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Properties and uses

Contents

1 Overview 22 Adhesives
1 Uses 22 Structural adhesives
1 Technical support for specific applications 22 Phenolic resins
22 Epoxies and other thermosetting resins
2 Properties
23 High-strength bonding procedure
2 Chemistry
23 Performance characteristics
6 Product types
23 Adhesive strengths
6 Butvar: the right resin solution
24 Hot-melt adhesives
13 Compatibility
24 Textile coatings
15 Insolubilizing reactions
24 Advantages as textile coating
17 Applications 25 Ceramic binder applications
17 Wire enamels 26 Tape casting
17 Surface coatings 26 Thick films
17 Wash primers 27 Toners and printing inks
17 Military-specification wash primers
28 Storage and handling
18 Nonspecification wash primers:
28 Storage
B-1030 with Butvar
28 Toxicity and FDA status
18 Single-package wash primer:
28 Quality control
B-1011 with Butvar
19 Chromate-free wash primers with Butvar 29 Material sources
20 Metal coatings
21 Wood finishes
21 Protective wash coats and sealers
21 Knot sealers
Overview
Polyvinyl butyral resins are employed in Uses
a wide array of industrial and commercial Some of the applications in which Butvar is a vital
ingredient include:
applications. These unique resins offer
• Ceramic binders
impressive performance as well as
• Inks/dry toners
outstanding versatility. • Wood coatings
Butvar® polyvinyl butyral resins have a combination of • Wash primers
properties that make them key ingredients in a variety of • Composite fiber binders
successful formulations. Some of the properties for which • Structural adhesives
Butvar is widely used are outstanding binding efficiency, • Other diverse uses
optical clarity, adhesion to a large number of surfaces, and
toughness combined with flexibility. Technical support for
specific applications
Eastman offers six grades of Butvar resins that cover a
broad range of chemical and physical properties. These Eastman offers technical support for Butvar resins and can
resins are generally well suited either as a major ingredient assist you in your specific application. For more information
of a formulation or, in smaller quantities, to enhance the regarding Butvar resins, to seek technical help, or to request
properties of other resins. a sample, visit www.eastman.com/butvar.

1
Properties
Chemistry The conditions of the acetal reaction and the concentration
of the particular aldehyde and polyvinyl alcohol used
Acetals, such as polyvinyl butyral, are formed by the
are closely controlled to form polymers containing
well-known reaction between aldehydes and alcohols. The
predetermined proportions of hydroxyl, acetate, and
addition of one molecule of an alcohol to one molecule of
acetal groups. The final product may be represented by the
an aldehyde produces a hemiacetal. Hemiacetals are rarely
following stylized structure.
isolated because of their inherent instability; instead, they
are further reacted with another molecule of alcohol to The proportions of A, B, and C are controlled, and they are
form a stable acetal. randomly distributed along the molecule.

Polyvinyl acetals are prepared from aldehydes and


polyvinyl alcohols. Polyvinyl alcohols are high-molecular-
weight resins containing various percentages of hydroxyl
and acetate groups produced by hydrolysis of polyvinyl
acetate.

H H H

R — C + R1 — OH R — C — OR + R1 — OH R — C (— OR1)2 + H2O

O Alcohol OH Alcohol

Aldehyde Hemiacetal Acetal

H CH2 H H H

CH2 — C C CH2 — C CH2 — C

O O OH O
C C O
H C3H7
CH3

A B C

PV butyral PV alcohol PV acetate

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Table 1. Physical properties of Butvar® resins (white, free-flowing powder)
Property Units ASTM method B-72 B-74 B-76 B-79 B-90 B-98
Volatiles, max. a
% — 3.5 3.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0
Molecular wt (weight
— (1) 170–250 120–150 90–120 50–80 70–100 40–70
average in thousands)
Solution viscosity
cP (2) 7,000–14,000 3,000–7,000 500–1,000 100–400 600–1,200 200–400
15% by weight
Solution viscosity
cP (2) 1,600–2,500 800–1,300 200–450 75–200 200–400 75–200
10% by weight
Ostwalda solution
cP (3) 170–260 37.0–47.0 18.0–28.0 9.0–16.0 13.0–17.0 6.0–9.0
viscosity
Specific gravity
— D792-50 1.100 1.100 1.083 1.083 1.100 1.100
23°/23°C (±0.002)
Burning rate ipm D635-56T 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.9 0.9
Refractive index
— D542-50 1.490 1.490 1.485 1.485 1.490 1.490
(±0.0005)
Water absorption
% D570-59aT 0.5 0.5 0.3 0.3 0.5 0.5
(24 hours)
Hydroxyla content
expressed as % — — 17.5–20.0 17.5–20.0 11.5–13.5 11.0–13.5 18.5–20.5 18.0–20.0
polyvinyl alcohol
Acetate content
expressed as % — — 0–2.5 0–2.5 0–2.5 0–2.5 0–2.5 0–2.5
polyvinyl acetate
Butyral content
expressed as % polyvinyl — — 80 80 88 88 80 80
butyral, approx.
a
Specification properties

All properties were determined by ASTM methods except


the following:
(1) Molecular weight was determined via size-exclusion
chromatography with low-angle laser light scattering
(SEC/LALLS) method of Cotts and Ouano in tetrahydrofuran.b
(2) Solution viscosity was determined in 15%-by-weight
solutions in 60:40 toluene/ethanol at 25°C using a Brookfield
Viscometer and in 10% solution in 95% ethanol @ 25°C using
an Ostwald-Cannon-Fenske Viscometer.
(3) Ostwald solution viscosity for each product type measured
with an Ostwald-Cannon-Fenske Viscometer. The solvents and
solids levels used are as follows:

Product % solids Solvent Temperature (°C)


Anhydrous
B-72 7.5 20
methanol
SD 29 ethyl
B-76, B-79 5.0 25
alcohol
B-74, B-90, Anhydrous
6.0 20
B-98 methanol
b
P. Dublin, ed., Microdomains In Polymer Solutions (New York: Plenum Press, 1985), pp. 101-119.

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Table 2. Chemical properties of Butvar® resins
Property Units ASTM method B-72 B-74 B-76 B-79 B-90 B-98
Resistance to
Weak acids — D543-56T E E E E E E
Strong acids — D543-56T E E E E E E
Weak bases — D543-56T E E E E E E
Strong bases — D543-56T E E E E E E
Organic solvents
Alcohols — D543-56T P P P P P P
Chlorinated — D543-56T G G F F G G
Aliphatic — D543-56T E E F F E E
Aromatic — D543-56T F F P P F F
Esters — D543-56T F F P P F F
Ketones — D543-56T F F P P F F
Key: E—excellent
G—good
F—fair
P—poor

Table 3. Mechanical properties of Butvar® resins


Property Units ASTM method B-72 B-74 B-76 B-79 B-90 B-98
Tensile strength
Yield 103 psi D638-58T 6.8–7.8 6.8–7.8 5.8–6.8 5.8–6.8 6.3–7.3 6.3–7.3
Break 10 psi
3
D638-58T 7.0–8.0 7.0–8.0 4.6–5.6 4.6–5.6 5.7–6.7 5.6–6.6
Elongation
Yield % D638-58T 8 8 8 8 8 8
Break % D638-58T 70 75 110 110 100 110
Modulus of elasticity
105 psi D638-58T 3.3–3.4 3.3–3.4 2.8–2.9 2.8–2.9 3.0–3.1 3.1–3.2
(apparent)
Flexural strength, yield 103 psi D790-59T 12–13 12–13 10.5–11.5 10.5–11.5 11–12 11–12
Hardness, Rockwell
M — D785-51 115 115 100 100 115 110
E — D785-51 20 20 5 5 20 20
Impact strength Izod,
ft-lb/in. D256-56 1.1 1.1 0.8 0.8 0.9 80
notched ½ x ½ in.
*Specification properties

