j 0.0953 + 0.8366j ⎟
zp = ⎜
⎜ 0.0953 + 0.8786j 0.0953 + 0.7945j 0.3893 + 1.4292j 0.0953 + 0.7389j ⎟
⎜ 0.0953 + 0.781j ⎟
⎝ 0.0953 + 0.8366j 0.0953 + 0.7389j 0.5053 + 1.4564j ⎠

Partition matrices

C:\Solutions 2011\Chapter 4\ 12
⎛ 0.3893 + 1.4292j 0.0953 + 0.8786j 0.0953 + 0.8786j ⎞
zij := submatrix( zp , 1 , 3 , 1 , 3 ) zij = ⎜ 0.0953 + 0.8786j 0.3893 + 1.4292j 0.0953 + 0.7945j ⎟
⎜ ⎟
⎝ 0.0953 + 0.8786j 0.0953 + 0.7945j 0.3893 + 1.4292j ⎠

⎛ 0.0953 + 0.781j ⎞
zin := submatrix( zp , 1 , 3 , 4 , 4 ) zin = ⎜ 0.0953 + 0.8366j ⎟
⎜ ⎟
⎝ 0.0953 + 0.7389j ⎠

znj := submatrix( zp , 4 , 4 , 1 , 3 ) znj = ( 0.0953 + 0.781j 0.0953 + 0.8366j 0.0953 + 0.7389j )

znn := submatrix( zp , 4 , 4 , 4 , 4 ) znn = ( 0.5053 + 1.4564j )

Kron reduction
−1
zabc := zij − zin⋅ znn ⋅ znj

Display phase impedance matrix

⎛ 0.4258 + 1.0293j 0.1378 + 0.451j 0.1273 + 0.4997j ⎞


zabc = ⎜ 0.1378 + 0.451j 0.4385 + 0.972j 0.1328 + 0.3893j ⎟
⎜ ⎟
⎝ 0.1273 + 0.4997j 0.1328 + 0.3893j 0.4171 + 1.0702j ⎠
Compute and display sequence impedance matrix

⎛ 0.6924 + 1.9172j −0.0432 + 0.0222j 0.0417 + 0.0406j ⎞


z012 = ⎜ 0.0417 + 0.0406j 0.2945 + 0.5771j −0.0007 − 0.0547j ⎟
−1
z012 := A ⋅ zabc⋅ A
⎜ ⎟
⎝ −0.0432 + 0.0222j −0.0003 − 0.0545j 0.2945 + 0.5771j ⎠

PROBLEM 4.8
Compute average self and mutual impedances
3


1
zs := ⋅ zabc zs = 0.4271 + 1.0238j
3 k, k
k=1

( )
1
zm := ⋅ zabc + zabc + zabc zm = 0.1326 + 0.4467j
3 1, 2 1, 3 2, 3

Build phase impedance matrix

C:\Solutions 2011\Chapter 4\ 13
⎛ zs zm zm ⎞ ⎛ 0.4271 + 1.0238j 0.1326 + 0.4467j 0.1326 + 0.4467j ⎞
⎜ ⎟
zabc := ⎜ zm zs zm ⎟ zabc = ⎜ 0.1326 + 0.4467j 0.4271 + 1.0238j 0.1326 + 0.4467j ⎟
⎜ ⎟
⎜z z z ⎟ ⎝ 0.1326 + 0.4467j 0.1326 + 0.4467j 0.4271 + 1.0238j ⎠
⎝ m m s⎠

Compute sequence impedance matrix in ohms/mile

⎛ 0.6924 + 1.9172j 0 0 ⎞
z012 := A
−1
⋅ zabc⋅ A z012 = ⎜ 0 0.2945 + 0.5771j 0 ⎟
⎜ ⎟
⎝ 0 0 0.2945 + 0.5771j ⎠

Convert to ohms/1000 ft

z012
z012 :=
5.28

⎛ 0.1311 + 0.3631j 0 0 ⎞
z012 = ⎜ 0 0.0558 + 0.1093j 0 ⎟ ohm/1000 ft.
⎜ ⎟
⎝ 0 0 0.0558 + 0.1093j ⎠

PROBLEM 4.9

4/0 AL concentric neutral cable from Appendix B:

d od := 1.28 d screen := 1.08 d insulation := 1.01

Conductor data from Appendix A:

4/0 AL cable: GMRc := .0158 rc := .484 d c := .522

#10 copper: GMRs := .0033 rs := 5.9026 d s := .1019 k := 13

r := rc
1

Compute radius of circle to the center of the strands

d od − d s
R := R = 0.0491
24
Compute the GMR of the concentric neutral
k
k− 1
GMRcn := GMRs⋅ k ⋅ R GMRcn = 0.0486

Compute the equivalent resistance of the neutral

C:\Solutions 2011\Chapter 4\ 14
rs
r := r = 0.454
2 k 2
Define spacings

Dcn := GMRc Dcn := R Dcn := R Dcn := GMRcn


1, 1 1, 2 2, 1 2, 2

Display spacing matrix

⎛ 0.0158 0.0491 ⎞
Dcn = ⎜ ⎟
⎝ 0.0491 0.0486 ⎠

Plug into Carson's Equations

i := 1 .. 2 j := 1 .. 2

:= .0953 + j ⋅ .12134⋅ ⎛⎜ ln⎛⎜ ⎞ + 7.934 ⎞


1
zcn1 ⎟ ⎟ zcn1 := zcn1 +r
i, j Dcn i, i i, i i
⎝ ⎝ i, j ⎠ ⎠
Display primitive impedance matrix

