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DNB
GENERAL
SURGERY FINALS

All Question papers (2000-2017)

Ramkrishna Care Hospital, Raipur


General surgery Dept.
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CONTENTS
No. TOPICS Questions page
General surgery
a. Principles of general surgery 174 4-16
(Metabolic response to surgery, IV fluids,
blood & blood products, surgical
nutrition, wounds & tissue repair,
intensive care, surgical infections,
oncology, operative room, PSM, universal
precautions, investigations, anaesthesia
& pain relief, operations)
b. Trauma (head injury, abdomen injuries, 52 17-20
neck injuries, chest injury, emergency
room, orthopaedics)
c. Burns 10 21
d. Skin & subcutaneous tissue 16 22
e. Head and Neck 38 23-25
f. Salivary glands 15 25-26
g. Chest 19 26
Systemic Surgery
a. Breast 42 27-29
b. Thyroid 31 30-31
c. Parathyroid 9 32
d. Adrenal gland 9 33
e. Vascular disorders (arterial, venous) 60 34-37
f. Abdominal wall, Hernia & umbilicus 17 38-39
g. Peritoneum, omentum, mesentry & 6 39
retroperitoneal space
Abdomen
a. Esophagus 22 40-41
b. Stomach & duodenum 30 41-42
c. Small bowel 51 43-46
d. Intestinal obstruction 19 46
e. Vermiform appendix 4 47
f. Rectum 17 47-48
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g. Anus & anal canal 13 48


h. Liver & biliary pathways 72 49-53
i. Spleen 9 53
j. Pancreas 16 54
Urology
a. Kidneys and ureter 36 55-57
b. Bladder 8 57
c. Prostate 18 57-58
d. Urethra/penis 22 58-59
e. Scrotum 31 60-61
Plastic Surgery 15 62

Neurosurgery 19 63-64

Transplantation 20 64-65

Paediatric Surgery 23 66-67

Metabolic surgeries 8 67

Cardio thoracic & vascular 1 68


surgeries

Recent advances 7 68
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GENERAL SURGERY
❶ PRINCIPLES OF GENERAL SURGERY

 METABOLIC RESPONSE TO INJURY

1) What is SIRS & how does it affect the outcome in surgical patients? 3+7
FAT 2016/a
2) Pathophysiology of sepsis & effects cause by it on various systems.
(5+5)-June, 2013.
3) Describe in brief SISR. (June, 2012). Define SIRS, clinical profile. What is
sepsis? Outline of management of septic shock. Dec, 2004.
4) Define shock. Classify shock. What are the causes, Ix and Mx principles in
septic shock? Apr 2016; 1+2+3+4 FAT 2017/a
Classification of shock. C/F of shock. Monitoring of patient in shock.
3+4+3 Dec 2017
5) What is septic shock? (6).Describe various scoring systems for sepsis.
(2).Describe various components of SIRS. June, 2011. Pathophysiology of
septic shock? 10 marks FAT 2015; Jun 2010
6) What is surgical site infection? Name common organisms and how will
you prevent it. Dec, 2010.
7) Mechanism/pathophysiology of SIRS. June, 2009; Dec,2008
8) What is septic shock? Outline its pathophysiology? (June, 2009; Dec,
2008; Dec, 2000). Clinical features, principles of management. (June,
2007)
9) Discuss management of hemorrhagic shock. Dec, 2008
10)Discuss pathogenesis & Mx of multiple organ dysfunction failure
(MODS). 5+5 Jun 2015; June, 2005
11)Metabolic response to trauma. June, 2013.
12)Physiologic changes that occur after major trauma. Apr 2016
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 IV FLUIDS AND ELECTROLYTES


1) Various components of ABG (arterial blood gas) & acid base evaluation.
What are the expected derangements in a patient with persistent &
profuse vomiting? ABG evaluation. (6+4) June, 2014.
2) Various types if IV fluids along with their indications. What are the
complications of prolonged IV fluids? (5+5). June, 2014.
3) Enumerate causes of hypocalcaemia. How will you detect and treat a
case of hypocalcaemia. (2+4+4) June, 2012.
4) How do you plan fluid and electrolytes in post operative patients? Dec,
2010.
5) Define buffer? Describe causes, clinical features & management of
metabolic acidosis? Dec, 2009; Dec, 2008. Describe deranged
parameters in ABG to support diagnosis of metabolic acidosis. Dec, 2004.
6) Describe the fluid & electrolyte physiology after major injury. June,
2004.
7) Write short notes on: 5+5 FAT 2016/b
a) Respiratory & metabolic alkalosis.
b) Types of intestinal failure.
8) Causes of hyponatremia. Clinical manifestation of hyponatremia.
Paradoxical aciduria. 3+4+3 Dec 2016
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 BLOOD &BLOOD PRODUCTS


1) Enumerate various blood components available for clinical use. Briefly
discuss the indications for their use. Apr 2016; 5+5 FAT 2017/a; (4+6).
June, 2014; Dec, 2012. How is different blood products manufactured?
Dec, 2008. Blood substitutes and its uses. June, 2004, 03.
2) Indications for blood transfusion. Complications of massive blood
transfusion. Blood products used in surgical practice. 3+4+3 Dec 2017
3) Name the various plasma volume expanders. Types and indications of
blood components therapy. 4+6 Jun 2016
4) Risks of blood transfusions. Metabolic changes following massive
transfusions. Blood substitutes and alternatives to transfusion. Dec,
2006.
5) Massive blood transfusion? Its effect/complications on body. FAT 2015;
Dec, 2008; Dec, 2000; June, 2008. How would you treat coagulopathy?
1+6+3 Dec 2014
6) Physiologic changes that occur in blood stored at 4*C. June, 2006.
7) Define autologous transfusion (2). Risks of blood transfusion (4). How
will you manage transfusion reactions (4)? June, 2011.
8) Methods to measure blood loss in surgical practice. June, 2009.
9) Discuss various topical haemostatic agents (4). Describe various thermal
methods of haemostasis (4). June, 2011.
10) Pathophysiology and management of DIC. June, 2004.
11)Fat embolism syndrome. June, 2003.
12)Absolute indications of splenectomy? How will you manage a case of
ITP? (3+7). June, 2012.

 NUTRITION IN SURGICAL PATIENTS


1) Enumerate metabolic effects of starvation & discuss physiologic
disturbances that occur in severe sepsis? June, 2006.
2) Various parameters to assess the nutritional status of surgical patient?
June, 2008.
3) What is the role of nutrition in surgical patients? What parameters are
used to assess nutrition and its role in advanced cancer patients? 3+3+4
FAT 2016/a
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4) A severely malnourished patient with loop jejunostomy made earlier is


admitted for closure of jejunostomy. In this patient write the-
4+6 Dec 2016
a. Assessment of nutritional status
b. Principles of pre-op nutritional status.
5) Discuss in brief nutritional assessment of surgical pt. Methods of
nutrition assessment in surgical pts. Dec, 2013; Dec, 2009; Dec, 2004.
6) Discuss various modes of supplementing nutrition in surgical pts. (4).
Pitfalls of use of TPN (3). Re-feeding syndrome (3). June, 2011.
7) Mention the various routes of enteral nutrition. Its advantages and
complications in each route. 4+2+4 FAT 2017
8) Nutritional assessment in cancer pts? Dec, 2007.
9) Calculate nutritional requirements of 70kg male with duodenal fistula
with sepsis.
10) Define parenteral nutrition. What solutions are commonly available?
Discuss the complications. 2+3+5 Dec 2014
11) TPN. Indications for TPN. Its constituents. Methods of delivery of TPN.
Complications of TPN. Various solutions available for TPN & their
complications. Dec, 2004; June, 2003; Dec, 2003.
12) ERAS (enhanced recovery after surgery) protocol- what are its
components? Barriers in its implementation. 6+4 Dec 2015
13) Re-feeding syndrome. Definition & Mx? June, 2010.
14) Short bowel syndrome. June, 2010.
15) What is CVP? Discuss use of CVP in surgical patients. What are
complications of central venous line (complications of insertion of
catheter for CVP monitoring)? (2+4+4). Dec, 2012; Dec 2011; Jun 2010

 WOUNDS, TISSUE REPAIR & SCARS


1) What is wound healing? Discuss the phases and pathophysiology of
wound healing. 1+2+2+5 Fat 2016/a
2) Enumerate phases of wound healing. Enumerate causes of non healing
ulcers of leg & foot. Vacuum assisted closure (VAC) in wound Mx. 3+4+3
Dec 2017
3) Briefly describe various factors which influence wound healing (6).
Enumerate steps you would take to prevent post op wound
complications (4). June, 2014.
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4) What is wound dehiscence? What are the various causes for it? How will
you manage such a case? (1+4+5). Dec, 2013.
5) What are the differences between a hypertrophic scar and a keloid?
What are the treatment options for each of these? Rx of presternal
keloid in a young girl. Jun 2016; (5+5) June 2012.
6) What are the principles of antibiotic therapy with special reference to
their selection? Enumerate indications of prophylactic antibiotic
therapy? (7+3) Dec, 2012.
7) Describe the various “dynamics” of wound healing. Wound
healing/Ideal dressing (4). Management of a non-healing wound (3).
Describe an “ideal dressing” (3). Jun 2011; Dec 2007
8) Discuss the physiology of vacuum assisted closure of the wounds, its
indications and contraindications? 5+5 FAT 2017/a
9) Factors affecting wound healing. Principles of negative pressure wound
therapy. Types of wound dressing. 3+3+4 Dec 2016
10) What are pressure sores? What are common sites? How would you
prevent development of sores? June 2011; Dec, 2010.
11) Factors that govern wound healing? June 2010
12) Management of 16 yr old lady with complete wound dehiscence after
laparotomy for perforation peritonitis? June 2010.
13) Classify operative wounds? Discuss the principles of prophylactic
antibiotics in surgery? Dec 2008; June 2008; June 2007; Dec, 2001.
14) Universal precautions in AIDS? Dec 2007
15) Diagnosis, prevention and treatment of Gossypoma? Dec 2007
16) Classification of wounds. What are the factors affecting wound healing.
How do you Mx keloids at various sites? 2+4+4 FAT 2017/a; Dec 2007
17) Management of facial injury following RTA. (Dec, 2005). Role of
prophylactic antibiotics for wounds. (June 2003).
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 INTENSIVE CARE
1. In a patient admitted to ICU with severe peritonitis with shock:
a. Options for hemodynamic monitoring.
b. Use of ionotropes/vasopressors.
c. Principles of ventilatory support.
2. Risk factors for development of pulmonary complications in surgical
patients. Strategy to minimize risk of post op pulmonary complications. 4+6
Dec 2016
3. What are the general aspects of critical care? How do you assess a surgical
patient in critical care? 4+6 Dec 2014
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 SURGICAL INFECTIONS
1) Treatment regimen in Tuberculosis and its failure in adults and
children. June 2013.
2) Universal precautions for blood borne infections. Prevention & Rx of
surgical infections. 4+6 Jun 2016
3) What are universal precautions? Discuss post exposure prophylaxis
4) Gas gangrene (GG) – its bacteriology, clinical features, Dx and
management. 3+2+5 Jun 2015; 2+3+5, June 2013; June 2012. How will
you treat a case of GG involving lower limb extending on to the
abdominal wall? June 2005; Dec 2002.
5) What is necrotizing fasciitis? What are its causes? How will you manage
such a case? 2+2+6 Dec 2013; June 2009.
6) Describe anatomy of sub-diaphragmatic (sub-phrenic) spaces. How will
you diagnose and treat it? /How do you manage sub-phrenic abscess
and its complications? June 2012; June 2011
7) Define SSI. Describe surgical site infection (SSI). What are the risk
factors for wound infection? How will you prevent it? Discuss the role of
prophylactic antibiotics in reducing SSI. Dec 2014; 1+5+4 Dec 2015; 5+5
June 2012.
8) Hydradenitis suppurativa- etiopathogenesis, C/F, Mx. Jun 2015; Dec
2009; June 2012.
9) Discuss the management of anaerobic infection in surgical practice.
Dec 2003.
10)Tetany. June 2012.
11)Describe the causes, investigations and treatment of post op fever.
3+4+3 Dec 2013.
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 PRINCIPLES OF ONCOLOGY
1) What are Oncogenes and Tumor suppressor genes? Briefly discuss
targeted molecular therapies and gene therapy for cancer treatment.
4+3+3 Dec 2012; June 2000
2) What are tumor markers? What are different types of tumor markers?
Role of tumor markers in Mx of testicular tumors. 2+4+4 Dec 2015
3) Enumerate various tumor markers relevant to clinical practice (and
their role in management of specific cancers). Discuss the role of CEA.
4+6 Dec 2011; June 2011; Dec 2008; June 2008; June 2004
4) Describe cell cycle in relevance to cancers (3). Describe scientific basis
to hormone therapy in cancers (4). Describe limitations of hormone
therapy and its side effects (3). June 2011
5) TRANSFECTION. June 2010.
6) Sentinel L.N & biopsy. What are the various cancers where sentinel LN
biopsy can be helpful in the Mx. Jun 2015; Dec 2009
7) Principles and indications of RFA (Radio frequency ablation) of
neoplasm. Dec 2009; June 2007
8) Briefly describe the principles & role of radiofrequency ablation in
surgery. Dec 2011
9) Tumor lysis syndrome. Dec 2009
10)Discuss the care of a terminal cancer patient. Dec 2008.
11)Classify chemotherapeutic agents. Advantages of combination
chemotherapy. Dec 2008.
12) Discuss the principles of radiotherapy. Dec 2005.
13)Clinical implications of ‘Gompertzion growth’ in oncology. Lead time &
length bias in breast ca screening. Principles of ‘breast conserving
therapy’ in breast ca. Dec 2017
14)What is the basis of NACT (neo adjuvant chemotherapy)? Various
methods of predicting response to NACT? 5+5 Jun 2015
15)Principles of targeted therapy for treatment of cancer. Enumerate
various agents, their targets & indications for use of targeted therapy in
surgical practice. 5+5 Jun 2015
16)Define screening. What are the ideal attributes of the disease to be
screened? Various methods used for screening of colorectal cancer.
2+5+3 Dec 2013; 1+4+5 Dec 2015
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 OPERATIVE ROOM
1) Describe the types and characteristics of sutures which influence their
usage in surgical practice. FAT 2015. Discuss their merits and demerits.
4+6 June 2014; Jun 2001. Synthetic absorbable suture material. Jun
2000. What are good and bad qualities of silk and polyglactin sutures?
Jun 2016; Dec 2013.
2) Desirable characteristics of surgical sutures. Types of wound healing.
Stapling devices for bowel anastomosis. 4+3+3 Dec 2017
3) What are the characteristics of an ideal suture (4)? Jun 2011
4) Discuss various methods of sterilization for surgical instruments and
disposables. Jun 2016. Describe various steps for adequacy of chemical
sterilization. 6+4 Jun 2014; Dec 2011; Jun 2005. What are the various
steps in prevention and control of hospital acquired infections (6). Dec
2012.
5) Methods of sterilization of surgical instruments. Prophylactic antibiotics
in surgical practice. 5+5 Jun 2016
6) Principles of prophylactic antibiotic therapy. Define biofilms. Universal
precautions. 4+3+3 Dec 2017
7) Infection control in operation theatre. FAT 2015
8) Describe in short various energy sources used for cutting and
coagulating during surgery. Enumerate their advantages and
disadvantages. 5+5 Dec; 2015; 6+4 Jun 2014; Jun 2011
9) Discuss the principles, effects and types of diathermy. Mention
complications of diathermy (open & laparoscopic) & how to avoid it?
FAT 2017/a; 3+3+4 Dec 2013.
10)Principles of electro-surgical diathermy. Limitations of minimal access
surgery. Complications of creating pneumoperitoneum for laparoscopy.
3+4+3 Dec 2017
11)What is scrubbing? Describe stepwise technique of scrubbing. Name the
scrub disinfectant solutions. 2+6+2 Dec 2013.
12)Discuss merits and demerits of drains in surgery (10). Dec 2013.
13)Use of staplers in surgery/describe various types of staplers used in
surgery. 7+3 Dec 2014; Dec 2010; Jun 2003; Dec 2003
14)Discuss various essential requirements to establish a minor OT.
Dec 2007.
15)Advances in drug delivery systems. Dec 2002
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16)How would you Mx a health worker who sustained a needle stick injury
in the operating room? Jun 2017

