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at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/253857446 Engineering Dynamics of a Scalar Universe Part II:

Article · March 2009

DOI: 10.1063/1.3115580

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Engineering Dynamics of a Scalar Universe Part II: Time-Varying Density Model & Propulsion

Glen A. Robertson

Institute for the Advanced Studies in the Space, Propulsion & Energy Sciences 265 Ita Ann, Madison, AL 35757 256-694-7941, gar@ias-spes.org

Abstract. In this paper, the local fifth force model developed by the author (Robertson, 2009) for a static mass density is extended to time varying mass densities. The time varying mass density model allows for field-force effects due to the time variance of an object’s mass density and uses a concept know to electrical engineers as “Time Dilation and Retardation.” Time dilation and retardation (TDR) is used to describe the time delay effect on the ambient Chameleon field due to the changing of an object’s mass density. From this, hot-gas rocket equations are developed from the integration of the local fifth force and the TDR equations.

The EM Field momentum model previous looked at by the author (Robertson, 2008) and the EMDrive (Shawyer, 2008) are discussed in light of the time-varying density model.

Keywords: Force Models, Propulsion, Time-varying Mass Densities, EM Field Momentum, EMDrive PACS: 03.65.Sq, 03.70.+k, 04.90.+e., 11.90.+t

INTRODUCTION

The notion that our universe is composed of scalar fields is becoming more of a fact as we learn more about the nature of the universe. The most appealing fact toward this is the discovery that the cosmos is expanding due to vacuum or dark energy, which presents itself as a fifth force of nature. Khoury and Weltman (2004a and 2004b) presented this fifth force as a Chameleon scalar field hiding within known physics and tied to the density of matter threw a thin-shell concept or mechanism.

In a previous paper (Robertson, 2009), the author merged the fifth force search concept, where new forces are compared to gravitational forces, with the Chameleon scalar field model to produce local fifth force models for objects with a static mass density. Those local fifth force models presents an alternate means of acquiring the same force results as attainable from the standard Newtonian force models. [Readers should read the previous paper before reading this paper.]

In this paper, the local fifth force model is extended to time vary mass densities. To accomplish this, a concept known to electrical engineers as Time Dilation and Retardation is introduced. Time dilation and retardation (TDR) is used to describe the time delay effect on the ambient Chameleon field due to a changing mass density. By integrating the local fifth force model with TDR several time vary mass densities, to include hot-gas rocket and electromagnetic (EM) drive equations.

THE TIME VARYING DENSITY MODEL

Masses with varying density are investigated through the concept of time dilation and retardation. Time dilation and retardation is taken into consideration by electrical engineers when there are interfering sinusoidal electric and magnetic field; producing a small retardation of the electron motion. Retardation is a relativity slow phonon

mediated process that occurs when electric and magnetic fields are sinusoidal (time-varying) and overlap in a material by an average separation distance s as described by the Lienard-Wiechert potentials. This induces a small reaction time or retardation time Δt = sc between earlier field interactions and corresponds to a phase shift ωΔt and infers a retardation time tt′ = −Δt , which results in unidirectional forces “on the material” in the overlapping fields.

Time Dilation and Retardation Model

Under this model, time dilation and retardation is applied to the particulate matter in an object and specifically only to a small group much less than the total matter in the object and that matter which can be easily modulated without distortion to the peripheral boundary of the object. That is, no visible distortion of the object can be detected.

It is noted that this is different than oscillation of the object in its entirety, which would cause an oscillatory shifting of the thin-shell of the object in the direction of the oscillatory motion, where no net directional force would be achieved.

Under this criteria, retardation would exists between the mass to field coupling factor

object’s changing density

β

m

(to be given later) and the

ρ , which is given in like to equation (65) in Robertson (2008) as

m

∂≈+

ρρ

m

1

3 F F ρ = 34 mR π ∂ m Ni m
3
F
F
ρ
=
34
mR
π
m
Ni
m

R

m

,

(1)

implies a change to the mass’s radial factor R , given

where ρ is the density of the particulate matter and from equation (1) as

i

m

⎛ ∂= + R ( ⎜ 1 F F m mN ⎝
∂= +
R
(
1
F
F
m
mN

(

i
i

mm

)

1 3 − 1 ) , ⎞ ⎟ R m ⎠
1 3
− 1
) ,
R
m

(2)

where m is the mass of the object and implies a change in the thin-shell given by

(3)

as shown in the time varying density model of Figure 1, which shows a thin slice of a mass with an internal density

change

and an internal relaxation force opposite to the

direction of the force

while increasing the object’s thin-shell thickness by the equivalent amount.

m . As shown, the internal oscillatory matter effectively reduces the objects radial factor,

is the total mass of the particulate matter in the mass m . Equation (2) then

m

i

∂ΔR R − ∂R .