⎛ 0.5793 + 1.466j 0.0953 + 1.3284j ⎞


zcn1 = ⎜ ⎟
⎝ 0.0953 + 1.3284j 0.5493 + 1.3297j ⎠

Kron reduction:

zcn1 ⋅ zcn1
1, 2 2, 1
z1cn := zcn1 − z1cn = 0.8826 + 0.2709j
1, 1 zcn1
2, 2
Display phase impedance matrix for phase b

⎛0 0 0⎞ ⎛0 0 0⎞
z1cn_b := ⎜ 0 z1cn 0 ⎟ z1cn_b = 0 0.8826 + 0.2709j 0 ⎟

⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟
⎝0 0 0⎠ ⎝0 0 0⎠

PROBLEM 4.10
c a b

6" 6"

C:\Solutions 2011\Chapter 4\ 15
Phase Conductor 250,000 CM AL 1/3 neutal: GMRc := .0171 rc := .41 d c := .567

Concentric Neutral 1/3 is 13-#14 CU d od := 1.29 k := 13 (Appendix B)

Neutral Strand #14 CU: GMRs := .00208 rs := 14.8722 d s := .0641

Compute radius of circle to the center of the strands

d od − d s
R := R = 0.0511
24

Define conductor and equivalent neutral positions

6 12
d := + j ⋅0 d := + j ⋅0 d := 0 + j ⋅ 0
1 12 2 12 3

6 12
d := + j ⋅R d := + j ⋅R d := 0 + j ⋅ R
4 12 5 12 6

Compute off diagonal spacing matrix terms

i := 1 .. 6 j := 1 .. 6

D := d − d
i, j i j

Define the conductor diagonal terms of the spacing matrix

i := 1 .. 3 D := GMRc
i, i
Compute the GMR of the concentric neutrals and define as the off diagonal neutral spacing matrix terms
k
k− 1
j := 4 .. 6 D := GMRs⋅ k ⋅ R
j, j

Define the phase and concentric neutral resistances


rs
r := rc r = 0.41 r := r = 1.144
i 1 i+ 3 k 4

Display the spacing


matrix
⎛ 0.0171 0.5 0.5 0.0511 0.5026 0.5026 ⎞
⎜ 0.5 0.0171 1 0.5026 0.0511 1.0013 ⎟
⎜ ⎟
D= ⎜
0.5 1 0.0171 0.5026 1.0013 0.0511 ⎟
⎜ 0.0511 0.5026 0.5026 0.0486 0.5 ⎟
0.5
⎜ 0.5026 0.0511 1.0013 0.5 0.0486 1

⎜ ⎟
⎝ 0.5026 1.0013 0.0511 0.5 1 0.0486 ⎠

C:\Solutions 2011\Chapter 4\ 16
Plug into Carson's Equations

i := 1 .. 6 j := 1 .. 6

:= .0953 + j ⋅ .12134⋅ ⎛⎜ ln⎛⎜ ⎞ + 7.934 ⎞


1
zcn3 ⎟ ⎟ zcn3 := zcn3 +r
i, j D i, i i, i i
⎝ ⎝ i, j ⎠ ⎠
Display primitive impedance matrix

⎛ 0.505 + 1.456j 0.095 + 1.047j 0.095 + 1.047j 0.095 + 1.324j 0.095 + 1.046j 0.095 + 1.046j ⎞
⎜ 0.095 + 1.047j 0.505 + 1.456j 0.095 + 0.963j 0.095 + 1.046j 0.095 + 1.324j 0.095 + 0.963j ⎟
⎜ ⎟
0.095 + 1.047j 0.095 + 0.963j 0.505 + 1.456j 0.095 + 1.046j 0.095 + 0.963j 0.095 + 1.324j ⎟
zcn3 = ⎜
⎜ 0.095 + 1.324j 0.095 + 1.046j 0.095 + 1.046j 1.239 + 1.33j 0.095 + 1.047j 0.095 + 1.047j ⎟
⎜ 0.095 + 1.046j 0.095 + 1.324j 0.095 + 0.963j 0.095 + 1.047j 1.239 + 1.33j 0.095 + 0.963j

⎜ ⎟
⎝ 0.095 + 1.046j 0.095 + 0.963j 0.095 + 1.324j 0.095 + 1.047j 0.095 + 0.963j 1.239 + 1.33j ⎠

Define and display partitioned matrices necessary for Kron reduction

zp3abc := submatrix( zcn3 , 1 , 3 , 1 , 3 )

⎛ 0.5053 + 1.4564j 0.0953 + 1.0468j 0.0953 + 1.0468j ⎞


zp3abc = ⎜ 0.0953 + 1.0468j 0.5053 + 1.4564j 0.0953 + 0.9627j ⎟
⎜ ⎟
⎝ 0.0953 + 1.0468j 0.0953 + 0.9627j 0.5053 + 1.4564j ⎠

zp3an := submatrix( zcn3 , 1 , 3 , 4 , 6 )

⎛ 0.0953 + 1.3236j 0.0953 + 1.0462j 0.0953 + 1.0462j ⎞


zp3an = ⎜ 0.0953 + 1.0462j 0.0953 + 1.3236j 0.0953 + 0.9626j ⎟
⎜ ⎟
⎝ 0.0953 + 1.0462j 0.0953 + 0.9626j 0.0953 + 1.3236j ⎠
zp3na := submatrix( zcn3 , 4 , 6 , 1 , 3 )