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Table 4. Thermal properties of Butvar® resins
Property Units ASTM method B-72 B-74 B-76 B-79 B-90 B-98
Flow temperature,
°C D569-59 145–155 135–145 110–115 110–115 125–130 105–110
1,000 psi
Glass transition
°C (1) 72–78 72–78 62–72 62–72 72–78 72–78
temperature (Tg)
Ash content at 550°C
In nitrogen % (2) <3.0 <3.0 <2.0 <2.0 <3.0 <3.0
In air % (2) <1.0 <1.0 <0.75 <0.75 <0.75 <0.75
Heat distortion
°C D648-56 56–60 56–60 50–54 50–54 52–56 45–55
temperature
Heat-sealing temperature °F (3) 220 220 200 200 205 200

(1) Glass transition temperature (Tg) was determined by


differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) over a range of
30°– 100°C on dried granular resin.
(2) Ash content of the thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) was
determined as a weight loss versus temperature profile
conducted at a heating rate of 10°C/min.
(3) Heat-sealing temperature was determined on a 1-mil dried
film on paper cast from a 10% solution in 60:40 toluene/
ethanol. A dwell time of 1.5 sec at a 60-psi line pressure was
used on the heat sealer.

Table 5. Electrical properties of Butvar® resins


Property Units ASTM method B-72 B-74 B-76 B-79 B-90 B-98
Dielectric constant
50 cP — D150-59T 3.2 3.2 2.7 2.7 3.2 3.3
10 cP — D150-59T 3.0 3.0 2.6 2.6 3.0 3.0
10 cP — D150-59T 2.8 2.8 2.6 2.6 2.8 2.8
10 cP — D150-59T 2.7 2.7 2.5 2.5 2.7 2.8
Dissipation factor
50 cP — D150-59T 0.0064 0.0064 0.0050 0.0050 0.0066 0.0064
10 cP — D150-59T 0.0062 0.0062 0.0039 0.0039 0.0059 0.0061
10 cP — D150-59T 0.027 0.027 0.013 0.013 0.022 0.023
10 cP — D150-59T 0.031 0.031 0.015 0.015 0.023 <0.24
Dielectric strength
(1/8-in. thickness)
Short time V/mil D149-59 420 420 480 480 450 400
Step by step V/mil D149-59 400 400 390 390 370 380

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Product types Butvar: the right resin solutions
The properties of the various types of Butvar resins are
®
Butvar resins generally are soluble in alcohols, glycol ethers,
described in Tables 1 through 5. The resins are offered in a and certain mixtures of polar and nonpolar solvents. A
variety of molecular weight ranges and viscosities. B-76 and representative list of Butvar solvents can be found in
B-79 have lower hydroxyl content than the other Butvar Table 6. In general, Butvar B-98 resin will show the same
resins. This permits broader solubility characteristics. compatibility characteristics as B-90 and, therefore, should
prove advantageous where physical and chemical properties
As a general rule, the substitution of butyral groups for of B-90 are desired but lower solution viscosities are
acetate groups results in a more hydrophobic polymer with necessary. The same is true for Butvar B-79 in relation
a higher heat distortion temperature. At the same time, the to B-76.
polymer’s toughness and adhesion to various substrates is
considerably increased. The outstanding adhesion of the When an alcohol is the only solvent, the viscosity of a
polyvinyl butyral resins is a result of their terpolymer Butvar solution increases as the molecular weight of the
constitution. Because each molecule presents the choice of alcohol increases. Blends of alcohols with aromatic solvents
three different functional groups to a surface, the provide the best starting point for the development of
probability of adhesion to a wide variety of substrates is solvent systems. Where alcohols, such as ethyl or isopropyl,
increased substantially. are employed either alone or in a mixture with other
solvents, use the 95% grades. The presence of water gives
Although polyvinyl butyral resins normally are lower solution viscosities than solutions utilizing anhydrous
thermoplastic and soluble in a range of solvents, they may alcohols.
be cross-linked through heating and with a trace of mineral
acid. Cross-linking is generally caused by transacetalization Butvar solutions show very marked viscosity increases as
but also may involve more complex mechanisms, such as a resin solids increase. This effect is shown in Graphs 3
reaction between acetate or hydroxyl groups on adjacent through 10.
chains.
The lower hydroxyl content of Butvar B-76 and B-79
As a practical matter, cross-linking of the polyvinyl butyrals permits solubility in a wider variety of organic solvents as
is carried out by reaction with various thermosetting resins, compared to the other grades of Butvar. One notable
such as phenolics, epoxies, ureas, diisocyanates, and exception, however, is the insolubility of Butvar B-76 and
melamines. The availability of the functional hydroxyl B-79 in methanol. All other types of Butvar contain
groups in Butvar resins for condensations of this kind is an sufficient hydroxyl groups to allow for solubility in alcohol
important consideration in many applications. Incorporation and in hydroxyl-containing solvents. The presence of both
of even a small amount of Butvar resin into thermosetting butyral and hydroxyl groups permits solution in mixtures of
compositions will markedly improve toughness, flexibility, alcohol and aromatics.
and adhesion of the cured coating.
Viscosities of Butvar resin solutions containing mixed
Polyvinyl butyral films are characterized by high resistance solvents depend on the ratio of alcohol to aromatic.
to aliphatic hydrocarbons and mineral, animal, and Viscosity curves for Butvar B-76, B-90, and B-98 in Graph 2
vegetable oils (with the exception of castor and blown oils). show minimum points in the general vicinity of 50%
They withstand strong alkalis but are subject to some attack alcohol/50% aromatic.
by strong acids. However, when employed as components
of cured coatings, their stability to acids as well as solvents
and other chemicals is improved greatly. Butvar will
withstand heating up to 200˚F for prolonged periods with
little discoloration.

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Table 6. Solubility of Butvar® resins
Butvara Butvarb Butvarb
Solvent B-72, B-74 B-76, B-79 B-90, B-98
Acetic acid (glacial) S S S
Acetone I S SW
2-Butoxyethanol S S S
n-Butyl acetate I S PS
n-Butyl alcohol S S S
n-Butyl propionate I S I
Cyclohexanone S S S
Diacetone alcohol PS S S
Diisobutyl ketone I SW I
Dimethyl esters PS c
S PSc
N,N-dimethylacetamide S S S
N,N-dimethylformamide S S S
Dimethyl sulfoxide S S S
Ethyl acetate, 85% S S S
Ethyl acetate, 99% I S PS
Ethyl alcohol, 95% or anhydrous S S S
Ethylene dichloride SW S SW
Isophorone PS S S
Isopropyl acetate I S I
Isopropyl alcohol, 95% or anhydrous S S S
Methyl acetate I S PS
Methyl alcohol S SW S
Methyl amyl ketone SW S PS
Methyl ethyl ketone PS S PSc
Methyl isoamyl ketone I S SW
Methyl isobutyl ketone I S I
Methyl propyl ketone SW c
S SWc
Methylene chloride PS S S
N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone S S S
Naphtha (light solvent) I SW I
Propyl propionate I S I
Propylene dichloride S S S
Tetrachloroethylene SW SW SW
Tetrahydrofuran S S S
Toluene SW SW SW
Toluene/ethyl alcohol, 95% (60:40 by weight) S S S
1,1,1-trichloroethane SW S SW
Xylene I PS SW
5% solids solution agitated for 24 hours at room temperature
a
10% solids solution agitated for 24 hours at room temperature
b
Clear solution at 50°–80°C
c

Key: S—soluble
PS—partially soluble
I—insoluble
SW—swells

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A common solvent for all of the Butvar® resins is a Aliphatic hydrocarbons can be tolerated in only very small
combination of 60 parts toluene and 40 parts ethanol proportions. Aromatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, esters,
(95%) by weight. The viscosities of all the Butvar resins ketones, and halocarbons, when not active solvents, are
in this solvent blend are shown in Graphs 2 and 3. The generally satisfactory as diluents or latent solvents. Solvent
viscosities of Butvar resins in alcohols are shown in Graphs blends are more likely to be successful when their mean
4 through 8. Graphs 9 and 10 present the viscosities of solubility parameter and hydrogen bonding fall within the
Butvar resins in 2-butoxyethanol. ranges shown in Graph 1 and Table 8.