m

m

(

)

ρ

m

due to the movement of some of its particulate matter. It is assumed that this matter is oscillatory under

an internal force in the direction of the wanted acceleration force

F

m

F

the direction of the wanted acceleration force F m F Example 1 R m = 9345.33

Example

1

R

m

=

9345.33

×

of

0.035 N ,

FIGURE 1. Time Varying Density Model

Given

a

small

mass

m 0.020 kg

of

density

ρ

m

5850 kg

a small mass m ≈ 0.020 kg of density ρ ≈ m 5850 kg 2 m

2

m

,

gives

a

radial

factor

10

6

m

the

, where the object’s weight

downward

acceleratory

F

N

= mg

force

N

is

FF

0.196 N .

is

N

+ F

m

With a downward field force

F

m

0.231 N

and

the

object’s

acceleration

particulate matter mass density

(1) and radial change

shell

a

m

7.62

11.57

×

10

8

2 . Now letting the oscillatory particulate matter mass

ρ

i

0.8032 kg

∂=

R

m

m

9345.26

from equation (3).

×

10

6

m0.8032 kg ∂= R m m 9345.26 from equation (3). × 10 − 6 m 2

m

2 , yielding a density change

ρ

m

m

i

− 6 m m 2 , yielding a density change ∂ ρ ≈ m m i

ms

, where the

2 from equation

from equation (2), which then gives the change in the thin-

= 2.75

5850.16 kg

×

10

6

the change in the thin- = 2.75 5850.16 kg × 10 − 6 m kg ∂Δ

m

kg

∂Δ ≈

R

m

Time Dilation

To begin and given an object of mass m , the factor

F

m

mN

6

∂ΔR

m

m

(

R m m m
R
m
m
m

in the typical field force equation

)

N

θ F = ∂β ∂ΔRRF

(4)

of perturbations in the distribution of an object with a changing

is taken to be a function of the number N

density

corrected by a “time dilation” τ + Δτ corresponding to a volume expansion

translation or change

force can be given in terms of a time dilation or perturbation factor by

ρ over an effective time t with each perturbation occurring over the object’s relaxation time τ t N

m

V + ΔV , which results in a dimensional

r

r

∂ΔR in the object’s thin-shell in the direction of any resulting motion. Such that, the field

m

F

m

mN

θ F = ∂β ττ τ F

6

m

(

(
(

))

N

,

(5)

where the perturbation factor

ττ + Δτ ≈ ∂ΔR R <<

m

(
(

)

m
m

1

and the sum of the local fifth force coefficients as

(6)

θ m

= ∂β ττ τ .

6

m

(

(
(

))

Now since the relaxation time τ t N , the perturbation factor

the relaxation time τ ≈ t N , the perturbation factor ττ ( +Δ τ )

ττ( τ ) t (t + N Δτ ) tt t ,

τ ) ≈ t ( t + N Δ τ ) ≡ tt +Δ t ,

(7)

(8)

where the retardation time Δt N Δτ reflects an interaction with an earlier event and corresponds to a phase shift

Δϕ ωΔt

m

Example 2 – The electron relaxation time τ can be as fast as

conductive metals, the electron relaxation time only ranges in the

time

10

14

s

in some materials. However, in many

s . Then by letting the relaxation

9

10

((

τ

0.956

×

10

9

s

,

noting that

equation (6) can be rewritten as

Δτ R ∂ΔR τ and using the values

force on

m
m

m

)

1

)

for

R

m

and

∂ΔR from Example 10, the perturbation time Δτ required to achieve the

m

F

m

35

mN

the 20 gram object is

1.17

×

10

4

s

, which implies an angular frequency ω = 2π Δτ 53.6 kHz for N = 1 .

(9)

Retardation

Retardation implies that the motion coupling factors are not identical as has been assumed. This is easily seen from equation (5), which yields

∂β ≈ 1 6(( τ +Δττ ) ) F F m mN and the equations
∂β ≈
1 6((
τ +Δττ
)
)
F
F
m
mN
and the equations (51) from Robertson (2009) and (6), which yields
1 2
∂β ≈ ττ +Δτ
((
(
))
)
N

ˆ

β

C m

− 2 2 13 ( ∂ β ) ( M m E
− 2
2
13
(
β
)
(
M
m
E

∂∂

ρ R

m

m

(10)

(11)

and combining them with the form of mass to field coupling factors given by equations (56) and (57) from Robertson (2009), respectfully to yields the motion coupling factors as

(12)

and

)( 1 3 4 lR ∂ 2 M ρ ) ( 1 − ( ρρ
)(
1 3
4
lR
2
M
ρ
)
(
1
(
ρρ
p
m
PL
0
0
m

)

1 3

)