⎛ 0.0953 + 1.3236j 0.0953 + 1.0462j 0.0953 + 1.0462j ⎞


zp3na = ⎜ 0.0953 + 1.0462j 0.0953 + 1.3236j 0.0953 + 0.9626j ⎟
⎜ ⎟
⎝ 0.0953 + 1.0462j 0.0953 + 0.9626j 0.0953 + 1.3236j ⎠

zp3nn := submatrix( zcn3 , 4 , 6 , 4 , 6 )

⎛ 1.2393 + 1.3296j 0.0953 + 1.0468j 0.0953 + 1.0468j ⎞


zp3nn = ⎜ 0.0953 + 1.0468j 1.2393 + 1.3296j 0.0953 + 0.9627j ⎟
⎜ ⎟
⎝ 0.0953 + 1.0468j 0.0953 + 0.9627j 1.2393 + 1.3296j ⎠
Kron Reduction
−1
zcn3 := zp3abc − zp3an⋅ zp3nn ⋅ zp3na

C:\Solutions 2011\Chapter 4\ 17
Display phase impedance matrix in
ohms/mile
⎛ 0.789 + 0.4048j 0.3189 + 0.0334j 0.3189 + 0.0334j ⎞
zcn3 = ⎜ 0.3189 + 0.0334j 0.7981 + 0.4467j 0.2848 − 0.0138j ⎟ ohms/mile
⎜ ⎟
⎝ 0.3189 + 0.0334j 0.2848 − 0.0138j 0.7981 + 0.4467j ⎠
Compute and display phase impedance matrix in ohms/1000 ft.

⎛ 0.1494 + 0.0767j 0.0604 + 0.0063j 0.0604 + 0.0063j ⎞


zcn3 = ⎜ 0.0604 + 0.0063j 0.1512 + 0.0846j 0.0539 − 0.0026j ⎟
zcn3
zcn3 := ohms/1000 ft.
5.28 ⎜ ⎟
⎝ 0.0604 + 0.0063j 0.0539 − 0.0026j 0.1512 + 0.0846j ⎠

PROBLEM 4.11
Windmil results for 4.9

Windmil Results for 4.10

C:\Solutions 2011\Chapter 4\ 18
PROBLEM 4.12

350,000 CM AA tape shielded cable with 4/0 CU neutral 4 inches away

350,000 CM AA : GMRc := .0214 rc := .294 diamc := .679 r := rc


1

4/0 CU 19 strand: GMRt := .01668 rt := .303 diamt := .528 r := rt


3
Compute the resistivity of copper at 50 degrees C

−8
ρ 20 := 1.72⋅ 10 Tcu := 234.5

⎛ 50 + Tcu ⎞ −8
ρ 50 := ρ 20⋅ ⎜ ⎟ ρ 50 = 1.9228 × 10 −8
ρ 50 := 2.3715⋅ 10
⎝ 20 + Tcu ⎠
8
Note: 7.9385⋅ 10 ⋅ ρ 50 = 18.8262 This is the value used in Example 4.4

350,000 CM TS cable from Appendix B: d s := 1.18 T := 5

Compute the resistance and GMR of the shield:

C:\Solutions 2011\Chapter 4\ 19
8
7.9385⋅ 10 ⋅ ρ 50
rshield := rshield = 3.1909 r := rshield
d s⋅ T 2

T
ds −
1000
GMRshield := GMRshield = 0.049
24

Define the spacing between the cable and the neutral:


4
d := d = 0.3333
12

Define the spacing matrix:

⎛ GMRc GMRshield d ⎞ ⎛ 0.0214 0.049 0.3333 ⎞


⎜ ⎟
Dts := ⎜ GMRshield GMRshield d ⎟ Dts = ⎜ 0.049 0.049 0.3333 ⎟
⎜ ⎟
⎜ GMRt ⎟⎠ ⎝ 0.3333 0.3333 0.0167 ⎠
⎝ d d

Plug into Carson's equations


i := 1 .. 3 j := 1 .. 3

:= .0953 + j ⋅ .12134⋅ ⎛⎜ ln⎛⎜ ⎞ + 7.934 ⎞


1
zpt ⎟ ⎟ zpt := zpt +r
i, j Dts i, i i, i i
⎝ ⎝ i, j ⎠ ⎠

Display primitive impedance matrix

⎛ 0.3893 + 1.4292j 0.0953 + 1.3288j 0.0953 + 1.096j ⎞


zpt = ⎜ 0.0953 + 1.3288j 3.2862 + 1.3288j 0.0953 + 1.096j ⎟
⎜ ⎟
⎝ 0.0953 + 1.096j 0.0953 + 1.096j 0.3983 + 1.4594j ⎠
Partition matrices

ztij := zpt ztij = 0.3893 + 1.4292j


1, 1

ztin := submatrix( zpt , 1 , 1 , 2 , 3 ) ztin = ( 0.0953 + 1.3288j 0.0953 + 1.096j )

⎛ 0.0953 + 1.3288j ⎞
ztnj := submatrix( zpt , 2 , 3 , 1 , 1 ) ztnj = ⎜ ⎟
⎝ 0.0953 + 1.096j ⎠

⎛ 3.2862 + 1.3288j 0.0953 + 1.096j ⎞


ztnn := submatrix( zpt , 2 , 3 , 2 , 3 ) ztnn = ⎜ ⎟
⎝ 0.0953 + 1.096j 0.3983 + 1.4594j ⎠
Kron reduction
−1
ztabc := ztij − ztin⋅ ztnn ⋅ ztnj ztabc = 0.5291 + 0.5685j

C:\Solutions 2011\Chapter 4\ 20
Define phase impedance matrix for phase c

⎛0 0 0 ⎞ ⎛0 0 0 ⎞
z1cn := ⎜ 0 0 0 ⎟ ⎜
z1cn = 0 0 0 ⎟
⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟
⎝ 0 0 ztabc ⎠ ⎝ 0 0 0.5291 + 0.5685j ⎠

PROBLEM 4.13

R R

2/0 AA concentric neutral in 6 inch conduit, triangular configuration.