 PSM
1) Enumerate differences between Research, clinical audit and service
evaluation. What is “BIAS” in clinical research and how it can be
minimized? 6+4 Jun 2014.
2) What is clinical audit? How many types of audits exist and what role do
they serve. How does it differ from research? 2+2+3+3 Fat 2016/a
3) Define surgical audit. What is its role in reducing SSI? Jun 2013; Dec
2006. Methods available & advantages of surgical audit. 3+3+4 Apr 2016
4) Types of research studies. 10 marks Fat 2015
5) Compare & contrast research, clinical audit & service evaluation. 4+3+3
Jun 2015
6) Enumerate types of study in clinical research. Informed consent prior to
Sx. Evidence based Sx. 4+3+3 Dec 2017
7) What are the important components of informed consents? What are the
practical difficulties in getting such consents in some surgical patients?
(6+4) Dec 2012.
8) Informed consent & its medicolegal implications. Consumer protection
act & its implication for a surgeon. 5+5 Jun 2013
9) What is evidence based surgery and how is it affecting the Mx of
controversial surgical problems? 4+6 FAT 2016/a
10)In the context of evidence based Sx:
Dec 2016 3+3+4
a. Levels of evidence
b. Categories of recommendation
c. Types of study designs
11)Describe levels of evidence in surgery (5). What are phase 2 trials? (3).
Describe the significance of NSABP trials (The National Surgical
Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project)-(2). Jun 2011
12)List the criteria for a good research topic for PG thesis. Method of
calculation of sample size for a therapeutic trial. What is meant by
strength of evidence and quality of evidence in a clinical trial? 6+2+2 Jun
2017
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13)Write in brief about the various types of studies in research


methodology? What is sample size & its importance? 7+3 Dec 2014
14)Enumerate the types of Research studies. How would you calculate the
sample size for a proper statistical analysis? What is Peer review? 2+4+4
Jun 2016
15)Define an adverse event, near miss event, no harm event with regard to
patient safety? What factors lead to such an event? What is surgical
safety checklist? 3+4+3 FAT 2017/a

 UNIVERSAL PRECATIONS
1) What are universal surgical precautions? Jun 2010; Jun 2008; Jun 2002;
Dec 2002.
2) What is the role of it in prevention of “Hospital acquired infections”?
(3+7) June 2013.
3) Discuss post exposure prophylaxis (PEP) (10). Dec 2011.
4) Describe management of needle stick injuries following treatment in
HIV patients. Dec 2010; Dec 2004.
5) Outline the transmission of HIV/AIDS. Dec 2004.
6) Surgery and HIV. Jun 2003; Jun 2002

 INVESTIGATIONS AND DIAGNOSIS


1) Explain in brief the principles of computed tomography and magnetic
resonance imaging. Compare the advantages and limitations of these
two modalities. 6+4 Jun 2014; Dec 2003.
2) Endoscopic ultrasound (5). Jun 2013; Jun 2004
3) Port site metastasis (5). Jun 2013.
4) What is the principle of USG imaging? Discuss the strengths and
shortcomings of this modality in surgical practice. 2+4+4 Dec 2012.
5) Briefly describe the role of endoscopic USG in GI surgery (in esophageal
and rectal malignancy) (10). Dec 2011; Dec 2009.
6) Differentiate between DTPA and DMSA. Dec 2009.
7) Therapeutic use of USG. Dec 2007.
8) What are the various types of angiography? Enumerate the
complications associated with angiography. 5+5 Dec 2015
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 ANAESTHESIA AND PAIN RELIEF


1) What is regional anaesthesia? Discuss the technique and complications
of epidural anaesthesia. 2+8 Dec 2013; Jun 2006; Jun 2005.
2) Anatomical limits of ilio-inguinal block dissection. Enumerate the
complications of ilio-inguinal block dissection. 5+5 Jun 2017
3) Discuss indications and drugs used in LA. Enumerate their
complications. 4+3+3 Dec 2012.
4) Mention various LA available with maximum and minimum doses. What
is WHO step ladder for pain Mx. How will you Mx pain in terminally ill
patient? 5+3+2 Fat 2017/a
5) Briefly describe pathophysio basis of pain relief. Discuss the principles
and technique of post op pain relief. 5+5 Dec 2012; Dec 2010; Dec 2006;
Jun 2004.
6) Complications of spinal anaesthesia. Jun 2010.
7) Post op pain analgesia ladder? Jun 2009.
8) Treatment of pain in advanced malignancy patients. Dec 2008; Jun
2005.
9) Ketamine. Jun 2006.
10)How is NM blockade achieved? Name the common LA used. Dec 2005.
11)BOTULINUM TOXIN in surgical practice. Jun 2004.

 OPERATIONS
1) Anatomy, patho-physiology and methods of A-V fistula. Jun 2010.
2) What are the techniques of creating pneumo-peritoneum? Discuss
physiological change associated with it. 5+5 Dec 2013.
3) Describe the principles of electro-surgery. What are the complications
that can occur while using electro surgery and how can these be
prevented. 2+4+4 Dec 2012.
4) Energy devices in operation theatre. Principles of safe use of electro
surgery. 6+4 Dec 2016
5) Various types of energy sources used in surgery, their advantages and
disadvantages. 2+8 Apr 2016
6) Name the various abdominal incisions with their advantages and
disadvantages. Jun 2016
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7) Methods of surgical access to abdominal organs with their advantages &


disadvantages. Principles of antibiotic prophylaxis in surgical patients.
5+5 Dec 2016
8) Briefly describe the principles and role of RFA in surgery (10). Dec 2011
9) Describe fast track surgery. Its advantages and disadvantages (4+6). Jun
2011.
10)Day care surgery, Objective and scope (10). Dec 2005; Jun 2003. Patient
selection & discharge criteria for a day care Sx. 5+5 Jun 2015
11)Enumerate complications of laparoscopic surgery (3). How to prevent
injury to bowel and solid organs during laparoscopy (3). How will you
manage bleeding and bowel injury (4)? Jun 2011.
12)Describe chemoembolization in surgery (3). Jun 2011.
13)Devices and drugs used to control intra-op hemorrhage. 6+4 Apr 2016
14)Describe the “spring coil” effect in relevance to closure of abdomen (4).
Describe “mass closure” technique for abdomen (3). What is a
laparotomy (3)? Jun 2011.
15) Briefly describe the anterior abdominal wall. Outline the advantage and
disadvantage of midline incisions. Dec 2010
16)VATS. Indications and complications. 2+4+4 Jun 2008.
17)Enumerate principles of laparoscopic surgery? What are its limitations
and usage? (10). FAT 2016/a; Jun 2005
18) Sclerotherapy. Jun 2001
19)SEMS (self expanding metallic stents). Jun 2003
20)Role of endoscopic treatment in surgical practice. Dec 2003
21)In a patient scheduled for elective abdominal Sx, write –
a. Assessment of pre-op risk factors &
b. Risk reduction & patient optimization for Sx.
22)Discuss the factors that put patients at a high risk of complications and
how do we optimize the patient before surgery? FAT 2016/a
23)What are the various techniques of tissue approximation in laparoscopic
surgery? Staplers used in laparoscopy. 5+5 Dec 2015
24)Briefly answer the following:
a. Current status of Robotic Sx.
b. Enumerate the types & advantages of laparoscopic inguinal
hernia repair.
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❷ TRAUMA

 HEAD INJURY
1) How would you classify head injuries and discuss briefly the Mx in each
type. 4+6 FAT 2016/a
2) Describe GCS. How will you treat a case of head injury who is unconscious
(3+7). Jun 2012; Jun 2011; Jun 2000
3) What are parameters of GCS in adults and children? What are the
components of primary and secondary survey in polytrauma patient? 4+6
Fat 2017/a
4) GCS in paediatric patients. Mx of Extra dural hematoma in a 12 yr old child.
5+5 Jun 2015.
5) GCS in head injury. Jun 2010; Dec 2004; Dec 2000
6) What is secondary brain injury? How can it be prevented? How will you
manage a case of EDH? 2+3+5 Dec 2012; Dec 2009
7) Differentiate between primary and secondary brain injury. Jun 2009
8) Depressed fracture of frontal region. Dec 2000
9) Management of SDH (6). Jun 2011

 ABDOMEN INJURIES
1) Classify pelvic injuries. Enumerate the visceral injuries associated with
pelvic fractures. How will you treat urinary bladder injuries? Pelvic injuries.
2+3+5 Jun 2014
2) Principles of management of colonic injuries. Dec 2010
3) Role of DPL (diagnostic peritoneal lavage) in management of blunt trauma
abdomen? Dec 2003; Dec 2004
4) What is DPL? Indications and contraindications of DPL. Describe the
procedure. Discuss the grades of splenic injury. Jun 2011; 3+3+4 Apr 2016
5) Discuss diagnosis and management of blunt trauma abdomen. Jun 2003
6) Traumatic hemoperitoneum. Dec 2000
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 NECK INJURIES
1) Management of thoracic duct injury (chylous fistula). Jun 2010
2) Management of thoracic duct injury following radical neck dissection. Jun
2008
3) Triangles of neck with reference to trauma zones. Dec 2009
4) Zone based algorithm for management of penetrating injuries to anterior
neck. Jun 2006
5) Classification of penetrating injuries of neck. Principles of Ix & Rx of
penetrating neck injuries. 4+6 Dec 2016

 CHEST INJURIES
1) Define flail chest. Discuss mechanisms of various derangements resulting
from flail chest. Outline management of a 50 yr old smoker having fracture
of ribs 4th, 5th, 6th & 6th flail chest. 5+5 Jun 2013; Jun 2010; Jun 2006; Jun
2001; Jun 2000. How would you manage a case of anterior flail? Jun 2016
2) What is definition of flail chest? What are the types of flail chest? How
would you manage a 40 yr old man with right flail chest involving 6 ribs?
1+2+7 Jun 2017
3) What is flail chest and stove in chest? How will you manage a case with
associated massive hemo-pneumothorax? 4+6 FAT 2017
4) Plan out Mx of young male with hemo-pneumothorax following road side
accident. Fat 2016/b
5) Discuss the indications of thoracotomy in chest trauma (emergency room
thoracotomy). Dec 2013; Jun 2011
6) What is tension pneumothorax? What are its clinical features? How will you
diagnose and treat such a case? 1+2+3+4 Jun 2012
7) Discuss the etio pathology, patho-physiology clinical features, and
management of tension pneumothorax. 4+4+2 Jun 2011; Dec 2008; Dec
2007
8) What is cardiac tamponade? Discuss its management in a 40 yr old lady.
Enumerate indications for an emergency room thoracotomy. 3+4+3 Jun
2011
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 EMERGENCY
1) Define damage control surgery. Its principles? What are its indications?
Describe important steps in damage control surgery. 2+4+4 Dec 2015;
2+3+5 Dec 2013; Dec 2010. Brief note on damage control surgery (10). Jun
2005.
2) Principle of golden hour in trauma. Criteria for non-operative Mx of blunt
abdominal trauma. Principles of damage control Sx. 3+4+3 Dec 2017
3) Describe triage in a disaster situation. Discuss the approach to management
of a 10 year old boy with polytrauma. What are the principles in
management of a polytrauma patient? Enumerate various imaging invasive
diagnostic modalities in blunt abdominal trauma. 5+5 Dec 2012; Jun 2011.
4) A victim of Polytrauma due to vehicular accident, outline the:
Dec 2016; Jun 2013.
a. Principles of assessment in hospital
b. Evaluation of pelvic injuries.
5) Principles of Mx of an RTA patient presenting in casualty in shock? FAT
2016/a
6) Enumerate emergency procedures for upper airway obstruction.
Indications, steps & complications of tracheostomy. 2+2+3+3 Apr 2016
7) What are the types & indications of tracheostomy? How would you take
care of tracheostomy? 2+3+5 Dec 2014
8) How will you investigate & Mx a case of post traumatic hematuria in a
polytrauma patient? Write an algorithm. 3+7 FAT 2017/a
9) How will you evacuate a trauma patient from the site of accident? Dec 2012
10)Discuss the approach to management of a 10 yr old boy with polytrauma
(6). Enumerate various imaging invasive modalities in blunt trauma
abdomen (2). Jun 2011
11)How will you manage a patient of polytrauma in shock? What are the Mx
strategies in a patient with per urethral and per rectal bleeding in such a
patient? FAT- 2017
12)Explosive blast injury. Dec 2002
13)Scoring systems to assess severity of injury in trauma victim? Jun 2008
14)Briefly describe the principles of managing the crush injury of leg. Discuss
in brief the pathophysiology of crush syndrome. List steps to prevent
compartment syndrome (6+2+2) Jun 2014.
15)Role of USG in investigation of acute abdomen. FAT 2015
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 ORTHOPEDICDS
1. Enumerate causes of non union bone fractures. Radiological features of
POTT’S spine. Carpal tunnel syndrome. Dec 2017
2. Enumerate causes of avascular necrosis of femoral head. Charcot’s foot.
Classification of bone tumours. Dec 2017
3. Discuss the presentation, Mx and complications of fracture neck of femur
in an old lady. 2+5+3 Fat 2016/b
4. C/F, etiopathology, Dx, Rx of osteomyelitis of Ribs. 3+2+3+2 Jun 2017
5. Anatomical basis of carpal tunnel syndrome. How would you manage a 40
yr old lady with this problem? 4+6 Jun 2016
6. How would you diagnose and treat a case of compartment syndrome of leg
following fracture both bones? 5+5 Jun 2016
7. Mx of a discharging sinus on the leg of a 60 yr old man following trauma.
The sinus is discharging bony fragments. Jun 2015
8. Classify fractures of pelvis. Complications of fracture pelvis. 3+7 Dec 2015
9. Enumerate the causes of Psoas abscess. How will you diagnose & treat
such a case? 2+4+4 Dec 2014
21

❸ BURNS

1) Enumerate various types of burns according to etiology and depth. Discuss


the Mx of 55% thermal burns in a 40 yr old female for first 2 days. 2+2+6
Fat 2016/a
2) Classify skin burns. Initial assessment & Mx of a patient with burn injury.
3+7 Dec 2015
3) How will you classify burns? Mention the criteria for admission to hospital
in burns patient. How do you manage hand burn? 3+4+3 FAT 2017/a
4) How will you classify burn injury? List the systemic changes following
burns. Briefly describe the principles of wound care in a burn patient.
2+3+5 Dec 2012; Jun 2004.
5) What are synthetic and biologic dressings for burns? Fluid restriction for a
patient with burns? 5+5 Dec 2006
6) Fluid and electrolyte management of burns. Dec 2004
7) Discuss management of a 12 yr old boy with 15 degree thermal burns
involving head, neck and thoracic regions. Ideal fluid replacements in a
patient with thermal burns? Describe the selection of type and calculation
of the amount of fluid to be supplemented in thermal burns. Jun 2011
8) Management of a 40 yr old male weighing 60 kg with flash burns of face
and chest. Dec 2009
9) Management of a young make with 40% superficial thermal burns. Jun
2008
10)What are the characteristics of electric burns? How are they different from
burns due to boiling water? Enumerate various steps in the management
of electric burn of right hand and forearm. 4+2+4 June 2014.
22