ˆ

∂≈

β

C N

− 2 2 13 ( ∂ β ) ( M ρ R N E N
− 2
2
13
(
β
)
(
M
ρ R
N
E
N
N

(

β

)

≈∂β

mm

R

(

β

)

)β ) ( M ρ R N E N N ( β ) ≈∂ β mm

1 3

)

(13)

Differences in the motion factors implies that there exists both a retarded mass to field coupling factor (

, given by

(14)

(15)

where ωt is the phase between events and ϕ is the phase between the changing coupling factor β and the

changing Newtonian mass to field coupling factor the object, given by

(16)

(17)

where the subscript ( )

retarded Newtonian mass to field coupling factor (

and a

β

m

)

R

β

N

)

R

, relating a retarded or past density change (

sin(

)

ωϕt + −Δϕ ,

m

sin(

)

ρ

m

)

R

R

≈∂β ωϕt −Δ ,

m

NN

(

β

β

m

)

NR

≈ ∂β

(

β

N

)

NR

≈ ∂β

N

m

N

m

relating to the non-retarded or current density change

sin(

)

ωϕt + ,

sin(

)

ωt ,

NR

)

implies non-retarded.

ρ

m

of

implies retarded and the subscript (

R

Equations (14-17) provide a phasing of the sum of the local fifth force coefficients given with respect to equation (7) as

and

(

(

θ L

)

NR

≈ ∂β tt t

6

m

(

(
(

θ ≈− ∂β tt t

6

Lm

R

)

(

(
(

))sin(

where the minus sign implies a past event .

))sin(

ωϕt +

ωϕt + −Δϕ

m

)sin( )

ωt

)sin(

ωt −Δϕ

m

 

(18)

),

(19)

Now in order to achieve the correct sum of the local differential fifth force coefficients, equations (18) and (19) must be added and time averaged, such that, the time averaged sum of the local fifth force coefficients is given as

θ

= ∂

((

θ

mL

m

)(

+ −

NR

θ

L

m

))

R

⎛ ⎛ sin ( ωϕ ϕ t + −Δ ) () sin ω t ⎞⎞
⎛ sin
(
ωϕ ϕ
t
+ −Δ
) ()
sin
ω
t
⎞⎞
t
r
ω
∂ t ≈
6
(
βω
)
⋅∂ ⎜
t
m
t
+Δ t −
sin
(
ωϕ
t
+
)(
sin
ω
t
−Δ
ϕ
)
r
⎟⎟ ⎟ ⎠⎠ ⎟

where ω is the frequency between events.

To evaluate equation (20), it is first noted that

(sin(

ωt + ϕ −Δϕ ωttωϕ+

r

)sin( )

sin(

)sin(

ωt −Δϕ =

))

sin(

ϕ

)sin(

Δϕ ,

)

rr

which by letting

Δϕ <<

r

1

to give sin(

Δϕ

r

)

≈Δϕ , reduces equation (20) to

r

Then noting that

θ m

≈ ∂β Δϕω

6

mr

(

(

to r Then noting that θ m ≈ ∂ β Δ ϕω 6 mr ( (

) ())

sin

ϕ ×∂ tt t t .

((

))

6 mr ( ( ) () ) sin ϕ ×∂ tt +Δ t ∂ t .

((

tt

+Δ ∂ =Δ +Δ ≈Δ

t

t

tt

t

))

t . ( ( ) ) ∂ ( ( tt +Δ ∂ =Δ +Δ ≈Δ t
(
(

)

2

t

1

,

(20)

(21)

(22)

(23)

and that time averaging allows t 0 , which further reduces equation (22) to

Now noting equation (9),

(

further reduces equation (22) to Now noting equation (9), ( θ ≈∂ β Δ ϕω Δ

θ ≈∂β ΔϕωΔt

m

6

mr

)sin( )

ϕ .

θ ≈ ∂β

m

6

m

sin(

)

ϕ .

(24)

(25)

Then by equating equation (25) to equation (7) gives the phase

ϕ

from

sin ( ϕ ) ≈ ϕττ = ( + Δ τ ) << 1 ;

sin(ϕ) ϕττ= ( + Δτ ) << 1 ;

between the changing coupling coefficient

(26)

and the sum of the fifth force

indicating that the phase

coefficients

ϕ

β

m

θ =

m

θ

L

is simply the time-dilution or perturbation factor of equation (6), as one should expect.
m

, which satisfies the requirement that the

phase ϕ 1 . And applying this value to equations (10) and (11) yields the mass to field coupling factors