Data from Appendices A and B
dt
d od := 1.1 d jacket := 0.2 d t := d od + 2 ⋅ d jacket d t := d t = 0.125
12
2/0 AA: GMRc := .0125 rc := .769 n := 1 .. 3 r := rc
n
Neutral is 7x14:

#14 Cu: GMRs := .00208 rs := 14.8722 d s := .0641 k := 7

Compute radius to center of strands

d od − d s
R := R = 0.0432
24

d := 0 + j ⋅ 0 d := .0625 + j ⋅ 1.0825 d := .125 + j ⋅ 0


1 2 3

d := d + j ⋅ R d := d + j ⋅ R d := d + j ⋅ R
4 1 5 2 6 3

Define concentric neutral equivalent resistance

C:\Solutions 2011\Chapter 4\ 21
rs
rcn := rcn = 2.1246 n := 4 .. 6 r := rcn
k n

Compute GMR of concentric neutral

k
k− 1
GMRcn := GMRs⋅ k ⋅ R GMRcn = 0.037

Compute distance matrix

n := 1 .. 6 m := 1 .. 6 i := 1 .. 3 j := 4 .. 6

Dx := d − d Dx := GMRc Dx := GMRcn
n, m n m i, i j, j

Display spacings

⎛ 0.0125 1.084303 0.125 0.043163 1.127396 0.132242 ⎞


⎜ 1.084303 0.0125 1.084303 1.041215 0.043162 1.041215 ⎟
⎜ ⎟
Dx = ⎜
0.125 1.084303 0.0125 0.132242 1.127396 0.043163 ⎟
⎜ 0.043163 1.041215 0.132242 0.036956 1.084303 ⎟ 0.125
⎜ 1.127396 0.043162 1.127396 1.084303 0.036956 1.084303

⎜ ⎟
⎝ 0.132242 1.041215 0.043163 0.125 1.084303 0.036956 ⎠

Plug into Carson's equations

i := 1 .. 6 j := 1 .. 6

:= .0953 + j ⋅ .12134⋅ ⎛⎜ ln⎛⎜ ⎞ + 7.934 ⎞


1
zpx ⎟ ⎟ zpx := zpx +r
i, j Dx i, i i, i i
⎝ ⎝ i, j ⎠ ⎠

Display primitive impedance matrix

⎛ 0.864 + 1.494j 0.095 + 0.953j 0.095 + 1.215j 0.095 + 1.344j 0.095 + 0.948j 0.095 + 1.208j ⎞
⎜ 0.095 + 0.953j 0.864 + 1.494j 0.095 + 0.953j 0.095 + 0.958j 0.095 + 1.344j 0.095 + 0.958j ⎟
⎜ ⎟
0.095 + 1.215j 0.095 + 0.953j 0.864 + 1.494j 0.095 + 1.208j 0.095 + 0.948j 0.095 + 1.344j ⎟
zpx = ⎜
⎜ 0.095 + 1.344j 0.095 + 0.958j 0.095 + 1.208j 2.22 + 1.363j 0.095 + 0.953j 0.095 + 1.215j ⎟
⎜ 0.095 + 0.948j 0.095 + 1.344j 0.095 + 0.948j 0.095 + 0.953j 2.22 + 1.363j
⎟ 0.095 + 0.953j
⎜ ⎟
⎝ 0.095 + 1.208j 0.095 + 0.958j 0.095 + 1.344j 0.095 + 1.215j 0.095 + 0.953j 2.22 + 1.363j ⎠

Define and display submatrices

C:\Solutions 2011\Chapter 4\ 22
zpxabc := submatrix( zpx , 1 , 3 , 1 , 3 )

⎛ 0.8643 + 1.4944j 0.0953 + 0.9529j 0.0953 + 1.215j ⎞


zpxabc = ⎜ 0.0953 + 0.9529j 0.8643 + 1.4944j 0.0953 + 0.9529j ⎟
⎜ ⎟
⎝ 0.0953 + 1.215j 0.0953 + 0.9529j 0.8643 + 1.4944j ⎠
zpxan := submatrix( zpx , 1 , 3 , 4 , 6 )

⎛ 0.0953 + 1.3441j 0.0953 + 0.9482j 0.0953 + 1.2082j ⎞


zpxan = ⎜ 0.0953 + 0.9578j 0.0953 + 1.3441j 0.0953 + 0.9578j ⎟
⎜ ⎟
⎝ 0.0953 + 1.2082j 0.0953 + 0.9482j 0.0953 + 1.3441j ⎠

zpxna := submatrix( zpx , 4 , 6 , 1 , 3 )

⎛ 0.0953 + 1.3441j 0.0953 + 0.9578j 0.0953 + 1.2082j ⎞


zpxna = ⎜ 0.0953 + 0.9482j 0.0953 + 1.3441j 0.0953 + 0.9482j ⎟
⎜ ⎟
⎝ 0.0953 + 1.2082j 0.0953 + 0.9578j 0.0953 + 1.3441j ⎠

zpxnn := submatrix( zpx , 4 , 6 , 4 , 6 )