❹ SKIN AND SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE


1. Premalignant lesions of skin. C/F & Mx of Basal cell ca of skin. 4+3+3 Dec
2015.
2. Enumerate/classify various skin cancers. Discuss staging and treatment
options for these cancers. 3+7 Jun 2014. How would you treat a squamous
cell ca of scalp measuring 5x5 cms? Dec 2013
3. Basal cell ca (10). Prognostic factors (10). Types, pathology and management
(10) Jun 2013; Jun 2010; Jun 2009; how would you manage a 2x2 cm BCC on
forehead? 7 marks Jun 2017
4. Premalignant lesions of skin. Clinical features of basal cell carcinoma. Staging
of malignant melanoma. Dec 2017
5. Malignant melanoma. Risk factors, Pathology, histopathological types,
prognostic factors, staging, systemic treatment (10) and prognostic factors
(10). (multiple times questions have come) Dec 2016; Jun 2006; Dec 2006;
Dec 2004; Jun 2000. How will you manage a case of malignant melanoma on
the forehead of a 60 yr old patient with its reconstructive options? 3+3+4
FAT 2017/a
6. Factors that govern the prognosis in patients with melanoma.
7. Classify cutaneous malignant melanoma. How will you investigate & Mx a
case of cutaneous malignant melanoma. 3+2+5 Dec 2014; 4+2+4 Apr 2016
8. Define Neurofibromatosis and describe its types, diagnosis and management
(10). Jun 2013. How will you treat a case of plexiform neurofibromatosis of
face? 3+7 Jun 2013; Jun 2012
9. Staging of soft tissue sarcoma. Clinical presentation, Ix &Mx of
retroperitoneal soft tissue sarcoma. 3+2+2+3 Apr 2016
10. Marjolin’s ulcer and its management. Jun 2004
11. Actinomycosis (10). Jun 2004
12. Pigmented malignant lesions of skin. Jun 2001
13. What is necrotizing fascitis? What are predisposing factors & causes? What
are the clinical signs? How would you manage a patient suffering from the
same? 2+2+6 Dec 2013; Apr 2016; Jun 2016; 3+7 FAT 2016/a
14. What is D/D of sinuses in foot? How do you Mx mycetoma of foot? 3+7 FAT
2017/a
15. What is paronychia? How will you treat a case of acute paronychia? 2+8 Dec
2014
16. What are pressure sores? What are the most common sites & how would
you prevent development of these sores? Dec 2010
23

❺ HEAD AND NECK

1. Discus briefly the risk factors for development of oro-pharyngeal cancers.


Describe various pre- malignant conditions/lesions for development of
oro-pharyngeal cancers. What are various staging systems and treatment
modalities available for management of this cancer? 2+2+6 Jun 2014; Jun
2007
2. Ludwig’s angina. Enumerate causes of cervical Lymphadenopathy. C/F of
carotid body tumor. Dec 2017
3. Pre-malignant oral lesions (10). Dec 2007
4. Write short notes on Ix modality in oral cancer & Rx of Ca tongue. 5+5 FAT
2016/b
5. Describe TNM staging of oral cancers. How will you manage a 40yr old
smoker with T1N1Mx carcinoma of lateral border of tongue? 4+6 Dec
2011
6. TNM classification of oral malignancy. Principles of reconstruction
following excision of cheek and hemi-mandible. 5+5 Dec 2016
7. Management of a 40 yr old man with 2x2 cm ulcer on left lateral border of
tongue. Jun 2010
8. Discus D/D of an ulcer over tongue. How will you investigate a patient
with suspected squamous cell ca of tongue? Describe briefly RND (radical
neck dissection). 3+3+4 Dec 2012
9. Clinical features and management of sub-mucous fibrosis. Dec 2009
10. Describe the surgical anatomy of neck nodes (levels of cervical nodes).
Describe various types of neck dissections and draw the incisions used for
these dissections. What are the complications of various neck dissections?
Dec 2015; 4+3+3 Jun 2014; Jun 2012; Jun 2011; Dec 2011; Dec 2007.
11. Enumerate low-regional flaps for reconstruction after surgery for cancer
of cheek & lips. Types of neck-node dissection used in oro-pharyngeal
cancer. Dec 2017
12. What is selective neck dissection? Discuss its types, basis and
complications? Dec 2008; Dec 2011
13. Triangles of neck- diagrammatic representation. Modified radical neck
dissection. 5+5 Jun 2015
14. Types of RND. How would you manage chylous fistula following RND?
3+7 Jun 2017; Jun 2016; Jun 2010
15. Enumerate complications of Neck dissection (10). Dec 2011
24

16. What is cervical lymph nodes levels/classification of neck node levels?


Describe the pattern of spread of L.N metastasis in head and neck cancer.
Surgical management of cervical node metastasis for head and neck
cancer. Dec 2006
17. What are various levels of L.N in neck? How do you stage head and neck
cancers? Enumerate the various types of neck dissections. 3+4+3 Dec
2014
18. How will you investigate a case of cervical Lymphadenopathy? What are
the indications of surgical treatment of tubercular Lymphadenopathy? How
will you treat a cold abscess in neck? 4+3+3 Dec 2012
19. What is collar stud abscess? Mx of collar stud abscess in a 20 yr old girl.
Jun 2015
20. What is a “metastasis of unknown origin”? Describe the approach to
management of a 50 yr old man with a level 5 cervical LN metastasis of an
unknown origin (the algorithmic approach)? 5+5 Jun 2011
21. Management of chylous fistula following RND. Jun 2010
22. Indications, techniques & Complications of tracheostomy. 4+6 Jun 2017;
2+5+3 FAT 2015; Jun 2013; Jun 2000
23. Cleft lip (5). Jun 2013
24. Management of a patient with suspected carotid body tumor. Dec 2009
25. Carotid body tumor- Pathology, clinical features, diagnosis and
management? Apr 2016; Dec 2007; Jun 2009
26. What is chemodectoma? Enumerate its clinical features. How will you
diagnose & treat it? 2+4+4 Jun 2015; 2+3+5 Dec 2013.
27. Diagnosis and management of occult primary tumors of head and neck
with cervical secondaries. Dec 2005
28. Thymoma- C/F, diagnosis, management. Dec 2009; Jun 2002
29. Describe embryological development of branchial arches. How will you
manage a case of branchial fistula in a 12 yr old child? Jun 2016; Jun 2012
30. Embryogenesis of thyroglossal fistula. How would you manage a 4 yr old
child with subhyoid thyroglossal cyst? 4+6 Jun 2017
31. Branchial fistula (10). Jun 2005
32. Branchial cyst (10). Jun 2000
33. Embryology of lymphatic system. Clinical features of cystic hygroma. Mx
of 1 yr old child with cystic hygroma. 2+4+4 Dec 2016. Discuss the various
modalities of treatment of cystic hygroma. 4+6 Dec 2014
34. Cystic hygroma. Dec 2004; Dec 2000
25

35. Dentigerous cyst. Jun 2000


36. Odontomas of jaw. Jun 2004
37. Cervical sympathectomy. Dec 2002
38. What is metastasis of unknown origin? Describe the approach to Mx of a
50 yr old man with level-V cervical L.N metastasis of unknown origin
(algorithmic approach). Jun 2011

❻ SALIVARY GLANDS

1. Anatomy of parotid gland (Jun 2005). What are the pointers for locating
facial nerve during parotid gland surgery (Jun 2008)? Complications
following injury to facial nerve (Jun 2005)? What are the steps you would
take to treat a case of traumatic facial nerve paralysis? 4+6 Jun 2014
2. Surgical anatomy of parotid gland. Principles of superficial parotidectomy.
Complications following superficial parotidectomy. 3+4+3 Dec 2016
3. Classification of salivary gland neoplasms. Complications of parotid gland
Sx. Dec 2017
4. Frey’s syndrome. Dec 2007
5. Anatomy of facial nerve, course and variations. Jun 2009
6. Describe the anatomy of submandibular salivary gland. Discuss the
management of submandibular siladenitis. Mention complications of its
surgery. 3+5+2 Dec 2014; 5+5 Jun 2012. Discuss the Mx of a patient with
calculus in duct of submandibular gland. 5 Dec 2015.
7. Salivary gland calculi? Dec 2005
8. What is a plunging ranula? How is it diagnosed? Briefly describe its
management. 2+3+5 Jun 2014
9. Classify salivary neoplasms. How will you identify and safeguard facial
nerve during superficial parotidectomy? 4+6 Dec 2012. Describe various
surgical procedures and their role in management of parotid tumors (6).
Dec 2011
10. Describe the anatomy of extracranial facial nerve. How will you
manage a case of pleomorphic adenoma? 4+6 FAT 2017
11. Classify salivary gland tumors. Management of pleomorphic adenoma of
parotid glands? 5+5 FAT 2016/b; Dec 2008; Jun 2006. Describe various
surgical procedures & their role in Mx of parotid tumors. Dec 2011
26

12. Mx of pleomorphic adenoma of parotid gland in a 50 yr old man that has


started growing rapidly in last two months. Radical parotidectomy. 5+5
Jun 2015
13. Enumerate low and high grade parotid tumors. Describe the
management of high grade parotid tumor presenting with facial palsy/
Treatment of high grade tumors. Jun 2009; Dec 2009
14. Warthins tumor. Jun 2001
15. Acute parotitis. Jun 2004

❼ CHEST

1) What is flail chest? Describe its pathology. How will you manage a case of
flail chest? 2+3+5 Dec 2012
2) Enumerate various types of chest wall injuries. How would you manage a
case of 50 yr old man with flail chest? Dec 2011
3) Surgical treatment of flail chest. Dec 2010
4) Management of flail chest. Dec 2010
5) Surgical treatment of 25 yr old lady with cervical rib. Dec 2010
6) Boundaries of thoracic inlet. Clinical features of cervical rib? Jun 2006
7) Classify thoracic outlet syndromes. Clinical features & Mx of cervical rib.
2+3+5 Apr 2016.
8) Thoracic outlet syndrome. Describe the etiopathogenesis and Mx of
thoracic outlet syndrome. FAT 2017; Jun 2011; Jun 2001
9) Boundaries of thoracic inlet? How would you manage a young boy with dry
gangrene of tip of index finger? 3+7 Jun 2017
10) Anatomy of mediastinum. Management of primary mediastinal tumor in
anterior mediastinum. Dec 2005
11) Surgical Rx of coronary artery disease. Dec 2010
12) What are causes of chylothorax? Dx & Mx of chylothorax. 3+2+5 Dec 2015
13) Etiopathogenesis, C/F & Mx of empyema thoracis. 2+4+4 Apr 2016
14) Classification of mediastinal neoplasms. Dec 2006
15) C/F and management of Thymoma.
16) Role of surgery in treatment of pulmonary TB. Jun 2010
17) Solitary pulmonary nodule. Jun 2005
18) Oncological emergencies. Dec 2002
19) Solitary hydatid cyst of lung. Dec 2000
27

SYSTEMIC SURGERY

❶ BREAST

1) Normal breast development. Pathophysiology of gynecomastia. Rx of


gynecomastia. 3+3+4 Dec 2016
2) Discuss role of imaging modalities used in breast ca. Describe image guided
biopsy of an impalpable breast lesion. 6+4 Jun 2014; Jun 2009; Dec 2003
3) Write short note on triple assessment in breast disease in breast Ca.
comment on BIRADS scoring. 7+3 FAT 2016/b. Triple assessment? Jun
2008
4) What is triple assessment? How will you manage a case of LABC in 45 yr
female?
5) Mammography (10 marks) Jun 2001
6) Classify and give various types of nipple discharge. Describe briefly surgical
procedures for treating nipple discharge. 5+5 Jun 2014
7) Surgical anatomy of breast. Jun 2013
8) Describe lymphatic drainage of breast. What is sentinel node? How is
sentinel L.N biopsy done? Its indications and methods. Jun 2005; Jun 2003;
Dec 2003; Jun 2002; Dec 2007; Jun 2006;
9) Mastalgia (5). Jun 2013; Jun 2011.
10) Benign breast diseases. Dec 2000
11) Duct ectasia (5) Jun 2013. Pathology, clinical features, management (10).
Jun 2011; Dec 2007
12) Discuss Phylloides tumor/cystosarcoma phylloides. Jun 2005; Dec 2000
13) Diagnosis and management of a non palapable breast lesion. Dec 2006;
Jun 2001
14) Management of 16 yr old girl with a 10x10 cm lobulated/bosselated
swelling/mass in the left breast. Jun 2010
15) Mx of 4x4 cm sized malignant lump in left breast of a 75 yr old lady. Jun
2016
16) Ca breast- Risk factors & risk assessment models. Screening for breast Ca.
Principles of cancer prevention. 4+3+3 Dec 2016
17) Principles of Mx of ductal & lobular ca-in situ. Principles of sentinel lymph
node biopsy in breast Ca. Dec 2017
28

18) What are basic requirements for cancer screening? Describe the methods
of breast screening, advantages and disadvantages? Dec 2008
19) Etiopathogenesis of breast cancer. Comment on screening for breast Ca.
6+4 Fat 2015
20) Discuss the Mx of T3N0M0 Breast Ca in a 35 yr old lady. FAT 2016/b
21) Anatomical basis of physical signs (all possible) in a case of carcinoma
breast. Jun 2013
22) Ductal Ca in Situ. Jun 2009
23) How would you manage a 70 yr old lady with 5x5 cm lump in right breast
with palpable ipsilateral axillary Lymphadenopathy? Jun 2017
24) Discuss anatomical basis of various clinical features of Ca breast and also
enumerate the structures removed in various types of mastectomies? Jun
2006
25) Describe lymphatic drainage of breast and discuss treatment of Ca Breast
T2N1M0. Jun 2002
26) What is LABC? Approach to Ix and Management of LABC (Locally
advanced breast Ca)? 2+3+5 Apr 2016; Jun 2008; Dec 2007
27) C/F & Mx of inflammatory breast Ca. 4+6 Jun 2015
28) What are various levels of L.N in axilla? What are types of L.N dissection?
Dec 2010
29) Discuss prognostic factors in Ca Breast. 10 marks (Dec 2007; Dec 2001).
What are contraindications of breast conservative surgery? 4+6 Dec 2013
30) Describe the diagnostic approach to a 2cm breast lesion in a 35 yr old lady.
What are the principles of breast conservation surgery? 5+5 Jun 2012
31) Describe various skin flaps used in breast reconstruction. 10 Jun 2012;
Dec 2008
32) Discuss role and indications of breast conservation surgery (BCS) for Ca
Breast? Briefly discuss the principles of BCS. 4+6 Dec 2012; Dec 2010; Jun
2007; Jun 2000 Breast conservative surgery (10 marks) Dec 2004; Dec
2003.
33) What is the role of Neo-adjuvant chemotherapy in Mx of Ca breast? Mx of
80 yr old lady with 3x3 cm Ca in the central quadrant of left breast? 3+7
Dec 2015.
34) What are the principles of chemotherapy? Discuss the chemotherapy used
for Ca breast. 5+5 Dec 2014
29