Example 3 – It is noted that Example 2 gives a phase

ϕ

8.16

×

10

6

∂≈β

m

ρ

N earth

=

3.64

×

5520

10

3 and

∂≈β

N

4.43

×

10

5 . Then using the values from Example 1 & 2 with

ρ

0

. Then using the values from Example 1 & 2 with ρ 0 3 kg m

3

kg m , the motion factors are given as

ˆ

∂≈β

C m

1.21

×

10

6 from equation (11) and

from equation (11), which differ by approximately a factor of 10

18

.

atm

= 1.2 kg m ˆ ∂≈ β 4.89 C N
=
1.2 kg
m
ˆ
∂≈
β
4.89
C N

3 , and

×

12

10

THE SOLID ROCKET MOTOR

The time varying mass model can be best illustrated by a solid rocket motor (SRM), where the density varies as the propellant mass is exhausted as hot-gas to produce thrust. Using the concepts derived in the previous paper (Robertson, 2009), a model of the solid rocket motor was developed and a cross section of the solid rocket motor is

shown in Figure 2. In this model there are two masses, 1) the changing rocket mass

m

r

with changing density

ρ

r

and radial factor R

r

factor R

gas

.

and 2) the exhaust hot gas mass

m

gas

with density

ρ

gas

- generally in the nozzle - with radial

with density ρ gas - generally in the nozzle - with radial Figure 2. Solid Rocket

Figure 2. Solid Rocket – Local Fifth Force Model

The dash lines outward from the nozzle indicate a small perturbation in the ambient field density caused by the

exhausted mass

of the two masses are only shown in Figure 2 in the plane of motion as the radial changes counter one another and therefore do not add to the propulsive forces. As will be discussed, the SRM model of Figure 2 shares properties of

= ∂ΔR , and the time vary density

model, which involves a phase ϕ

equivalent to the ratio of the thin-shell thickness change

required in the determination of the SRM’s fifth force coefficients.

m ex

, which is assumed small and is neglected in this analysis. Further, the changes to the thin-shells

R

gas

gas

was shown to be

both the mass collision model, where the change in the gas radial factor

between the coupling factors. However since, the phase ϕ

∂ΔR

m

to the object’s radial factor R , no sin-functions are

m

Therefore for the SRM model of Figure 2, the fifth force coefficients in the plane of motion are given by

∂θ ≈ ∂β ∂ΔR R ≈ ∂ββ∂ 6 ( ) 6 ( r r r
∂θ ≈ ∂β ∂ΔR R ≈ ∂ββ∂
6
(
)
6
(
r
r
r
r
r
gas
forward of the changing rocket mass
∂m
r and

− ∂β

N

r

)

2

lR p r
lR
p
r

θ ≈ − ∂β ∂ΔR R ≈ − ∂β ββ− ∂

gas

6

gas

gas

gas

6

gas

r

N

gas

(

∂ β ∂ ββ − ∂ gas 6 gas gas gas 6 gas r N gas

)

(

aft of the hot gas mass

m gas

associated with the nozzle.

)

2

lR p gas
lR
p
gas

The sum of the fifth force coefficients can now be given as

or

θ L

= ∂θθ+ ∂

r

gas

= ∂β ∂ΔRR − ∂β ∂ΔR R

6

r

r

6

gas

gas

gas

(

r
r

)

(

as or ∑ θ L = ∂ θθ + ∂ r gas = ∂ β ∂Δ

)

(27)

(28)

(

θ ≈ ∂ββ

L

6

r

gas

−∂β

N

r

)

2

p r
p
r

lR − ∂β β −∂β

6

gas

r

N

gas

(

)

2

lR p gas
lR
p
gas

The Newtonian coupling factor for the SRM is given as

∂≈β

N r

(

( 2 ˆ 13 M ∂βρ R E C N N r
(
2
ˆ
13
M ∂βρ R
E
C
N
N
r
4 lR )( 2 M ρ p N PL 0
4
lR
)(
2
M
ρ
p
N
PL
0

)

1 3

(

1

1 2 1 3 )) − ρ ρ ( ) 0 N
1 2
1 3
))
− ρ ρ
(
)
0
N

(29)

(30)

and by placing the effects of the exhausted mass on the hot gas motion factor

for the hot gas is given by

β

C gas

, the Newtonian coupling factor

4 ∂≈β ( 2 ˆ 13 ( M ∂β ρ R lR )( 2 M
4
∂≈β
(
2
ˆ
13
(
M ∂β ρ R
lR
)(
2
M
ρ
N
E
C
N
N
p
N
PL
0
gas
gas
ˆ ˆ
which only differ by the motion coupling factors
∂β
and
∂β
.
C r
C gas

)

1 3

(

1

,coupling factors ∂β and ∂β . C r C gas ) 1 3 ( 1 (31)

(31)

Time Dilation and Retardation

The hot gas mass

viewed as a single body system with phased fifth force coefficients about the rocket due to time dilation and