⎛ 2.2199 + 1.3629j 0.0953 + 0.9529j 0.0953 + 1.215j ⎞


zpxnn = ⎜ 0.0953 + 0.9529j 2.2199 + 1.3629j 0.0953 + 0.9529j ⎟
⎜ ⎟
⎝ 0.0953 + 1.215j 0.0953 + 0.9529j 2.2199 + 1.3629j ⎠
Kron reduction in matrix form
−1
zxabc := zpxabc − zpxan⋅ zpxnn ⋅ zpxna

⎛ 1.3112 + 0.6018j 0.45 + 0.1395j 0.5336 + 0.323j ⎞


zxabc = ⎜ 0.45 + 0.1395j 1.2834 + 0.72j 0.45 + 0.1395j ⎟
⎜ ⎟
⎝ 0.5336 + 0.323j 0.45 + 0.1395j 1.3112 + 0.6018j ⎠

PROBLEM 4.14 -Windmil solution of


4.13

C:\Solutions 2011\Chapter 4\ 23
PROBLEM 4.15

2.5' 4.5' 2.5' 4.5'


a b c b c a
3.0' 3.0'
4.0' 4.0'

n
25.0' n 25.0'

18'

Line 1: Phase conductor is 266,800 26/7 ACSR: GMR1 := .0217 r1 := .385


Neutral conductor is 4/0 6/1 ACSR: GMR1n := .00814 r1n := .592

Line 2: Phase conductor is 300,000 CON LAY AA: GMR2 := .0198 r2 := .342
Neutral conductor is 4/0 Class A AA: GMR2n := .0158 r2n := .484

Define conductor positions using conductor a on line 1 as reference. The phase positions for each line is
numbered before the neutral positions are numberd.

C:\Solutions 2011\Chapter 4\ 24
d := 0 + j ⋅ 0 d := 2.5 + j ⋅ 0 d := 7 + j ⋅ 0
1 2 3

d := 25 + j ⋅ 0 d := 18 + j ⋅ 0 d := 20.5 + j ⋅ 0
4 5 6

d := 4 − j ⋅ 4 d := 22 − j ⋅ 4
7 8

Compute off diagonal terms of the spacing matrix

i := 1 .. 8 j := 1 .. 8 D := d − d
i, j i j
Define diagonal terms of spacing matrix

n := 1 .. 3 D := GMR1 D := GMR1n
n, n 7, 7

m := 4 .. 6 D := GMR2 D := GMR2n
m, m 8, 8

Display spacing matrix

⎛ 0.0217 2.5 7 25 18 20.5 5.6569 22.3607 ⎞


⎜ 2.5 0.0217 4.5 22.5 15.5 18 4.272 19.906

⎜ ⎟
⎜ 7 4.5 0.0217 18 11 13.5 5 15.5242 ⎟
⎜ 25 22.5 18 0.0198 7 4.5 21.3776 5 ⎟
D= ⎜ ⎟
⎜ 18 15.5 11 7 0.0198 2.5 14.5602 5.6569

⎜ 20.5 18 13.5 4.5 2.5 0.0198 16.9779 4.272 ⎟
⎜ 5.6569 4.272 5 21.3776 14.5602 16.9779 0.0081 18 ⎟
⎜ ⎟
⎝ 22.3607 19.906 15.5242 5 5.6569 4.272 18 0.0158 ⎠

Define conductor resistance values

r := r1 r := r1n
n 7

r := r2 r := r2n
m 8

Plug into Carson's equations:

:= 0.0953 + j ⋅ 0.12134 ⋅ ⎛⎜ ln⎛⎜ ⎞ + 7.934 ⎞


1
zp ⎟ ⎟ zp := r + zp
i, j D i, i i i, i
⎝ ⎝ i, j ⎠ ⎠

Partition primitive impedance matrix

C:\Solutions 2011\Chapter 4\ 25
zij := submatrix( zp , 1 , 6 , 1 , 6 )

⎛ 0.4803 + 1.4275j 0.0953 + 0.8515j 0.0953 + 0.7266j 0.0953 + 0.5721j 0.0953 + 0.612j 0.0953 + 0.5962j ⎞
⎜ 0.0953 + 0.8515j 0.4803 + 1.4275j 0.0953 + 0.7802j 0.0953 + 0.5849j 0.0953 + 0.6301j 0.0953 + 0.612j ⎟
⎜ ⎟
0.0953 + 0.7266j 0.0953 + 0.7802j 0.4803 + 1.4275j 0.0953 + 0.612j 0.0953 + 0.6718j 0.0953 +
zij = ⎜
0.6469j ⎟
⎜ 0.0953 + 0.5721j 0.0953 + 0.5849j 0.0953 + 0.612j 0.4373 + 1.4386j 0.0953 + 0.7266j 0.0953 + 0.7802j ⎟
⎜ 0.0953 + 0.612j 0.0953 + 0.6301j 0.0953 + 0.6718j 0.0953 + 0.7266j 0.4373 + 1.4386j 0.0953 + 0.8515j

⎜ ⎟
⎝ 0.0953 + 0.5962j 0.0953 + 0.612j 0.0953 + 0.6469j 0.0953 + 0.7802j 0.0953 + 0.8515j 0.4373 + 1.4386j ⎠

zin := submatrix( zp , 1 , 6 , 7 , 8 )

⎛ 0.0953 + 0.7524j 0.0953 + 0.5857j ⎞


⎜ 0.0953 + 0.7865j 0.0953 + 0.5998j ⎟
⎜ ⎟
0.0953 + 0.7674j 0.0953 + 0.6299j ⎟
zin = ⎜
⎜ 0.0953 + 0.5911j 0.0953 + 0.7674j ⎟
⎜ 0.0953 + 0.6377j 0.0953 + 0.7524j