For compositions of Butvar, methyl alcohol will tend to Butvar resins can be dissolved quite rapidly using
give the lowest viscosity and will therefore permit the use conventional techniques. To ensure thorough and uniform
of higher solids when used as a component of a solvent wetting of all particles, it is important to add the resin
blend. When much more than 10% to 15% alcohol is used slowly to the solvent system with adequate stirring. With
in a formulation for spray application, blushing may result. some mixed solvents, it may be desirable to slurry the
resin in the hydrocarbon or other nonsolvent component
The solvent blends in Table 7 are suggested for all and add the more active solvent components to the slurry
Butvar grades. They are useful as starting points in the under adequate agitation.
development of solvent blends for the other types.

Selection of a suitable solvent system involves a number


of factors. End use and application technique used will
necessitate consideration of solution viscosity, cobweb
formation, blushing, evaporation, solvent release, and
toxicity characteristics. In most cases, the choice of
components of solvent blend will involve compromises in
at least some of these factors so that a desired combination
of properties may be obtained.

Table 7. Suggested solvent blends for Butvar® resins


A B C D
Diacetone alcohol 22.5 20.0 15.0 —
n-Butyl alcohol 22.5 20.0 15.0 —
Ethyl alcohol, 95% 10.0 20.0 20.0 55.0
Xylene 45.0 40.0 30.0 —
Toluene — — 20.0 45.0
Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
Relative viscosity High Medium Low Low
Relative evaporation rate Slow Medium Medium Very fast
Application technique Spray Dip, roll Dip, roll Brush
Drying technique Bake Bake Bake Air dry

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D H
Graph 1. Hansen solubility parameters of Butvar® resinsa 30 30

Polyvinyl butyral Hansen Dispersive Polar H-bonding Sphere radius 24 24


solubility parameters δD (MPa1/2) δP (MPa1/2) δH (MPa1/2) (MPa1/2)
18 18
l B-90 and B-98 21.72 7.85 14.55 15.0
P
12 12
l B-72 and B-74 21.19 8.70 14.02 13.7
6 6
l B-76 and B-79 17.72 7.18 12.62 9.7
15
6 18
HSPiP Software, Version 4.0.08, 2013
a
12 21
In general, solvents or solvent mixtures having δD, δP, and δH coordinates within a polymer sphere, RED ≤1, are solvents; those outside a 18 24
sphere are nonsolvents. Relative energy difference (RED) = [4(δD2 – δD1)2 + (δP2 – δP1)2 + (δH2 – δH1)2]½/sphere radius. 24 27
30

Table 8. Hansen solubility parameters for common solvents and solvent mixturesa
Dispersive Polar H-bonding
Solvent Solvent ratio (wt%) δD (MPa1/2) δP (MPa1/2) δH (MPa1/2)
Acetone 100 15.5 10.4 7.0
2-Butoxyethanol 100 16.0 5.1 12.3
n-Butyl acetate 100 15.8 3.7 6.3
Diisobutyl ketone 100 16.0 3.7 4.1
N,N-dimethylacetamide 100 16.8 11.5 9.4
N,N-dimethylacetamide/xylene 60/40 17.2 7.2 7.3
Dimethyl sulfoxide 100 18.4 16.4 10.2
Dioxane 100 17.5 1.8 9.0
Dioxane/tetrahydrofuran 50/50 17.1 3.9 8.5
Ethanol 100 15.8 8.8 19.4
Ethanol/water 95/5 15.8 8.2 20.5
Ethyl acetate/ethyl alcohol 99/1 15.8 5.3 7.3
Ethylene dichloride 100 18.0 7.4 4.1
Ethylene glycol 100 17.0 11.0 26.0
Isopropanol 100 15.8 6.1 16.4
Isopropanol/water 98/2 15.8 6.3 16.8
Methanol 100 14.7 12.3 22.3
Methyl amyl ketone 100 16.2 5.7 4.1
Methylene dichloride 100 17.0 7.3 7.1
Methyl isobutyl ketone 100 15.3 6.1 4.1
Propylene glycol monomethyl ether 100 15.6 6.3 11.6
Propylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate 100 15.6 5.6 9.8
Tetrahydrofuran 100 16.8 5.7 8.0
Toluene 100 18.0 1.4 2.0
Toluene/ethanol 50/50 16.9 5.2 11.0
Trichloroethane 100 16.8 4.3 2.0
Xylene 100 17.8 1.0 3.1
Xylene/N,N-dimethylacetamide 50/50 17.2 6.1 6.6
Charles M. Hansen, Hansen Solubility Parameters: A User’s Handbook, 2nd Edition, CRC Press (2007)
a

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Graph 2. Viscosities of Butvar in Graph 3. Viscosities of Butvar in 60/40
toluene/ethanol (95%) (15% solids) toluene/ethanol (95%) (by weight)

1,800 — B-76 100,000


— B-72
— B-90 — B-76
1,600 — B-98 — B-79
10,000 — B-90

1,400
— B-98

1,200 1,000

1,000

100

Brookfield Viscosity at 25ºC, cP


800

600 10
Brookfield Viscosity at 25ºC, cP

400

1
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
200
% total solids

0
0 20 40 60 80
Toluene
100 80 60 40 20
Ethanol

Solvent composition by weight

10
Graph 4. Viscosities of Butvar in methanol Graph 6. Butvar in ethanol (95%)

100,000 100,000 — B-76


— B-72
— B-90 — B-79
— B-98 — B-90
— B-98
10,000
1,000

Brookfield Viscosity at 25ºC, cP


1,000

100

100
Brookfield Viscosity at 25ºC, cP

10
0 5 10 15

% total solids
10

1
0 5 10 15 20 25 30

% total solids

Graph 5. Butvar in ethanol (95%)

100,000 — B-72
— B-74

10,000
Brookfield Viscosity at 25ºC, cP

1,000

100

10
0 5 10 15

% total solids

11
Graph 7. Butvar in n-butanol Graph 9. Butvar in 2-butoxyethanol

100,000 — B-72 10,000 — B-76


— B-74 — B-79
— B-98
10,000

1,000

Brookfield Viscosity at 25ºC, cP


Brookfield Viscosity at 25ºC, cP

1,000

100
100

10 10
0 5 10 15 0 5 10 15

% total solids % total solids

Graph 8. Butvar in n-butanol Graph 10. Butvar in 2-butoxyethanol

10,000 — B-76 100,000 — B-72


— B-79 — B-74
— B-90 — B-90
10,000
— B-98
1,000
Brookfield Viscosity at 25ºC, cP
Brookfield Viscosity at 25ºC, cP

1,000

100
100

10 10
0 5 10 15 0 5 10 15

% total solids % total solids

12
Compatibility
The compatibility of Butvar® polyvinyl butyral resins with
plasticizers, modifiers, and other various resins is well
established. Butvar readily lends itself to compounding
with other additives to enhance its physical and chemical
properties. Plasticizers are often used to impart improved
flexibility over a broader temperature range. See Table 9.