; and

the changing rocket mass and hot gas radial factors

retardation. This implies a phase factor ϕ ; the changing rocket mass and hot gas motion factors

are taken to be constant. Whereby, the rocket-hot gas system can be

m

gas

and its density

ρ

gas

β

C

r

and

β

C

gas

R

r and

(

r
r
∂R gas ) 6 ϕ ,
∂R
gas
)
6 ϕ
,

as ascribed in time varying density model. This

(32)

allows the mass to field coupling factors

r

β ≈∂β F F

gas

N

r

 

where

F

is the thrust and

r

F

N r

is the Newtonian force at burn out. Combining equation (32) with the sum of the fifth

force coefficients given by equation (29) gives

θ

L

(

r
r

FF

N

r

) ⎛ ϕ ⋅ ⎝ ⎜
)
ϕ
⎝ ⎜

(

β

gas

−∂

β

N

r

)

2

l R p r
l
R
p
r

− ∂ −∂

r

(

ββ

N

gas

)

2

⎞ l R p gas ⎠ ⎟
l
R
p
gas
⎠ ⎟

(33)

The phase in equations (32) and (33) is given by equation (26) and is dependent on the hot gas relaxation time τ and retardation time Δτ . The hot gas relaxation time τ is taken to be the hot gas travel time across a distance equivalent

to twice the hot gas radial factor R

gas

. Whereby, the hot gas relaxation time is give as

2

τ R

gas
gas

v

gas

,

where

v

gas

is the velocity of the hot gas. The retardation time Δτ > τ is taken to be the total burn time of the

propellant given by

where m

be the total burn time of the propellant given by where m Δ τ ≈ m

Δτ m m

, is the propellant mass flow rate through the nozzle. The mass exhausted from the nozzle

ex

mm=

ex

r

−∂m ,

r

where

m

r

is the initial mass of the rocket gives the changing rocket mass

mmm= − .

r

r

ex

Motion and Radial Factors

The rocket’s motion factor

ˆ

β

C r

is given from equation (12) as

ˆ

β

C r

− ( )( 1 13 22 4 13 ∂ β M ∂∂ ρ RlR ∂
(
)(
1
13
22
4
13
β
M
∂∂
ρ
RlR
)(
2
M
ρ
)
(
1
(
ρρ
r
E
r
r
p
r
PL
0
0
r

where the rocket’s changing density

ρ =∂m πR

3

4

rrr

rocket’s changing density ∂ ρ =∂ m π ∂ R 3 4 rrr 3 ) 1

3

)

1 3

)

,

(34)

(35)

(36)

(37)

(38)

and the rocket’s changing radial factor is given from equation (2) as

R F

r

N

(

+ F

F

(
(

rr

N

r

(

m

r

=∂ R ≈ F r N ( + F F ( rr N r ( ∂

(

(
(

F

N

F

rr

N

The hot gas’s motion factor

ˆ

β

C gas

is given in like to equation (38) as

ˆ

β

C gas

− 1 13 ( 22 )( 4 ∂ β M ∂∂ ρ R lR ∂
− 1
13
(
22
)(
4
β
M
∂∂
ρ
R
lR
)(
2
M
ρ
gas
E
gas
gas
p
gas
PL
0

+∂ma

rr

)

13

( 1

(

. ρρ ∂ 0 gas
.
ρρ
0
gas

)

1 3

(39)

) (40)

and the changing radial factor of the hot gas is then given in like to equation (40) as

R F

gas

N

(

F

(
(

rr

N

+∂ma

r

r

=equation (40) as ∂ R ≈ F gas N ( F ( rr N +∂ ma

((40) as ∂ R ≈ F gas N ( F ( rr N +∂ ma r

F ( F +∂ma )) N N r r rr
F
(
F
+∂ma
))
N
N
r
r
rr

13

r

nozzle

.

(41)

The change

system is then like the collision mass model, where the change

ρ

gas

in the hot gas density is used as the hot gas is in motion with a velocity

gas

v

gas

. The rocket-hot gas

ρ in the hot gas density is given in like to

equation (65) from Robertson (2009) with = a as a 1 gas 3 ∂≈ ρ
equation (65) from Robertson (2009) with
= a
as
a 1
gas
3
∂≈
ρ
ag
ρπ
3
m
4
R
gas
gas
N
gas
gas
gas

,

where the moving mass acceleration is given as

and the normal hot gas density

ρ gas

2 avR≈ 2 gas gas gas 2 34 ( Pv ) ≈ 3 m gas
2
avR≈
2
gas
gas
gas
2
34
(
Pv
)
3
m
gas
gas
gas
3 4 π R
3
4
π R

gas

(42)

(43)

(44)

with respect to a constant (average) gas pressure P

where the hot gas mass

gas

on the nozzle and constant (average) hot gas velocity

and the radial factor

m gas

R

gas

( 3 2 ≈ π PR v gas gas gas ≈ mv ( 2 π
(
3
2
≈ π PR
v
gas
gas
gas
≈ mv
(
2
π P
)
gas
gas
gas

)

.