⎜ ⎟
⎝ 0.0953 + 0.6191j 0.0953 + 0.7865j ⎠

znj := submatrix( zp , 7 , 8 , 1 , 6 )

⎛ 0.0953 + 0.7524j 0.0953 + 0.7865j 0.0953 + 0.7674j 0.0953 + 0.5911j 0.0953 + 0.6377j 0.0953 + 0.6191j ⎞
znj = ⎜ ⎟
⎝ 0.0953 + 0.5857j 0.0953 + 0.5998j 0.0953 + 0.6299j 0.0953 + 0.7674j 0.0953 + 0.7524j 0.0953 + 0.7865j ⎠
znn := submatrix( zp , 7 , 8 , 7 , 8 )

⎛ 0.6873 + 1.5465j 0.0953 + 0.612j ⎞


znn = ⎜ ⎟
⎝ 0.0953 + 0.612j 0.5793 + 1.466j ⎠

Kron reduction

−1
zparallelabc := zij − zin⋅ znn ⋅ znj

Display parallel phase impedance matrix

⎛ 0.5075 + 1.0147j 0.1261 + 0.4235j 0.1245 + 0.2978j 0.1082 + 0.1703j 0.1128 + 0.1978j 0.1113 + 0.1801j ⎞
⎜ 0.1261 + 0.4235j 0.515 + 0.9837j 0.1282 + 0.3358j 0.1102 + 0.1703j 0.1152 + 0.2023j 0.1135 + 0.1825j ⎟
⎜ ⎟
0.1245 + 0.2978j 0.1282 + 0.3358j 0.512 + 0.9815j 0.1128 + 0.1894j 0.1171 + 0.2372j 0.116 + 0.2096j
zparallelabc = ⎜ ⎟
⎜ 0.1082 + 0.1703j 0.1102 + 0.1703j 0.1128 + 0.1894j 0.465 + 0.999j 0.1224 + 0.283j 0.1254 + 0.3271j ⎟
⎜ 0.1128 + 0.1978j 0.1152 + 0.2023j 0.1171 + 0.2372j 0.1224 + 0.283j 0.4648 + 0.9894j 0.125 + 0.394j

⎜ ⎟
⎝ 0.1113 + 0.1801j 0.1135 + 0.1825j 0.116 + 0.2096j 0.1254 + 0.3271j 0.125 + 0.394j 0.4699 + 0.9716j ⎠

Neutral transformation matrix

C:\Solutions 2011\Chapter 4\ 26
−1
tn := −znn ⋅ znj

⎛ −0.3438 − 0.1016j −0.3612 − 0.1101j −0.3438 − 0.0987j −0.2116 − 0.0183j −0.2423 − 0.0358j −0.2244 − 0.0239j ⎞
tn = ⎜ ⎟
⎝ −0.2448 − 0.0116j −0.2472 − 0.0102j −0.2706 − 0.0231j −0.3955 − 0.0974j −0.3764 − 0.0845j −0.4023 − 0.0986j ⎠

PROBLEM 4.16

6" 6" 4"

a b c

24 "

6" 6" 4"

c a b

Define conductor and strand data:


Line 1 (top): 250 kcmil,1/3 neutral GMR1 := .0171 dia1 := .567 r1 := .41
d od1 := 1.21 k 1 := 13

Neutral, 4/0 6/1 ACSR: GMR1n := .00814 dia1n := .563 r1n := .592

Line 2 : 2/0 kcmil, 1/3 neutral GMR2 := .0125 dia2 := .414 r2 := .769

d od2 := 1.1 k 2 := 7

GMR2n := .0051 dia2n := .447 r2n := .895


Neutal, 2/0 ACSR

Concentric neutrals, #14 Cu: GMRs := .00208 d s := .0641 rs := 14.8722

Compute radius of circle to the center of the strands

d od1 − d s
Rb1 := Rb1 = 0.0477
24
d od2 − d s
Rb2 := Rb2 = 0.0432
24

C:\Solutions 2011\Chapter 4\ 27
Compute equivalent GMR and r of concentric neutral
1
k1
⎛ k1− 1⎞
GMReq1 := ⎝ GMRs⋅ k 1⋅ Rb1 ⎠ GMReq1 = 0.0457

rs
req1 :=
k1 req1 = 1.144

1
k2
⎛ k2− 1⎞
GMReq2 := ⎝ GMRs⋅ k 2⋅ Rb2 ⎠ GMReq2 = 0.037

rs
req2 := req2 = 2.1246
k2

Note: You need to picture that the equivalent neutral for each cable is going to be positioned as a single
conductor located Rb above the central phase conductor. For all practical purposes, this makes the
distances between equivalent neutral conductors and an adjacent phase conductor as the center to center
cable distances.