Table 9. Plasticizers for Butvar® resin


Known Butvar/plasticizer
Type Name or trademark compatibility level
Hexanoate Eastman TEG-EH (triethylene glycol di-2-ethylhexanoate) 1:1
Adipate Santicizer® 97 (dialkyl adipate) 4:1
Santicizer 367 (dihexyl adipate) 3:1
Dioctyl adipate (DOA) 4:1
Blown linseed oil Linseed oil —
Citrate Tributyl citrate —
Phosphate Santicizer 141 (2-ethylhexyl diphenyl phosphate) 1:1
Santicizer 148 (isodecyl diphenyl phosphate) 1:1
Santicizer 154 (tert-butylphenyl diphenyl phosphate) 1:1
Santicizer 143 (triaryl phosphate ester blend) 1:1
Tricresyl phosphate (TCP) 1:1
Triphenyl phosphate (TPP) 2:1
Phthalate Santicizer 261 (alkyl benzyl phthalate) 2:1
Santicizer 278 (alkyl benzyl phthalate) 4:3
Santicizer 160 (butyl benzyl phthalate) 1:1
Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) 1:1
Dialkyl phthalate 4:1
Dioctyl phthalate (DOP) 4:1
PE glycol ether Pycal 94 ™

Polyester Paraplex™ RGA-8 —
Process castor oil #15, #30, #40 2:1
Raw castor oil #1 Castor 1:1
Ricinoleate Flexricin™ P-3 (butyl ricinoleate) 2:1
Rosin derivatives Hercolyn™ —
Sebacate Dibutyl sebacate —
Sulfonamide Ketjenflex 8 (n-ethyl toluenesulfonamide)

1:1
Ketjenflex 9S (toluenesulfonamide)

2:1
The values given in this table are a guide to the compatibility limits of the plasticizers in the various resins shown. (If no value is given, the limit is unknown.) The highest
concentration tested was 100 phr. Where the value is given as 1:1, some plasticizer/resin combinations may have even greater compatibility. However, since the values given
apply to a resin type, the compatibility with a particular commercial grade should be checked when evaluating a specific compound, particularly if the plasticizer content of
the formulation is to be near the ceiling value indicated.

13
Cross-linkers such as Santolink® phenolic and Resimene®
amino resins are used to impart greater toughness and
thermal resistance. Table 10 depicts the compatibility of
Butvar® polyvinyl butyral resins with other modifiers
and resins.

Table 10. Compatibility of Butvar with various resinsa


Butvar Butvar B-72, B-74,
Solvent B-76, B-79 B-90, B-98
Acrylate — I I
Alkyd Beckosol™ 11-035 P P
Duraplex™ 11-804 P P
Cellulose Cellulose acetate I I
Cellulose acetate butyrate P P
Ethyl cellulose P P
Nitrocellulose, RS™ C C
Nitrocellulose, SS ™
C C
Chlorinated rubber —
­
I I
Coumarone-indene — I I
Epoxy EPI-REZ 540-C ™
C C
EPON 1001F, 1007F

C C
Araldite 6069 ™
C C
Fossil Damar C C
Isocyanate Desmodur AP Stabil™
C C
Melamine formaldehyde Resimene® 717 and 881 P P
Resimene® 730 and 741 P P
Phenolic OxyChem 02620, 92600, 29107

C C
Durite P-97 ™
C C
Methylon 75-108 ™
C C
Santolink® EP-560 (butyletherified) C C
SP-1044 resin C C
Rosin derivatives Pentalyn H ™
P P
Staybelite-E hydrogenated rosins

C P
Vinsol™ C C
Shellac — C C
Silicone DC 840 C P
DCZ 6018 C P
Sulfonamide Ketjenflex™ MH P P
Urea formaldehyde Resimene® 918 P P
Vinyl chloride copolymer VAGH, VAGD P I
Refers to film compatibility provided mutual solvents are used
a

Key: C—compatible in all proportions


P—partially compatible
I—incompatible

14
Insolubilizing reactions Reaction with phenolics
Many applications for vinyl acetal resins involve curing with Butvar
a thermosetting resin to obtain the balance of properties Phenolic
OH
desired. The free hydroxyl groups in vinyl acetal resins OH OH

present a point of chemical reactivity through which the HOH 2 C (R) C H 2 OH

resins may be insolubilized. In general, any chemical reagent


or resinous material which reacts with secondary alcohols OH
+
CH 3 H CH3
will react with the polyvinyl butyral to inhibit solubility. Butvar

The properties of coatings vary greatly with the type and Butvar
amount of cross-linking agent used. O OH OH
H2 C (R) CH 2

O
CH3 CH 3
Butvar

Reaction with epoxies (anhydride cure)


CH3 CH 3
CH 2 CH CH2 O C O CH 2 CH CH 2 O C O CH 2 CH CH 2
O CH 3 OH X CH 3 O
Typical epoxy resin

Butvar Butvar

OH O

O C O

C C O
O
C O

O CH CH 2

OH
O
CH CH 2

Epoxy

15
Reaction with dialdehydes Reaction with isocyanates

Butvar Butvar Butvar

CH CH2 CH CH CH 2 CH OH O
OH OH C O
O O NCO
O Diisocyanate NH
CH R
HC H+ R
HC NCO
Tertiary amine
CH NH
OH
O O
O C O

CH CH 2 CH Butvar O
OH OH
CH CH 2 CH Butvar

Butvar

Reaction with melamines


Butvar

OH
N N
HOH 2 C NH C C NH (R) HN C C NH CH 2 OH

N N N N
Melamine
C resin C
HO
NH 2 NH 2
H+ Butvar
Butvar

O
N N
H 2C NH C C NH (R) HN C C NH CH 2

N N N N O
C C
Butvar
NH 2 NH 2

16
Applications
Wire enamels In effect, this type of primer actually phosphatizes the
metal at the surface, supplies a corrosion-inhibiting
Butvar® resins may be used to overcoat magnet wire so that
pigment in a tenaciously adhering binder, and dries to take
coils made from that wire can be cemented with heat or by
most topcoats.
solvent activation.
Wash primers are widely used on a variety of metal
Coiled or shaped magnet wire with a polyvinyl butyral
structures, such as storage tanks, ships, and airplanes.
overcoat is tough and flexible. The presence of hydroxyl
Highway departments also have shown a keen interest in
groups in the polyvinyl butyral molecule permits the
these coatings for bridges, dam locks and, in particular,
polyvinyl butyral not only to cross-link with itself but also
highway guardrails. In finishing trucks or house trailers
to cross-cure with phenolic or isocyanate resin.
fabricated of phosphated or galvanized steel or aluminum,
The overall balance of physical and chemical properties has wash primers provide corrosion resistance and adhesion
made this type of overcoat based on Butvar a leader in the under single-coat styrenated alkyd and other modified
field for many years. alkyd enamels. On metal that is subject to immersion and
corrosion conditions, wash primers are specified under
Surface coatings urethane and vinyl topcoats.

Butvar vinyl acetal resin may be used alone or in


combination with a wide variety of resins to give functional
Military-specification wash primers
surface coating compositions. Films which may be air The U.S. Navy Bureau of Ships has long recognized the need
dried, baked, or cured at room temperature are obtained for the use of the wash primer as a surface pretreatment for
by proper compounding. The presence of hydroxyl groups metals prior to subsequent painting. Military Specification
in the polymer molecule not only enables good wetting DOD-P-15328D entitled Primer, Pretreatment is required
of most substrates but also furnishes a reactive site for to be used on all metal surfaces. This primer is a two-
chemical combination with thermosetting resins. package system containing Butvar B-90 in a solvent
system consisting of normal butanol and either ethanol
Wash primers or isopropanol. By comparison, the Department of the Air
Force and the U.S. Navy Bureau of Naval Weapons have
In protective coatings for metal, the best-known vinyl
approved a slightly different pretreatment formulation
acetal application is in wash primers, also referred to
designated Coating Compound, Metal Pretreatment, Resin-
as metal conditioners. Compared with other corrosion-
Acid MIL-C-8514C (ASG). This system specifies the use
inhibiting materials, wash primers are unique and more
of either Butvar B-76 or Butvar B-90 in a solvent system
effective because they offer, in a single treatment, several
consisting of butanol and ethanol. Specific details of
means of preventing corrosion. These anticorrosive primers
both wash primer systems can be found in the particular
apply easier, adhere better, and dry faster than more
specification involved.
conventional materials.