35) What are various techniques of breast reconstruction? Discuss briefly the
types and pros & cons of early vs. late reconstruction. 2+6+2 FAT 2016/a.
Role of breast reconstruction in Ca breast. 10 marks Jun 2010
36) Enumerate indications of BCS. Briefly describe the operative and
prosthetic options for breast reconstruction after mastectomy. Dec 2011
37) Anatomical boundaries of axillary dissection. Jun 2008
38) Role of reconstruction of breast in Ca Breast.
39) Role of neo-adjuvant chemotherapy in breast. Dec 2010
40) Role of hormonal therapy in Ca breast. Dec 2009; Dec 2000
41) Role of aromatase inhibitors in Ca Breast. Jun 2010
42) Enumerate causes of gynecomastia. What is the differential diagnosis?
Give algorithm for management of gynecomastia. 4+3+3 Dec 2014 4+6 Jun
2012; Jun 2006
30

❷ THYROID

1) Describe the development of thyroid gland an physiological cycle of


thyroxine synthesis. Write in brief the treatment of medullary Ca thyroid.
Jun 2000
2) Discuss surgical anatomy of thyroid (4). What are complications of thyroid
surgeries (3)? Management of surgical complications (3). Jun 2011; Jun
2002
3) Describe blood supply of thyroid gland. What are intraoperative
complications of total thyroidectomy? Dec 2009
4) Complications of total thyroidectomy. How will you manage
hypoparathyroidism following total thyroidectomy? 5+5 Jun 2016
5) Describe surgical anatomy of recurrent laryngeal nerve and how will it get
injured. Dec 2008
6) Nerve injuries in thyroid surgery? Dec 2007
7) Describe the development of thyroid gland. How would you manage 16 yr
old girl with suspected thyroglossal cyst? Dec 2010
8) Lingual thyroid. Dec 2000
9) Thyroid storm (5). Jun 2013; Dec 2005
10) Discuss principles of treatment of thyrotoxicosis. Dec 2013
11) Describe etiopathology of nodular goiter. Discuss in brief the
complications that can occur in thyroid surgery. 6+4 Dec 2012
12) Retrosternal goiter (5) and its management. Jun 2013; Dec 2004
13) Management of primary thyrotoxicosis? Jun 2006
14) Various etiological factors for STN of thyroid. How will you manage a case
of solitary nodule of thyroid in a 30 yr old male patient? 2+8 Apr 2016; 3+7
FAT 2017.
15) Enumerate the causes of STN. Mx of a 50 yr old man presenting with STN
of 3 months duration. 2+8 Dec 2015
16) Outline the approach to Mx of STN. What is the optimum Mx of a 35 yr old
lady with 3cm nodule in the right lobe of thyroid which on investigation
proves to be medullary Ca thyroid? 5+5 Jun 2015
17) Pathophysiology & Ix of STN. Role of medical therapy of benign thyroid
nodule. 3+4+3 Dec 2016
18) Discuss the Ix & Mx of Solitary thyroid nodule. 5+5 FAT 2016/b
19) Management of multinodular goiter with atrial fibrillation. Jun 2010
31

20) Solitary toxic thyroid nodule/toxic thyroid nodule/Solitary thyroid nodule


and its management. Dec 2008; Jun 2004; Jun 2002; Dec 2002
21) What is toxic nodule of thyroid? How will you investigate & treat such a
case? 2+3+5 Dec 2014
22) Treatment of grave’s disease. Jun 2003
23) Pre operative of a thyrotoxic patient for surgery. Principles of Mx of well
differentiated thyroid cancer. Dec 2017
24) What are common drugs used in treating thyrotoxicosis. How will you
prepare a patient with thyrotoxicosis for surgery? Operations done for
thyrotoxicosis. How will you manage thyroid crisis. Jun 2005; Dec 2002
25) Thyroidectomies. What are its complications? Briefly describe the role of
total thyroidectomy in management of various thyroid disorders. Dec 2011
26) Role of radio iodine in management of thyroid disorders? Dec 2009
27) Classify thyroid malignancies. How will you treat a case of medullary Ca
thyroid? 2+8 Jun 2012; Jun 2005. Classify thyroid malignancies. Comment
on role of nuclear imaging in their diagnosis. 5+5 FAT 2015
28) Discuss staging and management of well differentiated thyroid cancers.
Jun 2007
29) Management of follicular Ca thyroid. Dec 2006
30) Etiology, Diagnosis, treatment of papillary Ca thyroid. Jun 2001
31) What is MEN syndrome? Types? What are the Mx strategies in a 28 yr old
female with neck swelling in thyroid region & HTN? Write an algorithm.
4+6 FAT 2017
32

❸ PARATHYROID GLAND

1. Describe the embryology and anatomy of parathyroid glands. Discuss


localization techniques and management options in lesions of parathyroid.
4+6 Jun 2014
2. Briefly describe the development of parathyroid glands. Describe the various
investigations used to localize the parathyroid adenoma pre-operatively. 3+7
Dec 2011
3. Management of 20 yr old/30 yr old female with hyperthyroidism. Dec 2009;
Jun 2008
4. What is MEN syndrome? C/F of hyperparathyroidism. Various methods of
localizing a parathyroid adenoma. 2+5+3 Jun 2015
5. How would you investigate a patient with suspected hyper-parathyroidism?
Jun 2006
6. Clinical manifestations, Dx & Mx of primary hyperparathyroidism. Apr 2016;
Dec 2005
7. Parathyroid adenoma. Jun 2006; Investigations used for localization of
parathyroid adenoma? Dec 2006
8. Management of a 16 yr old girl with recent onset severe arteriolar
hypertension. Jun 2010
9. How would you manage a 30 yr old lady with hypercalcemia with S.Ca2+ of
15mg/dl and increased levels of serum parathyroid hormone? Jun 2017
33

❹ ADRENAL GLANDS

1. Biochemical assessment of a functional adrenal tumor. Classification of


endocrine tumors of pancreas. Follow-up of a patient of medullary ca
thyroid. Dec 2017
2. Discuss the etiopathology, clinical features, investigations (lab and
radiological findings) and pre operative preparation and management of a
case of pheochromocytoma. 3+3+4 Dec 2016; 4+3+3 Dec 2014; 2+4+2 Jun
2012; Dec 2009; Dec 2008; Jun 2007; Dec 2005
3. How would you investigate a case of suspected pheochromocytoma?
Briefly describe the pre-operative preparation and intra-operative
complications in a case of pheochromocytoma. 3+4+3 Dec 2012
4. How would you pre-operatively manage a 30 yr old lady with malignant
HTN due to adrenal pheochromocytoma-(PCC)? Dec 2011; Dec 2008
5. Define incidentaloma. How would you manage a 40 yr old lady with
2x2cm incidentaloma of left adrenal gland? Jun 2015; Jun 2017; Dec 2010;
2006; Dec 2005
6. What are incidentalomas? Clinical features, Ix & Mx of PCC-
pheochromocytoma. 2+2+3+3 Apr 2016
7. Biochemical diagnosis of Cushing’s syndrome. Clinical features of
Cushings. Surgical approach to adrenal gland. Jun 2005; Dec 2002
8. Enumerate the surgical causes of hypertension. How would you
investigate a case of hypertension associated with an adrenal mass? 3+7
Jun 2016
9. What are the causes of secondary HTN? Ix & Mx of a 20 yr old lady with
suspected pheochromocytoma. 3+3+4 Dec 2015
34

❺ VASCULAR DISORDERS

 ARTERIAL DISORDERS

1. How will you investigate and treat a case of chronic limb ischemia?
Chronic limb ischemia. 4+6 Jun 2014
2. Regarding chronic lower limb ischemia:
Dec 2016 3+2+5
a. Role of imaging Ix
b. D/D of intermittent claudication
c. Principles of Rx of critical limb ischemia.
3. Vascular anomalies and its management. Jun 2013
4. In a patient of DM with foot infection:
Dec 2016 3+3+4
a. Clinical evaluation of the patient
b. Principles of Rx of foot infection
c. Prevention of recurrence
5. Describe etiology, pathophysiology of diabetic foot. Dec 2013; Principles
of management of diabetic foot? Dec 2008; Jun 2008; Dec 2003; Jun 2007
6. Write short notes on Diabetic foot and telemedicine in surgery. 5+5 FAT
2016/b
7. Describe pathophysiology of diabetic foot. How will you screen a newly
detected DM patient for risk factors of developing an ulcer? 5+5 FAT
2017/a
8. Pathology and management of Diabetic gangrene? Dec 2007
9. Drugs used in DM 1 & 2. Clinical features of diabetic keto acidosis
Management of diabetic foot with critical limb ischemia. Dec 2005
10. C/F of thrombangitis obliterans. Importance of ankle-brachial pressure
index. Mx of acute arterial embolism of the limbs. Dec 2017
11. Buerger’s disease. Etiology, diagnosis and treatment. Dec 2004; Dec
2007; Jun 2001
12. What are the causes of PVD (peripheral vascular diseases)? How will you
treat a case of buerger’s disease? 3+7 Jun 2012
13. What is Raynaud’s phenomenon & Raynaud’s disease? Name the Ix you
will use to diagnose. How will you treat Raynaud’s disease? 3+2+5 Dec
2014
35

14. Different therapeutic interventions available for peripheral arterial


disease due to atherosclerosis. Apr 2016
15. Describe the surgical anatomy of sympathetic supply of lower limb.
Briefly discus the role of sympathectomy in chronic limb ischemia. 5+5
Dec 2012
16. How will you investigate and treat a case of chronic limb ischemia? 4+6
FAT 2015
17. Enumerate causes of chronic limb ischemia. How will you investigate 40
yr old male with a dry gangrene of Right big toe? Dec 2010; Mx of a 40 yr
old lady with upper limb ischemia. 3+7 Jun 2015
18. Management of 25 yr old lady with chronic ischemia of upper limb? Jun
2008
19. Management of 40 yr old lady with arterial insufficiency of right hand.
Jun 2010
20. Define critical limb ischemia. Briefly describe the management of 30 yr
old diabetic with critically ischemic lower limb. 2+8 Dec 2011; Dec 2009
21. Causes, investigations and management of critical limb ischemia. Jun
2013
22. Lumbar sympathectomy in ischemic limb? Jun 2006
23. Thromboarterectomy for peripheral vessels. Dec 2000
24. Surgical management of 25 yr old female with cervical rib. Dec 2010
25. Vascular trauma. Investigations and management. Dec 2002
26. Classify aneurysms. Enumerate the clinical features of post traumatic
femoral aneurysm? Jun 2007
27. Infrarenal aortic aneurysm. Dec 2001
28. Pathophysiology of AV fistula. Jun 2010
29. C/F of AV fistula. State the investigative work-up for such patients along
with interpretation of investigation findings. Principles of Mx of AV fistula.
4+3+3 Jun 2017
30. Clinical features of an AV fistula in the thigh region. Diagnosis and
management in such a case. 4+3+3 Jun 2016

 AMPUTATION
o Meningo amputation. June 2002
o Syme’s amputation. Jun 2002
36

 VENOUS DISORDERS
1. Briefly describe the surgical anatomy and physiology of venous return of
the lower limb - with diagram. Jun 2006 (Venous drainage of lower limb.
10 marks- Jun 2013). Enumerate treatment options/management
outlines/ operations done with their indications for treating varicose
veins of lower limbs. 5+5 Jun 2014; Dec 2007; Jun 2007; Jun 2005; Dec
2002. Management of recurrent varicose veins (10 marks). Dec 2006.
Complications of varicose veins. 2 marks. Dec 2012
2. Enumerate complications of varicose veins. How will you treat a case of
varicose ulcer? 3+7 Dec 2014
3. Investigations done for assessment of varicose veins along with findings.
Newer techniques for the treatment of varicose veins. 7+3 Dec 2015
4. Minimal invasive methods used in Rx of varicose veins. Jun 2016
5. Chronic venous insufficiency. Treatment of venous ulcer of the ankle. Dec
2017
6. Draw a labelled diagram depicting anatomy of the superficial and deep
veins of lower limbs. Fat 2015
7. Describe the etiology/pathology, factors for development, clinical features
and treatment of a venous ulcer. Apr 2016; 2+3+5. Jun 2003; Dec 2003;
Jun 2006
8. Enumerate causes of foot ulcers. How will you investigate? Discuss the
management of varicose ulcer. 3+3+4 Jun 2011; Jun 2010
9. Assessment of patient with chronic venous ulcer and its management. 5+5
Jun 2013
10. Etiopathogenesis of a non healing ulcer. Mx of suppurating non
healing ulcer. 5+5 Jun 2015
11. Management of non healing ulcer on left foot in a diabetic patient. Jun
2010
12. Enumerate the indications for thromboprophylaxis in surgery. How
would you manage a patient who has undergone coronary bypass surgery,
and is on anti-platelets & aspirin and is to undergo laparoscopic
cholecystectomy? 3+7 Jun 2017
13. What are the causes & risk factors for thrombo-embolism? How will you
manage a case of DVT? Apr 2016 Dec 2013; Dec 2005
14. Pathophysiology of DVT. Principles of its prevention. Mx of a patient with
acute lower limb DVT. 3+3+4 Dec 2016
37

15. How do you stratify the risk factors of DVT? What prophylactic measures
do you take to prevent DVT in pre-op, intra op and post op patients? 4+6
FAT 2017/a
16. Etiopathology & Risk factors for development of DVT. Clinical
features/presentation suggestive of DVT and its possible complications.
Discuss various diagnostic tests to establish diagnosis of DVT in 65 yr old
lady. Describe management of this patient. Fat 2016/b; 4+3+3 Jun 2011;
Dec 2004.
17. Management of 30 yr old lady with post partum DVT? Dc 2009
18. Discuss prophylaxis and treatment of DVT? Dec 2008; Jun 2008; Dec
2006
19. Treatment of ileo-femoral DVT. Jun 2006
20. Briefly describe management of a young soldier with a 3.3cm ulcer just
above medial malleolus. Dec 2011
21. Use of intravenous filters in fluid management of critically ill patients.
Dec 2001.