Define positions in inches with line 1 phase a cable as reference:

d := 0 + j ⋅ 0 d := 6 + j ⋅ 0 d := 12 + j ⋅ 0
1 2 3

d := 2 − j ⋅ 24 d := 0 − j ⋅ 24 d := 12 − j ⋅ 24
4 5 6

d := d + j ⋅ Rb1 d := d + j ⋅ Rb1 d := d + j ⋅ Rb1


7 1 8 2 9 3

d := d + j ⋅ Rb2 d := d + j ⋅ Rb2 d := d + j ⋅ Rb2


10 4 11 5 12 6

d := 16 + j ⋅ 0 d := 16 − j ⋅ 24
13 14

Compute spacing distances in ft.:


i := 1 .. 14 j := 1 .. 14

D
i, j
D := d − d D :=
i, j i j i, j 12

Set diagonal terms to the appropriate GMRs and resistances to appropriate resistance:

n := 1 .. 3 D := GMR1 r := r1
n, n n

n := 4 .. 6 D := GMR2 r := r2
n, n n

C:\Solutions 2011\Chapter 4\ 28
n := 7 .. 9 D := GMReq1 r := req1
n, n n

n := 10 .. 12 D := GMReq2 r := req2
n, n n

n := 13 D := GMR1n r := r1n
n, n n

n := 14 D := GMR2n r := r2n
n, n n

Plug into Carson's modified equations:

:= 0.0953 + j ⋅ .12134⋅ ⎛⎜ ln⎛⎜ ⎞ + 7.93402 ⎞


1
:= zp +r
D ⎟ ⎟
zp zp
i, j i, i i, i i
⎝ ⎝ i, j ⎠ ⎠

Partition 14x14 matrix for Kron reduction:

zij := submatrix( zp , 1 , 6 , 1 , 6 )

⎛ 0.5053 + 1.4564j 0.0953 + 1.0468j 0.0953 + 0.9627j 0.0953 + 0.8782j 0.0953 + 0.8786j 0.0953 + 0.8651j ⎞
⎜ 0.0953 + 1.0468j 0.5053 + 1.4564j 0.0953 + 1.0468j 0.0953 + 0.8769j 0.0953 + 0.8749j 0.0953 + 0.8749j ⎟
⎜ ⎟
0.0953 + 0.9627j 0.0953 + 1.0468j 0.5053 + 1.4564j 0.0953 + 0.8689j 0.0953 + 0.8651j 0.0953 + 0.8786j ⎟
zij = ⎜
⎜ 0.0953 + 0.8782j 0.0953 + 0.8769j 0.0953 + 0.8689j 0.8643 + 1.4944j 0.0953 + 1.1801j 0.0953 + 0.9848j ⎟
⎜ 0.0953 + 0.8786j 0.0953 + 0.8749j 0.0953 + 0.8651j 0.0953 + 1.1801j 0.8643 + 1.4944j 0.0953 + 0.9627j

⎜ ⎟
⎝ 0.0953 + 0.8651j 0.0953 + 0.8749j 0.0953 + 0.8786j 0.0953 + 0.9848j 0.0953 + 0.9627j 0.8643 + 1.4944j ⎠

zin := submatrix( zp , 1 , 6 , 7 , 14)

⎛ 0.095 + 1.633j 0.095 + 1.047j 0.095 + 0.963j 0.095 + 0.878j 0.095 + 0.879j 0.095 + 0.865j 0.095 + 0.928j 0.095 + 0.85
⎜ 0.095 + 1.047j 0.095 + 1.633j 0.095 + 1.047j 0.095 + 0.877j 0.095 + 0.875j 0.095 + 0.875j 0.095 + 0.985j 0.095 + 0.86

0.095 + 0.963j 0.095 + 1.047j 0.095 + 1.633j 0.095 + 0.869j 0.095 + 0.865j 0.095 + 0.879j 0.095 + 1.096j 0.095 + 0.87
zin = ⎜
⎜ 0.095 + 0.878j 0.095 + 0.877j 0.095 + 0.869j 0.095 + 1.646j 0.095 + 1.18j 0.095 + 0.985j 0.095 + 0.861j 0.095 + 0.94
⎜ 0.095 + 0.878j 0.095 + 0.875j 0.095 + 0.865j 0.095 + 1.18j 0.095 + 1.646j 0.095 + 0.963j 0.095 + 0.856j 0.095 + 0.92

⎝ 0.095 + 0.865j 0.095 + 0.875j 0.095 + 0.878j 0.095 + 0.985j 0.095 + 0.963j 0.095 + 1.646j 0.095 + 0.877j 0.095 + 1.09

T
znj := zin

C:\Solutions 2011\Chapter 4\ 29
⎛ 0.0953 + 1.6333j 0.0953 + 1.0468j 0.0953 + 0.9627j 0.0953 + 0.8779j 0.0953 + 0.8784j 0.0953 + 0.8649j ⎞
⎜ 0.0953 + 1.0468j 0.0953 + 1.6333j 0.0953 + 1.0468j 0.0953 + 0.8767j 0.0953 + 0.8747j 0.0953 + 0.8747j

⎜ ⎟
⎜ 0.0953 + 0.9627j 0.0953 + 1.0468j 0.0953 + 1.6333j 0.0953 + 0.8687j 0.0953 + 0.8649j 0.0953 + 0.8784j ⎟
⎜ 0.0953 + 0.8784j 0.0953 + 0.8772j 0.0953 + 0.8691j 0.0953 + 1.6456j 0.0953 + 1.1801j 0.0953 + 0.9848j ⎟
znj = ⎜ ⎟
⎜ 0.0953 + 0.8788j 0.0953 + 0.8751j 0.0953 + 0.8652j 0.0953 + 1.1801j 0.0953 + 1.6456j 0.0953 + 0.9627j

⎜ 0.0953 + 0.8652j 0.0953 + 0.8751j 0.0953 + 0.8788j 0.0953 + 0.9848j 0.0953 + 0.9627j 0.0953 + 1.6456j ⎟
⎜ 0.0953 + 0.9278j 0.0953 + 0.9848j 0.0953 + 1.096j 0.0953 + 0.8608j 0.0953 + 0.8563j 0.0953 + 0.8769j ⎟
⎜ ⎟
⎝ 0.0953 + 0.8563j 0.0953 + 0.8689j 0.0953 + 0.8769j 0.0953 + 0.944j 0.0953 + 0.9278j 0.0953 + 1.096j ⎠

znn := submatrix( zp , 7 , 14 , 7 , 14)