The action of wash primers over steel, for example, is


as follows:
• First, an iron oxide and zinc phosphate film similar to
that formed in the common phosphating processes is
deposited on the metal.
• Second, the wash primers provide a continuous supply of
chromate ions to repair pinholes in the phosphate film,
eliminating the need for a special chromate rinse.
• Third, the polyvinyl butyral film is chemically bound in the
inorganic layers through a chromium complex, providing
additional mechanical protection to the metal surface.
17
Nonspecification wash primers: Single-package wash primer:
B-1030 with Butvar B-1011 with Butvar
Wash primer B-1030 formulation is a two-package system Wash primer B-1011 is a clear, green single-package primer
based on Butvar B-76 resin and a thermosetting phenolic also known as a reacted wash primer. Based on Butvar
resin. This formulation was designed to give higher early B-90 resin, it has excellent stability in both concentrated
water resistance than the well-known military-specification and diluted forms and air dries to clear glossy films of very
wash primers. Coatings based on formulation B-1030 low color. Films of the primer possess good adhesion to
exhibit reduced tendency to blister and lose adhesion in steel, phosphated steel, galvanized steel, brass, copper,
high humidity. The B-1030 formulation also has nonsettling wood, stainless steel, and chrome plate. Although designed
characteristics. In contrast to the older wash primer to enhance adhesion, this coating also functions as a
formulations, B-1030 does not display hard pigment settling corrosion-inhibiting primer for a variety of topcoats but, in
of the base grind. many cases, may afford protection as the sole coating.

The thermosetting resin content of the B-1030 formulation


not only increases water resistance but also contributes to
reduced solvent sensitivity. Thus, good adhesion and
corrosion resistance are retained under alkyd, alkyd-
nitrocellulose, acrylic, and vinyl topcoats and also under
epoxy, urethane, polyvinyl acetate, and alkyd melamine
topcoats.

Table 11. Wash primer B-1030 with Butvar


A. Base grind % by weight
1. To a solution of: Butvar B-76 1.24
Ethanol, 95% 9.35
Methyl ethyl ketone 9.97
2. Add: Basic zinc chromate pigment 11.52
Celite™ 266 4.82
3. Grind to Hegman fineness of 6, N.S. scale.
4. Add solution of: Butvar B-76 7.39
Ethanol, 95% 23.08
Methyl ethyl ketone 24.63
Santolink EP-560
®
8.00
Total 100.00
5. Grind for 30 minutes and package.
B. Reducer % by weight
Phosphoric acid, 85% 7.50
n-Butanol 92.50
Total 100.00
Mix for several minutes and package

Reduced primer properties (Pigment grind to reducer; 1:1 by volume)


NVM 19%
Weight per gallon 7.5 lb
Coverage 533 sq ft/gal at 0.3 mils dry
Pot life 8–12 hours

18
Table 12. Wash primer B-1011 with Butvar
Material % by weight
A. Acetone 44.40
Anhydrous ethanol 36.30
Butvar B-90 11.00
B. 85% phosphoric acid (USP) 0.72
Water 6.48
C. Chromic acid (99+%) 0.37
Water 0.73
Total 100.00

Properties
NVM 12%
Viscosity 21 sec, No. 4 Ford cup
lb/gal 7.0
Coverage 384 sq ft/gal at 0.3 mils dry

Chromate-free wash primers borate, or borophosphate, are suggested. Substitution of


these pigments for zinc chromate on an equal weight or
with Butvar
volume basis are suggested starting points for
Traditional wash primer formulations have generally reformulation. A chromate-free wash primer based on
employed zinc chromate as the anticorrosive pigment. U.S. government specification DOD-P-15328D is shown
Due to toxicity concerns associated with chromates, in Table 13.
alternative anticorrosive pigments, such as zinc molybdate,

Table 13. Sherwin-Williams chromate-free wash primer


Moly-White™ Butvar**
A. Base grind DOD-P-15328D X92 B-90, B-98
lb lb gal
Butvar B-90 56.0 56.0 6.10
n-Butanol 125.0 125.0 18.48
Isopropanol, 99% 353.0 353.0 53.80
Moly-White X92 — 39.7 1.70
Basic zinc chromate 54.0 1.70
Magnesium silicate, MP40-27 8.0 8.0 0.34
Furnace black 0.6 0.6 0.34
Water, DI 15.0 15.0 1.80
— — 82.26
B. Reducer
Phosphoric acid, 85% 28.0 28.0 2.0
Water, DI 25.0 25.0 3.0
Isopropanol, 99% 99.0 99.0 15.0
— — 20.0
Alternative chromate-free pigments include PhosGuard® J-0800 from Mineral Pigments Corporation and Borogard®
ZB from U.S. Borax.

19
Metal coatings Table 14. Metal coating 2009
Butvar® resins are used in a wide variety of metal coating Material % by weight
applications in combination with other resin types, such Diacetone alcohol 17.4
as phenolics, epoxies, isocyanates, melamines, ureas, etc. n-Butanol 17.4
When used with these various modifying resins, Butvar can
Ethanol, 95% 7.7
improve coating uniformity, minimize cratering, improve
Xylol 34.7
adhesion, and increase coating toughness and flexibility.
Santolink® EP-560 5.1
These resin combinations can be compounded to produce
EPON 1007F

13.0
baked coatings with good chemical resistance which
Butvar® B-90 2.0
also will withstand postforming. Applications of such
10% phosphoric acid
coatings can be made by conventional methods, including 2.7
(in above solvents)
brush, spray, dip, and fluidized bed. End-use applications Total 100.0
include drum and can linings as well as the wide variety of
metallic substrates, which are coated by the fluidized bed Properties
technique. Curable coatings containing Butvar resin may
NVM 20%
be formulated to meet the extractability requirements of Application: Spray or roller
the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for indirect food Cure cycle sequence: Room temperature. Dry 15
additive uses. minutes, followed by 30 minutes at 190˚F and 20
minutes at 400˚F.
Metal coating 2009 is one example of the use of Butvar
in combination with other resins—in this case, phenolic
and epoxy—to produce an excellent coating. This particular
combination provides excellent abrasion resistance,
toughness, flexibility, adhesion, and chemical resistance.
Specific application tests have shown that this system
should make outstanding can or drum linings.

20
Wood finishes Knot sealers
Protective wash coats and sealers The polyvinyl butyral resins are excellent barriers to
bleeding of terpenaceous matter from knots, heartwood,
Butvar® resin is widely used as a component of wash
and rosin ducts. The Western Pine Association has developed
coats and sealers in wood-finishing operations. It provides
a superior knot sealer based on Butvar. The system consists
good holdout, intercoat adhesion, moisture resistance,
of a combination of Butvar and phenolic resins (Table 16).
flexibility, toughness, and impact resistance to the coating
system. In addition, the wood substrate is protected
against discoloration when Butvar is used in the finish.
Table 16. Western Pine Association
Combinations involving nitrocellulose, shellac, and shellac
knot sealer, WP578
ester along with other resin types are used with Butvar Material % by weight
under many common topcoats (Table 15). Butvar is Butvar B-90 3.3
particularly effective for improving the holdout of polyester Durite P-97

40.0
and polyurethane coatings as well as protecting the wood Ethanol, 95% 56.7
substrate against color changes caused by light. Total 100.0

The following starting formulation is representative of the


Properties
kind of wood sealer or wash coat that can be compounded
NVM 23.3%
from Butvar.
Application: Brush

Table 15. Sealer/wash coat with Butvar The preceding formulation is designed for brush
Material % by weight application. However, it has been adapted to application
Butvar B-98 6.1 from an aerosol spray can, giving the same outstanding
Nitrocellulose, RS , ¼ second