1 3

Now noting that the force on the hot gas

F

gas

= PA

gas

Nozzle

= m

gas

(

v

2

gas

on the hot gas F gas = PA gas Nozzle = m gas ( v 2

gas

)

,

where A

Nozzle

is the nozzle cross sectional area, gives the radial factor

R

gas

=

( 2 1 2 mv PA gas gas gas Nozzle
(
2
1 2
mv
PA
gas
gas
gas
Nozzle

)

,

v

gas

and

(45)

(46)

(47)

(48)

which when combined with equation (45) or (46) gives the hot gas mass

m

gas

(

1 2 3 2 Pv ) ( 8 ( A ) π ) gas gas
1 2
3
2
Pv
)
(
8
(
A
)
π
)
gas
gas
Nozzle

.

(49)

Further, combining equations (49) and (50) reduces the radial factor to

RA=

2

gas

(

Nozzle

1 2 π )
1 2
π
)

= r

nozzle

2 .
2
.

Conservation of Momentum

Equations (40) and (42) imply that

R R ≈∂RR .

gas

r r
r
r
gas
gas

(50)

(51)

Now in like to equation (43), equation (42) is equivalent to the mass collision form of equation (66) from Robertson (2009), given as

RR r r
RR
r
r

≈∂

R R gas
R
R
gas

gas

( g N
(
g
N

a

gas

) 1 3
) 1 3

,

(52)

which when combined with equation (40) or (42) yields the rocket momentum equation

or

(

ma

r

gas

)

t ≈∂ma ∂+t F t

(

r

r

)

N

r

(

)

mv

r

gas

≈ ∂mv ,

r

r

(53)

where (

F

N

r

)

t 0

as the rocket moves upward and away from the Newtonian mass.

Example 4 — This example uses the data from example 2-1 in Sutton and Ross (1976) converted to metric units. The example appears to be a Sidewinder, AMRAM or Similar Missile. Figure 3 is an AMRAM missile given to show the general dimensions. Table I gives the parameters given in example 2-1 (Sutton and Ross, 1976), the parameters surmised from a Sidewinder missile, and the parameters calculated from these values. The parameters of Table I was used to calculate the parameters of the rocket mass in Table II and the parameter of the hot gas in the nozzle in Table III, and the parameters of the fifth force in Table IV. One assumption made is that the total missile weight is equivalent to the solid rocket motor weight.

weight is equivalent to the solid rocket motor weight. Figure 3. General Missile Dimension Table I.

Figure 3. General Missile Dimension

Table I. The given, surmised and calculated values for the hot-gas rocket

Given

Surmised

Calculated

m = 90.72 kg r m = 31.75 kg ex v ≈ 2355.49 ms gas
m
=
90.72
kg
r
m
=
31.75
kg
ex
v
2355.49
ms
gas
m
= 10.58 kg s

P

gas

r

rocket

L

r

0.064

2.98

m

m

r

nozzle

0.05 m

1.97

×

10

6

≈ ≈ 0.064 2.98 m m r nozzle ≈ 0.05 m ≈ 1.97 × 10 6

Nm

2

2 A ≈ 0.0127 m r 3 V ≈ 0.0377 m r 3 ρ ≈
2
A
0.0127
m
r
3
V
0.0377
m
r
3
ρ ≈
2403.83 kg
m
r
2
A
0.008 m
nozzle

Table II. Parameters of the Rocket Mass

 

Parameter

Equation

Parameter

Equation

R

r

0.012925 m

29

Δτ 3

s

36

R 0.0042 m

58.97 kg

kg

8

×

r

m

r

1.89

∂≈ρ

r

10

mm 58.97 kg kg 8 × r ∂ m ≈ r 1.89 ∂≈ ρ r 10

3

40

37

39

∂≈β

r

ˆ

7.06

×

β

C r

ˆ

β

N r

10

33

0.0035 38

16.52 31

5

Table III. Parameters of the Hot Gas in the Nozzle

 

Parameter

 

Equation

Parameter

 

Equation

m

gas

0.043

kg

 

50

∂≈ρ

gas

1.10

×

10

8

kg

m gas ≈ 0.043 kg   50 ∂≈ ρ gas 1.10 × 10 8 kg m

m

3

43

R

gas

0.0718

m

51

∂≈β

gas

7.06

×

10

5

33

a

gas

3.86

×

10

7

2 ms 3 m
2
ms
3
m

44

β

C

gas

0.169

41

   

ˆ

ρ

gas

27.96

kg

 

45

β

N

gas

2.38

 

32

∂≈

R

gas

4.55

×

10

4

m

42

τ

3.05

×

10

5

s

35

 

Table IV. Parameters of the Fifth Force on the rocket

 
 

Parameter

 

Equation

 
 

ϕ

1.02

×

10

5

26

 

θ

r

74.81

27

θ

gas

≈ − 31.73

28

 

θ

43.08

 

61

   

L

r

 

 

F

N

578.74

N

and the

The burn out weight given in example 2-1 (Sutton and Ross, 1976) was

thrust was given as

F

r

2.49

×

10

4

N . From equation (41) from Robertson (2009), the sum of the fifth

force coefficients

thrust.