⎛ 1.239 + 1.337j 0.095 + 1.047j 0.095 + 0.963j 0.095 + 0.878j 0.095 + 0.879j 0.095 + 0.865j 0.095 + 0.928j 0.095 + 0.856
⎜ 0.095 + 1.047j 1.239 + 1.337j 0.095 + 1.047j 0.095 + 0.877j 0.095 + 0.875j 0.095 + 0.875j 0.095 + 0.985j 0.095 + 0.869

⎜ 0.095 + 0.963j 0.095 + 1.047j 1.239 + 1.337j 0.095 + 0.869j 0.095 + 0.865j 0.095 + 0.879j 0.095 + 1.096j 0.095 + 0.877
⎜ 0.095 + 0.878j 0.095 + 0.877j 0.095 + 0.869j 2.22 + 1.363j 0.095 + 1.18j 0.095 + 0.985j 0.095 + 0.861j 0.095 + 0.944
znn = ⎜
⎜ 0.095 + 0.879j 0.095 + 0.875j 0.095 + 0.865j 0.095 + 1.18j 2.22 + 1.363j 0.095 + 0.963j 0.095 + 0.856j 0.095 + 0.928
⎜ 0.095 + 0.865j 0.095 + 0.875j 0.095 + 0.879j 0.095 + 0.985j 0.095 + 0.963j 2.22 + 1.363j 0.095 + 0.877j 0.095 + 1.096
⎜ 0.095 + 0.928j 0.095 + 0.985j 0.095 + 1.096j 0.095 + 0.861j 0.095 + 0.856j 0.095 + 0.877j 0.687 + 1.546j 0.095 + 0.879

⎝ 0.095 + 0.856j 0.095 + 0.869j 0.095 + 0.877j 0.095 + 0.944j 0.095 + 0.928j 0.095 + 1.096j 0.095 + 0.879j 0.99 + 1.603

Kron reduction:
−1
zabc := zij − zin⋅ znn ⋅ znj

⎛ 0.9228 + 0.2967j 0.2105 − 0.0508j 0.1262 − 0.0842j 0.1163 − 0.064j 0.12 − 0.0608j 0.0965 − 0.0676j ⎞
⎜ 0.2105 − 0.0508j 0.8831 + 0.2718j 0.1759 − 0.0598j 0.0989 − 0.0725j 0.101 − 0.0711j 0.0882 − 0.0709j ⎟
⎜ ⎟
0.1262 − 0.0842j 0.1759 − 0.0598j 0.8527 + 0.2647j 0.0827 − 0.073j 0.0834 − 0.0725j 0.0814 − 0.0679j ⎟
zabc = ⎜
⎜ 0.1163 − 0.064j 0.0989 − 0.0725j 0.0827 − 0.073j 1.1952 + 0.4757j 0.3273 + 0.1753j 0.1988 + 0.0157j ⎟
⎜ 0.12 − 0.0608j 0.101 − 0.0711j 0.0834 − 0.0725j 0.3273 + 0.1753j 1.2 + 0.4858j

0.1892 + 0.0036j
⎜ ⎟
⎝ 0.0965 − 0.0676j 0.0882 − 0.0709j 0.0814 − 0.0679j 0.1988 + 0.0157j 0.1892 + 0.0036j 1.1603 + 0.4694j ⎠

Neutral transformation matrix:


−1
tn := −znn ⋅ znj

C:\Solutions 2011\Chapter 4\ 30
⎛ −0.3196 − 0.4968j −0.1832 − 0.0031j −0.1213 + 0.0422j −0.1088 + 0.0279j −0.1112 + 0.0245j −0.0934 + 0.035j ⎞
⎜ −0.1832 − 0.0031j −0.2924 − 0.468j −0.1568 + 0.0116j −0.0963 + 0.0385j −0.0978 + 0.0369j −0.0872 + 0.0395j

⎜ ⎟
⎜ −0.1213 + 0.0422j −0.1568 + 0.0116j −0.269 − 0.4557j −0.0832 + 0.0423j −0.0837 + 0.0418j −0.0811 + 0.0384j ⎟
⎜ −0.0577 + 0.0224j −0.0502 + 0.0274j −0.0428 + 0.0286j −0.1585 − 0.3161j −0.1406 − 0.1011j −0.091 − 0.0195j ⎟
tn = ⎜ ⎟
⎜ −0.0593 + 0.0207j −0.0511 + 0.0266j −0.0431 + 0.0284j −0.1406 − 0.1011j −0.1601 − 0.3211j −0.0873 − 0.0133j

⎜ −0.0488 + 0.0253j −0.0452 + 0.0274j −0.0419 + 0.0263j −0.0909 − 0.0195j −0.0873 − 0.0133j −0.1428 − 0.311j ⎟
⎜ −0.1159 + 0.1398j −0.1542 + 0.1378j −0.2661 + 0.0952j −0.0929 + 0.1115j −0.0931 + 0.1113j −0.0993 + 0.1026j ⎟
⎜ ⎟
⎝ −0.0712 + 0.0864j −0.0649 + 0.087j −0.0628 + 0.0817j −0.1636 + 0.0505j −0.1553 + 0.055j −0.2612 − 0.028j ⎠

System 1

C:\Solutions 2011\Chapter 4\ 31
C:\Solutions 2011\Chapter 4\ 32