9.2 performance as the brush-applied system.
Butyl acetate 32.9
Ethanol, anhydrous 5.5
Isopropanol, 99% 10.9
Methyl isobutyl ketone 8.8
Xylol 13.3
Toluol 13.3
Total 100.0

Properties
NVM 12.5%
20 sec,
Viscosity
No. 4 Ford cup

21
Adhesives In a solution adhesive system, the choice of solvents is
important both for viscosity control of the solution and
Structural adhesives
proper drying and filming characteristics. Proper drying of
Structural adhesives were originally developed for use in‚ the adhesive film is very important, as only a small amount
the aircraft industry to replace rivets and other methods of of residual solvent can greatly affect the various final
joining and fastening. Refinements in formulating structural properties. Yet the solvent cannot be so volatile that
adhesives led to their use in bonding brake linings, in the blushing occurs. Sprayed films are much more sensitive to
electrical and electronic industries on printed circuits, in blushing than brushed or roller-coated films. For brushing,
structural composite-fiber binders for aerospace or solvents in the boiling range of 75° to 100°C are advised
antiballistic applications, and in the architectural field for because they can be removed by air drying and then force
the manufacture of interior and exterior curtain walls. drying for 30 to 60 minutes at 105°C. Solutions for
spraying can tolerate small amounts of higher-boiling
Combinations of Butvar® resin with thermosetting resins
solvents, such as xylene and butanol.
have long been used in bonding aircraft components—
in fact, the system was the first synthetic resin adhesive Viscosity of the adhesive solution affects the smoothness
to be used for bonding metals in structural applications. and the thickness of the final brushed or sprayed film.
For brushing, the proper viscosity is obtained at the
Phenolic resins following solids content (with a 10:5 PVB/phenolic ratio):
In some structural adhesive formulations, Butvar resins are Butvar B-90, 21%; Butvar B-72, 16% to 18%. For spraying,
combined with alkaline-catalyzed phenolic laminating the solids content should be reduced to obtain nonblushing,
resins, such as Durite™ LS-433 or Plyophen™ 22-023. noncobwebbing films.
Compared with other general types of structural adhesive
systems (epoxy-phenolic and synthetic rubber-phenolic), Epoxies and other thermosetting resins
the PVB-phenolic gives the highest shear strength values at Butvar resins are compatible with many epoxy resins and
temperatures up to 250°F. Other outstanding properties of can confer such improvements on epoxy-based systems as
the PVB-phenolic system include high peel strength at very increased impact resistance and peel strength. In epoxy
low temperatures, excellent dielectric properties, and systems, as in phenolic systems, the vinyl acetal resins can
exceptionally good creep resistance as measured by the serve as both coreactant and flexibilizer.
ability of the bond to carry sustained loads for extended
periods of time. The addition of small amounts of compatible plasticizer to
an adhesive system combining a vinyl acetal resin with a
Polyvinyl butyral-phenolic ratios from 10:1 to 10:20 have thermosetting resin increases the flexibility and impact
been used successfully for structural adhesives, although resistance of the bond with only slight sacrifice in high-
10:5 seems to be the best ratio for a compromise of temperature shear. This increased flexibility is most evident
properties. As the amount of phenolic is reduced, the cured when peeling thick adherends and at high peeling speeds.
adhesive becomes more flexible and, in most cases, peel The tack or heat-seal temperature of the uncured adhesive
strength increases. In addition, because of the increased is also appreciably lowered by the addition of plasticizer.
thermoplastic nature of the system, the high-temperature Adhesives with pressure-sensitive properties in the uncured
shear strength is reduced. These effects, i.e., increased peel state can be developed which, when cured, will have
and reduced high-temperature shear strength, occur temperature shear bond strength of more than 1,000 psi.
when the cure time is shortened or the cure temperature
is lowered.

Structural adhesives based on polyvinyl butyral resins can


be applied as a solution, an unsupported film, a supported
film on paper or cloth, or a mixture of liquid and solid.1

See U.S. Patent 2,499,134.


1

22
High-strength bonding procedure Performance characteristics
For high-strength bonds, substrate cleaning is very The quality of a structural bond for a particular application
important. Usually the removal of surface contamination, is usually described in terms of its shear strength, peel
such as oil film, dust, etc., is sufficient. Such cleaning strength, creep properties, fatigue strength, and
normally is achieved by solvent or by detergent wash. environmental resistance. In aircraft applications, high-
However, for highest-strength bonds, chemical surface temperature shear, fatigue resistance, creep, and oil and
preparation is employed. The following metals require gas resistance are most important. In printed circuits, peel
the preparation noted: strength, blister resistance, and dielectric properties are of
• Aluminum alloys—acid oxidation primary importance. For architectural use, high peel
strength and long-term resistance to dead load and
• Copper—alkaline oxidation
extremes of atmospheric environment are the outstanding
• Steel—a pickling bath to remove oxide scale
requirements.Adhesives based on Butvar® resins excel in all
Care should be taken to avoid touching the cleaned panels of these characteristics.
or exposing them to any contaminated atmosphere. The
The requirements and methods for testing adhesives for
adhesive should be applied to the cleaned surface as soon
aircraft applications are presented in Military Specifications
as possible.
MM-A-132 and MIL-A-25463-30. Test methods for
A dry glue line of 3 to 10 mils has been found quite architectural and printed circuit applications are contained
satisfactory. With solvent systems, this thickness usually in various ASTM and NEMA specifications.
can be achieved with 2 to 4 brushed coats of adhesive on
each adherend. With very thin glue lines, even pressure Adhesive strengths
must be applied to the laminate during cure so that Typical test values for phenolic bonds of Butvar resins
consistent bonds are obtained. Thicker glue lines have measured by these techniques are in Table 17.
greater flow and absorb unequal curing pressures.

Table 17. Adhesive strengths


Amount of psi shear strength at Peel at 72°F
Vinyl acetal phenolic, phra Cure 72°F 180°F 250°F 300°F lb/in. width
Butvar B-72 50 30 min, 330°F 6,000 4,000 1,400 500 25–30
Butvar B-90 50 30 min, 330°F 5,700 2,800 1,000 — 30–35
Butvar B-72 100 20 min, 300°F 5,000 3,300 1,100 — 35–40
phr = parts per hundred resin
a

Test procedures: Shear—aluminum to aluminum as per MIL-A-8431


Peel—6-mil aluminum to 64-mil aluminum peeled at 5 inches per minute

23
Hot-melt adhesives • Adhesion: After curing, Butvar adheres readily to
practically all fabrics, including those normally considered
Butvar® resin makes an excellent base for hot-melt
difficult to coat, such as nylon, viscose rayon, and
adhesives even where difficult-to-bond surfaces are
fiberglass.
involved. The many types of Butvar resins allow the best
match to individual applications. For example, Butvar B-98 • Hand and appearance: A coating with Butvar has the soft,
can be formulated to produce a hot melt with low-viscosity warm, flexible feel of an uncoated fabric yet possesses all
characteristics. B-72 can be used to produce an adhesive the functional characteristics of coated fabrics.
with similar chemical properties but higher viscosity. Other • Functional properties: Butvar combines these attributes
types, such as B-76, are available to produce adhesives with functional properties comparable to those of the
where less cross-linking is desirable. best textile coating materials in the field. During the
drying and curing operations, Butvar is transformed into
Table 18 shows a starting formulation for a hot melt based
an elastomer which becomes a permanent part of the
on Butvar.
fabric.

Table 18. Typical hot-melt formulation Fabrics coated with properly compounded and cured Butvar
Material Parts by weight have outstanding softness and flexibility without tackiness
Butvar B-76 10 of low softening temperatures. They have excellent
Santicizer 160
®
10 chemical and water resistance. Films of Butvar resin are
Castorwax™ 35
tough and will resist abrasion and wear. Coatings can be
Poly-Pale™ rosin resin 26
applied from high-solids solutions made with common
solvents. Clear coatings with Butvar may be applied from
Staybelite-E™ hydrogenated rosin 19
solutions of up to 35% solids; pigmented coatings may be
Total 100
as high as 45% solids.