 LYMPHATIC DISORDDERS
1. Classify lymphedema. List the symptoms frequently experienced by
patients with this problem. Enumerate general management advice for
these patients with this problem. 5+2+3 Jun 2014
2. Pathophysiology & C/F of lower limb lymphedema. Principles of Dx & Mx
of lower limb lymphedema. Apr 2016; 2+2+2+4 Dec 2016
3. Etiology, pathology and surgical management of lymphedema. 3+3+4 Dec
2013. Briefly discuss the surgical options in Rx of lymphedema. Dec 2010.
4. Management of lymphedema of lower limb. Jun 2007; Dec 2002.
5. Secondary lymphedema. Dec 2000
6. Enumerate causes for generalized Lymphadenopathy. Describe
classification and staging of Non Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL). Treatment
of NHL. 3+5+2 Jun 2011. Investigation workup before starting treatment.
Jun 2010
7. Staging of Hodgkin’s disease & investigative workup before starting
therapy. Jun 2010
8. Describe classification of lymphoma? Jun 2007
9. Draw capillary fluid exchange at tissue level. Describe the mechanism of
edema formation. Dec 2009
38

❻ ABDOMINAL WALL, HERNIA & UMBILICUS


1. Describe the anatomy of femoral canal. How will you treat a case of
strangulated hernia? 3+7 Dec 2014; 3+7 Dec 2013
2. How would you diagnose a case of femoral hernia? Mention briefly the
common procedures available for its treatment. 3+7 Jun 2011; Jun 2000
3. Classify ventral hernias. Briefly describe use of synthetic mesh in the
repair of Incisional hernias. Enumerate various techniques of Incisional
hernia repair. 2+6+2 Dec 2012; discuss various techniques in Mx of
ventral hernias. FAT 2016/a
4. Briefly discuss the various types of various type of prosthesis used in
treatment of abdominal hernias. Dec 2011
5. Classify the meshes used for repair of hernia. List contraindications for
total extra peritoneal laparoscopic repair for inguinal hernia. Enumerate
the complications following TEP lap repair for inguinal hernia. 3+3+4
Jun 2017
6. Describe the anatomy relevant to laparoscopic total extraperitoneal
repair of inguinal hernia. Enumerate various landmarks to be identifies
and their importance in laparoscopic hernia repair. 4+6 Dec 2011
7. What are the risk scoring systems used by anaesthetist in high risk
patients? How will you manage a case of strangulated inguinal hernia in
a patient with recent MI? 3+7 FAT 2017
8. Surgical anatomy of rectus sheath with reference to Incisional hernia.
Dec 2009
9. Laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair. Principles and steps. Dec 2010; Jun
2003
10. Anatomy of inguinal canal with surgical prospective. Jun 2009
11. Discuss anatomy of inguinal canal relevant to repair of inguinal hernia
by open method. Mention the types of hernia repair. Outline
complications following hernia repair. Dec 2004
12. Reduction en masse in inguinal hernia. Various repairs for inguinal
hernias. 2+8 Jun 2015
13. Describe the laparoscopic anatomy of inguinal region. What are the
various repairs & its complications in inguinal hernias? Dec 2017; 5+5
FAT 2017.
39

14. Clinical features of sliding inguinal hernia. Incarcerated incisional


hernias. Dec 2017
15. Strangulated inguinal hernia. Dec 2002
16. Richter’s hernia. Jun 2001
17. Describe the "Spring Coil" effect in relevance to the closure of
abdomen. Describe "mass closure" technique for abdomen. What is a
"Laparotomy"? Jun 2011

❼ PERITONEUM, OMENTUM, MESENTRY &


RETROPERITONEAL SPACE
1. Describe the pathophysiology of peritoneal adhesions. Discuss briefly
various steps to minimize and manage peritoneal adhesions. Peritoneal
adhesions. 4+6 Jun 2014; Mx of patients with recurrent adhesive bowel
obstruction. Dec 2016
2. Enumerate the subphrenic spaces- draw labelled diagram(s). Describe the
clinical features and management of a case with pelvic collection. Dec
2009. Mx of a patient with subphrenic abscess & its complications. 6+4
Dec 2015; Jun 2011
3. What are various subphrenic spaces and their importance in surgical
practice? 5+5
4. Retroperitoneal mesenchymal tumos? Jun 2009
5. Urachal cyst. Dec 2000
6. What is HIPEC- hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy? Indications
for HIPEC. Complications of HIPEC. 2+3+5 Jun 2017
40

ABDOMEN
❶ ESOPHAGUS
1. Describe the lower oesophageal sphincter. Briefly discuss the investigations
to evaluate its function. 3+7 Jun 2014
2. Classify trachea-oesophageal fistula and outline their management. 3+7 Jun
2012
3. What are the types of TOF in newborn? Its C/F, Ix, Mx of Tracheo-
oesophageal fistula (TOF). 3+2+5 FAT 2017; Jun 2009; Jun 2008
4. C/F, Ix, Mx of a neonate with TOF with oesophageal atresia. Dec 2003
5. Describe the lymphatic drainage of esophagus and its surgical importance.
6+4 Dec 2012
6. Enumerate clinical features of oesophageal perforation. How would you
manage a 15 yr old child with oesophageal perforation following dilatation?
3+7 Dec 2011
7. Management of a 4 yr girl with congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Jun 2008;
Dec 2005
8. Diagnosis and Mx of traumatic diaphragmatic hernia. Jun 2013
9. Effects of acids vs. alkali on upper GI. Describe the Mx of such injuries. Dec
2009
10. Describe the pathophysiology of injury following ingestion of strong alkali.
How is it different from acid injury? Briefly discuss the Ix & Rx of patients
with corrosive oesophageal injury. 2+2+2+4 Dec 2012
11. Etiology, diagnosis, treatment of achalasia cardia. Dec 2005. Merits and
demerits of various therapeutic options of achalasia cardia. Jun 2006;
Principles of medical & surgical Mx. Dec 2016.
12. Enumerate causes of dysphagia in a young lady. Treatment of ‘Corrosive
injury of esophagus’. 3+7 Jun 2016. Ix of a 60 yr old man with dysphagia.
3+7 Dec 2015
13. Etiology, features, Mx of benign oesophageal strictures. Dec 2007
14. What is GERD? Discuss etiology and clinical features. How would you
manage an uncomplicated GERD? 2+3+5 Dec 2013; Dec 2004; Jun 2005.
Discuss surgical options available for management of GERD with their
indications. 4+6 Jun 2012; Jun 2007
15. List the indications for Sx in oesophageal reflux disease. Principles of Sx for
GERD. 3+7 Jun 2017
41

16. Define Barert’s esophagus. Discuss its management. Dec 2008; Jun 2008;
Dec 2006.
17. Surgical anatomy of Hiatus and antireflux procedures. Dec 2003
18. Lymphatic drainage of esophagus. Clinical features of Ca Esophagus.
Investigation of a patient of Ca esophagus. 3+3+4 Jun 2011. Management of
an unresectable Ca esophagus. 10 marks Dec 2006
19. How would you manage a case of 40 yr old lady with dysphagia more to
liquids than solids? Dec 2010
20. Describe mechanism of swallowing. Enumerate causes of dysphagia. Mx of
lower third oesophageal Ca. Jun 2003
21. Merits and demerits of gastric vs. Colonic conduit for oesophageal
replacement. Jun 2017
22. Blood supply of colon and anatomical basis of construction of colonic
conduits for replacement of esophagus. Jun 2010

❷ STOMACH AND DUODENUM


1. Describe the pathophysiology of pyloric stenosis and electrolyte imbalances
in this condition. Dec 2013
2. Enumerate metabolic complications of pyloric stenosis. How would you
pre-operatively manage a 35 yr old man with pyloric obstruction? Dec 2011
3. Etiopathology, Mx of pyloric stenosis of infancy. Dec 2009
4. Clinical features and Mx of CHPS (congenital hypertrophic pyloric stenosis).
Dec 2010
5. Metabolic complications of GOO. How will you investigate such a case? 6+4
Jun 2016
6. Pathophysiology and Mx of fluid electrolyte balance in GOO (Jun 2008; Jun
2010). Mx of 55 yr old man with gastric outlet obstruction? Dec 2010
7. Describe blood supply of stomach. Discuss Mx of a bleeding peptic ulcer.
3+7 Jun 2014; Dec 2005
8. What are the indications for Sx for duodenal ulcer? Various methods
available and their advantages & disadvantages. 2+2+6 Apr 2016
9. Clinical feature of duodenal ulcer preparation. Barrett’s esophagus. Dec
2017
10. Complications of peptic acid disease. Mx of dumping syndrome after
gastrectomy. Borrmann classification of gastric cancer. Dec 2017
42

11. H.Pylori. 10marks. Jun 2002


12. Define upper GI bleeding. Enumerate the causes. Discuss the Mx of bleeding
esophageal varices. 2+3+5 Jun 2011; Dec 2005.
13. Enlist causes of upper GI bleeding. Mx of obscure GI hemorrhage in a 50 yr
old lady. 3+7 Jun 2015
14. Define obscure GI hemorrhage. List the various causes & briefly discuss the
investigations of obscure GI hemorrhage. 2+3+5 Dec 2012.
15. How would you Mx a 30 yr old lady who has been on analgesics for
rheumatoid arthritis, admitted with massive upper GI bleed? Jun 2017
16. Discuss the differential diagnosis and Mx of non variceal upper GI bleed.
Dec 2000
17. Define lower GI bleeding. Enumerate the causes. Describe Mx of “Obscure
GI hemorrhage” in a 60 yr old man. Describe briefly capsule endoscopy.
3+4+3 Jun 2011
18. Discuss late complications following surgery for peptic ulcer. Jun 2005
19. Describe anatomy of abdominal vagus nerve. Different types of vagal
innervations. Complications of different types of vagotomy. Dec 2000
Complications of Highly selective vagotomy. Dec 2000
20. Blood supply of stomach. Etiological risk factors for adenocarcinoma of
stomach. Principles of surgical Rx & types of gastrectomies. 2+2+6 Dec
2016
21. Describe the lymphatic drainage of stomach. Dec 2009; Dec 2004. What are
different levels of lymphadenectomy in gastrectomy for Ca stomach? Dec
2004; Dec 2009
22. What is lymphatic drainage of stomach? How would you stage Ca stomach?
Mx of advanced Ca stomach in brief. 3+3+4 Fat 2016/a. What is D2
gastrectomy? 4+6 Dec 2014.
23. Post gastrectomy complications? Dec 2005
24. Define early gastric Ca. Dx & Mx of early gastric Ca. 2+4+4 Dec 2015
25. Etiology of gastric Ca. Dec 2006. Mx of gastric Ca. Jun 2004.
26. Early gastric Ca. Dec 2004; Dec 2005
27. Linitis plastica. Dec 2001
28. Non epithelial malignant tumors of stomach. Jun 2000; Jun 2002
29. What is GIST? Describe its etiopathogenesis. How will you manage a case of
GIST of stomach? 2+2+6 FAT 2017; 2+8 Jun 2012. Pathology, Dx, Mx of
GIST. 3+2+5 Jun 2013; Dec 2006; Dec 2003
30. MALT lymphomas. Dec 2006
43

❸ SMALL BOWEL
1. Diagnostic work up of a patient with Obscure GI hemorrhage? Jun 2007;
Dec 2006; Jun 2001.
2. Surgical anatomy of peritoneum & factors favouring development of diffuse
peritonitis & its complications. Jun 2013.
Describe etiology of acute bacterial peritonitis. Discuss the investigations &
treatment of acute bacterial peritonitis. 2+4+4 Dec 2012
3. Classify cephalosporins. Which one would you chose & why in case of
peritonitis. Jun 2012
4. Differential diagnosis of a freely mobile lump in the abdomen? How will you
manage such a case? 5+5 Jun 2012
5. Factors influencing GI Anastomotic healing? Jun 2005
6. Essentials of safe bowel Anastomosis? Dec 2007
7. Mesenteric artery occlusion. Jun 2003
8. Briefly discuss the presentation & Mx of acute mesenteric artery
thrombosis. 5+5 FAT 2016/b
9. Describe briefly the role for sentinel L.N biopsy in GI cancers. Dec 2003
10. Mesenteric artery occlusion. Jun 2013
11. Bowel preparation in elective colonic surgery? Jun 2010. Its advantages
and disadvantages. Jun 2009; Dec 2007; Dec 2000
12. Briefly describe merits and demerits of various methods of bowel
preparation in surgical practice (10). Dec 2011.
13. Role and techniques of pre-op bowl preparation of bowel in patients
scheduled for elective colonic surgery. Jun 2006
14. Define “SHORT BOWEL SYNDROME”. What are its causes? Role of Sx in Mx
of SBS. Jun 2016. Pathophysiology of metabolic abnormalities in massive
small bowel resection (3+2+5 Dec 2015; Jun 2010; Jun 2006; Dec 2004; Dec
2001). What are their sequels? Name the procedures that can be done to
treat such a case. 2+3+5 Dec 2013; Dec 2009; Dec 2007.
Pathophysiologic changes seen in short bowel syndrome & how do you
manage it? 2+8 FAT 2017
15. Discuss causes and clinical features of EC Fistula (entero cutaneous
fistula). Discuss the management. 5+5 Jun 2011
16. What are the biochemical changes produced in a case of ileal fistula? How
will you treat such a case? 6+4 Jun 2012
44

17. Define complex anal fistula. How would you manage a 20 yr old man with
complex anal fistula? 2+8 Dec 2011
18. Classify umbilical fistula. Discuss in brief the investigations and treatment
of urachus. 3+7 Dec 2011
19. How would you manage a 25 yr old man who started having fever 48 hrs
after repair of duodenal perforation? Dec 2011
20. Management of a young man with EC fistula following appendicectomy?
Jun 2010
21. Classification and diagnostic workup of a patient with entero cutaneous
fistula. Jun 2007
22. How will you manage a patient of duodenal fistula following failure of
repair of duodenal perforation? Jun 2006
23. How will you manage the nutrition in a patient of high output EC fistula?
Dec 2008
24. Enteral fistula. Jun 2001
25. What is abdominal compartment syndrome? Etiology, pathophysiology,
clinical features, diagnosis/Ix & Mx of abdominal compartment syndrome.
3+2+5 Dec 2015; FAT 2017/a; Dec 2010; Jun 2010; Jun 2008; Jun 2007; Dec
2006; Jun 2004; Dec 2004
26. Abdominal compartment syndrome. Enumerate methods to control
hemorrhage from a lacerated liver. Enumerate risk factors for deep venous
thrombosis in post op patient. 3+3+4 Dec 2017
27. Enumerate causes of burst abdomen? How would you manage a 30 yr old
female with burst abdomen following surgery for perforation peritonitis?
Dec 2010; Jun 2008: Jun 2005. Discuss factors causing burst abdomen after
laparotomy? Jun 2006. Dehiscence of laparotomy wound-Burst abdomen.
Jun 2000.
28. Gases used for creating pneumoperitoneum? Jun 2016. Write short note
on physiological effects of pneumoperitoneum? Jun 2006. Complications of
pneumoperitoneum for laparoscopic surgery. Jun 2016; Jun 2000
29. Amoeba and enteric perforation. 5+5 Jun 2013
30. Intestinal complication of enteric fever and their management? Jun 2008
31. What is GUT barrier function? Discuss bacterial translocation in surgical
patients? Jun 2007
32. Discuss etiology, pathology, diagnosis & Mx of intestinal & abdominal TB?
Fat 2015; Jun 2000
45

33. Newer modalities in diagnosis of abdominal TB/Investigative work-up of


abdominal TB. Dec 2006; Dec 2004
34. Clinical types of abdominal TB. How would you Mx 30 yr old lady who has
been on ATT and is admitted with acute peritonitis? 5+5 Jun 2017
35. Describe developmental anatomy, clinical features, investigation &
treatment of Meckel’s diverticulum. 2+2+3+3 Dec 2012; Dec 2003
36. Anatomy of Meckel’s diverticulum. Complications, Indications and surgical
treatment for the same. Jun 2005; Dec 2003; Dec 2000
37. Pathology, C/F & complications of ulcerative colitis? Dec 2007. What are
the treatment options in ulcerative colitis? Indications of surgery in
ulcerative colitis. Dec 2014; Jun 2016; Jun 2010. Describe surgical Mx of
ulcerative colitis. Jun 2015; Dec 2008; Jun 2007; Dec 2005; Jun 2003.
Complications of pouch construction for this disease? Pouchitis following J
pouch for Ulcerative colitis. Dec 2001
38. Discuss the risk factors, etiology, clinical features & Mx of colonic
Anastomotic leak. 2+2+2+4 Dec 2013
39. Toxic megacolon. Dec 2000
40. Pseudo membranous colitis. 5 marks Jun 2013
41. Enumerate tumors of small bowel. How would you manage a 35 yr old
lady with a suspected carcinoma of terminal ileum? 3+7 Dec 2011
42. Imaging techniques in evaluation of GI malignancy. Jun 2002
43. Role of laparoscopy/laparoscopic surgery in GI malignancies. Jun 2007;
Jun 2002
44. Classify colonic polyps? How will you manage a case of FAP with
carcinoma in descending colon? 3+7 FAT 2017
45. Classify polyps of colon. Clinical features & Rx of solitary villous adenoma.
2+4+4 Apr 2016
46. What is familial adenomatous polyposis? How will you manage such
patients? Dec 2010
47. Classify & mention the distinctive features of intestinal polyps. Jun 2007
48. What is the D/D of Right iliac fossa pain in 12 yr old child? How will you
Mx a case of appendicular mass? 5+5 FAT 2017/a
49. Carcinoid appendix. Diagnosis, clinical features and Mx. Jun 2009; Jun
2006. C/F, Dx, Mx of malignant Carcinoid syndrome? Dec 2005; Jun 2004;
Dec 2003.
50. Clinical fractures of small bowel Carcinoid tumors. Classification of large
intestinal polyps. Metabolic complications of ileostomy. Dec 2017
46