θ θ

L

r

m

such that

FF=≈×θ

r

mN

43.08

578.74

N =

24932.12

N , which is the given

Discussion

The a radial factor 0.012925

as was

assumed for a mass collision. This indicates that the radial factor R be the radial parameter where the thin- shells of the two hot-gas masses interface, which is the throat opening between the combustion chamber and the nozzle. It is also noted that the calculated thrust is very sensitive to the radial factor or throat size. This is also the case in rocket motors as changes in the throat dimension changes the internal pressure; reducing the exit velocity of the hot-gas.

m was adjusted to give the correct thrust and was found to be on the order

of the expected nozzle throat (as it was not given) rather than the rocket cylindrical radius

R

r

r rocket

r

GENERALIZED ROCKET MODEL

Generally rocket engine thrust can be determined without knowing the total propellant and vehicle weight and their density change. To investigate this in terms of the models in this paper, the solid rocket model of Figure 2 is given as a rocket engine model (no payload and propellant mass) in Figure 4. The fifth force

coefficients across the rocket motor are represented by

(RE) forward the combustion chamber, and

nozzle. This gives the sum of the fifth force coefficients as

- the fifth force coefficient of the rocket engine

- the fifth force coefficient of the rocket engine aft of the

θ RE

θ Nozzle

θ =− θθ

L

RE

(

Nozzle

)

=θ

Nozzle

θ

RE

,

(54)

where the negative sign is due to the motion of the rocket moving away from the virtual Newtonian mass.

of the rocket moving away from the virtual Newtonian mass. Figure 4. Rocket Engine Model The

Figure 4. Rocket Engine Model

The motion of the hot-gas in the rocket engine produces a decrease in the hot-gas density in the combustion chamber and an increase in the hot-gas density in the nozzle; relative to the hot-gas velocity, whereby at

>> θ . Since the fifth force coefficients are a result of the hot-gas motion, the

is a

rocket engine fifth force coefficient

θ . The sum of the fifth force coefficients

can now be reduced to factors only of the hot-gas as

direct result of the change in the hot-gas fifth force coefficient

high hot-gas velocities

θ

RE

Nozzle

θ

RE

≈ ∂θ

gas

. That is, the rocket engine fifth force coefficient

gas

θ

RE

Equation (33) allows

where by noting that the thrust

∑ θ ≈ −θ ≈ −∂θ . (55) L RE gas ∂β ≈ F F
θ
≈ −θ ≈ −∂θ
.
(55)
L
RE
gas
∂β ≈ F F
(
)
6
ϕ
,
(56)
gas
gas
N
gas
F =−F =− θ F
,
(57)
r
gas
L
N
gas

and equating equation (58) to equation (57), yields the sum of the fifth force coefficients as

θ ϕ⋅∂β

L

6

gas

and is equivalent to the general sum of the fifth force coefficients of equation (25) where

and

ϕ << 1 as is shown in Table IV.

(58)

θ θ θ

L

m

gas

Further, equations (59) and (57) yields ∑ ≈ F F θ L , gas N
Further, equations
(59) and (57) yields
≈ F
F
θ L
,
gas
N
gas
again as it should be and equation (57)
≈ F
6 ϕ⋅∂β
.
F N
gas
gas
gas
Since
∂θ ≡ θ ≡∂θ and
∂β ≈∂β
, equation (28) gives
r
RE
gas
r
gas
2
∂θ ≈ − ∂β ∂ΔR R ≈ − ∂ββ∂
6
(
)
6
(
− ∂β
)
gas
gas
gas
gas
gas
gas
N
gas
Now equating equations (59), (60) and (56) yields the phase
2
ϕβ≈ ∂ −∂β
(
)
l
R
gas
N
p
gas
gas
and the sum of the fifth force coefficients as
2
θ ≈ ⋅∂ββ∂
6
(
−∂β
)
l
R
,
L
gas
gas
N
p
Nozzle
gas

Placing equation (64) and (61) into equation (58) yields

F

gas

=− ⎡ ⎢ ∂ ⎣

(

ββ

gas

N

gas

−∂

) 2

⎤ lR ϕ F p Nozzle gas ⎥ ⎦
lR
ϕ F
p
Nozzle
gas
⎥ ⎦
 

(59)

(60)

 
lR p gas
lR
p
gas

(61)

 

(62)

(63)

,

(64)

again showing that the fifth force model is arbitrary for hot-gas rocket engine thrust models as the formula in the […] =1.