Textile coatings Solutions of Butvar are ideally suited to coating with either
One of the unique uses of Butvar polyvinyl butyral resin is rubber or pyroxylin spreaders. Solids content can be high
in the textile coating field. It can be compounded to make and the solvents fast evaporating. The material will flow
fabrics water and stain resistant without noticeably well after being spread. For most applications, a light
affecting the appearance, feel, drape, and color of the coating averaging 1½-oz dry to the square yard is
fabric. Tablecloths, drapes, slipcovers, shower curtains, recommended. The solution of Butvar, which can be
aprons, smocks, and children’s bibs are some of the more prepared in a solvent mixture of alcohol and naphtha, is
common items which can be prepared. Outside the home, applied in generally two to five passes, depending on the
fabrics coated with Butvar serve as rainwear, porch type of fabric and the coating operation. This is followed by
furniture upholstering, awnings, and beach accessories. a flat topcoat to remove gloss and tack normally associated
with coated fabrics. Usually two topcoats are required for a
Butvar, which provides a transparent film, can be applied smooth, skip-free coating.
to practically all common fabrics. Cotton, wool, silk, nylon,
viscose rayon, and other synthetics can be successfully The first two coats should be low in viscosity for proper
coated. As a rule, almost any fairly tight woven fabric with penetration of the coating into the fiber interstices. The
a flat surface can be made water and stain resistant with relationship between depth of penetration and coating
a coating based on Butvar. viscosity will necessarily depend on the fabric construction
and must be determined on the basis of trials. If an
excessively high coating viscosity is used for the initial
Advantages as textile coating
coats, peel adhesion, Mullen, and other physical test
The advantages of Butvar as a textile coating resin stem properties will suffer. Experience has shown that superior
from the following properties: coatings are produced by many thin coats rather than
• Transparency: Butvar can be made into a clear, colorless by a few heavy applications.
coating with excellent light resistance and aging
characteristics.

24
Butvar is unique among vinyl resins in its ability to be Coated stocks are cured after all coats have been applied.
cured in a manner somewhat analogous to rubber. Curing Premature curing of any coat due to overheating will
improves both heat and solvent resistance and adhesion to reduce the adhesion of subsequent coats. The time required
the fabric. Curing Butvar is accomplished by incorporating for curing will depend on the resins, the catalysts
cross-linking resins, such as urea, phenolics, melamines, employed, and the temperature of the curing oven. Cure
and isocyanates. Since the reaction involves the hydroxyl time will vary from approximately 1 hour at 250°F to 5
groups on the chain of Butvar, only a small amount of a minutes or less at 350°F.
modifying resin is needed to substantially increase the heat
Coatings with Butvar have been cured satisfactorily in
and solvent resistance of the Butvar resin.
festoon dryers at 200°F, steam-heated ovens at 300°F, gas
A formulation incorporating such a cross-linking resin is ovens, and even dryer cans. In all cases, overheating should
shown in Table 19. be avoided to prevent loss of plasticizer and stiffening.

Table 19. Typical textile coating formulation A properly coated and cured fabric will be water resistant;
will be resistant to ink stains, coffee, tea, cooking oils, and
Material Parts by weight
fats; and will have excellent washability. Most soilings can
Butvar B-72 48.0
be wiped away with a damp cloth. Should the uncoated
Tricresyl phosphate 48.0
side require laundering, neutral soap and warm water
Ethanol 95% 84.2 should be used. The coated fabric can be ironed on the
Toluene 64.8 uncoated side.
Water 8.0
Resimene® AQ-7550 3.5 Coatings based on Butvar cannot be dry cleaned. Such
p-Toluene sulfonic acid 0.7 treatment will remove the plasticizer and leave a stiff,
p-Nonylphenol 0.2 harsh coating which will break on flexing.

Compounding Ceramic binder applications


1. Combine solvents and plasticizer. Butvar polyvinyl butyral resins are recognized as the
2. Add Butvar B-72 with stirring; heat if desired binder of choice in the processing of ceramic tape cast
to speed solution.
materials. The resin imparts excellent green strength and
3. Cool batch, blend in p-nonylphenol, Resimene AQ-7550,
flexibility to the ceramic tape. It is compatible with many
and p-toluene sulfonic acid in that order.
common solvents and plasticizers and burns out cleanly
during sintering.
Compound properties
% solids 39 Butvar resin is also used as a binder medium in thick
Viscosity (freshly made), cP ca 70,000 film processing. Butvar is formulated in the solvent vehicle
Viscosity (24 hours), cP ca 75,000 used to deposit the circuit pattern on the ceramic surface.
Cure cycle sequence: Room temperature. Drying 15 minutes, The primary advantages of using Butvar resins are their
followed by 30 minutes at 190˚F and 20 minutes at 400˚F. Appli-
cation: Spray or roller solubility in a wide range of solvents and uniform adhesion
to conductive metals.

25
Tape casting Premix the fish oil in the toluene and MEK and add to ball
mill. Add Alumina and ball mill for 1 hour. Add Santicizer
Butvar is regarded as the binder of choice for the ceramic
160 and Butvar B-79. Mill an additional 24 hours. Pour,
tape casting process due to the following benefits:
de-air for several minutes, and cast.
• Butvar resins provide excellent green strength to the
unified tape. • Additional Butvar can be added to most formulations to
- Butvar allows multiple tapes to be laminated in improve interfilm lamination in a multilayer substrate.
the green stage. • A microfiltration system is generally used with
- Low Butvar concentrations allow for higher-density binder/solvent systems. A 5-micron or finer filter is
substrates after firing. recommended.
• Butvar is soluble in many volatile yet inexpensive
solvents. Thick films
- Flexibility in choosing Butvar product types and load
Butvar resins can be used as the binder medium in vehicle
levels for a wide range in binder solution viscosities and,
formulations for thick film pastes. Our lowest-molecular-
therefore, ceramic slip viscosities.
weight resins, Butvar B-79 and B-98, are recommended for
• Butvar is compatible with many of the plasticizers used either silk screen or steel screen processes. The advantages
in ceramic systems. of using Butvar in thick films include:
- Choose from dialkyl phthalates, benzyl phthalates,
adipates, or phosphates commonly used. • Butvar is an excellent binder and dispersant for the
conductive metals used in thick films.
• Butvar burns out cleanly with a minimum of warpage
to the fired part. • Thick films with Butvar can be cofired with the green
- The product shrinks uniformly. tape in laminated ceramic substrates.
- Low gel content minimizes surface defects. • Binder compatibility problems are minimized for cofiring
• Butvar has natural dispersing properties and is compatible systems when Butvar is used in both thick film processing
with common dispersing agents, such as fish oils or and as the binder in the ceramic tape casting process.
phosphate esters.
Table 21. Thermal properties
The medium- to low-molecular-weight resins, Butvar Butvar Butvar
B-76, B-79, B-90, or B-98, are recommended for use in Test B-76 B-90
tape casting processes. Units method B-79 B-98
Glass transition
°C DSC 62–72 72–78
A typical tape casting formulation based on 100 g of temperature (Tg)
solid ceramic powder is shown in Table 20. Ash content at 550°C
In nitrogen % TGA <2.0 <3.0
Table 20. Typical tape casting formulation
In air % TGA <0.75 <0.75
Component Parts by weight
Alumina 100.0
The apparent glass transition temperature (Tg) was
Butvar B-79 5.0 determined by differential scanning calorimeter (DSC).
Santicizer® 160 4.3 The thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) was a weight loss
Blown Menhaden Oil Z-3 visc. 2.0 versus temperature profile conducted at a heating rate of
Toluene 14.4 10°C/min.
MEK 14.4