51. Port site recurrence following laparoscopic surgery for cancer. Jun 2003

❹ INTESTINAL OBSTRUCTION
1. Post operative ileus. Jun 2013
2. Etiopathogenesis & Rx of paralytic ileus? 4+6 FAT 2017/a; Dec 2010
3. Discuss the special features and basic principles based on which you will
prepare a 5 yr old child for surgery of acute intussusceptions. Dec 2012
4. Classify intestinal obstruction. How will you manage a 60 yr old lady with
suspected sigmoid volvulus? 4+6 Dec 2011; Jun 2010
5. Discuss the pathophysiology of intestinal obstruction. Dec 2008
6. Decision making for surgical intervention in patients with small bowel
obstruction? Dec 2010
7. What are the surgical complications of roundworm infestation? Discuss the
Mx of a child with intestinal obstruction due to worms. Dec 2011
8. Etiopathology and Mx of large bowel obstruction? Jun 2008
9. Mx of 50 yr old woman with suspected sigmoid volvulus? Jun 2010; Mx of a
50 yr old man with recurrent sigmoid volvulus? Jun 2017
10. Enumerate causes of intestinal obstruction. Management of a 60-year-old
lady with sigmoid volvulus. 4+6 Jun 2016
11. Discuss the pathogenesis & Mx o infective causes of intestinal
perforations. Jun 2007
12. Discuss treatment options in typhoid ileal operations? Jun 2007
13. Surgical complications in typhoid fever. 4 marks Dec 2017
14. What are the surgical complications of ascariasis? How will you treat a
case of intestinal obstruction caused by these worms? 5+5 Dec 2014
15. Classify acute intestinal obstruction. Discuss Mx of intussusceptions in a
40 yr old male. Jun 2007. Discuss the Mx of acute sigmoid volvulus. Jun
2000; Jun 2006; Dec 2006; Dec 2004
16. Pathophysiology of strangulating intestinal obstruction? Jun 2006
17. Discuss the causes of large bowel obstruction, describe the Mx of intestinal
obstruction due to sigmoid colon tumor. Jun 2005
18. Colonic pseudo-obstruction. Jun 2004
19. Ogilvie syndrome? Jun 2009
47

❺ VERMIFORM APPENDIX
1. Causes of pain in RIF (right iliac fossa) in a 16 yr old girl. How will you
reach to a conclusive diagnosis? 4+6 Dec 2013
2. Differential diagnosis &Mx of acute appendicitis in infancy. Jun 2000
3. Enumerate the complications of acute appendicitis. Briefly describe the
Mx of a 10 yr child with suspected appendicular abscess. Dec 2011
4. Discuss Mx of appendicular mass? Dec 2005

❻ RECTUM
1. Arterial supply and lymphatic drainage of colon. Importance of arterial
supply in colon resection. 3+4+3 Jun 2016
2. Describe surgical anatomy of mesorectum & its importance in Mx of Ca
rectum? Dec 2008
3. Describe the anatomy of ano-rectal junction. Briefly discuss the Mx of Ca at
this level. DEC 2000
4. Regarding colorectal Ca:
Dec 2016 2+2+3+3
a. Etiologic risk factors
b. Diagnostic imaging investigations
c. Sx for Ca caecum
d. Surgical options for obstructed Ca sigmoid colon.
5. Staging of Ca rectum. Etiology and Mx of sigmoid volvulus. 4+6 Jun 2013
6. Mx of 45 yr old man with 4x4 cm ulcerative lesion in rectum situated 8cm
from anal verge. Dec 2009
7. Mx of locally advanced rectal Ca. Dec 2006; Dec 2001
8. Role of sphincter sparing/preserving surgery in Ca rectum. Jun 2010; Dec
2010
9. Discuss solitary rectal ulcer syndrome? Dec 2005; Jun 2001
10. Total meso-rectal excision of Ca rectum. Jun 2008; Jun 2002
11. Ultra low anterior resection? Jun 2010
12. Describe the significance of “total mesorectal excision” in Mx of rectal Ca.
What is a Metachronous lesion? Discuss the Mx of 32 yr old gentleman with
Ca rectum 14cm from anal verge along with a solitary hepatic metastasis in
segment V. 4+2+4 Jun 2011
13. C/F & Mx of recto-vaginal fistula. 3+7 Dec 2015
48

14. Discuss Mx of colorectal Ca with special emphasis on recent advances.


Dec 2003. Discuss the advances in Mx of Ca rectum. Dec 2002
15. Adjuvant therapy in colorectal cancer. Jun 2002
16. Local recurrence of rectal Ca. Jun 2004
17. 40 yr old male with complete rectal prolapsed-Etiology & Mx? Jun 2009;
Dec 2007. Various surgical methods available for treating rectal prolapse.
Apr 2016; Jun 2015

❼ ANUS & ANAL CANAL


1. Surgical anatomy of anal canal. Anatomy of anal sphincters. Jun 2009; Dec
2001
2. Describe anal sphincter and their role in continence? Dec 2010
3. Anatomy of anal canal. Mention pathophysiology of Fistula in Ano. Dec
2007. Fistula in ano- classification & treatment. Jun 2005. Principles of Mx
in Fistula in Ano. Jun 2007
4. Classify fistula in ano. Ix of a 30 yr old man with multiple fistulas in ano.
5+5 Dec 2015
5. Fissure in ano. Dec 2005. Classify fistula in ano. How will you investigate &
Mx a complex fistula in ano? 3+7 FAT 2017; Mx of multiple Perianal
fistulae in a young man. Jun 2016
6. What is pilonidal sinus? Etiology, pathology, clinical features & Mx of
pilonidal sinus. Jun 2014; Jun 2012; Jun 2009; Dec 2004; Jun 2002. Mx of a
“recurring pilonidal sinus” in a 60 yr old diabetic man. 5+5 Jun 2015
7. Classification & Mx of anorectal abscess. Dec 2009
8. C/F, grading & complications of haemorrhoids. Options for Rx of
haemorrhoids. 2+1+1+6 Dec 2016
9. Enumerate the treatment options in haemorrhoids. Describe stapler
hemorrhoidectomy. 3+7 Dec 2014
10. Discuss 3rd degree and 4th degree haemorrhoids with its therapeutic
aspect. Jun 2007; Jun 2000
11. Anatomical basis of stapler hemorrhoidectomy. Jun 2013; Jun 2008.
12. Briefly describe pathology of anal canal malignancy. Discuss in brief the
treatment of epidermoid Ca of anal canal. 3+7 Dec 2012
13. Chemoradiotherapy of anal Ca. Jun 2003
49

❽ LIVER & BILIARY PATHWAYS


1. Describe the segmental anatomy of liver- diagrammatic representation.
Principles of surgical resection of liver tumor (discuss various types of
surgical resection of tumor/various types of anatomic liver resections)?
Dec 2017; 5+5 Jun 2015; 5+5 Jun 2014; Jun 2012; Jun 2011; Jun 2006; Dec
2005; Jun 2004
2. Couinaud’s segments of liver and their significance in Mx of liver diseases.
Jun 2008; Dec 2006; Segmental anatomy of liver and its clinical
significance. 5+5 FAT 2015
3. Surgical anatomy of liver. Mx of liver trauma? Jun 2007
4. Mx of shattered Liver following blunt trauma abdomen. Dec 2006
5. Classify liver injuries. Discuss principles of operative Mx of liver trauma.
Jun 2007; Discuss non operative Mx of liver trauma. Jun 2006
6. Initial Mx & surgical approach in blunt liver trauma. Concept of damage
control surgery in liver trauma. 5+5 Jun 2015
7. Dx & Mx of hepatic venous outflow obstruction. Dec 2005
8. Enumerate cystic lesions of liver. Ix & Mx of a 35 yr old with suspected
hydatid cyst of liver. 3+7 Dec 2015
9. Life cycle of Echinococcus granulosus and mode of human infection. What
are scolicidal agents used in hepatic Hydatid disease? Jun 2005. Clinical
presentation, diagnosis, Mx of Hydatid disease of liver. Discuss surgical
procedure performed for this condition. 5+5 Jun 2011; Jun 2009; Jun 2007
Jun 2005
10. Enumerate the ‘Scolicidal agents’ used in treatment of Hydatid disease.
How will you manage an 8x8 cm Hydatid cyst of (L) lobe of liver in an 18-
year-old girl? 4+6 Jun 2016
11. Discuss the etiopathogenesis and surgical Mx of Hydatid cyst of liver. 5+5
FAT 2017
12. C/f & Rx of amoebic liver abscess? Jun 2006. Enumerate surgical
complications of amoebiasis. Discuss Mx of amoebic liver abscess? Dec
2008; Jun 2008; Jun 2007; Jun 2005
13. Describe pathology of amoebic liver abscess. Dec 2010. How would you
treat a case of left lobe amoebic liver abscess? 5+5 Dec 2014
50

14. Mx of a 10 yr old child admitted with 8x8 cm cystic lesion in left lobe of
liver? Jun 2017. Management of young lady with 6cm x 6cm cystic lesion
in left lobe of liver. Jun 2010
15. Pathology of liver abscess.
16. Tropical liver abscess. Jun 2001
17. Mx of 16yr old girl having 6.6cm cyst in left lobe of liver.
18. Role of intervention radiology in general surgery. Interventional
radiology procedures in hepatobiliary Sx. Dec 2005
19. Surgical anatomy of liver. Briefly describe the non surgical ablational
techniques used in Mx of liver tumors/hepatocellular ca. Dec 2016; Dec
2005
20. Indications & techniques used for the ablation of liver tumors. 3+7 Dec
2015
21. Hepatic adenoma. Dec 2017
22. Discuss recent trends in Mx of primary liver tumors. Dec 2001
23. Biochemical aberrations in hepatic metastasis. Jun 2000

◉ GALL BLADDER & BILE DUCTS


1. Main variations in gall bladder and cystic duct anatomy. FAT 2015
2. Classification, Dx, Mx of choledochal cyst. 3+2+5 Jun 2013; Dec 2007; Jun
2005. How would you manage a 12 yr old girl with recurrent attacks of
obstructive jaundice? Dec 2011. Principles of Mx of choledochal cyst. Jun
2006
3. Principles of management of obstructive jaundice. FAT 2016/a
4. Evaluation and Mx of biliary atresia. Dec 2016; Dec 2006
5. Various anomalies of biliary system and their significance during Sx. Jun
2008
6. Define Mirrizi’s syndrome? Discuss its type and Mx of each. 2+4+4 Jun
2012; Jun 2007. How would you manage a 40 yr old lady with type IV
Mirrizi’s syndrome? Dec 2011. What is Mirrizi’s syndrome? What are its
types? How will you Mx a case of same? 2+2+6 FAT 2017
7. Enumerate types of gall-stones. Discuss the pathogenesis of gall stones. List
complications of gall-stones. 2+4+4 Jun 2011
8. Complications of gall stones. Importance of caterpillar hump during
cholecystectomy. Radiological features suggestive of Ca gall bladder. Dec
2017
51

9. Pathophysiology of gall stone formation. C/F & Mx of gall stones. 3+3+4 Apr
2016
10. What are limitations of minimal access surgery? What are general
principles of laparoscopic surgery? What is calots triangle? Mention
important steps in Lap choecystectomy. Dec 2005
11. Residual gall stones. Dec 2004
12. Causes of CBD injuries. C/F & Mx of biliary fistula following laparoscopic
cholecystectomy. 5+5 Jun 2015
13. Risk factors for intra-op bile duct injuries. Classification of bile duct
injuries. Dec 2016
14. Classify CBD injuries? How would you manage a 30 yr old lady with post
cholecystectomy obstructive jaundice? Dec 2010
15. Mx of bile duct injuries during lap chole? Dec 2006
16. Enumerate common causes of benign biliary strictures. Diagnosis and Mx.
Discuss the Mx of biliary stricture following Lap chole. Dec 2005; Jun 2002;
Dec 2002; Dec 2000
17. Ix of a patient suspected with choledocholithiasis. Modalities of Rx. 4+6
Dec 2015
18. Define primary CBD stones? Discuss its Mx. Jun 2007
19. Mx of secondary bile duct stones. Dec 2006
20. MRC- Magnetic resonance cholangiography. Jun 2003
21. Classification and causes of benign biliary strictures. Rx of post
cholecystectomy obstructive jaundice? Jun 2009
22. Acute Acalculous cholecystitis. Jun 2005; Jun 2002;
23. Hemobilia. Etiology, c/f, Mx. Dec 2006; Jun 2005
24. What are premalignant conditions of Ca GB? Discuss the Mx of adeno Ca of
GB. 4+6 FAT 2016/b
25. Presentation, Rx of Gall bladder Ca. Dec 2008
26. How would you stage Ca GB? How would you manage a 35 yr old lady who
has undergone Lap chole & biopsy of specimen reveals focus of adeno Ca
measuring 5x1 cm? 4+6 Jun 2017
52

◉ OBSTRUCTIVE JAUNDICE
1. Discuss the diagnostic investigations in obstructive jaundice. How will you
prepare such a patient for surgery? 5+5 Dec 2013. Pre-op preparation of a
patient with obstructive jaundice. 4 marks Dec 2017
2. Diagnostic approaches in biliary obstruction. Dec 2001
3. Causes & Pre-op Mx/preparation of patient with obstructive jaundice for
elective Sx. Dec 2009; Jun 2008; Jun 2007; Jun 2006
4. Physiologic changes of obstructive jaundice? Jun 2009
5. Enumerate causes of surgical obstructive jaundice & discuss the Mx of
benign obstructive jaundice. Jun 2000. Discuss Mx of retained stone in
CBD. FAT 2016/b
6. Enlist the causes of obstructive jaundice. Curvoisier’s law & its exceptions.
Mx of a 40 yr old man with peri-ampullary Ca. 3+2+5 Jun 2015
7. Role of pre-op biliary drainage for patients with surgical obstructive
jaundice. Dec 2006; Jun 2002
8. What are common Liver function tests for a patient with cirrhosis and
portal HTN? What are CHILD’S criteria? Treatment of acute variceal bleed
in a patient with portal HTN. Dec 2002
9. What is “High risk” surgical patient? How do you prepare a 45 yr old
patient with obstructive jaundice due to peri-ampullary Ca for Sx? What is
Hepato-renal syndrome? 2+6+2 Jun 2011.