The author notes that a similar result can be reached by letting

ϕ

⎜ ⎛ ⎝

(

β

gas

−∂

β

N

r

)

2

lR p r
lR
p
r

(

− ∂ −∂

ββ

r

N

gas

)

2

⎞ lR p gas ⎠ ⎟
lR
p
gas
⎠ ⎟

(65)

in equation (33) of the solid rocket motor model, which is of similar form to equation (64).

****

Another way of looking at this is by noting that

and

F = θ F =∂θ F mv

gas

L

gas

N

gas

gas

N

gas

gas

gas

(66)

F = θ F ≈=θ F

r

L

N

rr

RE

N

r

ma

r

r

.

(67)

where

rocket and

Newtonian forces

m

gas

is the mass flow rate of the hot-gas,

v

gas

is the velocity of the hot-gas,

T = ma

r

r

= m

m

v

r

gas

gas

is the mass of the

and

θ

gas

θ

RE

a

r

is the acceleration of the rocket. Now since the thrust

, the

F

N

gas

F

N

r

.

(68)

Equation (68) implies that no matter how much weight is added to the rocket engine, Newtonian force associated with the hot-gas will be ~ equivalent to that of the rocket; indicating that the fifth force model is arbitrary for hot-gas rocket engine thrust models.

Differential Fifth Force Coefficient Model

The rocket engine model also presents the case for differentials in the fifth force coefficients across a mass due to excited mass particles in the pressurant coupling to the thin-shell. That is, forces produced by

atmospheric pressure differentials on opposite sides of a mass are the same as forces produced by atmospheric coupling to the thin-shell. For example, Figure 5 gives a plate mass (say a small piece of the rocket nozzle) of an arbitrary thin material of infinite radial dimension, where the lines represent the mass

particles in the pressurant impinging on the thin material. Now by letting, the pressures

, the

force is to the left as shown. Similarly, the excited mass particles in the pressurant with determinate velocities induce a force on the thin material (similar to the mass collision model), that cause an additive

; producing a

effect on the thin-shell on the opposite side to produce the fifth force coefficient

force outward from the applied pressure as is the case with the rocket engine model.

P

Right

> θ

> PP

left

atm

Left

θ

Right

P Right > θ > PP ≈ left atm Left θ Right Figure 5. Differential Pressure

Figure 5. Differential Pressure Model

In the differential pressure model of Figure 5, the total force on the thin material (TM) with surface area A is given by

TM

where

F

TM

= FF−= θ F θ F

Right

Left

L

N

TM

TM

N

TM

and

F

Right

= PA

Right

TM

=θ F

Left

N

TM

F Left

= PA =θ

Left

TM

Right

F

N

TM

.

Combining equations (60-71) yields

F

TM

=−P

Right

(

PA

Left

TM

)

=θ F

TM

N

TM

Then given

P

Right

>> P

left

, the pressure on the thin-shell is given as

where

as it should.

F = PA =θ F TM Right TM TM N TM = F F θ
F
= PA
=θ F
TM
Right
TM
TM
N
TM
= F
F
θ TM
TM
N
TM
Discussion

,

(69)

(70)

(71)

(72)

(73)

(74)

Although the differential pressure model appears arbitrary, it represents a case where an energy source (gas pressure) acts on a mass (thin material), forcing a change to the thin-shin shell only on one side, whereby a differential thin-shell is produced about the mass, which induces a force on the mass. Further understanding of the thin-shell mechanism could then produce a device where a differential thin-shell is produced by other means.

EM FIELD MOMENTUM

In a previous paper (Robertson, 2008), the author looked at the Chameleon Model in terms of time varying cross EM fields imposed on a material of volume V . The Chameleon field-force was presented as

(75)

where

F

C

EM

2

= −⋅β g V ,

EM

=

1

c

2

EH

ω

0

0

g

EM

sin

(

ϕ

)

(76)

and

is the standard EM field momentum with an externally applied (maximum) electric field

(maximum) magnetic field H of the same frequency ω , where ϕis the phase between the two fields.

E

0

0

The EM model is a time-varying Chameleon Model with internal electron motion, where the phase shift ϕ in the electron motion is a function of the total electron perturbations N per time t of the distribution of electric charge and magnetic moments each occurring over the dielectric relaxation time τ t N corrected by a time dilation τ + Δτ . Such that, the phase shift in the electron motion is given by

ϕ

=

τ