26
Graph 11. Butvar® resin thermolysis profiles: Toners and printing inks
thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) Butvar resins have been used in printing ink formulations
for many years. All Butvar resins are alcohol soluble and
In nitrogen are often used in solvent-based gravure and flexographic
ink formulations to improve flexibility, adhesion, and
100 toughness.
100 The solubility characteristics of Butvar B-79 and
90 B-76 in90aromatic and other fast-drying solvents allow for
80 compounding
80 at low concentrations in high-speed, high
quality printing applications. These properties have also
70 70
enabled Butvar to be used in ink formulations for thick film
60 60
conductive pastes, printer ribbons, and pen inks, as well
50 50
as in the manufacture of offset printing plates and other
40 printing40technology apparatus.
30 30
Weight (wt%)

Weight (wt%)
20 Butvar20also serves the toner industry as a secondary binder.
10
Polyvinyl
10
butyral is added to the formulations to increase
viscosity and improve film integrity over the fuser roll. The
0 0
50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 overall toughness
50 100of150Butvar enhances
200 250 300 350 the integrity
400 450 500 550

Temperature (ºC) Heating rate: 10ºC/min of the toner during the


Temperature (ºC) milling process and extended
Heating rate: 10ºC/min
machine operation. This minimizes the level of fines without
detracting from the flow properties.

Graph 12. Butvar® resin thermolysis profiles:


thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA)

In air

100
90
80

70

60
50

40
30
Weight (wt%)

20
10
0
50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550

n Temperature (ºC) Heating rate: 10ºC/min

27
Storage and handling
Storage
Environments of high heat and humidity should be avoided.

Toxicity and FDA status


Butvar® resins are regulated by the U. S. Food and Drug
Administration under parts of Title 21 of the Code of Federal
Regulations for use as indirect food additives. Butvar resin
has also been subjected to acute toxicity and mutagenicity
studies. Details on specific coverage of individual studies
are available on request.

Table 22. Packaging information


Container type B-72 B-90, B-76 B-98, B-79, B-74
61-gallon fiber drum 145 lb (66 kg) 140 lb (63 kg) 135 lb (61 kg)

Quality control
To obtain the outstanding quality characteristics of Butvar,
Eastman maintains statistical process control over the
manufacturing process. In addition, to ensure that you
receive highly uniform material with each shipment,
the finished product is analyzed in detail to be certain it
conforms to our rigid specifications.

28
Material sources
Product designation Owner and/or supplier Product designation Owner and/or supplier
Araldite 6069 Novartis Corporation Arista Chemical Inc.
Linseed oil
Lansco Colors Reichhold Chemicals, Inc.
Basic zinc chromate
Rockwood Pigments NA, Inc. Magnesium silicate MP40-27 Specialty Minerals
Beckosol 11-035 Reichhold Chemicals, Inc. Methyl acetate Eastman Chemical Company
Werner G. Smith Inc. Methyl alcohol Air Products and Chemicals Inc.
Blown Menhaden Oil Z-3 visc.
R.E. Mistler, Inc. Methyl ethyl ketone Shell Chemical Corporation
Borogard ZB U.S. Borax Methyl isobutyl ketone Eastman Chemical Company
2-Butoxyethanol (Eastman EB solvent) Eastman Chemical Company Methylon 75-108 OxyChem
Butvar® resins Eastman Chemical Company Moly-White X92 Sherwin-Williams Chemical
Butyl acetate Eastman Chemical Company Naphtha Shell Chemical Corporation
Butyl alcohol Eastman Chemical Company Nitrocellulose RS, SS Dow Wolff Cellulosics
Butyl benzyl phthalate Ferro Corporation OxyChem 02620, 92600, 29107 OxyChem
Castor Oil #1 (raw), #15, #30, #40 CasChem Inc. p-Nonylphenol Boddin Chemiehandel
Castorwax CasChem Inc. Paraplex® RGA-8 HallStar
Celite 266 Imerys Filtration Pentalyn H Eastman Chemical Company
Cellulose acetate Eastman Chemical Company PhosGuard® J-0800 Rockwood Pigments NA, Inc.
Cellulose acetate butyrate Eastman Chemical Company Phosphoric acid, 85% U.S.P. ICL Performance Products Lp.
Chlorinated rubber Ashland, Inc. Plyophen 22-023 OxyChem
Chromic acid (chromium trioxide) J.T. Baker Inc. Poly-Pale™ rosin resins Eastman Chemical Company
DC 840 Dow Corning Corporation Pycal 94 ICI Americas Inc.
DCZ 6018 Dow Corning Corporation Resimene 717, 730, 741, 881
®
Cytec Ind.
Desmodur AP stabil Covestro AQ-7550 and 918
Diacetone alcohol Shell Chemical Corporation SP-1044 resin SI Group
Dibutyl phthalate BASF Santicizer plasticizers
®
Ferro Corporation
Dibutyl sebacate HallStar Santolink® EP-560 Cytec Ind.
Dihexyl adipate Ferro Corporation Shellac RPM International Inc.
Dimethyl esters Invista Staybelite-E hydrogenated rosin

Eastman Chemical Company
Dioctyl phthalate Eastman Chemical Company Tributyl citrate Morflex Chemical Company
Duraplex 11-804 Reichhold Chemicals, Inc. FMC Corporation
Tricresyl phosphate
AkzoNobel
Durite P-97, LS-433 Hexion
Triethylene glycol di-2-ethylhexanoate
EPI-REZ 540-C Solvay Eastman Chemical Company
(Eastman™ TEG-EH)
EPON 1001F, 1007F Momentive
Triphenyl phosphate Triway
2-Ethylhexyl diphenyl phosphate Ferro Corporation
Vinyl chloride copolymer VAGH,VAGD
Flexricin-P3 CasChem Inc. Dow Chemical Company
(UCAR solution vinyl resin)
Furnace black Columbian Chemicals Vinsol Pinova Solutions
Hercolyn Pinova Solutions Xylol (xylene) Exxon Company, U.S.A.
Isophorone Dow Chemical Company Zinc borate U.S. Borax
Isopropanol Eastman Chemical Company Zinc borophosphate Rockwood Pigments NA, Inc.
Ketjenflex 8, 9S, MH Axcentive Zinc molybdate Sherwin-Williams Chemical

29
Although the information and recommendations set forth herein are presented in good faith, Eastman Chemical
Company and its subsidiaries make no representations or warranties as to the completeness or accuracy thereof.
You must make your own determination of its suitability and completeness for your own use, for the protection
of the environment, and for the health and safety of your employees and purchasers of your products. Nothing
contained herein is to be construed as a recommendation to use any product, process, equipment, or formulation
in conflict with any patent, and we make no representations or warranties, express or implied, that the use thereof
will not infringe any patent. NO REPRESENTATIONS OR WARRANTIES, EITHER EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, OF
Eastman Chemical Company MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, OR OF ANY OTHER NATURE ARE MADE HEREUNDER
Corporate Headquarters WITH RESPECT TO INFORMATION OR THE PRODUCT TO WHICH INFORMATION REFERS AND NOTHING HEREIN
P.O. Box 431 WAIVES ANY OF THE SELLER’S CONDITIONS OF SALE.
Kingsport, TN 37662-5280 U.S.A.
Safety Data Sheets providing safety precautions that should be observed when handling and storing our products
U.S.A. and Canada, 800-EASTMAN (800-327-8626) are available online or by request. You should obtain and review available material safety information before
Other Locations, +(1) 423-229-2000 handling our products. If any materials mentioned are not our products, appropriate industrial hygiene and other
safety precautions recommended by their manufacturers should be observed.
www.eastman.com/locations
© 2017 Eastman Chemical Company. Eastman brands referenced herein are trademarks of Eastman Chemical
Company or one of its subsidiaries or are being used under license. The ® symbol denotes registered trademark
status in the U.S.; marks may also be registered internationally. Non-Eastman brands referenced herein are
trademarks of their respective owners.

ADD-BVR-3978 3/17