◉ PORTAL HYPERTENSION
1. Surgical causes of massive splenomegaly? What are various indications &
pre-op preparation for splenectomy? 3+3+4 FAT 2017
2. Mx of a 15 yr old boy with splenomegaly & upper GI bleed. Dec 2009
3. Enumerate the surgical procedures for Portal HTN. Outline the Mx of
portal HTN in a young girl. 3+7 Jun 2016
4. Role of portosystemic shunts in Mx of portal HTN? Jun 2008
5. Discus the differential diagnosis of hematemesis in a 40yr old male.
Indications and Rx of portal HTN. Jun 2002
6. Enumerate the causes of hematemesis. How will you treat bleeding
oesophageal varices? 3+7 Dec 2014. Mx of acute oesophageal variceal
hemorrhage. 5 marks Dec 2017
53

7. Describe basis of selective & non-selective shunts in portal HTN? Jun 2007
8. What are common Liver function tests for a patient with cirrhosis and
portal HTN? What are CHILD’S criteria? Treatment of acute variceal bleed
in a patient with portal HTN. Dec 2002; Jun 2005
9. Hepato-renal syndrome. Dec 2001, 10 marks
10. Classification & Mx of gastric varices. Dec 2006
11. Etiopathogenesis of ascitis & Mx of intractable ascitis. Jun 2007
12. Describe etiology & Mx of Budd Chiari Syndrome. Jun 2004
13. Pathogenesis & Mx of ascitis in chronic liver disease patient. Dec 2004
14. Surgical ascitis. Dec 2002

❾ SPLEEN
1. Splenic abscess. 5 marks Jun 2013
2. Indications for diagnostic peritoneal lavage. Describe the procedure.
Discuss the grades of splenic injury. 3+3+4 Jun 2011
3. Classify splenic injuries. Mx of Splenic injuries/trauma. Describe the
changing trends in Mx of Splenic trauma. Dec 2014; Dec 2009; Jun 2005;
Dec 2003
4. Haematological changes after splenectomy. How would you Mx a 10 yr old
child on steroids who is to undergo splenectomy for idiopathic
thrombocytopenic purpura? 4+6 Jun 2017
5. Splenic salvage in children following trauma. Jun 2006
6. Define hypersplenism. Enumerate indications for splenectomy- Dec 2017.
Enumerate with reasoning Post op complications of splenectomy. Dec 2017
2+3+5 Jun 2015
7. Indications of splenectomy? Describe surgical techniques of elective
splenectomy, its complications. Dec 2008; Jun 2001
8. Complications of splenectomy. Dec 2008; Jun 2008; Jun 2007; Dec 2006;
Jun 2004
9. Discuss OPSI. Jun 2006
54

❿ PANCREAS
1. List causes of acute pancreatitis. Enumerate methods for
diagnosing/investigating & prognosticating acute pancreatitis. Briefly
describe pancreatic necrosectomy. 2+3+5 Jun 2014; Dec 2001; Discuss
assessment of severity of pancreatitis. Jun 2011; Prognostication of acute
pancreatitis. 10 marks Jun 2007; Ranson’s criteria for prognostication in
acute pancreatitis. Dec 2006
2. Causes of acute pancreatitis. Modified Atlanta classification for severity of
acute pancreatitis. Principles of Mx of pseudo cyst of pancreas. Dec 2017
3. Assessment of severity of acute pancreatitis. Mx of acute necrotizing
pancreatitis in a 30 yr old man. 4+6 Dec 2015
4. Pancreatic necrosis in acute pancreatitis and its Mx. Dec 2006; Jun 2002
5. Enumerate local complications of acute pancreatitis. Describe in brief the
diagnosis and Mx of these complications. Jun 2011; Jun 2006
6. Role of Sx in acute pancreatitis? Jun 2009
7. Surgical complications of chronic pancreatitis. How would you Mx a 10 yr
old child who has developed pseudocyst following acute pancreatitis. 4+6
Jun 2017
8. Surgical Mx of patient with chronic pancreatitis. Jun 2008; Jun 2005
9. Complications of chronic pancreatitis. Discuss Mx of surgical
complications of chronic pancreatitis. Jun 2016; Dec 2000
10. Pseudocyst of pancreas. Jun 2001; Dec 2004; Dec 2003.
11. Name the endocrine tumors of pancreas. Describe the Ix and Rx of
insulinomas. Dec 2015; 2+4+4 Jun 2012
12. How will you investigate a case of suspected pancreatic Ca? Briefly
describe various surgical options in Rx of pancreatic Ca. 4+6 Dec 2012
13. Briefly describe Mx of a 50 yr old man with obstructive jaundice due to
6x6cm Ca head of pancreas. Dec 2011
14. Discuss the advantages & limitations of radiological Ix in pancreatic
diseases. 5+5 Dec 2014
15. Surgical options in Mx of Ca pancreas. Dec 2010
16. Indications for pancreatic transplantation. Outline the surgical procedure
for pancreatic transplantation. What are the results of such a transplant?
3+5+2 Jun 2016
55

UROLOGY
❶ KIDNEYS and URETER
1. What are segments of kidney? How would you manage a 30 yr old young
lady with painless enlargement of lower pole of left kidney? 3+7 Jun 2017
2. Classify congenital anomalies of kidney and ureter. What are the clinical
features of Adult polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD)? Enumerate principles
of managing this condition. 3+4+3 Jun 2014; Jun 2001; Dec 2000
3. What is embryological basis of unascended kidney? How will you diagnose
a Horse shoe kidney? Discuss its Mx. 4+2+4 Dec 2013
4. Pathophysiology of primary hydronephrosis. Outline surgical options
available for primary hydronephrosis. 5+5 Jun 2016
5. Enumerate the causes of hydronephrosis. How will you diagnose & Mx a
case of PUJ (pelvi ureteric junction) obstruction?
6. Pathogenesis, classification and Ix of hydronephrosis. Jun 2013. Enumerate
the causes of bilateral hydronephrosis. Briefly discuss causes & Mx of
unilateral hydronephrosis. Jun 2015; Jun 2007
7. Renal HTN. Jun 2013
8. What are metabolic complications of acute renal failure? How would you
manage a patient with calculous anuria? 4+6 Dec 2011
9. Ix & Mx of calculus anuria. 5+5 Jun 2016
10. Enumerate causes of painless hematuria. How would you manage a 30 yr
old man with hematuria & past history of taking treatment for pulmonary
TB? Dec 2011
11. In a patient with blunt renal trauma:
Dec 2016 2+3+5
a. Grading of renal trauma.
b. Role of imaging
c. Principles of Mx
12. How will you grade renal injuries? Discuss the Ix & Rx of blunt renal
injuries. 2+3+5 Dec 2012; Grading and Mx of renal injuries. Dec 2004
13. Mx of a 30yr old male with hematuria after blunt trauma to flank.
Jun 2010
14. Classify renal injuries. Mx of an 18 yr old boy admitted with massive
hematuria following blunt abdominal trauma. 3+7 Dec 2015
56

15. Principles of Mx of renal trauma. Causes of unilateral hydronephrosis.


Types of renal calculi. Dec 2017
16. Mx of hematuria in an elderly male. Dec 2006
17. How will you investigate and Mx a patient of 50 yr old presenting with
hematuria. 5+5 Apr 2016
18. Mx of a 15 yr old child with hydronephrosis due to UPJ obstructions. Dec
2009
19. Renal Hypertension. Jun 2013
20. Write a note on perinephric abscess.
21. Genito-urinary TB in males. Dec 2000
22. Haematocele. Jun 2001
23. Various types of renal stones? What metabolic workup will you do &
various preventive & treatment option in each type of stone. 2+8 Dec 2014;
3+7 Apr 2016; 3+4+3 FAT 2017
24. Describe etio-pathology of renal calculi. Enumerate indications and
contraindications and complications of ESWL. 4+2+2 Jun 2014; Jun 2006
25. What are types of urinary stones? What are the options available for Rx of
renal stone? 3+7 Dec 2013; Dec 2008
26. Mx options for ureteric calculi. Calculus anuria. Enumerate congenital
anomalies of kidney & ureter. Dec 2017
27. Mx of ureteric calculi. 10 marks FAT 2016/a
28. Role of ESWL in Mx of renal stones. Dec 2009; ESWL. Dec 2003
29. PCNL- Percutaneous nephro lithotomy. Jun 2005; Jun 2000
30. In a patient with bilateral staghorn renal calculi with renal failure:
Dec 2016 2+2+6
a. Peri-op imaging & metabolic evaluation
b. Principles of Mx
31. Mx of a 45 yr old man with Staghorn calculus in left kidney. Jun 2010; Jun
2008; Jun 2000
32. Enumerate causes of kidney lump. Causes of kidney lump. Write the c/f.
write the c/f of renal cell ca. Jun 2011
33. Mx of renal cell carcinoma in adults. Renal tuberculosis. Urinary diversion
options after total cystectomy. Dec 2017
34. TNM staging of Renal cell Ca. Work-up & Mx of a 40 yr old man with right
sided Grawitz tumor. 5+5 Jun 2015
35. Classify renal tumors. Discus the c/f, staging & Mx of renal cell ca.
2+3+1+4 Jun 2012; Jun 2005
57

36. Squamous cell ca of kidney? Dec 2005

❷ BLADDER
1. Normal urinary bladder function. Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS).
Principles of medical Rx of BPH. Apr 2016 2+3+5/4+6
2. Etiopathogenesis, clinical features & Mx of vesical calculus. 3+3+4 Apr
2016
3. Principles of safe insertion of urinary catheter. 3 marks Dec 2017
4. How will you diagnose and treat a case of ureterocele. Dec 2010
5. Pathophysiology & Mx of TURP syndrome. Jun 2010
6. Invasive bladder Ca. Jun 2003
7. Ureterovesical reflux. Dec 2003
8. Describe important causes, c/f, Ix, Mx of painless hematuria in a man
above 50yrs. Dec 2002

❸ PROSTATE
1. Briefly describe the pathophysiology of normal urinary bladder function
(storage and voiding of urine). Enumerate with indications of various Rx
options for a patient suffering from benign prostate enlargement. 5+5 Jun
2014
2. Mx of acute urinary retention in a 60 yr old male. Dec 2006ow will yu treat
post prostatectomy incontinence? 3+7 Dec 2014
3. What are the causes of urinary incontinence? H
4. What is PSA? Dec 2001. Discuss precautions in its estimation, indications
and role in prostatic disease. Dec 2010
5. Non surgical Mx of 60 yr old man with enlarged prostate. Jun 2010
6. Enumerate the indications of Sx for BPH. Briefly outline the Mx of TURP
syndrome. Jun 2007; TURP syndrome. Dec 2004
7. Minimal invasive surgical techniques for Rx of benign enlargement of
prostate. Jun 2015
8. Newer energy sources used for resection of prostate. Jun 2016
58

9. Describe various drugs used in Mx of BPH. Side effects of drugs and safety
recommendations. Which patients with enlarged prostate are not suitable
for medical therapy? Dec 2004
10. Briefly discuss the medical Mx of BPH 60 yr male. FAT 2016/b
11. Rx options in BPH. Jun 2003; Medical Mx of BPH. Dec 2000
12. TURP syndrome. Enumerate complications of TURP. Briefly describe
pathophysiology and Rx of TURP syndrome? Jun 2006
13. Enumerate investigations in a case of Ca prostate. Discuss the treatment
modalities available? 5+5 Dec 2014
14. Medical Mx of benign prostate hyperplasia. Screening for prostate cancer.
Complication of radical prostatectomy. Dec 2017
15. How will you establish the diagnosis of carcinoma prostate? Outline the
management of carcinoma prostate. 5+5 Jun 2016
16. Classify Ca prostate & enumerate principles of Mx. FAT 2016/a
17. Staging of Ca prostate. How would you manage a 60 yr old man with
acute retention of urine with suspected Ca prostate? 4+6 Jun 2017
18. Mx/ discuss Rx of advanced Ca prostate. Dec 2008; Dec 2007

❹ URETHRA/PENIS
1. Congenital urethral valve. Jun 2004; Jun 2000
2. What are the components of Hypospadias? Mx of a 2 yr old child having
peno-scrotal Hypospadias. 3+7 Jun 2016; Jun 2001
3. Describe lymphatic drainage of penis. How would you manage a case of
55yr old man with a 2.2 cm ulcer on glans penis? Dec 2010
4. Discuss the various investigations you will do in a case of stricture
urethra. How will you treat a case of stricture of posterior urethra? 4+6 Jun
2014
5. Premalignant lesions of penis. Principles of Mx of urethral injury. Torsion
of testes. Dec 2017
6. Staging of Ca penis. Outline Mx of Ca penis in a 35 yr old male. 3+7 Jun
2016; 5+5 Jun 2015.
7. What are pre-malignant conditions of Ca Penis? How would you manage a
60yr old male with Ca involving distal shaft of penis with inguinal L.N
metastasis? Dec 2011; C/F and Mx of Ca penis. Jun 2009
8. Briefly describe etiology and clinical staging of Ca penis. Discuss in brief
the Mx of inguinal L.N in such a case. 2+4+4. Jun 2014
59

9. Classify pelvic injuries. Enumerate the visceral injuries associated with


pelvic fractures. How will you treat urinary bladder injuries? 2+3+5 Jun
2014
10. Etiology of traumatic urethral stricture. Evaluation of urethral
stricture. Principles of Mx of urethral injury following pelvic fracture.
2+3+5 Dec 2016
11. Urethral injuries in relation to fracture pelvis. Dec 2007
12. Rupture of membranous urethra. Jun 2013
13. What are the complications of urethral injuries? How would you manage
a case of 16 yr old boy with suspected urethral injury? Dec 2011
14. Enumerate causes of stricture urethra. Discuss the Rx options available
for this. 3+7 Dec 2013
15. Mx of a 25 yr old man with acute retention of urine. Etiopathogenesis of
urethral strictures. 5+5 Jun 2015
16. How will you manage a case of rupture urethra? 10 marks Jun 2012
17. Mx of rupture of posterior urethra. Dec 2009
18. What are the clinical features of bladder exstrophy? How will you
manage such a case? 3+7 Dec 2013
19. What is LUTS (Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms)? Enumerate its various
causes. What is the role of urodynamics in it? Describe the principles of
medical Mx of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia. 3+2+7+2+6. Dec 2013; Dec
2012
20. How will you construct an ileal conduit? What are its complications and
how will you prevent them? 3+4+3 Dec 2013. What is its post operative
care? 7+3 Dec 2014
21. Indications of urinary diversion. Various types of urinary diversion, their
advantages & disadvantages. 3+7 Apr 2016
22. Name the various urinary diversions. What are the metabolic changes in
an ileal conduit? 3+7 Jun 2012. Briefly describe urinary diversions and their
associated complications. 5+5 FAT 2016/b; Jun 2017
60

❺ SCROTUM
1. Describe the embryology of testis and epididymis. What are the
consequences of undescended testis? 5+5 Jun 2014
2. Describe development of testis. How does a testis descend? Consequences
of undescended testis. Outline the principles & Mx of a case of undescended
testis. 5+5 FAT 2017; Dec 2016; 4+6 Jun 2012
3. How does testis develop and descend in scrotum? Name the sites of ectopic
testis. Dec 2008
4. Embryology of ectopic and undescended testis. Mx of 6 yr old boy having
B/L undescended testis. 5+5 Jun 2013
5. Types of undescended testis. Complications. Timing of surgery. Treatment
options in surgery. Jun 2005
6. Enumerate the surgical causes of infertility in males. How would you
investigate the male partner of an infertile couple? Dec 2010
7. Mx of unilateral cryptorchidism. Dec 2005. Mx of a 5 yr old boy with non
palpable right testis. Jun 2010
8. Mx of acute scrotum. 10 marks FAT 2015
9. An 11 yr old boy presents with acute scrotum of 2 hrs duration. Enumerate
D/D. Clinical Dx for such a patient. State the Ixs required for this patient
and interpretation of investigation reports. 3+3+4 Jun 2017
10. Types of torsion testis? Mx of a 12 yr old child admitted with suspected
torsion testis. 2+8 Dec 2015
11. What are the causes of torsion testis? How will you diagnose & treat
torsion testis in a 10 yr old boy? 3+4+3 Dec 2014
12. How will you diagnose a case of torsion testis? How will you treat such a
case?3+7 Jun 2016; 4+6 Dec 2013; Jun 2005; Jun 2004; Jun 2009; Dec 2008
13. Types of vasectomy. Enumerate the complications of vasectomy. List the
criteria for an ideal candidate for vasectomy. 2+4+4 Jun 2017
14. What are indications & complications of vasectomy? How will you perform
Non scalpel vasectomy? 2+3+5 Dec 2014
15. Vasectomy. 10 marks Dec 2013. What is Non-scalpel vasectomy (NSV)?
How is it different from conventional vasectomy? Enumerate the
complications. Jun 2012; Dec 2011
16. How will you perform non scalpel vasectomy? Fat 2015
17. Enumerate causes of varicocele. How will you treat such a case? 3+7 Dec
2013
61

18. Types of necrotizing skin infections. How would you Mx a 50 yr old man
with fournier’s gangrene of scrotum? 3+7 Jun 2017
19. What is synergistic gangrene? How will you manage a 60 yr old man with
Fournier’s gangrene? Dec 2010
20. Pathophysiology of MODS & Fournier’s gangrene. 5+5 Jun 2013
21. Fournier’s Gangrene? Jun 2008
22. Classify testicular tumor. How will you stage a case of teratoma testis?
Discuss briefly the Mx of non seminomatous germ cell tumours? 2+3+5 Dec
2014.
23. Classify testicular tumors (FAT 2017/a) & give their staging. Discuss the
principles of Rx of seminoma testis. 2+2+6 Dec 2012
24. How will you manage a case of testicular tumor in 25 yr old patient? FAT
2017/a; Dec 2008
25. Classify germ cell tumors of testis. Mx of non-seminomatous germ cell
tumor. 5+5 Jun 2011
26. TNM staging of testicular tumors. Mx of non seminomatous germ cell
tumours. 3+7 Apr 2016
27. Staging of testicular tumors. How would you Mx a 25 yr old man with
suspected right testicular tumor? 4+6 Jun 2017
28. Ix & work-up of 30/80yr old man with hard testicular mass? Jun 2010
29. Diagnostic work-up for testicular tumors. Dec 2006
30. Classification, Ix, Rx & follow up of germ cell tumor of testis. Dec 2007
31. Clinical presentation and Mx of a case of Wilm’s tumor. Jun 2008; Compare
clinical presentation of Wilm’s tumor and retroperitoneal neuroblastoma in
a child. Describe the relevant Ix & principles of Rx of Wilm’s tumor. 3+2+5
Dec 2012.
62

PLASTIC SURGERY
1. What are axial flaps? Briefly describe the other types of flaps with examples
of their use in reconstruction of various surgical defects. Axial flaps. 4+3+3
Jun 2014
2. Define a flap. Name commonly used flaps in reconstruction. What are their
principles? 2+3+5 Dec 2014
3. Classify & name various skin flaps Jun 2007. Describe various types of
commonly used flaps for reconstruction surgery. 10 Jun 2013; describe the
principles of skin flap reconstruction. (2+3+5) FAT 2015; Dec 2010; Dec
2009; how do skin grafts survive? How will you minimize failure of such
grafts? Dec 2008
4. Classify skin flaps. Various flaps used for reconstruction of breast. 5+5 Jun
2017
5. Classify skin flaps. Elaborate forehead flap for reconstruction of nose. 4+6
Jun 2016
6. Various types of skin flaps. Outline various flaps used in head & neck
reconstruction. 4+6 Dec 2015
7. Various types of skin grafts. Various surgical conditions where
Myocutaneous flaps are used (mentioning the name of Myocutaneous flap
used in that particular condition). 4+6 Apr 2016; Dec 2003
8. Pressure sores- most common sites, stages, Mx. Jun 2013
9. Types of skin grafts? Discuss their indications. 7+3 Dec 2013.What steps
can be taken to minimize hypertrophic scars? Dec 2012. Discuss the role,
advantages & disadvantages of partial thickness skin grafts. 4+6 Dec 2011
10. How will you manage a case of severe contractures of neck and
elbow? 5+5 Jun 2012
11. What are decubitus ulcers? How are they graded? Briefly describe
prevention & Rx of decubitus ulcers. 2+2+6 Dec 2016
12. Anatomy of mid palmer space. Briefly describe the principles of hand
infections. 5+5 Dec 2011
13. Describe the anatomy of hand spaces. Describe the principles of Mx of
hand infections. 5+5 FAT 2017
14. Hand spaces? Hand space infections. Palmar space infections. Apr 2016;
Jun 2004, Jun 2003; Dec 2003
15. Boundaries of parona’s space. Outline the principles of Mx of hand
infections. 3+7 Jun 2017
63

NEUROSURGERY
1. How will you initially assess a patient with suspected head injury? List the
guidelines for doing CT scan in a head injury patient? Enumerate discharge
criteria in minor and mild head injury. 5+2+3 Jun 2014
2. Discuss the pathophysiology of head injury. How will you diagnose
extradural hematoma? What are the criteria of active intervention in a case
of extradural hematoma? 5+3+2 Dec 2014
3. In a patient with head injury, what are the
Dec 2016- 2+2+2+4
a. Indications for imaging investigations of head
b. Indications for admission
c. Advise to patients being sent home without admission
d. Principles of initial Mx of head injury
4. Discuss the evaluation, Mx of a patient with head injury. Jun 2000
5. Depressed fracture of frontal region. Dec 2000
6. Describe various types of nerve injuries, clinical features, diagnosis & Mx.
Jun 2013
7. EDH. Pathophysiology of EDH (extra dural hematoma), indications of Sx &
complications. 4+3+3 Jun 2013; Jun 2004; Mx of a 25yr old case with EDH.
Dec 2009
8. Intracranial hematomas. EDH, SDH (sub dural hematoma). Jun 2003; Dec
2003; Jun 2004. Discuss the Mx of SDH. 6 marks Jun 2011. Short note on
SDH 5 marks FAT 2016/b
9. Differentiate between primary and secondary head injury. Jun 2009. What
is “Secondary brain injury”? How can it be prevented? How will you
manage a case of EDH? 2+3+5 Dec 2012.
10. Enumerate causes of hydrocephalus. Classification of brain tumors.
Manifestations of neural tube defects in new born. Dec 2017
11. Etiology, Mx of hydrocephalus? Jun 2009; Jun 2007; Dec 2005; Dec 2002.
Pathophysiology of obstructive hydrocephalus. Jun 2009
12. Different types of hydrocephalus. How will you investigate & Mx a patient
of hydrocephalus? 4+6 Apr 2016
13. Describe Glasgow coma scale (GCS). Role of GCS in head injury. How will
you treat a case of head injury that is unconscious? FAT 2015; 3+7 Jun
2012; Jun 2010; Jun 2011. GCS and its use? Describe GCS in tabular form.
4+6 FAT 2016/a
64

14. GCS. Role of CT scan in case of head injury. Initial assessment of a case of
head injury. 3+4+3 Dec 2015
15. Discuss the role of carotid endarterectomy in prevention of strokes. Jun
2007
16. Classify hemangiomas. Discuss the Mx of cavernous hemangioma. 3+7 Jun
2012
17. Dx & Mx of raised ICT (intra cranial tension). 4+6 FAT 2015
18. Discuss the etiopathogenesis, presentation & Mx of TB spine. 3+3+4 Fat
2016/b
19. Short note on lucid interval. 5 marks FAT 2016/b

TRANSPLANTATION
1. What are HLA antigens and what is their significance & role in organ
transplantation? Briefly describe types of allograft rejection. 5+5 Jun
2014; Jun 2003
2. Regarding organ transplantation:
Dec 2016 2+2+3+3
a. Pathophysiology of graft rejection
b. HLA matching
c. Principles & complications of immune-suppression therapy
3. What are the complications of immune suppression used in organ
transplantation? Name the commonly used agents. 7+3 Dec 2013
4. What is brainstem death? How will you determine it? Dec 2013.
5. What are the principles of immune suppression in organ transplantation?
Briefly discuss complications of immune suppression. 5+5 Dec 2012;
Infections in immune compromised patients. Dec 2004
6. Types of ‘graft rejection’ after organ transplantation. Classification of
immunosuppressive agents in organ transplantation. Clinical testing of
brain stem function as relevant for organ donation. Dec 2017
7. What are the indications of renal transplantation? Peri-operative Mx of the
recipient. 4+6 Dec 2015; Discuss graft rejection. Immunotherapy post
operatively after renal transplantation. 3+3+4 Jun 2011; Jun 2009
8. Discuss the pathophysiology of rejection & role of immune-suppression in
organ transplantation. 5+5 Dec 2014
65

9. Therapy to prevent graft rejection in renal transplant. Jun 2000; Immune


suppressive agents. Dec 2002; Jun 2004
10. Types of rejection following transplantation. Mx of acute rejection.
6+4 Dec 2015.
11. Describe in short the pre-op work up of a recipient patient of renal
transplantation. 5 marks FAT 2016/b
12. List the indications for renal transplant. Pre transplant evaluation of
kidney recipients. Results of renal transplant in current times. 4+4+2 Jun
2017
13. Describe the differences between cadaveric & live donor liver
transplantation. Dec 2009
14. Ischemia time? Work up & preparation of a patient for liver
transplantation. 5+5 Jun 2015
15. Indications and contraindications of liver transplantation. Complications
after liver transplantation & how will you Mx them? 5+5 Apr 2016
16. Types of graft rejection. Mention any 3 drugs used for immune-
suppression and their complications. Clinical testing for brain stem death.
Jun 2005; Brain death and organ donation. Jun 2001
17. Define criteria for brain death and the criteria for each organ donation
and timeline with it. 4+3+3 FAT 2017
18. Small bowel transplantation? Dec 2005
19. Short note on causes of graft dysfunction after transplantation. 5 marks
FAT 2016/b
20. What are the indications of small bowel transplantation? How is it
carried out? What are the complications? 3+4+3 Dec 2014
66

PEDIATRIC SURGERY
1. Special peri-op consideration in an infant scheduled for abdominal surgery.
D/D of persistent vomiting in a newborn. 6+4 Dec 2016
2. Classify ano-rectal malformations? How will you manage a low imperforate
anus? Dec 2010; C/F, Ix, Mx in anorectal malformations. Jun 2004
3. Imperforate anus. Dx & Mx. Jun 2009
4. Mention the types of agenesis. Atresia of rectum & anus. Treatment of high
abnormalities. Dec 2005
5. Principles of Mx of a cleft palate baby. Rx of temporo-mandibular joint
ankylosis. Enumerate premalignant lesions of oro-pharynx. Dec 2017
6. Surgical anatomy of cleft lip and cleft palate. Principles of Mx of cleft lip.
5+5 Dec 2015; 5+5 Jun 2015.
7. Describe development of lip (mode of formation of cleft lip). Classify cleft
lip and outline principles of is Mx. Dec 2010; surgical technique used in Mx
of cleft lip. Dec 2005.
Describe development of lip. What are the principles of repair of a cleft lip?
How would you repair it? 4+3+3 Dec 2013
8. Development of face in association with cleft lip and cleft palate? Jun 2009
9. Describe pathophysiology of intestinal obstruction. Write in brief the
causes, Mx of acute intestinal obstruction in new born. Jun 2001
10. Mx of neonatal intestinal obstruction. Dec 2006
11. What is intussusception? How will you investigate? Its non operative Mx.
Dec 2008; Dec 2005; Dec 2003
12. Malrotation of GUT? Dec 2005
13. Describe the development of diaphragm. Mx of congenital diaphragmatic
hernia. Dec 2001; Congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Jun 2005; Development
of diaphragm. 10 marks FAT 2015. Dx & Mx of traumatic diaphragmatic
hernia. Jun 2013; 8 Dec 2015
14. What is hiatus hernia? Discuss its Mx & role of laparoscopic surgery for
the same. 2+5+3 FAT 2016/a
15. C/F and Mx o a new born child with meconeum ileus. Dec 2009;
Meconeum ileus. Jun 2005
16. Etiopathogenesis, C/F, Dx & Mx of Hirschprung disease. Apr 2016; Jun
2011; Jun 2005; Dec 2002
17. Sacro-coccygeal teratoma. Jun 2001
18. Mx of a 6 yr old child with nephroblastoma. Dec 2009
67

19. Acute abdominal pain in children under 3 yr age. D/D and Mx. 4+6 FAT
2016/a
20. List the types of spina bifida. Enumerate various anomalies associated
with spina bifida. Various procedures for congenital hydrocephalus. 2+3+5
Jun 2017
21. Meningomyelocele: presentation & Mx. 5 marks Dec 2016
22. A baby born with cyanosis. Describe its etiology, Ix & Rx plan. Jun 2013
23. Indications of cardiopulmonary bypass. Treatment options for “patent
ductus arteriosus”. Histological classification of lung cancer. Dec 2017

METABOLIC SURGERIES
1. Define “metabolic surgery” & discuss its physiological basis. Risks
associated with ‘metabolic surgery’ procedures. Dec 2017
2. Enumerate the surgical procedures for Mx of obesity. What is the
mechanism of weight loss after sleeve gastrectomy? 4+6 Jun 2017
3. Define morbid obesity. Work up and surgical options for morbid obesity.
Enumerate indications of bariatric Sx. Dec 2015; 2+8 Jun 2016. Metabolic
complications of gastric bypass.
4. Role of surgery in Mx of morbid obesity. Jun 2010
5. Define morbid obesity. Describe briefly the principles of bariatric Sx
operations. Enumerate the principles of post op care in these patients.
1+6+3 Dec 2012.
6. Define morbid obesity. Briefly describe the merits and demerits of various
surgical procedures used in Rx of morbid obesity. 2+8 Dec 2011
7. List comorbidities associated with obesity which can be relieved by
surgically induced weight loss. Briefly describe selection criteria & pre-op
nutrition screening for obesity surgery. 3+4+3 Jun 2014
8. Regarding morbid obesity:
Dec 2016 3+4+3
a. Indications & types of weight loss surgeries.
b. Expected benefits of weight loss surgery to the patient.
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CARDIOTHORACIC AND VASCULAR SURGERIES


1) Causes of chronic empyema. List the indications of decortications of
lung. Enumerate the complications of decortications. 2+4+4 Jun 2017

RECENT ADVANCES
1. Discuss the principles, types and usage of robotic surgery (4+6). Jun 2014;
Jun 2012; Dec 2011. Enumerate the procedures where it is finding
maximum clinical application (3). Jun 2012; Dec 2010
2. What is Robotic surgery? How will you prepare a patient for this type of
surgery? Dec 2013
3. Advantages & limitations of robotic Sx when compared to laparoscopic Sx?
5+5 Dec 2015
4. Robotic Sx: Indications, advantages & drawbacks. 4+3+3
5. Discuss the principles and usage of robotic Sx. 4+6 Jun 2014
6. Role of Stem Cell Therapy in surgical practice. Jun 2016
7. Surgical LASERs- types, their advantages & shortcomings. List the
indications for use of lasers in surgical practice. 2+3+3+2 Jun 2015